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Applications of Kohlrausch Law

1-Calculation of molar conductivity of a weak electrolyte at
infinite dilution
It is not possible to determine the value of ∧∞m for weak electrolytes since we cannot
obtain the limiting value of the molar conductivity for a weak electrolyte. This is done
indirectly by the molar ionic conductance for the individual ions of the weak
electrolyte as follows:
For e.g. molar conductance of acetic acid at infinite dilution can be calculated from
the molar conductance at infinite dilution of hydrochloric acid, sodium acetate and
sodium chloride as follows:
∧0 HCl = λH+ + λ Cl- --------------(1)
∧0 CH3COONa = λ0 Na+ + λ0 CH3COO- ---------------(2)
∧0 NaCl = λ0 Na++ λ0 Cl- -------------- (3)
Add eq. 1 and 2 and subtract 3 we get:
∧0 HCl + ∧0 CH3COONa - ∧0 NaCl = λ0 H+ + λ0 Cl- + λ0 Na+ + λ0 CH3COO- - λ0
Na+ - λ0Cl
Example
The limiting molar conductivities of KCl, KNO3, and AgNO3 are 14.99 mSm2mol-1,
14.50 mSm2mol-1and 13.34 mSm2mol-1 respectively at 25°C. Calculated the
limiting molar conductivity of AgCl at this temperature?
Solution
∧0 AgCl= ∧0 KCl + ∧0 AgNO3 - ∧0 KNO3
=(14.99+13.34-14.5) mSm2mol-1
= 13.83 mSm2mol-1

2- Calculation of Degree of Dissociation of Weak Electrolytes
The degree of dissociation of weak electrolyte such as NH4OH, acetic acid can be
determined by measuring the molar conductivity Λ, of the solution of the electrolyte
at any given dilution. For e.g. the degree of dissociation (α) of a weak electrolyte at
the concentration C mole per liter may be given by the following relation:

α = ∧/∧0

Where, Λ is the equivalent conductance of electrolyte at any concentration and Λ0 is
the equivalent conductance of the same electrolyte at infinite dilution. Hence,
measurement of Λ permits evaluation of ‘α’ if Λ0 is known.
Let us consider dissociation of acetic acid:
CH3COOH+H2O==CH3COO-+H3O+
(1- α)C

αC

αC

Where C is the equivalent concentration .Dissociation constant is represents as
following:
KC=[ H3O+][ CH3COO-]/[ CH3COOH ]
KC=(αC)( αC)/ (1-α)C
KC = α2C/1-α
KC = (∧/∧0)2/1-(∧/∧0)
ΛC=KCΛ02/Λ-KCΛ0
By plotting this equation,KC can be calculated.

Example
Equivalent conductance of 0.001028 N acetic acid solution is 48.15 ohm-1cm2 and
390.6 ohm-1cm2 of infinite diluted solution. Calculate the degree of dissociation.

Solution
α=Λ/Λ0
α=48.15 ohm-1cm2 /390.6 ohm-1cm2
α=0.1232
KC = α2C/1- α
KC=(0.1232)(0.001028)/(1-0.1232)
=1.781x10-5

3- Determination of Solubility of Sparingly Soluble Salts

Salts like AgCl, BaSO4, CaCO3, Ag2CrO4, PbSO4, PbS, Fe(OH)3 etc. are ordinarily
regarded as sparingly soluble and have a very small but definite solubility in water.
The solubility of such sparingly soluble salts is obtained by determining the specific
conductivity (κ) of a saturated salt solution.
AgCl ⇌ Ag+ + ClAssume concentration of solid is a constant.
Concentration of Ag+= concentration of Cl- = C
 Ksp = [Ag+aq] [Cl-aq]
Ksp = C2
The measurement of the specific conductivity, κ of the saturated solution leads to a
value of the concentration.
C = κ / Λ0

i.e.

or

S= κ / Λ0

i.e C is the solubility(S).Units of S is the same of that C,equi.cm3
As, Ksp = C2
Ksp = (κ / Λ0)2
Example
Specific conductivity of saturated AgCl solution at 25oC is 3.41x10-6 ohm-1cm-1,while
the specific conductance of water that used as solvent is 1.6x10-6 ohm-1cm-1.Calculate
the solubility of AgCl in .water at this temperature in units of mol L-1.Given that
equivalent conductance of infinite diluted AgCl solution is 138.3 equi ohm-1 cm2.
Solution
κAgCl= κsolution- κwater
=3.41x10-6 ohm-1cm-1-1.6x10-6 ohm-1cm-1
=1.81x10-6 ohm-1cm-1
As AgCl is 1:1 electrolyte
S = κ / Λ0
=(1.81x10-6 ohm-1cm-1)/ (138.3 equi ohm-1 cm2)
=1.31x10-8 equi-1 cm-3
=1.31x10-5 equi-1 L-1

4- Determination of ionic product of water

With the help of specific conductivity of water, the ionic product of water can be
determined. The ionization of water may be represented as,
H2O H+ + OHThe product of the concentrations of H+ and OH– ions expressed in mol/L is called
ionic product of water and is represented by Kw.
[H+] [OH-] = Kw
The measured specific conductivity of the purest form of water is 0.055 x 10-6 S cm-1.
The molar conductance is given by
Λm = Kv x 18
Thus, = 0.055 x 10-6 x 18
= 0.990 x 10-6 Scm2mol-1
The molar conductance of water at infinite dilution can be obtained by
∧∞m (H2O) = Λ (H+) + Λ (OH-)
Therefore, Λ∞ (H2O) = 349.8 + 198.5 = 548.30 Scm2mol-1
and for water, α = Λm / Λ∞
= 0.055 x 10-3 x 18/ 548.3
CH+= COH= 0.055 x 10-3 x 18/ 548.3
(Concentration of water = 1000/18 = 55.55 M
CH+= COH= α x 55.55 x 10-9
= 1.806 x 55.55 = 1.003 x 10-7
Kw = (1.003 x 10-7)
= (1.006 x 10-14)
6- Determination of Ionic Mobility of an Ion
Hypothesis a solution contains C equi of 1:1 electrolyte. the applied voltage is E
,volt.cm-1.The passing current is:
I=E/R
If the electrolyte is strong=C++C- .The cation cross U+ distance in sec toward cathode
and anions cross U- distance in sec toward anode.i.e

C+U+ equivalents of cations move to cathode and C- U- equivalents of anions move to
anode. The total equivalent concentrations that move toward two electrodes is(C+ U+)(
C- U-) .The total current is represents as:
L=F(C+ U+ + C-U-)
L=CF(U+ +U-)
Λ=L/C=F(U+ +U-)
Λ=F(U+ +U-)
Λ= λ++ λF U+ = λ+
FU+ =+ λExample
Calculate the specific conductance of 0.1 NaCl solution at 250C given that ionic
mobilities of sodium and chloride ions are 42.6 x10-5 and 68x10-5 volt-1 cm2 sec-1
respectively.
Solution
C=0.1/1000=0.0001 equi cm3
L=CF(U+ +U-)
=(0.0001 equi cm3)(96500 C equi-1)[42.6 x10-5 volt-1 cm2 sec-1+68x10-5 volt-1 cm2
sec-1]
=0.01067 ohm-1 cm-1
6- Determination of hydrolysis constant of salts
When aniline chloride is dissolved in water ,it is hydrolysis as following:
C6H5NH3Cl==== C6H5NH3++ClC6H5NH3++H2O==== C6H5NH2+H3O+
(1- α)C

αC

αC

Where is the hydrolysis degree and C is the salt equivalent concentration, thus:
Λs=(1- α) ΛC +αΛa+α Λb

Where S,C,a,and b are a salt,concentration,acid and base respectively. Where a is HCl
and base is aniline. While equivalent conductance of weak base is too small ,so it cam
be negligible.
Λs=(1- α) ΛC +αΛa

α= (Λs- ΛC)/ Λa- ΛC
ΛC can be determined from measurements of equivalent conductance of aniline
chloride dissolved in aniline. The aniline is a weak base ,so it retarded the dissolution
of salt and ΛC is somewhat equal of equivalent conductance of non decomposed salt..
while Λa is determined from ionic conductance of its ions.
The hydrolysis constant(Kh) of aniline chloride can be represents as following:
Kh=[ H3O+][ C6H5NH2]/ [C6H5NH3+]
Kh=(αC) (αC)/(1-α)C
Kh=α2C/1-α
Kh can be used to calculation of decomposition constant of base(Kb) as following:
Kh=Kw/Kb
Where Kw is a ion product of water.