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Jim Crow Laws: laws which promoted segregation, or the separation of

people based on race. These laws worked primarily to restricted the rights
of African Americans to use certain schools and public facilities, usually
the good ones; to vote; find decent employment and associate with
anyone of their own choosing. These laws did not make life "separate but
equal," but only served to exclude African Americans and others from
exercising their rights as American citizens. In Brown v. Board of Education
of Topeka (1954), the US Supreme Court ruled that Jim Crow laws were
unconstitutional. It took many years and much effort, however, before Jim
Crow laws would be overturned across the country.
W.E.B. DuBois: One of Washington's harshest critics, believing that
Washington's pacifist plan would only perpetuate the second-class-citizen
mindset. He felt that immediate "ceaseless agitation" was the only way to
truly attain equal rights. As editor of the black publication "The Crisis," he
publicized his disdain for Washington and was instrumental in the creation
of the "Niagara Movement," which later became the NAACP (National
Association for the Advancement of Colored People). He eventually grew
weary of the slow pace of racial equality in the United States and
renounced his citizenship and moved to Ghana in 1961, where he died
two years later. Served as important role models for later leaders of the
civil rights movement.
Booker T. Washington: A former slave. Encouraged blacks to keep to
themselves and focus on the daily tasks of survival, rather than leading a
grand uprising. Believed that building a strong economic base was more
critical at that time than planning an uprising or fighting for equal rights.
Washington also stated in his famous "Atlanta Compromise" speech in
1895 that blacks had to accept segregation in the short term as they
focused on economic gain to achieve political equality in the future.
Served as important role models for later leaders of the civil rights
Malcolm X: Minister of the Nation of Islam, urged blacks to claim their
rights by any means necessary, more radical than other civil rights
leaders of the time.
Civil Rights Act of 1964: Wide-ranging legislation assessed by Congress to
outlaw segregation in public facilities and discrimination in employment,
education, and voting; created the Equal Employment Opportunity
Brown vs. Board of Education: US Supreme Court decision holding that school
segregation is inherently unconstitutional because it violates the
Fourteenth Amendment's guarantee of equal protection

Plessy vs. Ferguson: Supreme Court case that challenged a Louisiana statue
requiring that railroads provide separate accommodations for blacks and
whites. The Court found that separate but equal accommodations did not
violate the equal protection clause of the Fourteenth Amendment
Nathan Bedford Forrest: General Forrest may have been one of the most
respected cavalrymen of the Civil War, but his legend is marred by his
racism. Before the Civil War, Forrest was a slave trader, and after the war
he became one of the first Grand Wizards of the Ku Klux Klan.
Voting Rights Act: a federal law that increased government supervision of
local election practices, suspended the use of literacy tests to prevent
people (usually African Americans) from voting, and expanded
government efforts to register voters.
Fair Housing Act: A law enacted as part of civil rights legislation that prohibits
discrimination of home sales, rentals and financing based on race, color, national origin,
religion, sex, familial status or those with disabilities
Redlining: a discriminatory real estate practice in North America in which
members of minority groups are prevented from obtaining money to
purchase homes or property in predominantly white neighborhoods. The
practice derived its name from the red lines depicted on cadastral maps
used by real estate agents and developers. Today, redlining is officially
Sundown Town: A sundown town is a town, city, or neighborhood in the
United States that was purposely all-white. after the sun goes down, if you
are not white or live in that community people would generally get
attacked, etc. Primarily in the South.
NOW: founded by Betty Friedan; organization formed to work for
economic and legal rights of women; demanded equality in educational
and job opportunies, wages, and political representation; creation of
childcare facilities; wanted Equal Employment Opportunity Commission
(EEOC) enforce its legal mandate to end sex discrimination
NAACP: National Association for the Advancement of Colored People,
major leader was Du Bois
LULAC: League of United Latin American Citizens; middle-class
organization that campaigned to desegregate schools and public facilities
Mendez vs. Westminister: federal court case that challenged racial segregation
in California schools. In its ruling, the U.S. Court of Appeals held that the
segregation of Mexican and Mexican American students into separate
"Mexican schools" was unconstitutional
U.S. vs. Wong Kim Ark : Wong Kim Ark was an American-born Chinese laborer
whose parents were ineligible for citizenship under the naturalization laws.
On his return to the United States after a visit to China, an attempt was

made to debar him from entry under the Chinese Exclusion Act. Claiming
that his birth in San Francisco, California, conferred citizenship, Wong Kim
Ark secured a writ of habeas corpus. His case eventually reached the
Supreme Court, which upheld his contention, with two justices dissenting.
The principle laid down in this decision also served to protect Asians born
in the United States against discriminatory state legislation
Affirmative Action: policies that take race, ethnicity, physical disabilities,
military career, sex, or social class into consideration in an attempt to
promote equal opportunity or increase ethnic or other forms of diversity.
Emmett Till: Murdered in 1955 for whistling at a white woman by her
husband and his friends. They kidnapped him and brutally killed him. His
death led to the American Civil Rights movement.

Eminent Domain

Power of governments to condemn private property for public purpose

Double Jeopardy

Being tried twice for the same crime. This is prevented by the 5th

Defacto Segregation

Racial segregation that occurs because of past social and economic

conditions and residential racial patterns

Dejure Segregation

Racial segregation that occurs because of laws or administrive decisions

by public agencies

Exclusionary Rule

a judicial policy prohibiting the admission at trial of illegally obtained


Americans with Disabilities Act

The Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) prohibits discrimination against

people with disabilities in employment, transportation, public
accommodation, communications, and governmental activities. The ADA
also establishes requirements for telecommunications relay services.

Betty Friedan

Writer, feminist and women's rights activist Betty Friedan wrote The
Feminine Mystique (1963) and co-founded the National Organization for

White Primary

A state primary election that restricted voting to whites only; outlawed by

the supreme court in 1944

Blakke v. California

ruled unconstitutional the admission process of the Medical School at the

University of California at Davis, which set aside 16 of the 100 seats for
non-white students
affirmative action programs are constitutional, but a strict quota system

Schenck v. California

Charles Schenck was a socialist arrested for violating the Espionage Act
by distributing pamphlets urging draftees to refuse to serve in World War I
Supreme Court in Schenck v. United States established new standard for
judging which dangerous speech could be restricted
Words that create "a clear and present danger that they will being about...
substantive evils" are not protected by First Amendment
1st amendment does not protect against anti war protest during formal
war, "clear and present danger doctrine"

Texas v. Johnson

in 1989, in texas v. johnson the supreme court ruled that state laws that
prohibited the burning of the American flag as part of a peaceful protest
also violated the freedom of expression protected by the first amendment.

Tinker v. Des Moines

1969 The Court ruled that wearing black arm-bands in protest of the
Vietnam war was "pure speech" or symbolic speech protected by the First
Amendment. , The case that ruled that students do not lose Constitutional
rights when they entered the building but they can be limited if they
cause a disruption

O'Brien v. U.S.

United States v. O'Brien, 391 U.S. 367 (1968),US supreme ct , which ruled
that a criminal prohibition against burning a draft card did not violate the
First Amendment's guarantee of free speech. Though the Court recognized
that O'Brien's conduct was expressive as a protest against the Vietnam
War, it considered the law justified by a significant government interest
that was unrelated to the suppression of speech and was tailored towards
that end.

Miller v. California

1973 1st amendment case. The Court defined obscenity. To be obscene,

the work, taken as a whole, must be judged by "the average person
applying contemporary community standards" to appeal to the "prurient
interest" or to depict "in a patently offensive way, sexual conduct
specifically defined by applicable state law" and to lack "serious literary,
artistic, political, or scientific value"

Engel v. Vitale

The 1962 Supreme Court decision holding that state officials violated the
First Amendment when they wrote a prayer to be recited by New York's

Gideon v. Wainwright

a case decided in 1963, the court held that if a person is accused of a

felony and cant afford an attorney, an attorney must be made available to
the accused person at the government's expense.

McDonald v. Chicago

McDonald v. Chicago, 561 U.S. 742 (2010), is a landmark[1] decision of

the Supreme Court of the United States that determined whether the
Second Amendment applies to the individual states. The Court held that
the right of an individual to "keep and bear arms" protected by the Second
Amendment is incorporated by the Due Process Clause of the Fourteenth
Amendment and applies to the states.

Scott v. Sanford

Dred Scott v. Sandford, 60 U.S. 393 (1857), was a landmark decision by

the U.S. Supreme Court in which the Court held that African Americans,
whether enslaved or free, could not be American citizens and therefore
had no standing to sue in federal court,[2][3] and that the federal
government had no power to regulate slavery in the federal territories
acquired after the creation of the United States. Dred Scott, an enslaved
African American man who had been taken by his owners to free states
and territories, attempted to sue for his freedom. In a 7-2 decision written
by Chief Justice Roger B. Taney, the Court denied Scott's request. For only
the second time in its history the Supreme Court ruled an Act of Congress
to be unconstitutional.[4]

Lemon v. Kurtzman

In 1971, in the Lemon v. Kurtzman, the court ruled that direct state aid
could not be used to subsidize religious instruction.

Nixon v. United States

Nixon v. United States, 506 U.S. 224 (1993),This Supreme Court case
prohibits unqualified executive privileges.

What was the purpose of the Bill of Rights?

The main purpose of the U.S. Bill of Rights is to define the civil liberties of
American citizens and was originally created to limit only the powers of
the national government.

What is the incorporation process?

The incorporation of the Bill of Rights (or incorporation for short) is the
process by which American courts have applied portions of the U.S. Bill of
Rights to the states. Prior to 1925, the Bill of Rights was held only to apply
to the federal government.

Which amendments are associated with due process of


The Fifth and Fourteenth Amendments to the United States Constitution

contain a due process clause. Due process deals with the administration
of justice and thus the due process clause acts as a safeguard from
arbitrary denial of life, liberty, or property by the Government outside the
sanction of law.

the right to privacy

The current prohibition on states to criminalize abortion

is based on what?
What best explains the increased attention the federal
government paid to racial discrimination in the 1940s?

Northern migration of African Americans increased their voting strength

the white house

Which was the first government institution that began

to call attention to racism in America?
Why did the Fair Housing Act not have the impact hoped

housing segregation

bans sex discrimination in schools, whether it be in academics or athletics

Title IX
A Phillip Randolph

America's leading black labor leader who called for a march on

Washington D.C. to protest factories' refusals to hire African Americans,
which eventually led to President Roosevelt issuing an order to end all
discrimination in the defense industries.