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1 SUMMARY OF DESIGN PROCESS

4.8.2 SUMMARY OF DESIGN PROCESS


The design process for a beam can be summarised as follows:
1. determination of design shear forces, Fv, and bending moments, M, at critical
points on the element (see Chapter 2);
2. selection of UB or UC;
3. classification of section;
4. check shear strength; if unsatisfactory return to (2);
5. check bending capacity; if unsatisfactory return to (2);
6. check deflection; if unsatisfactory return to (2);
7. check web bearing and buckling at supports or concentrated load; if unsatisfactory
provide web stiffener or return to (2);
8. check lateral torsional buckling (section 4.8.11); if unsatisfactory return to (2) or
provide lateral and torsional restraints;
9. summarise results.

2 STRUCTURAL METHODS OF DESIGN


For steel structures three principal methods of design are identied in clause 2.1.2 of
BS 5950:

2.1 Simple design.


Simple design. The structure is regarded as having pinned joints, and signicant
moments are not developed at connections (Fig. 4.3(a) ). The structure is prevented
from becoming a mechanism by appropriate bracing using shear walls for instance.
This apparently conservative assumption is a very popular method of design.

2.2 Continuous design.


Continuous design. The joints in the structure are assumed to be able to fully
transfer the forces and moments in the members which they attach (Fig. 4.3(b) ).
Analysis of the structure may be by elastic or plastic methods, and will be more
complex than simple design. However the increasing use of micro-computers has
made this method more viable. In theory a more economic design can be achieved
by this method, but unless the joints are truly rigid the analysis will give an upper
bound (unsafe) solution.

2.3 Semi-continuous design


Semi-continuous design. The joints in the structure are assumed to have some
degree of strength and stiffness but not provide complete restraint as in
the case of continuous design. The actual strength and stiffness of the joints should
be determined experimentally. Guidance on the design of semicontinuous frames
can be found in the following

2.4 References
Steel Construction Institute publications:

(i)
(ii)

Wind-moment Design of Unbraced CompositeFrames, SCI-P264, 2000.


Design of Semi-continuous Braced Frames,SCI-P183, 1997.

Design Criteria

3.1 Structural Steel Classification


Structural steel shall be categorised according to the application and the
consequence of failure, as
follows:
3.1.1 Primary Structural Steel
Primary structural steel is used in members essential to the overall integrity of the
structure, and for
other structural members of importance to the operational safety of the structure.
Primary structural
steel shall include the following:
Main Truss Framing (including Chords.)
Primary Support Beams.
Main Equipment Supporting Members
Lift Trunnions and Padeyes.
Crane Pedestals
Primary steel materials (predominantly Grades S355) shall comply with BS EN
10225: 2001 Spec. for Weldable Structural Steels for Fixed Offshore Structures
and shall be fabricated in accordance with EEMUA 158.
3.1.2 Secondary Structural Steel
Secondary structural steel is used in members whose contribution to the integrity of
the structure as a whole is not significant. Secondary structural steel shall include the
following:
Floor Stringers and Stiffeners.
Floor Plate.
Pipe Racks/Supports.
Secondary steel materials (Grades S355) shall comply with BS EN 10225: 2001
Spec. for Weldable Structural Steels for Fixed Offshore Structures and shall be
fabricated in accordance with EEMUA 197.