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Highlights

This report is based on the eighth quinquennial survey on employment and unemployment

conducted in the 66 th round of NSS during July 2009 to June 2010. The survey was spread over

7402 villages and 5252 urban blocks covering 100957 households (59129 in rural areas and

41828 in urban areas) and enumerating 459784 persons (281327 in rural areas and 178457 in

urban areas). In this survey information on religion followed by each household was collected

as part of the household characteristics. The reported religion of head of the household was

considered as the religion of all the household members irrespective of the actual religion

followed by individual members. Seven known major religions viz. Hinduism, Islam,

Christianity, Sikhism, Jainism, Buddhism and Zoroastrianism were explicitly considered for

data collection as a part of the household characteristics. Among these the followers of

Hinduism, Islam, Christianity and Sikhism formed the four major religious groups. Households

following the religions other than these four religions have been combined together under the

category ‘Others’. Some of the highlights of this report are listed below:

In rural India during 2009-10, Hinduism was followed by around 84 per cent of the

households constituting about 84 per cent of the population; whereas 11 per cent of

households followed Islam with about 12 per cent of the population. Christianity was

followed by around 2 per cent of the households constituting about 2 per cent of the

population. In urban areas, the percentages of households and population following

Hinduism were about 81 and 79, following Islam were about 13 and 16 and following

Christianity were about 3 and 3, respectively.

The sex-ratios for Hindus and Muslims in both rural and urban areas showed a decline

between 2004-05 and 2009-10; however those corresponding to Christians showed an

improvement during this period. The overall sex-ratio for the rural as well as for the

urban population showed a decline between 2004-05 and 2009-10.

The average household size, in both rural and urban areas, for Muslims was higher than

those of other religious groups, and the average household size was the lowest among

Christians. The household size in rural areas was higher than that of urban areas for each

of the religious groups.

In rural areas, self-employment was the mainstay for all the religious groups. The

proportion of households with major income from self-employed in agriculture was the

highest among Sikh households (about 36 per cent). The proportion of households

belonging to the household type rural labour was the highest among Muslims (about 41

per cent). In urban India, the proportion of households with major source of earnings as

self-employment was highest for Muslims (46 per cent). The major source of earnings

from regular wage/salaried was the highest for Christians households (43 per cent) in

urban areas.

Among all the land possessed classes, in rural areas, proportion of households belonging

to the land possessed class ‘0.005-0.40’ hectare was the highest for all the major

religious groups, which was more than 40 per cent.

About 43 per cent of Christian households, 38 per cent of Muslim households and 37

per cent of Hindu households cultivated more than or equal to 0.001 hectare of land but

less than 1.00 hectare of land. The proportion of households cultivating more than 4.00

hectares of land was the highest for Sikhs (6 per cent), followed by Hindus (3 per cent).

For both rural and urban India, average MPCE was the highest for Sikh households,

followed by Christians and Hindus. At the all-India level, the average MPCE of Sikh

household was Rs. 1659 while that for Muslim household was Rs. 980.

The literacy rate among persons of age 15 years and above was the highest for

Christians, for both the sexes in rural and urban areas. The proportion of persons of age

15 years and above with educational level secondary and above was the highest for

Christians, followed by Sikhs.

The current attendance rates in educational institutions were higher among males than

females and also higher in urban areas than in rural areas. The current attendance rates

in educational institutions among persons of age 0-29 years were the highest among

Christians for rural males, rural females, urban males and urban females.

The Labour Force Participation Rate (LFPR) for male was much higher than female for

all religious groups - the differential being greater in urban areas. The male-female

differential in LFPR was the lowest among Christians. The LFPR for rural male, rural

female and urban female was the highest for Christians while that for urban male was

the highest for Sikhs.

WPR for male was much higher than female for all the religious groups - the differential

being greater in the urban areas. The male-female differential in WPR was the lowest

among Christians. The WPR according to the usual status (ps+ss) was the highest for

Christians for all categories of persons, except urban males, where the WPR of Hindus

was higher than Christians. WPRs for rural male, rural female and urban female among

Christians were about 56 per cent, 33 per cent, 22 per cent, respectively while that for

urban males among Hindus was about 55 per cent.

In rural areas, majority of male workers belonged to the categories not literate (28 per

cent) or literate and up to primary (28 per cent) while majority of female workers

belonged to the category not literate (59 per cent). The proportion of male workers with

general education level secondary & above was the highest for Christians (32 per cent),

followed by Sikhs (30 per cent).

In urban areas, majority of male workers belonged to the education category level

secondary & above (52 per cent). Among urban males, proportion of workers with level

of education secondary & above was 58 per cent each for Christians and Sikhs whereas

those were 56 per cent and 30 per cent, respectively, for Hindus and Muslims.

In rural areas, the WPR for male of age 15 years and above was the highest for the

educational level literate and up to primary (90 per cent) and the WPR for female was

highest for educational level not literate (43 per cent). Among persons with level of

education secondary & above, the WPR for male (70 per cent) was much higher than

that of female (22 per cent). Among rural male with level of education secondary &

above, the WPR was highest for Hindus (70 per cent), followed by Sikhs (68 per cent).

Among rural female with level of education secondary & above, the WPR was highest

for Christians (32 per cent), followed by Sikhs (28 per cent).

In urban areas, the WPR for male of age 15 years and above was highest for the general

educational level literate and up to primary (84 per cent) and the WPR for female was

highest for educational level graduate and above (26 per cent). Among urban male with

level of education secondary & above, the WPR was highest for Hindus (70 per cent),

followed by Sikhs (68 per cent). The corresponding WPRs for Christians and Muslims

were 67 per cent and 65 per cent, respectively. Among urban female with level of

education secondary & above, the WPR was highest for Christians (32 per cent),

followed by Sikhs (18 per cent).

In rural areas, majority of employed persons belonged to the employment category self-

employment. The proportion of self-employment among male workers was about 54 per

cent and that among female workers was about 56 per cent. In rural areas, a significant

portion of workers among male (38 per cent) and female (40 per cent) were engaged in

casual labour employment. Among the rural male workers, self-employment was the

highest for Sikhs (55 per cent), followed by Hindus (54 per cent). Among Christians in

rural areas, a significant proportion of male (17 per cent) and female (11 per cent)

workers were engaged in regular wage/salaried employment.

In urban areas, the workers were more or less equally engaged in self-employment and

regular wage/salaried employment. The proportion of workers engaged in self-

employment was the highest for Muslims, followed by Sikhs. Among urban Christians, a

significant proportion of male (45 per cent) and female (61 per cent) workers were

engaged in regular wage/salaried employment. Among urban Hindus, about 44 per cent

of male workers and about 40 per cent of female workers were engaged in regular

wage/salaried employment.

The unemployment rate in rural areas is less than that of urban areas. In rural areas,

during 2009-10, unemployment rate was the highest for Christians for both males (3 per

cent) and females (6 per cent). In urban areas, unemployment rate was the highest for

Sikhs for both males (6 per cent) and females (8 per cent).

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Contents

 

Page

Chapter One

Introduction

1 – 7

Chapter Two

Concepts and Definitions

8– 17

Chapter Three

Summary of Findings

18 – 225

Appendix A

Detailed Tables: Table 1 to Table 9

A1 - A-140

Appendix B

Sample Design and Estimation Procedure

B-1 - B-8

Appendix C

Population Projection

C-1 - C-3

Appendix D

Schedule on Employment and Unemployment (Sch. 10)

D-1 -

D-16

Appendix E

RSE of WPR by Usual Activity Status

E-1

Appendix A Detailed Tables

Table No.

Title

Page No.

Table 1

Average monthly per capita household consumer expenditure (MPCE) for each major household religion

A1

Table 2

Per 1000 distribution of households by household type for each household religion

A2-A3

Table 3

Per 1000 distribution of households by size class of land possessed for each major household religion (RURAL)

A4

 

Table 4

Per 1000 distribution of households by size class of land cultivated for each major household religion (RURAL)

A5

Table 5

Per 1000 distribution of households by size class of land cultivated for each major household religion

A6-A14

Table 6

Per 1000 distribution of persons of age 15 years & above by general educational level for each major household religion

A15-A23

Table 7

Current attendance rates in educational institutions per 1000 persons (of

A24-A32

A33-A86

Table 8

age 0 - 29 years) by age-group and household religion Per 1000 distribution of persons by usual activity category taking also into consideration the subsidiary economic status of persons categorised as 'not working' in the principal status for each age-group and religion

Table 9

Per 1000 distribution of persons of age 15 years and above by usual activity category taking also into consideration the subsidiary economic status of persons categorised as 'not working' in the principal status for each general educational level and religion

A87-A140

NOTES ON TABLES

  • 1. Estimates are provided separately for rural and urban areas and for males and females.

  • 2. The estimates presented in the report, in general, refer to the mid-point of the survey period (July 2009 – June 2010) of NSS 66 th round, i.e., 01.01.2010.

  • 3. It may be noted that as the tables are generally presented as ‘per 1000 distribution’ or ‘estimates per 1000’, the figures are rounded off. Thus, while using the ratios from the survey results, it is to be noted that the accuracy of these derived aggre- gates will be limited to the number of significant digits available in the ratio or percentage estimates presented in the report. The estimated aggregates, wherever possible, can be used to get ratios with more significant digits.

  • 4. If there are no sample households/persons in a particular category, the estimates/estimated proportions of households/persons in that category becomes 0. Estimated numbers per 1000 are also shown as 0, when they are greater than 0 but less than 0.5.

  • 5. In the detailed tables, in some of the deeper classifications, some sample sizes may be small and this may have a bearing on the precision of the corresponding estimates.

  • 6. The cell-level figures in the tables, when added up, may not exactly be equal to the figure shown against the ‘total’ column (or line) due to (i) rounding off and/or (ii) presence of non-response cases.

  • 1.1 The report in perspective

Chapter One

Introduction

Chapter One

Introduction

  • 1.1.1 The National Sample Survey Office (NSSO), as a part of its 66 th round survey

programme during the period July 2009 - June 2010, carried out an all-India household

survey on the subject of employment and unemployment in India. In this survey, a nation-

wide enquiry was conducted to generate estimates of various characteristics pertaining to

employment and unemployment and labour force characteristics at the National and State

level. Information on various facets of employment and unemployment in India was collected

through the employment and unemployment Schedule (Schedule 10) adopting the established

concepts, definitions and procedures. Along with the collection of information on some

general particulars of household members associated with employment and unemployment

such as age, sex, level of general and technical education attained, current attendance in

educational institutions, vocational training received, etc., information on some

characteristics of the households such as household type, household social group, household

religion was also collected in the survey. Based on the data collected during the entire period

of the survey, estimates pertaining to employment and unemployment in India along with

various characteristics associated with them are presented in a series of reports. This report

gives the estimates pertaining to employment and unemployment situation of the people of

India belonging to different religious groups along with various other characteristics

associated with them.

  • 1.2 Genesis of NSS Employment and Unemployment Survey

    • 1.2.1 The quinquennial survey on employment-unemployment is one of the important

surveys conducted regularly by the NSSO. The first such survey was done during September

1972 - October 1973 corresponding to the 27 th round of NSSO. The present survey is the

eighth in the series.

  • 1.2.2 Past Quinquennial Surveys: The assessment of the volume and structure of employment

and unemployment using large scale household surveys commenced with the NSS 9 th round

(May - September, 1955). Subsequently, NSSO conducted a number of surveys on this

subject to firm up the concepts and methods. The core conceptual framework for conducting

such surveys was put in place by an “Expert Committee on Unemployment Estimates”

(popularly known as the Dantwala Committee), set up by the Planning Commission. The

Expert Committee reviewed these surveys and the indicators generated from such surveys

conducted by NSS in the past. The concepts and definitions recommended by this committee

formed the basis of the first quinquennial survey on employment and unemployment

conducted in the 27 th round of NSS (September 1972 – October 1973). Since then, six

comprehensive quinquennial surveys on employment and unemployment situation in India

have been carried out in the past by the NSSO prior to the present quinquennial survey. These

Chapter One

Introduction

were carried out during the 32 nd round (July 1977 - June 1978), 38 th round (January 1983 -

December 1983), 43 rd round (July 1987 - June 1988), 50 th round (July 1993 - June 1994), 55 th

round (July 1999 - June 2000), 61 st round (July 2004 - June 2005) in which concepts,

definitions and procedures were based primarily on the recommendations of the Dantwala

Committee. The results of these surveys have been brought out in the form of NSS reports. In

NSS 55 th round, the aspects of enterprise characteristic of employment and in NSS 61 st round

the qualitative aspects of informal employment were added in the survey module of the

quinquennial round.

1.2.3 Other surveys on employment-unemployment: Apart from these quinquennial surveys

on employment and unemployment, NSSO had also been collecting information on certain

key items on employment and unemployment, as a part of annual series, from a smaller

sample of households in each round since its 45 th round (July 1989 - June 1990) through the

schedule on Household Consumer Expenditure (Schedule 1.0). The objective of data

collected in the annual series was to measure employment and unemployment indicators in

terms of the usual and current weekly statuses only and study of these indicators in respect of

category of employment, industrial distribution of the usually employed, etc. These

procedures continued till the 59 th round (January-December 2003) of NSS. In the annual

rounds, only activity status and industry of work according to usual principal status,

subsidiary status and current weekly status approach were collected through a few columns of

the demographic block of the Consumer Expenditure Schedule (Schedule 1.0). Particulars of

employment and unemployment according to the usual principal status and usual subsidiary

status were collected in the annual rounds by following a similar approach as in the

quinquennial rounds. In the quinquennial rounds, particulars of current daily status of the

household members are collected and current weekly status is derived from them, whereas in

the annual rounds, current weekly status has been obtained through a direct query. In the 60 th

round (January-June 2004), a separate schedule on employment and unemployment was

canvassed for the first time in an annual round and particulars on employment and

unemployment was collected in the same manner as those of the quinquennial rounds. In NSS

  • 62 nd round (July 2005 - June 2006) and in NSS 64 th round (July 2007- June 2008) also a

separate schedule on employment and unemployment, similar to the one canvassed during

NSS 60 th round, was canvassed and particulars on labour force were collected in the manner

similar to the quinquennial rounds.

.

1.3 Scope of NSS 66 th round Survey on Employment and Unemployment

1.3.1 The critical issues in the context of labour force enquiries pertain to defining the labour

force and measuring participation of labour force in different economic activities. The

activity participation of the people is not only dynamic but also multidimensional; it varies

over regions, age, education, gender, industry and occupational categories. In NSS surveys,

persons are classified into various activity categories on the basis of activities pursued by

them during certain specified reference periods. Three reference periods are used in NSS

surveys, viz. (i) one year, (ii) one week and (iii) each day of the reference week. Based on

these three periods, three different measures of activity status are arrived at. The activity

Chapter One

Introduction

status determined on the basis of the reference period of one year is known as the usual

activity status (US) of a person, that determined on the basis of a reference period of one

week is known as the current weekly status (CWS) of the person and the activity status

determined on the basis of the engagement on each day during the reference week is known

as the current daily status (CDS) of the person.

  • 1.3.2 In NSS 66 th round Employment & Unemployment schedule, the major features of data

collected in NSS 61 st round were retained. In addition, some information on ‘Home based

workers’ was collected. There is another specific importance that is associated with the

period of NSS 66 th round. The present quinquennial round is the first survey carried out since

the major public intervention in the rural labour market made with the enactment of the

Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act 2005. The survey instruments

for NSS 66 th round appropriately incorporated the assimilation of data on some salient

aspects relating to MGNREGA.

  • 1.3.3 In NSS 66 th round, data on employment-unemployment characteristics were collected

through Schedule 10. The schedule captured a range of information on the following aspects:

  • i) Household characteristics, like household size, religion, social group, land possessed,

land cultivated, etc. For rural households information was collected, on whether the

household had Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee (MGNREG) job

card, whether got work in MGNREG works during the last 365 days, number of days got

work in MGNREG works and mode of payment of the wages earned in MGNREG works.

Information on household monthly consumer expenditure was also collected through a

worksheet to study the exact relationship of employment-unemployment characteristics

with the level of living of the population.

ii) Demographic particulars, like age, sex, educational level, status of current attendance

and vocational training.

iii) Usual principal activity status and subsidiary economic activity status of all persons.

iv) Particulars of the enterprise for all the usual status workers (excluding those engaged

in growing of crops and growing of crops combined with farming of animals) viz.,

location of work place, type of enterprises, number of workers in the enterprise etc. and

some particulars of the conditions of employment for the employees, like type of job

contract, eligibility for paid leave, availability of social security benefits, etc. For self-

employed persons in the usual status, some particulars were collected for identification of

home-based workers.

  • v) Extent of underutilization of the labour time and on the qualitative aspects of

employment, like changes in activity status, occupation /industry, existence of trade

unions/associations, nature of employment (permanent/temporary), etc.

vi) Participation in specified activities by the household members who are classified as

engaged in domestic duties in the usual principal activity status.

  • 1.4 The survey outline of NSS 66 th round survey

Chapter One

Introduction

  • 1.4.1 Geographical coverage: The survey covered the whole of the Indian Union except (i)

interior villages of Nagaland situated beyond five kilometres of the bus route and (ii) villages

in Andaman and Nicobar Islands which remained inaccessible throughout the year. However,

all the sample first stage units of both rural and urban areas of Leh, Kargil and Poonch

districts of Jammu & Kashmir became casualty and therefore these districts were outside the

survey coverage.

  • 1.4.2 Sub-round: The fieldwork of the 66 th round of NSSO started from 1 st July, 2009 and

continued till 30 th June, 2010. As usual, the survey period of this round was divided into four

sub-rounds, each with a duration of three months, the 1 st sub-round period ranging from July

to September 2009, the 2 nd sub-round period from October to December 2009 and so on. An

equal number of sample villages/blocks (FSUs) was allotted for survey to each of these four

sub-rounds. The survey used the interview method of data collection from a sample of

randomly selected households.

  • 1.5 Sample Design

    • 1.5.1 A stratified multi-stage design was adopted for the 66 th round survey. The first stage

units (FSU) were the 2001 census villages (Panchayat wards in case of Kerala) in the rural

sector and Urban Frame Survey (UFS) blocks in the urban sector. In addition, two non-UFS

towns of Leh and Kargil of Jammu & Kashmir were also treated as FSUs in the urban sector.

The ultimate stage units (USU) were households in both the sectors. Hamlet-groups/sub-

blocks constituted the intermediate stage whenever these were formed in the sample FSUs.

For the rural sector, the list of 2001 census villages (Panchayat wards in case of Kerala)

constituted the sampling frame. For the urban sector, the list of latest available UFS blocks

constituted the sampling frame. For non-UFS towns, frame consisted of the individual towns

(only two towns, viz., Leh & Kargil constituted this frame). Within each district of a State/

UT, two basic strata were formed as follows: rural stratum comprising all rural areas of the

district and urban stratum comprising all the urban areas of the district. However, within the

urban areas of a district, if there were one or more towns with population 10 lakhs or more as

per population census 2001 in a district, each of them formed a separate basic stratum and the

remaining urban areas of the district were considered as another basic stratum. There was no

sub-stratification in the urban sector. However, to net adequate number of child workers, for

all rural strata, each stratum was divided into 2 sub-strata. These were, sub-stratum 1: all

villages with proportion of child workers (p) >2P (where P is the average proportion of child

workers for the sate/ UT as per Census 2001) and sub-stratum 2: remaining villages.

  • 1.5.2 At the all-India level, a total number of 12784 FSUs was allocated for survey in the

central sample. This sample size was at par with the sample size of NSS 61 st round. In

addition, 24 State sample FSUs (16 for rural sector and 8 for urban sector) of Leh and Kargil

districts of J & K were included in the central sample. The total number of sample FSUs was

Chapter One

Introduction

allocated to the States and UTs in proportion to population as per census 2001 subject to the

availability of investigators and ensuring minimum sample allocation to each State/ UT. The

State/ UT level sample size was allocated between two sectors in proportion to population as

per census 2001 with double weightage to urban sector subject to the restriction that urban

sample size for bigger states like Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu, etc. did not exceed the rural

sample size. A minimum of 16 FSUs (to the extent possible) was allocated to each state/ UT

separately for rural and urban areas. Further the State level allocations for both rural and

urban areas were adjusted marginally in a few cases to ensure that each stratum/ sub-stratum

got a minimum allocation of 4 FSUs. Within each sector of a State/ UT, the respective sample

size was allocated to the different strata/ sub-strata in proportion to the population as per

census 2001. Allocations at stratum/ sub-stratum level were adjusted to multiples of 4 with a

minimum sample size of 4 and equal number of samples were allocated to the four sub

rounds.

  • 1.5.3 For the rural sector, from each stratum/ sub-stratum, required number of sample villages

was selected by probability proportional to size with replacement (PPSWR), size being the

population of the village as per Census 2001. For urban sector, from each stratum FSUs were

selected by using Simple Random Sampling Without Replacement (SRSWOR). Both rural

and urban samples were drawn in the form of two independent sub-samples. All households

listed in the selected village/block/ hamlet-groups/sub-blocks were stratified into three second

stage strata (SSS). A total of 8 households was selected from each sample village/block for

canvassing the employment and un-employment schedule. The sample households from each

of the second stage strata were selected by SRSWOR.

  • 1.5.4 Out of the total number of 12,808 FSUs (7,524 villages and 5,284 urban blocks) allotted

for the central sample 1 (including 24 state sample FSUs of Leh and Kargil districts of J & K:

16 for rural sector and 8 for urban sector), 12,654 FSUs (7,402 villages and 5,252 urban

blocks) could be surveyed at the all-India level for canvassing Schedule 10. The number of

households surveyed was 1,00,957 (59,129 in rural areas and 41,828 in urban areas) of which

number of households surveyed for the religious groups Hinduism, Islam, Christianity,

Sikhism and ‘Others’ were 45559, 6462, 4254, 1382 and 1458 respectively, in rural areas and

31390, 5977, 2694, 771 and 987 respectively, in urban areas. The number of persons

surveyed for Schedule 10 in NSS 66 th round was 4,59,784 (2,81,327 in rural areas and

1,78,457 in urban areas). The number of sample persons for the religious groups Hinduism,

Islam, Christianity, Sikhism and ‘Others’ were 213672, 33492, 20334, 6886 and 6891

respectively, in rural areas and 129527, 29884, 11254, 3448 and 4304 respectively, in urban

areas. ‘Others’ here refers to the combined category of the religious groups ‘Jainism’,

‘Buddhism’, ‘Zoroastrianism’ and the remaining religious groups other than Hinduism,

Islam, Christianity, Sikhism. The sample design and estimation procedure used for the survey

is given in Appendix B of this report.

1 The sample selected for NSS 66 th round which was surveyed by NSSO is termed “Central sample”. As is usual in the

regular NSS rounds, most States and Union Territories participated in the survey: the sample surveyed by State Government

officials is termed as “State sample”.

Chapter One

Introduction

  • 1.5.5 The domains of rural and urban sector in the survey are co-terminus with the criterion

adopted in census. The urban frame used in the survey is the latest updated UFS that takes

into account the newly declared towns after the last census 2001.Accordingly the rural sector

is the one that is not urban.

1.6 Contents of the Report

  • 1.6.1 As stated earlier, this report deals with various estimates on employment and

unemployment of the people belonging to different religions along with their correlates as

obtained from tables generated from data collected on relevant items for the entire round. We

would like to sound a note of caution at the outset that reported religion of household was a

by-product of a general household sample survey aimed at estimating salient characteristics

of employment and unemployment of the general population and was not specifically

designed for collecting information on economic conditions of specific religious

communities.

  • 1.6.2 For each household surveyed, the reported religion of the head of the household was

considered as the religion of all the members of the household irrespective of the actual

religion followed by individual members. Seven known major religions viz. Hinduism, Islam,

Christianity, Sikhism, Jainism, Buddhism and Zoroastrianism were explicitly considered for

data collection as a part of the household characteristics. Some results like, distribution of

households and population by religious groups, distribution of households by household type,

land cultivated and worker population ratio, proportion unemployed, etc. have been obtained

for each of the major religions (viz. Hinduism, Islam, Christianity and Sikhism) from the

survey. All discussions in this report are limited to only such items/concepts, based on which

estimates have been generated. A detailed explanation of these is given in the next chapter

entitled ‘Concepts and Definitions’.

  • 1.6.3 The sample sizes pertaining to religious groups other than Hinduism, Islam, Christianity

and Sikhism were small even at the all-India level. The estimates based on such small

samples for the smaller religious groups, may not be sufficiently reliable and hence, estimates

relating to these religious groups have not been generated separately. Households belonging

to these religious groups have been combined together and their estimates presented as

“Other” religious group.

  • 1.6.4 This report contains three chapters including the present introduction and five

appendices. Chapter Two discusses the concepts and definitions of only those terms that are

relevant in connection with various items covered in this report. The main findings on

employment - unemployment situation among major religious groups and their broad house-

hold and population characteristics are discussed in Chapter Three. In Chapter Three,

wherever state level tables have been presented, they have been placed at the end of the

chapter. The detailed tables forming the basis of this report are presented in Appendix A.

Appendix B gives a detailed description of the sample design and estimation procedure used

for the survey. In Appendix C, the Projected Population as on 1 st March 2009 and 1 st March

Chapter One

Introduction

  • 2010 supplied by RGI Office have been presented along with those projected for 1 st January

  • 2010 using compound rate of growth. The projections have been given for, male and female,

separately, for rural and urban for each State/UT. Appendix D gives a facsimile of the

schedule canvassed in the survey. The RSEs of worker population ratio (WPR) according to

usual status (ps+ss) and current weekly status (CWS) for each of the major states are given in

Appendix E.

1.6.5 All the estimates presented in this report are based on Central sample data only.

Further, the cell-level figures in any of the detailed tables, when added up, may not exactly be

equal to the figure shown against the “total” column (or line) due to (i) rounding off and/or

(ii) presence of non-response cases.

  • 1.7 Plan for Release of Results

1.7.1 It has been planned to bring out a series of eight reports on the basis of the employment

and unemployment survey results of NSS 66 th round. The present report – the seventh in the

series - deals with the estimates based on the data relating to the employment and

unemployment situation among major religious groups in India according to the usual activity

status(ps+ss). The report gives the results generated at the all-India level and some important

results for different States/Union Territories. In addition to these eight reports planned, a

document on Key Indicators of Employment and Unemployment in India, 2009-10 was

released in June 2011. Of the eight reports, Report no. 537 (Employment and Unemployment

Situation in India, 2009-10), Report no. 539 (Informal Sector and Conditions of Employment

in India), Report no. 543 (Employment and Unemployment Situation among Social Groups in

India), Report no. 548 (Home-based Workers in India), Report no. 550 (Participation of

Women in Specified Activities along with Domestic Duties), Report no. 551 (Status of

Education and Vocational Training in India) have already been released. The tentative title of

the remaining report planned to be released is ‘Employment and Unemployment situation in

Cities and Towns in India’.

Chapter Two

Chapter Two

Concepts and Definitions

Concepts and Definitions

  • 2.0 The concepts and definitions of some important terms used in the survey and relevant to

this report are explained in the following paragraphs.

  • 2.1 Household: A group of persons who normally lived together and took food from a

common kitchen constituted a household. The adverb “normally” means that temporary

visitors and guests (whose total period of stay in the household was expected to be less than 6

months) were excluded but temporary stay-aways (whose total period of absence from the

household was expected to be less than 6 months) were included. Thus a child residing in a

hostel for studies was excluded from the household of his/her parents, but a resident domestic

servant or paying guest (but not just a tenant in the house) was included in the

employer’s/host’s household. “Living together” was given more importance than “sharing

food from a common kitchen” in drawing the boundaries of a household in case the two

criteria were in conflict. However, in the special case of a person taking food with his family

but sleeping elsewhere (say, in a shop or a different house) due to shortage of space, the

household formed by such a person’s family members was taken to include the person also.

Each inmate of a hotel, mess, boarding-lodging house, hostel, etc., was considered to be a

single-member household except that a family living in a hotel (say) was considered one

household only. The same principle was applicable for the residential staff of such

establishments. The size of a household is the total number of persons in the household.

  • 2.2 Religious group: For each household surveyed, the reported religion of the head of the

household was considered as the religion of all the members of the household irrespective of

the actual religion followed by individual members. Seven known major religions viz.

Hinduism, Islam, Christianity, Sikhism, Jainism, Buddhism and Zoroastrianism were

explicitly considered for data collection as a part of the household characteristics. The

information recorded in this regard was based entirely on the response of the informant.

  • 2.3 Land possessed by the household as on date of survey: The area of land possessed

included land ‘owned’, ‘leased in’ and ‘land neither owned nor leased in’ (i.e. encroached) by

the household but excluded land 'leased out'. For a piece of land under the possession of the

household, if the household did not have the title of ownership and also did not have lease

agreement for the use of land transacted, either verbally or in writing, such land was

considered as ‘neither owned nor leased in’. In collecting information regarding land

possessed, the actual position as obtained on the date of survey was considered. The ‘area of

land possessed’ did not include the area of land owned, leased-in, etc. by the servants/paying

guests who were considered as normal members of the household.

  • 2.4 Land cultivated (including orchard and plantation) during July 2008-June 2009: Land

cultivated (including orchard and plantation) during the agricultural year 2008-2009, i.e., July

2008 to June 2009 was recorded considering cultivation of land from the land 'owned', 'land

leased-in' or from 'land neither owned nor leased-in'. Area with field crops and area under

orchards and plantations was counted only once in the same year/ season. It may be noted

that information on land owned, possessed or cultivated as described above was collected in

hectares up to 3 places of decimals.

Chapter Two

Concepts and Definitions

  • 2.5 Age (years): The age in completed years, as on the date of survey, of the household

members were recorded.

  • 2.6 General educational level: A person was considered as literate if he/she could both read

and write a simple message with understanding in at least one language. For all the

individuals who were found to be literate, the general level of education was collected in

terms of highest level of education successfully completed. Highest level of education

successfully completed by each member of the household was decided by considering his/

her all general/ technical/ vocational educational level and was recorded in terms of 12

categories viz. (i) not literate, (ii) literate without formal schooling: (a) Education Guarantee

Scheme (EGS)/Non-formal Education Courses (NFEC)/ Adult Literacy Centres (AEC), (b)

Total Literacy Campaign (TLC), (c) others; (iii) literate but below primary, (iv) middle, (v)

secondary, (vi) higher secondary, (vii) diploma/certificate course, (viii) graduate, and (ix)

postgraduate and above. The criterion for deciding primary, middle, secondary, etc. levels

were the same that has been followed in the concerned states/union territories. The category

‘diploma or certificate course’ meant diploma or certificate courses in general education,

technical education or vocational education, which is below graduation level. Diploma or

certificate courses in general education, technical education or vocational education, which is

equivalent to graduation level, was considered under the category ‘graduate’. Similarly,

diploma or certificate courses in general education, technical education or vocational

education, which is equivalent to post-graduation level and above were considered under the

category ‘post-graduate and above’.

  • 2.7 Status of current attendance in educational institution: Particulars of current attendance

in educational institution were recorded for persons of age below 30 years. It was first

ascertained whether the person was currently attending any educational institutions

(government or private) or not. For persons who were not currently attending any

educational institutions, reason for not attending viz. (i) school too far, (ii) to supplement

household income, (iii) education not considered necessary, (iv) to attend domestic chores,

and (v) others, was recorded. For those who were currently attending any educational

institution, the course of study pursued by them was recorded in terms of 23 categories viz.

(i) EGS/NFEC/AEC, (ii) TLC, (iii) pre-primary (nursery/Kinder garten, etc.), (iv) primary

(class I to IV/V), (v) middle, (vi) secondary, (vii) higher secondary, (viii) graduate in: (a)

agriculture, (b) engineering/technology, (c) medicine, (d) other subjects; (ix) post graduate

and above, (x) diploma or certificate (below graduate level) in: (a) agriculture, (b)

engineering/technology, (c) medicine, (d) crafts, (e) other subjects, (xi) diploma or certificate

(graduate level) in: (a) agriculture, (b) engineering/technology, (c) medicine, (d) crafts, (e)

other subject; (xii) diploma or certificate in post graduate and above level. Persons who

were registered for any regular correspondence courses or distance education courses for a

stipulated period at the end of which, were allowed to appear in the examination for the

course, was also considered as ‘currently attending’. Persons who were awaiting results were

also considered as ‘currently attending’.

  • 2.8 Economic activity: The entire spectrum of human activity falls into two categories –

economic activities and non-economic activities. Any activity resulting in production of

goods and services that add value to national product was considered as an economic activity

for the employment and unemployment survey. Such activities included production of all

goods and services for market (i.e. for pay or profit) including those of government services,

and, the production of primary commodities for own consumption and own account

production of fixed assets.

Chapter Two

Concepts and Definitions

2.8.1 The full spectrum of economic activities as defined in the UN system of National

Accounts was not covered in the definition adopted for the NSS 66 th round survey of

Employment and Unemployment. Production of any good for own consumption is considered

as economic activity by UN System of National Accounts but production of only primary

goods for own consumption was considered as economic activity by NSSO. While the former

considers activities like own account processing of primary products as economic activities,

in the NSS surveys, processing of primary products for own consumption was not considered

as economic activity.

  • 2.8.2 The term 'economic activity' as defined in the employment and unemployment survey

of NSS 66 th round, therefore, included:

  • (i) all the market activities performed for pay or profit which result in production of goods and services for exchange.

(ii) of the non-market activities,

(a) all the activities relating to the primary sector (i.e. industry Divisions 01 to 14 of

NIC-2004) which result in production (including free collection of uncultivated crops,

forestry, firewood, hunting, fishing, mining, quarrying, etc.) of primary goods for own

consumption

and

(b) activities relating to the own-account production of fixed assets, which include

production of fixed assets including construction of own houses, roads, wells, etc.,

and of machinery, tools, etc., for household enterprise and also construction of any

private or community facilities free of charge. A person may be engaged in own

account construction in the capacity of either a labourer or a supervisor.

As per the practice followed in earlier rounds, certain activities like prostitution, begging,

etc., which though fetched earnings, were not considered as economic activities. Activity

status of a person was judged irrespective of the situation whether such activity was carried

out illegally in the form of smuggling or not.

2.9 Activity status: During a reference period, a person could be in any one, or a combination

of, the following three broad activity statuses:

  • (i) working or being engaged in economic activity (work) as defined above,

(ii) being not engaged in economic activity (work) but either making tangible efforts to

seek 'work' or being available for 'work' if 'work' is available, and

(iii) being not engaged in any economic activity (work) and also not available for 'work'.

Broad activity statuses mentioned in (i) and (ii) above are associated with 'being in labour

force' and the last with 'not being in the labour force'. Within the labour force, broad activity

status (i) and (ii) were associated with 'employment' and ‘unemployment’, respectively.

Chapter Two

Concepts and Definitions

  • 2.9.1 In this report identification of each individual in terms of a unique activity status under

any one of the three broad activity statuses was done according to the usual status approach

by adopting major time criterion. Each of the three broad activity statuses was further sub-

divided into several detailed activity categories. If a person categorised as engaged in

economic activity by adopting the criteria mentioned above was found to be pursuing more

than one economic activity during the reference period, the appropriate detailed activity

status code was connected to that activity in which relatively long time had been spent. A

similar procedure was adopted for assigning detailed activity code for persons categorised as

engaged in non-economic activity and pursuing more than one non-economic activity.

  • 2.9.2 This report discusses various employment and unemployment indicators according to

usual status approach and as such the discussions of the concepts relevant for usual status

approach have only been made. The detailed activity statuses under each of the three broad

activity statuses (viz. ‘employed’, ‘unemployed’ and ‘not in labour force’) and the

corresponding codes used in usual status approach are given below:

code

description

working (or employed)

self-employed

  • 11 worked in household enterprises (self-employed) as own-account worker

  • 12 worked in household enterprises (self-employed) as an employer

  • 21 worked in household enterprises (self-employed) as helper

regular wage/ salaried employee

  • 31 worked as regular wage/salaried employee

casual labour

  • 41 worked as casual wage labour in public works

  • 51 worked as casual wage labour in other types of works

not working but seeking/available for work (or unemployed)

  • 81 sought work or did not seek but was available for work

neither working nor available for work (or not in labour force)

  • 91 attended educational institutions

  • 92 attended to domestic duties only

  • 93 attended to domestic duties and was also engaged in free collection of goods

(vegetables, roots, firewood, cattle feed, etc.), sewing, tailoring, weaving, etc. for

household use

  • 94 rentiers, pensioners, remittance recipients, etc.

  • 95 not able to work owing to disability

  • 97 others (including beggars, prostitutes, etc.)

  • 98 did not work owing to sickness (for casual workers only)

    • 99 children of age 0-4 years

Chapter Two

Concepts and Definitions

  • 2.10 Workers (or employed): Persons who were engaged in any economic activity or who,

despite their attachment to economic activity, abstained themselves from work for reason of

illness, injury or other physical disability, bad weather, festivals, social or religious functions

or other contingencies necessitating temporary absence from work, constituted workers.

Unpaid helpers who assisted in the operation of an economic activity in the household farm

or non-farm activities were also considered as workers. In the usual status relevant activity

status codes 11 to 51 were assigned for workers. Workers were further categorized as self-

employed (relevant activity status codes: 11, 12, 21), regular salaried/wage employee

(relevant activity status codes: 31), and casual wage labour (relevant activity status codes: 41

and 51).

  • 2.11 Seeking or available for work (or unemployed): Persons who, owing to lack of work,

had not worked but either sought work through employment exchanges, intermediaries,

friends or relatives or by making applications to prospective employers or expressed their

willingness or availability for work under the prevailing conditions of work and

remuneration, were considered as those ‘seeking or available for work’ (or unemployed). In

the usual status, activity status codes 81 were assigned for unemployed.

  • 2.12 Labour force: Persons who were either 'working' (or employed) or 'seeking or available

for work' (or unemployed) constituted the labour force. In the usual status, persons with

activity status codes 11 – 81 constituted the labour force.

  • 2.13 Not in labour force: Persons who were neither 'working' nor 'seeking or available for

work' for various reasons during the reference period were considered as 'not in labour force'.

Persons under this category are students, those engaged in domestic duties, rentiers,

pensioners, recipients of remittances, those living on alms, infirm or disabled persons, too

young persons, prostitutes, etc. and casual labourers not working due to sickness. Activity

status codes 91-95, 97 and 98 were assigned for persons belonging to category 'not in labour

force'. For the purpose of this report, status code 99 was assigned to children of age 0-4

years.

  • 2.14 Self-employed: Persons who operated their own farm or non-farm enterprises or were

engaged independently in a profession or trade on own-account or with one or a few partners

were treated as self-employed in household enterprises. The essential feature of the self-

employed is that they have autonomy (decide how, where and when to produce) and

economic independence (in respect of choice of market, scale of operation and finance) for

carrying out their operation. The remuneration of the self-employed consists of a non-

separable combination of two parts: a reward for their labour and profit of their enterprise.

The combined remuneration is wholly determined by the revenue from sales after netting out

value of purchased inputs used in production.

2.14.1 Categories of self-employed persons: Self-employed persons were categorised as

follows:

(i) own-account workers: those self-employed persons who operated their enterprises

on their own account or with one or a few partners and who, during the reference

period, by and large, ran their enterprise without hiring any labour. They could,

however, have had unpaid helpers to assist them in the activity of the enterprise;

Chapter Two

Concepts and Definitions

(ii) employers: those self-employed persons who worked on their own account or with

one or a few partners and, who, by and large, ran their enterprise by hiring labour; and

(iii) helpers in household enterprise: those self-employed persons (mostly family

members) who were engaged in their household enterprises, working full or part time

and did not receive any regular salary or wages in return for the work performed. They

did not run the household enterprise on their own but assisted the related person living

in the same household in running the household enterprise.

  • 2.15 Regular wage/salaried employee: These were persons who worked in others’ farm or

non-farm enterprises (both household and non-household) and, in return, received salary or

wages on a regular basis (i.e. not on the basis of daily or periodic renewal of work contract).

This category included not only persons getting time wage but also persons receiving piece

wage or salary and paid apprentices, both full time and part-time.

  • 2.16 Casual wage labour: A person who was casually engaged in others’ farm or non-farm

enterprises (both household and non-household) and, in return, received wages according to

the terms of the daily or periodic work contract, was a casual wage labourer.

  • 2.17 Public works: ‘Public works’ were those activities which were sponsored by

Government or Local Bodies, and which covered local area development works like

construction of roads, dams, bunds, digging of ponds, etc., as relief measures, or as an

outcome of employment generation schemes under the poverty alleviation programme such

as Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee (MGNREG) public works,

Sampoorna Grameen Rozgar Yojana (SGRY), National Food for Work Programme

(NFFWP), etc. The coverage of schemes under ‘public works’ was restricted to those

schemes through which the Government generated wage employment under poverty

alleviation programme, or relief measures. The types of works that were generally undertaken

through these schemes, were watershed development, drought proofing, land levelling, flood

control, laying pipes or cables, sanitation, water harvesting, irrigation canal, development of

orchard, road construction, building construction / repair, running crèche, etc. To distinguish

between ‘public works’ and works not classifiable as ‘public works’, some broad

characteristics of ‘public work’ were identified, viz. the primary objective is generation of

wage employment and poverty alleviation, and creation of community asset as an outcome in

achieving those main objectives.

2.18 Different approaches followed to determine activity status: The persons surveyed

were classified into various activity categories on the basis of the activities pursued by them

during certain specified reference periods. There were three reference periods for this survey.

These are: (i) one year (ii) one week and (iii) each day of the reference week. Based on these

three periods, three different measures of activity status are arrived at. These are termed

respectively as usual status, current weekly status and current daily status. In this report, the

various indicators of employment and unemployment have been presented in the usual status

approach. The procedure adopted to arrive at the usual status is elucidated below.

2.18.1 Usual principal activity status: The usual activity status relates to the activity status

of a person during the reference period of 365 days preceding the date of survey. The activity

status on which a person spent relatively long time (i.e. major time criterion) during the 365

days preceding the date of survey is considered as the usual principal activity status of the

person.

Chapter Two

Concepts and Definitions

To decide the usual principal activity of a person, first a two stage dichotomous classification

was followed for determining the broad usual principal activity status (employed or

unemployed or not in labour force) of the person. At the first stage, persons were first

categorised as those in the labour force (either employed or unemployed) and those not in the

labour force depending on the major time spent during the 365 days preceding the date of

survey. Persons thus adjudged as not belonging to the labour force were assigned the broad

activity status 'neither working nor available for work' (not in the labour force). At the

second stage, for persons belonging to the labour force, the broad activity status of either

'working' (employed) or ‘not working but seeking and/or available for work’ (unemployed)

was ascertained based on the same criterion viz. relatively long time spent in accordance with

either of the two broad statuses within the labour force during the 365 days preceding the

date of survey. Within the broad activity status so determined, the detailed activity status of

a person pursuing more than one such activity was determined once again on the basis of the

relatively long time spent on such activities. In terms of activity status codes, codes 11-51

were assigned to persons classified as workers and codes 91-97 to those not in the labour

force. In the usual status approach, a single code 81 was assigned to persons seeking or

available for work (unemployed persons) while two separate codes 81 (sought work) and 82

(did not seek but was available for work) were assigned to unemployed persons according to

current weekly status and current daily status approach.

2.18.2 Usual subsidiary economic activity status: A person whose usual principal status was

determined on the basis of the major time criterion could have pursued some economic

activity for a shorter time throughout the reference year of 365 days preceding the date of

survey or for a minor period, which is not less than 30 days, during the reference year. The

status in which such economic activity was pursued was the subsidiary economic activity

status of that person. Activity status codes 11 to 51 only were used for the subsidiary

economic activity performed by a person. It may be noted that engagement in work in

subsidiary capacity may arise out of the two following situations:

  • (i) a person may be engaged in a relatively long period during the last 365 days in some

economic (non-economic) activity and for a relatively minor period, which is not less

than 30 days (not necessarily for a continuous period), in another economic activity

(any economic activity). The economic activity, which was pursued for a relatively

minor period but not simultaneously with principal activity, was considered as his/her

subsidiary economic activity.

(ii) a person may be pursuing an economic activity (non-economic activity) almost

throughout the year in the principal status and also simultaneously pursuing another

economic activity (any economic activity) for a relatively short time in a subsidiary

capacity. The economic activity, which was pursued for a relatively short time, was

considered as his/her subsidiary economic activity.

2.18.3 Usual activity status considering principal and subsidiary status taken together: The

usual status, determined on the basis of the usual principal activity and usual subsidiary

economic activity of a person taken together, is considered as the usual activity status of the

person and is written as usual status (ps+ss). According to the usual status (ps+ss), workers

are those who perform some work activity either in the principal status or in the subsidiary

status. Thus, a person who is not a worker in the usual principal status is considered as

worker according to the usual status (ps+ss), if the person pursues some subsidiary economic

activity for 30 days or more during 365 days preceding the date of survey.

Chapter Two

Concepts and Definitions

2.19 Household type: On the basis of the sources of the household's income during the last

365 days preceding the date of survey, the household types were assigned. For this purpose,

only the household's income from economic activities was considered. The income of

servants and paying guests was not taken as the income of the household.

For the rural areas, household types were as follows:

self-employed in non-agriculture; agricultural labour; other labour; self-employed in

agriculture; others.

For urban areas, the household types were as follows:

self-employed; regular wage/salary earning; casual labour; others.

2.20 Manual work: A job essentially involving physical labour was considered manual work.

However, jobs essentially involving physical labour but also requiring a certain level of

general, professional, scientific or technical education were not termed as 'manual work'. On

the other hand, jobs not involving much of physical labour and at the same time not requiring

much educational (general, scientific, technical or otherwise) background were treated as

'manual work'. Thus, engineers, doctors, dentists, midwives, etc., were not considered manual

workers even though their jobs involved some amount of physical labour. But, peons,

chowkidars, watchman, etc. were considered manual workers even though their work might

not involve much physical labour. A few examples of manual workers are cooks, waiters,

building caretakers, sweepers, cleaners and related workers, launderers, dry cleaners and

pressers, hair dressers, barbers, beauticians, watchmen, gate keepers, agricultural labourers,

plantation labourers and related workers.

2.21 Rural labour: Manual labour working in agricultural and /or non-agricultural

occupations in return for wages paid either in cash or in kind (excluding exchange labour)

and living in rural areas, was taken as rural labour.

2.22 Agricultural labour: A person was considered as engaged as agricultural labour, if

he/she followed one or more of the following agricultural occupations in the capacity of a

wage paid manual labour, whether paid in cash or kind or both:

(i) farming,

(ii) dairy farming,

(iii) production of any horticultural commodity,

(iv) raising of livestock, bees or poultry,

(v) any practice performed on a farm as incidental to or in conjunction with farm

operations (including forestry and timbering) and the preparation for market and delivery

to storage or to market or to carriage for transportation to market of farm produce.

Working in fisheries was excluded from agricultural labour. Further, 'carriage for

transportation' referred only to the first stage of the transport from farm to the first place of

disposal.

Chapter Two

Concepts and Definitions

2.23 Wage paid-manual labour: A person who did manual work in return for wages in cash

or kind or partly in cash and partly in kind (excluding exchange labour) was considered as a

wage paid manual labour. Salaries were also counted as wages. A person who was self-

employed in manual work was not treated as a wage paid manual labour.

2.24 Procedure for collecting monthly per capita consumer expenditure (MPCE): For

collection of data on total expenditure of the household from employment and unemployment

schedule (Schedule 10), a worksheet was used in the Schedule 10 of the 66 th round. The

approximate value of consumer expenditure obtained through the worksheet has been used

for studying employment and unemployment characteristics by different levels of living of

the household members. The worksheet contained 36 different components of household

consumer expenditure. Depending upon the type of item, either of the two reference periods

viz,. 30 days and 365 days, was used to record consumption of different groups of items. The

items of consumption were classified into four groups and three different approaches viz (a)

consumption approach, (b) expenditure approach and (c) first-use approach, were followed

for defining consumption of items. The different groups were (i) food (other than ‘cooked

meals’), pan, tobacco & intoxicants and fuel & light, (ii) cooked meals, miscellaneous goods

and services including education, medical, rent, taxes and cess, (iii) clothing and footwear

and (iv) durable goods. The procedure followed for defining consumption of the four groups

were (i) consumption approach, (ii) expenditure approach, (iii) first-use approach and (iv)

expenditure approach, respectively. The definition of household consumer expenditure and

the procedure for evaluating that was the same for both Schedule 10 and Schedule 1.0

(Household Consumer Expenditure).

Chapter Two

Concepts and Definitions

2.25 Conceptual Framework of Key Employment and Unemployment Indicators

  • 2.25.1 Labour force participation rate (LFPR): LFPR is defined as the number of persons in

the labour force per 1000 persons.

  • 2.25.2 Worker Population Ratio (WPR): WPR defined as the number of persons employed

per 1000 persons.

  • 2.25.3 Proportion Unemployed (PU) : It is defined as the number of persons unemployed per

    • 1000 persons.

  • 2.25.4 Unemployment Rate (UR): UR is defined as the number of persons unemployed per

    • 1000 persons in the labour force (which includes both the employed and unemployed).

  • 2.25.5 Key employment-unemployment indicators are derived as follows:

activity profile

 

key indicators

 

activity

category of

 

status

persons

(code)

11, 12,

workers

 
  • 1. Labour

Force

Participation

Rate

(LFPR):

21, 31,

no . of employed persons no . of unemployed persons

* 1000

41, 51

 
 

total population

 
 
  • 2. Worker Population Ratio (WPR):

no of employed persons

.

* 1000

total population

  • 3. Proportion Unemployed (PU):

 

no of unemployed persons

.

* 1000

total population

  • 4. Unemployment Rate (UR):

 

no of unemployed persons

.

 

* 1000

no of employed persons

.

no of unemployed persons

.

Chapter Three Summary of Findings

3.1 Introduction

Chapter Three Summary of Findings

3.1.1 The National Sample Survey Office (NSSO), during the period July 2009 - June 2010, along with the collection of information on various facets of employment and unemployment in India, collected information on ‘household religion’ through the employment and unemployment schedule (Schedule 10) of 66 th round. The religion of the head of the household, as reported by the informant, was considered as the religion of the entire household irrespective of the actual religion followed by individual members. This chapter primarily deals with the broad indicators of employment and unemployment situation among persons following different religions viz. Hinduism, Islam, Christianity, Sikhism and the rest (Jainism, Buddhism, Zoroastrianism and others) referred to as ‘Others’. However, before studying their employment and unemployment situation, some broad indicators pertaining to household and population characteristics of the different religious groups have been discussed in this chapter. The estimates of key indicators have been given for all-India as well as for all the States/UTs. The discussion in the text is confined to the estimates of the major states and all-India estimates developed on the basis of data of all the states and union territories. Comparison with the earlier survey results has been presented at the all-India level only. All-India summary results have been presented along with the write-up and the corresponding results at the State/Union Territory level are given at the end of this chapter. The detailed tables showing the survey results at the all-India level are given in Appendix A.

3.1.2 The estimates of key employment and unemployment characteristics for different religious groups have been presented as ratios. It has been observed that compared to the census population or the projections thereof, population estimates of the surveys of NSSO are, in general, on the lower side. This difference may be mainly due to the differences between NSSO and Census Operations in methods and coverage adopted. However, the estimates of ratios obtained from the survey are expected to be reasonably reliable and to arrive at the estimate of an absolute number in any category, the users may apply the survey estimates of ratios to the census population or projections for that category. The estimates presented in the report, in general, refer to the mid-point of the survey period of the 66th round (July 2009 - June 2010), namely 01.01.2010. To arrive at the absolute number in any category, the survey estimates of ratios are to be applied to the census projected populations as on 01.01.2010 1 . The estimates of aggregates given in the detailed tables in Appendix A are to be used as weights to help combine ratios and should not be used as estimates of absolute numbers for a given characteristic. It may also be noted that as the tables are generally

1 In Appendix C, the Projected Population as on 1 st March 2009 and 1 st March 2010 supplied by RGI Office have been presented along with those projected for 1 st January 2010 using compound rate of growth. The projections have been given for, male and female, separately, for rural and urban for each State/UT.

Chapter Three Summary of Findings

presented as per thousand distributions, the figures are rounded off. Thus, while using the ratios from the survey results, it is to be noted that the accuracy of the derived aggregates will be limited to the number of significant digits available in the ratios presented in the report. The estimated aggregates, wherever possible, can be used to get ratios with more significant digits.

  • 3.1.3 It may be noted that the scope of the survey being all households without special focus on

religious groups, the sample sizes pertaining to the religious groups other than Hindus, Muslims, Christians and Sikhs were either small even at the all-India level or were concentrated only in a few states. Tables 0.1 and 0.2, appearing at the end of this Chapter, give the number of households and persons surveyed for the different religious groups in different States/UTs. It may be noted that the number of sample households for a particular religious group of a State/Union Territory may not be adequate in providing sufficiently reliable estimates of the various indicators and therefore, the estimates for the different religious groups for the States/Union Territories are to be used after taking due account of the sample number of households for different religious groups of the States/Union Territories. This caution is sounded upfront for the interpretation of state level results for religious groups.

  • 3.1.4 In the 66th round of NSSO, Schedule 10 was canvassed in 12,654 FSUs (7,402 villages and

5,252 urban blocks) and the total number of households surveyed at the all-India level was 1,00,957 (59,129 in rural areas and 41,828 in urban areas). The number of sample households for the religious groups Hindus, Muslims, Christians, Sikhs and ‘Others’ were 45559, 6462, 4254, 1382 and 1458 respectively, in rural areas and 31390, 5977, 2694, 771 and 987 respectively, in urban areas. The number of persons surveyed for Schedule 10 in NSS 66 th round was 4,59,784 (2,81,327 in rural areas and 1,78,457 in urban areas). The number of sample persons for the religious groups Hindus, Muslims, Christians, Sikhs and ‘Others’ were 213672, 33492, 20334, 6886 and 6891 respectively, in rural areas and 129527, 29884, 11254, 3448 and 4304 respectively, in urban areas. Households following religions other than Hinduism, Islam, Christianity, Sikhism have been combined together under the category ‘Others’.

  • 3.1.5 The major states are those with population one crore 2 or more as per population Census 2001

in respect of each of rural and urban sectors. As per Census 2001, there are 20 states whose rural population is more than 1 crore and there are 21 states whose urban population is more than 1 crore. Accordingly, 20 states have been considered as major states for rural areas and 21 states have been considered as major states for urban areas. The major states, as per this criterion, are Andhra Pradesh, Assam, Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Gujarat, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu & Kashmir, Jharkhand, Karnataka, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Odisha, Punjab, Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand, West Bengal and urban Delhi.

2 10 million = 1 crore

3.2 Households and Population

Chapter Three Summary of Findings

  • 3.2.1 Distribution of households and population by religious group

3.2.1.1 Statement 3.1 gives per thousand distributions of households by major religious groups separately for rural and urban areas at the all-India level. The corresponding figures for State/UTs

Statement 3.1: Per 1000 distribution of households by major religious groups in NSS 55 th (1999-2000), 61 st (2004-05) and 66 th (2009-10) rounds all-India

NSS round (year)

 

household religion

 

Hinduism

Islam

Christianity

Sikhism

Others

all

 

(incl. n.r.)

 

rural

66 th round (2009-10)

844

107

23

17

10

1000

61 st round

(2004-05)

843

104

24

18

11

1000

55 th