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Null hypothesis is a hypothesis (within the frequentist context of statistical hypothesis testing) that might be falsified using a test of observed data. Such a test works by formulating a null hypothesis, collecting data, and calculating a measure of how probable that data was assuming the null hypothesis were true. If the data appears very improbable (usually defined as a type of data that should be observed less than 5% of the time) then the experimenter concludes that the null hypothesis is false. If the data looks reasonable under the null hypothesis, then no conclusion is made. The null hypothesis could be true, or it could still be false; the data gives insufficent evidence to make any conclusion. The null hypothesis typically proposes a general or default position, such as that there is no relationship between two quantities, or that there is no difference between a treatment and the control. The term was originally coined by English geneticist and statistician Ronald Fisher. In some versions of statistical hypothesis testing (such as developed by Jerzy Neyman and Egon Pearson), the null hypothesis is tested against an alternative hypothesis. This alternative may or may not be the logical negation of the null hypothesis. The use of alternative hypotheses was not part of Ronald Fisher's formulation of statistical hypothesis testing, though alternative hypotheses are standardly used today. (b). What is exploratory research? Answer –b). It is also known as formulative research. It is preliminary study of an unfamiliar problem about which the researcher has little or no knowledge. It is ill-structured and much less focused on pre-determined objectives. It usually takes the form of a pilot study. The purpose of this research may be to generate new ideas, or to increase the researcher’s familiarity with the problem or to make a precise formulation of the problem or to gather information for clarifying concepts or to determine whether it is feasible to attempt the study. Katz conceptualizes two levels of exploratory studies. “At the first level is the discovery of the significant variable in the situations; at the second, the discovery of relationships between variables.”
(c). What is random sampling? Answer –c). Random Sampling is based on the theory of probability. It is also known as random sampling. It provides a known nonzero chance of selection for each population element. It is used when generalization is the objective of study, and a greater degree of accuracy of estimation of population parameters is required. The cost and time required is high hence the benefit derived from it should justify the costs. (d). Rank order correlation? Answer –d). Charles Edward Spearman, a British psychologist devised a method for measuring correlation between two variables based on ranks given to the observations. This method is adopted when the variables are not capable of quantitative measurements like intelligence, beauty etc. in such cases, it is impossible to assign numerical values for change taking place in such variables. It is in such cases rank correlation is useful. Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient is given by rk = 1- 6 2 / n (n2-1) D Where D is the difference between ranks and n, number of pairs correlated. Question -2). Elaborate the format of a research report touching briefly on the mechanics of writing. Answer -2). Communicate to a Specific Audience: The first step is to know the audience, its background, and its objectives. Most effective presentations seem live conversations or memos to a particular person as opposed to an amorphous group. Audience identification affects presentation decisions such as selecting the material to be included and the level of presentation. Excessive detail or material presented at too low a level can be boring. The audience can become irritated when material perceived as relevant is excluded or the material is presented at too high level. In an oral presentation, the presenter can ask audience whether they already know some of the material. Frequently, a presentation must be addressed to two or more different audiences. There are ways to deal with such a problem. In a written presentation, an executive summary at the outset can provide an overview of the conclusions for the benefit of those in the audience who are not interested in details. The presentation must respect the audience’s time constraints. An appendix can be used to reach some people selectively, without distracting the others. Sometimes introduction to a chapter or a section can convey the
nature of the contents, which certain audiences may bypass. In an oral presentation, the presence of multiple audiences should be recognized. Structure the Presentation: Each piece of presentation should fit into the whole, just as individual pieces fit into a jigsaw puzzle. The audience should not be muttering. The solution to this is to provide a well-defined structure. The structure should include an introduction, a body, and a summary. Further, each of the major sections should be structured similarly. The precept is to tell the audience what you are going to say, say it and then tell them what you said. Sometimes you want to withhold the conclusion to create interest. Introduction should play several roles. First, it should provide audience interest. A second function is to identify the presentation’s central idea or objective. Third, it should provide a road map to the rest of the presentation so that the audience can picture its organisation and flow. It is better to divide the body of the presentation into two to five parts. The audience will be able to absorb only so much information. If that information can be aggregated into chunks, it will be easier to assimilate. Sometimes the points to be made cannot be combined easily or naturally. In that case, it is necessary to use a longer list. One way to structure the presentation is by the research questions. Another method that is often useful when presenting the research proposal is to base it on the research process. The most useful presentations will include a statement of implications and recommendations relevant to the research purpose. However, when researcher lacks information about the total situation because the research study addresses only a limited aspect of it, the ability to generate recommendations may be limited. The purpose of the presentation summary is to identify and underline the important points of the presentations and to provide some repetition of their content. The summary should support the presentation communication objectives by helping the audience to retain the key parts of the content. The audience should feel that there is a natural flow from one section to another. Create Audience Interest: The audience should be motivated to read or listen to the presentation’s major parts and to the individual elements of each section the audience should know why the presentation is relevant to them and why each section was included. A section that cannot hold interest should be excluded or relegated to appendix. The research purpose and objectives are good vehicles to provide motivation. The research purpose should specify decisions to be made and should relate to the research questions. A presentation that focuses on those research questions and their associated hypothesis will naturally be tied to relevant decisions and hold audience interest. In contrast, a presentation that attempts
to report on all the questions that were included in the survey and in the crosstabulations often will be long, uninteresting and of little value. As the analysis proceeds and presentation is being prepared, the researcher should be on the lookout for results that are exceptionally persuasive, relevant, interesting, and unusual. Sometimes, the deviant respondent with strange answers can provide the most insight in his or her responses that are pursued and not discarded. Be Specific and Visual: Avoid taking or writing in the abstract. If different members of the audience have different or vague understandings of important concepts, there is a potential problem. Terms that are ambiguous or not well known should be defined and illustrated or else omitted. The most interesting presentations usually use specific stories, anecdotes, studies, or incidents to make points. Address Validity and Reliability Issues: The presentation should help the audience avoid misinterpreting the results. The wording of the questions, the order in which they are asked, and the sampling design are among the design dimensions that can lead to biased results and misinterpretations. The presentation should not include an exhaustive description of all the design considerations. Nobody is interested in a textbook discussion of the advantages of telephone over mail surveys, or how you locate homes in an area sampling design. The presentation should include some indication of the reliability of the results. At the minimum, it always should be clear what sample size was involved. The key results should be supported by more precise information in the form of interval estimates or a hypothesis test. The hypothesis test basically indicates, given the sample size, what probability exists that the results were merely an accident of sampling. If the probability of the latter is not low, then the results probably would not be repeated. Do not imply more precision than is warranted. Question -3). Discuss the importance of case study method. Answer -3). Let us discuss the criteria for evaluating the adequacy of the case history or life history which is of central importance for case study. John Dollard has proposed seven criteria for evaluating such adequacy as follows: i) The subject must be viewed as a specimen in a cultural series. That is, the case drawn out from its total context for the purposes of study must be considered a member of the particular cultural group or community. The scrutiny of the life histories of persons must be done with a view to identify thee community values, standards and their shared way of life.
ii) The organic motto of action must be socially relevant. That is, the action of the individual cases must be viewed as a series of reactions to social stimuli or situation. In other words, the social meaning of behaviour must be taken into consideration. iii) The strategic role of the family group in transmitting the culture must be recognized. That is, in case of an individual being the member of a family, the role of family in shaping his behaviour must never be overlooked. iv) The specific method of elaboration of organic material onto social behaviour must be clearly shown. That is case histories that portray in detail how basically a biological organism, the man, gradually blossoms forth into a social person, are especially fruitful. v) The continuous related character of experience for childhood through adulthood must be stressed. In other words, the life history must be a configuration depicting the inter-relationships between thee person’s various experiences. vi) Social situation must be carefully and continuously specified as a factor. One of the important criteria for the life history is that a person’s life must be shown as unfolding itself in the context of and partly owing to specific social situations. vii) The life history material itself must be organised according to some conceptual framework, this in turn would facilitate generalizations at a higher level. Question -4). Give the importance of frequency tables and discuss the principles of table construction, frequency distribution and class intervals determination. Answer -4). Construction of Frequency Table Frequency tables provide a “shorthand” summary of data. The importance of presenting statistical data in tabular form needs no emphasis. Tables facilitate comprehending masses of data at a glance; they conserve space and reduce explanations and descriptions to a minimum. They give a visual picture of relationships between variables and categories. They facilitate summation of item and the detection of errors and omissions and provide a basis for computations. It is important to make a distinction between the general purpose tables and specific tables. The general purpose tables are primary or reference tables designed to include large amount of source data in convenient and accessible form. The special purpose tables are analytical or derivate ones that demonstrate significant relationships in the data or the results of statistical analysis. Tables in reports of government on population, vital statistics,
agriculture, industries etc., are of general purpose type. They represent extensive repositories and statistical information. Special purpose tables are found in monographs, research reports and articles and reused as instruments of analysis. In research, we are primarily concerned with special purpose. Principles of Table Construction There are certain generally accepted principles of rules relating to construction of tables. They are: 1. Every table should have a title. The tile should represent a succinct description of the contents of the table. It should be clear and concise. It should be placed above the body of the table. 2. A number facilitating easy reference should identify every table. The number can be centred above the title. The table numbers should run in consecutive serial order. Alternatively tables in chapter 1 be numbered as 1.1, 1.2, 1….., in chapter 2 as 2.1, 2.2, 2.3…. and so on. 3. The captions (or column headings) should be clear and brief. 4. The units of measurement under each heading must always be indicated. 5. Any explanatory footnotes concerning the table itself are placed directly beneath the table and in order to obviate any possible confusion with the textual footnotes such reference symbols as the asterisk (*) DAGGER (+) and the like may be used. 6. If the data in a series of tables have been obtained from different sources, it is ordinarily advisable to indicate the specific sources in a place just below the table. 7. Usually lines separate columns from one another. Lines are always drawn at the top and bottom of the table and below the captions. 8. The columns may be numbered to facilitate reference. 9. All column figures should be properly aligned. Decimal points and “plus” or “minus” signs should be in perfect alignment. 10. Columns and rows that are to be compared with one another should be brought closed together. 11. Totals of rows should be placed at the extreme right column and totals of columns at the bottom. 12. In order to emphasize the relative significance of certain categories, different kinds of type, spacing and identifications can be used. 13. The arrangement of the categories in a table may be chronological, geographical, alphabetical or according to magnitude.
Numerical categories are usually arranged in descending order of magnitude. 14. Miscellaneous and exceptions items are generally placed in the last row of the table. 15. Usually the larger number of items is listed vertically. This means that a table’s length is more than its width. 16. Abbreviations should be avoided whenever possible and ditto marks should not be used in a table. 17. The table should be made as logical, clear, accurate and simple as possible. Text references should identify tables by number, rather than by such expressions as “the table above” or “the following table”. Tables should not exceed the page size by photo stating. Tables those are too wide for the page may be turned sidewise, with the top facing the left margin or binding of the script. Where tables should be placed in research report or thesis? Some writers place both special purpose and general purpose tables in an appendix and refer to them in the text by numbers. This practice has the disadvantages of inconveniencing the reader who wants to study the tabulated data as the text is read. A more appropriate procedure is to place special purpose tables in the text and primary tables, if needed at all, in an appendix. Frequency Distribution and Class Intervals Variables that are classified according to magnitude or size are often arranged in the form of a frequency table. In constructing this table, it is necessary to determine the number of class intervals to be used and the size of the class intervals. A distinction is usually made between continuous and discrete variables. A continuous variable has an unlimited number of possible values between the lowest and highest with no gaps or breaks. Examples of continuous variable are age, weight, temperature etc. A discrete variable can have a series of specified values with no possibility of values between these points. Each value of a discrete variable is distinct and separate. Examples of discrete variables are gender of persons (male/female) occupation (salaried, business, profession) car size (800cc, 1000cc, 1200cc) In practice, all variables are treated as discrete units, the continuous variables being stated in some discrete unit size according to the needs of a particular situation. For example, length is described in discrete units of millimetres or a tenth of an inch. Class Intervals: Ordinarily, the number of class intervals may not be less than 5 not more than 15, depending on the nature of the data and the number of
cases being studied. After noting the highest and lower values and the feature of the data, the number of intervals can be easily determined. For many types of data, it is desirable to have class intervals of uniform size. The intervals should neither be too small nor too large. Whenever possible, the intervals should represent common and convenient numerical divisions such as 5 or 10, rather than odd division such as 3 to 7. Class intervals must be clearly designated in a frequency table in such a way as to obviate any possibility of misinterpretation of confusion. For example, to present the age group of a population, the use of intervals of 1-20, 20-50, and 50 and above would be confusing. This may be presented as 1-20, 21-50, and above 50. Every class interval has a mid point. For example, the midpoint of an interval 1-20 is 10.5 and the midpoint of class interval 1-25 would be 13. Once class intervals are determined, it is routine work to count the number of cases that fall in each interval. One-Way Tables: One-way frequency tables present the distribution of cases on only a single dimension or variable. For example, the distribution of respondents of gender, by religion, socio economic status and the like are shown in one way tables (Table 10.1) lustrates one-way tables. One way tables are rarely used since the result of frequency distributions can be described in simple sentences. For instance, the gender distribution of a sample study may be described as “The sample data represents 58% by males and 42% of the sample are females.” Tow-Way Table: Distributions in terms of two or more variables and the relationship between the two variables are show in two-way table. The categories of one variable are presented one below another, on the left margin of the table those of another variable at the upper part of the table, one by the side of another. The cells represent particular combination of both variables. To compare the distributions of cases, raw numbers are converted into percentages based on the number of cases in each category. (Table 10.2) illustrate two-way tables.
Another method of constructing a two-way table is to state the percent of representation as a within brackets term rather than as a separate column. Here, special care has been taken as to how the percentages are calculated, either on a horizontal representation of data or as vertical representation of
data. Sometimes, the table heading itself provides a meaning as to the method of representation in the two-way table.
Question -5). Write a short notes on the following: (a). Type I error and type II error. Answer -a). In the context of testing of hypothesis there are basically two types of errors that researchers make. We may reject H0 when H0 is true & we may accept H0 when it is not true. The former is known as Type I & the later is known as Type II. In other words, Type I error mean rejection of hypothesis which should have been accepted & Type II error means accepting of hypothesis which should have been rejected. Type I error is donated by α (alpha), also called as level of significance of test; and Type II error is donated by β(beta). Decision Accept H0 Reject H0 H0 (true) Correct decision Type I error (α error) Ho (false) Type II error (β error) Correct decision The probability of Type I error is usually determined in advance and is understood as the level of significance of testing the hypothesis. If type I error is fixed at 5%, it means there are about chances in 100 that we will reject H0 when H0 is true. We can control type I error just by fixing it at a lower level. For instance, if we fix it at 1%, we will say that the maximum probability of committing type I error would only be 0.01. But with a fixed sample size, n when we try to reduce type I error, the probability of committing type II error increases. Both types of errors can not be reduced simultaneously. There is a trade-off in business situations, decision-makers decide the appropriate level of type I error by examining the costs of penalties attached to both types of errors. If type I error involves time & trouble of reworking a batch of chemicals that should have been accepted,
where as type II error means taking a chance that an entire group of users of this chemicals compound will be poisoned, then in such a situation one should prefer a type I error to a type II error means taking a chance that an entire group of users of this chemicals compound will be poisoned, then in such a situation one should prefer a type II error. As a result one must set very high level for type I error in one’s testing techniques of a given hypothesis. Hence, in testing of hypothesis, one must make all possible effort to strike an adequate balance between Type I & Type II error. (b). One tailed and two tailed test. Answer –b). In the context of hypothesis testing these two terms are quite important and must be clearly understood. A two-tailed test rejects the null hypothesis if, say, the sample mean is significantly higher or lower than the hypnotized value of the mean of the population. Such a test inappropriate when we haveH0: µ= µ H0 and Ha: µ≠µ H0 which may µ>µ H0 or µ<µ H0. If significance level is % and the two-tailed test to be applied, the probability of the rejection area will be 0.05 (equally split on both tails of curve as 0.025) and that of the acceptance region will be 0.95. If we take µ = 100 and if our sample mean deviates significantly from µ, in that case we shall accept the null hypothesis. But there are situations when only one-tailed test is considered appropriate. A one-tailed test would be used when we are to test, say, whether the population mean in either lower than or higher than some hypothesized value. (c). Selecting the significance level. Answer –c). The hypothesis is tested on a pre-determined level of significance and such the same should have specified. Generally, in practice, either 5% level or 1% level is adopted for the purpose. The factors that affect the level of significance are:
• • •
The magnitude of the difference between sample ; The size of the sample; The variability of measurements within samples; Whether the hypothesis is directional or non – directional (A directional hypothesis is one which predicts the direction of the difference between, say, means). In brief, the level of significance must be adequate in the context of the purpose and nature of enquiry.
Question -6). Explain Karl Pearson Co-efficient of correlation. Calculate Karl Pearson coefficient for the following data.
17 4 61
182 183 74 80
Answer -6). Karl Pearson’s Co-Efficient of Correlation is a mathematical method for measuring correlation. Karl Pearson developed the correlation from the covariance between two sets of variables. Karl Pearson’s Co-Efficient of Correlation is denoted by symbol r. The formula for obtaining Karl Pearson’s Co-Efficient of Correlation is: Direct method
X 174 175 176 177 178 (A)182 183 186 189 193 Total R=
Y 61 65 67 68 72 (A)74 80 87 92 95
dx -8 -7 -6 -5 -4 0 1 4 7 11 -7
dy -13 -9 -7 -6 -2 0 6 13 18 21 21
dx2 64 49 36 25 16 0 1 16 49 121 377
dy2 169 81 49 36 4 0 36 169 324 441 1309
dxdy 104 63 42 30 8 0 6 52 126 231 662
∑dxdy/N – (∑dx/N x ∑dy/N) √(∑dx2/N) - √(∑dx/N)2 x √(∑dy2/N) - √(∑dy/N)2 662/10 – (-7/10 x 21/10)
= √377/10 – (-7/10)2 x √1309/10 – (21/10)2
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