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Auditory Perception

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Why?
Human Ear modifies sound.
Loudness affects frequency perception.
Directional perception is key to understanding stereo
recording techniques.

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Less is known about the hearing
mechanism than any of the other
4 senses.

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.A Few Terms Hearing: The physical act [ear] Listening: The perception [brain] Audiology: The science of.. 13 4 . September 14... Saturday.

September 14.Physiology of the Ear The 3 Sections Saturday. 13 5 .

Outer 2. September 14. Middle 3. 13 6 .1. Inner Saturday.

13 7 . • “Auditory canal” Saturday. September 14.Outer Ear • Pinna: Enhances high FQ sounds. Helps with location.

Canal resonates @ 1k-5k Saturday. September 14. 13 8 .

September 14.Ear Drum Reacts to Loudness +75 dB 12 .14 dB of Protection* Saturday. 13 9 .

September 14.Saturday. 13 10 .

September 14. 13 11 .Middle Ear • Acts as a limiting protection device for transients • Three-bone lever acts as an amplifier (15:1) Saturday.

September 14. 13 12 .Saturday.

Cochlea Saturday. September 14. 13 13 .

Groups of hairs respond to different frequencies. 13 14 .4 Main Points 1. High frequency hairs are first. Saturday. 3. 4. 2. Some hairs are stiffer than others = Loudness. September 14. Fluid-filled chamber with hairs that trigger nerves.

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September 14. 13 16 .Saturday.

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13 18 . September 14.Sense of Balance Saturday.

20khz Saturday. 13 19 . September 14.Human Frequency Perception: 20hz .

Saturday. 13 20 . September 14.

Terms to Know • Pinna • Ear Canal • Outer. Middle. 13 • Cochlea • Tympanic Membrane 21 . Inner Ear Saturday. September 14.

September 14. 13 22 .Loudness Perception Saturday.

How we Physically hear loudness Physical: Some hairs are stiffer than others. 13 23 . The louder sounds are the more hairs fire. September 14. Psychoacoustic: Loud sounds are felt all through our body. Louder sounds have different Timbres Saturday.

Just Noticeable Difference for Sound: 1 dB SPL Between 20 dB SPL . Saturday. September 14. 13 24 .100 dB SPL.

13 25 .Loudness Test Saturday. September 14.

13 26 . September 14.Loudness Test 0 dB Reference +3 dB double of intensity +6 dB double pressure +10 dB double of loudness Saturday.

and. 13 27 . September 14. it changes with loudness Saturday. ...Our Ear does not hear evenly...

Loudness affects pitch perception Saturday. 13 28 . September 14.

September 14.Why? • Ear is sensitive between 1 and 5 kHz • Partially due to the resonances of the outer ear Saturday. 13 29 .

and experiment repeated. Participants asked to make sounds at different frequencies sound the same level to each other. September 14.Equal Loudness Study Fletcher-Munson / Robinson-Dadson Saturday. 30 . • Tones were then increased. 13 • • Tones at different frequencies played at the same voltage.

September 14. 13 31 .Equal Loudness Contours of Hearing Saturday.

13 32 .Equal Loudness Contours of Hearing Low High Flipped & Inverted Saturday. September 14.

• We don’t hear low frequencies well. Saturday. • As sound gets louder. 13 33 . September 14.Conclusions • We hear 1-5k very well. response becomes more even.

What could be a reason woofers are so large? Saturday. September 14. 13 34 .

September 14. 13 35 .What does the “Loud” or “Brilliance” button do? Saturday.

13 36 . September 14.Saturday.

Saturday. September 14.Mixing at different levels changes balance. 13 37 .

September 14.Rumble & Hiss in recordings may trigger/offset meters or effects Saturday. 13 38 .

September 14. 13 39 .Direction Saturday.

. 13 40 . Time Intensity Saturday..Direction is determined by. September 14.

September 14. 13 41 .Intensity Difference Louder in One Ear Middle to high FQ Head is a baffle Saturday.

13 42 .Time Difference Arrives at one ear first Middle to high FQ Pinna crucial Saturday. September 14.

September 14.Saturday. 13 43 .

Hearing Distance Cues include: • High frequency loss in air. September 14. • Saturday. spectrum breakup • Direct to reverberant sound Sources produce different tones played loud or soft. • Ground reflection. 13 44 .

• “if we can’t see it. September 14. • Easier to judge depth in a room vs. it must be behind us” • We know jets fly above. outside... 13 45 . Saturday.More.

Psychoacoustics Saturday. 13 46 . September 14.

equal in frequency to difference in the two tones 47 . September 14. 13 • • Two tones of same amplitude that differ slightly in frequency • A result of the ear’s inability to separate closely pitched notes Produce repetitive volume surges.Beats Saturday.

13 48 .Beat audio sample Saturday. September 14.

13 • • Result from two loud tones that differ by at least 50 Hz • 2500 Hz .Combination Tone Saturday.2000 Hz = 500 Hz difference tone Ear produces an additional set of tones equal to sum and difference between original tones 49 . September 14.

• EQ and stereo placement can make instrument sound different enough to overcome masking effects. Instruments can be hidden or changed in character by louder instruments with similar timbre. September 14. 13 • • Loud signals prevent the ear from hearing softer sounds.Masking Saturday. 50 .

perceived as comb filtering. September 14. If under 1ms. 13 • When Two duplicate sounds with only varying distances. perceived as closer. • • Delayed sound is +10-15dB louder. 51 .Haas Effect | Precedence Effect Saturday. the one arriving first is perceived as first.

13 52 .+30 milliseconds is an echo. September 14. Saturday.

Pitch Changes with Loudness Saturday. 13 53 . September 14.

... Saturday.If Onset and Offset of instrument note removed. 13 54 .. September 14..People less likely to know trumpet from violin.

13 55 .com/musical_illusions/ Saturday. September 14.More ear tricks: http://philomel.

September 14.youtube. Saturday. 13 56 .Silence drives us crazy http://www.com/watch?v=dtZNjzeShYw Note the studies in the comments.

Hearing Protection Saturday. September 14. 13 57 .

Hearing Loss Example

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We live in a noisy world
Only 2 centuries ago there were no speakers, cars, planes, TV, power tools....

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Threshold Shift
Reversible desensitization from loud sounds.
1. Protective reaction from ear drum muscles.
2. Cochlea Hairs temporarily bent over.

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September 14. A one-time exposure.Tinnitus • • • Saturday. Usually reversible to some degree. high pitch. 13 Ringing of the Cochlea. 61 .

September 14.Age • 20 year olds = 16 kHz Retirees = 8 kHz • • More loss for Men than Women. 13 62 . Saturday.

Permanent Hearing Loss • • • • Saturday. and do not recover. and upper bands first. 4k. several years 63 . September 14. 13 Hairs bend over from loud sounds. Things sound “muddy” Exposure over several. Loss of sensitivity by FREQUENCY.

13 Damanged 64 . September 14.Undamanged Saturday.

13 65 .You all have hearing loss. September 14. Saturday.

unt. 13 Headphones are capable of producing loud levels. Threshold shift => continual volume increases. September 14. SpeechAndHearing.edu 66 . BAD Custom Earplugs.Hearing Protection • • • Saturday.

Hearing Damage Saturday. September 14. 13 67 .

September 14. 13 68 .Saturday.

13 69 .END Saturday. September 14.