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Bibliographical Abbreviations

The following list is in no sense a comprehensive, or even a selective,

bibliography of writings on Copernicus. It is restricted to those works
referred to or consulted in the course of this study, and a few additional
introductory works that are of interest, for example, Dreyer (1906),
Pannekoek (1947-48), Armitage (1957), and Kuhn (1957). There are some
large bibliographies concerning Copernicus. Surely the most extensive is
H. Baranowski, Bibliografia kopernikowska (Warsaw, 1958), which covers
the period 1509 to 1955 and, at nearly 4000 entries in over 400 pages, is not
a little daunting. Baranowski has published continuations for 1956-71
(Warsaw, 1973) and 1972-75 (Studia Copernicana 17, 1977), the latter
containing the deluge of publications provoked by the 500th anniversary
commemorations of 1973. Somewhat more manageable are the bibliographies for 1939-58 and 1959-70 in Rosen (1971), which contain short
descriptions showing that few of the nearly 1100 publications need be read.
Aaboe, A. 1955. On the Babylonian Origin of Some Hipparchian Parameters. Centaurus
4 (1955-56), 122-25.
Abbud, F. 1962. The Planetary Theory of Ibn al-Sharir: Reduction of the Geometric
Models to Numerical Tables. Isis 53, 492-99.
AHES. Archive for History of Exact Sciences.
AIHS. Archives internationales d'histoire des sciences.
Alfonso X. 1492. Tabule astronomice Alfonsi Regis. Venice. Copernicus's copy:
Uppsala Univ. Bib!. 34.VII.65.
1518/21. Tabule Astronomice Divi Alfonsi Regis Romanorum et Castelle. Venice.
Almagest. See Ptolemy.
Almagesti minoris libri VI. Niirnberg Stadtbib!. MS Cent. VI,12, if. 1-66. Copy by
Amico, G. B. 1536. De motibus corporum coeJestium iuxta principia peripatetica sine
eccentricis et epicyclis. Venice.
Apianus, P. 1534. Instrumentum primi mobilis. Nuremberg. Contains also liibir (1534).
Armitage, A. 1957. Copernicus, the Founder of Modern Astronomy. New York.
AI-Battiim. 1537. De motu stellarum. Trans. Plato of Tivoli. Nuremberg. Contains also
al-Farghiini (1537). See also Nallino.
Benjamin, F. S. and G. l. Toomer. 1971. Campanus of Novara and Medieval Planetary
Theory. Madison.

Bibliographical Abbreviations


Bialas, V. 1973. Die Planetenbeobachtungen des Copernicus; Zur Genauigkeit der

Beobachtungen und ihrer Funktion in seinem Weltsystem. Philosophia Naturalis

Birkenmajer, A. 1972. Le huit du cavalier d'Eudoxe et la couronne tordue de Copernic.

SC 4, 659-73.
Birkenmajer, L. A. 1900. Mikolaj Kopernik. Cracow.
Biskup M. 1973. Regesta Copernicana (Calendar of Copernicus' Papers). SC 8.
1977. Biography and Social Background of Copernicus. SC 17, 137-52.
Biskup, M. and J. Dobrzycki. 1972. Copernicus, Scholar and Citizen. Warsaw.
Brahe, T. 1913-29. Tychonis Brahe Dani Opera omnia, ed. I. L. E. Dreyer. 15 vols.,
1946. Tycho Brahe's Description of his Instruments and Scientific Work as given in
Astronomiae Instauratae Mechanicae. Trans. and ed. H. Raeder, E. Stromgren,
B. Stromgren. Copenhagen.
Braunmuhl, A. von. 1900. Vorlesungen uber Geschichte der Trigonometrie I. Leipzig.
Burmeister, K. H. 1967-68. Georg Joachim Rheticus, 1514-1574, Eine Bio-Bibliographie. 3 vols. Wiesbaden.
1969. Georg Joachim Rheticus as a geographer and his contribution to the first map
of Prussia. Imago Mundi 23, 73-76.
Caraci, G. 1927. Heinrich Zell, G. Gastaldi und einige der iiitesten Karten von Deutschland. Petermanns Mitteilungen 73, 200-05, Tafel XII.
Cardano, H. 1563. Opera. Lyons.
Carmody, F. J. 1960. The Astronomical Works of Thabit b. Qurra. Berkeley and Los
Carra de Vaux. 1893. Les spheres celestes selon Nasir-Eddin Attiisi. Appendice VI in
P. Tannery. Recherches sur l'histoire de l'astronomie ancienne. Paris.
Censorinus. 1867. De die natali liber, ed. F. Huitsch, Leipzig.
Copernicus, N. Commentariolus. See Prowe (1883-84), Curtze (1878), (1882), Lindhagen (1881), Muller (1899), Rossmann (1948), Zinner (1951), Rosen (1971),
Swerdlow (1973), Hugonnard-Roche, Rosen, Verdet (1975).
1542. De lateribus et angulis triangulorum. Wittenberg.
1543. De revolutionibus orbium coelestium libri VI. Nuremberg. Repr. Paris, 1927;
Turin-Amsterdam, 1943; Leipzig, New York-London, 1965; Brussels, 1966.
1566. Nicolai Copernici Torinensis de revolutionibus orbium caelestium, Libri VI.
Basel. Repr. Prague, 1971.
1617. Astronomia instaurata, Libris sex comprehensa, qui de Revolutionibus orbium
coelestium inscribuntur. Ed. N. Muler, Amsterdam.
1873. Nicolai Copernici Thorunensis De revolutionibus orbium caelestium libri
VI ... Accedit Georgii Ioachim Rhetici de libris revolutionum Narratio prima.
1879. Uber die Kreisbewegungen der Weitkorper. Ubers. u. mit Anmerk. von C. L.
Menzzer. Thorn. Repr. Leipzig, 1939.
1944. Nikolaus Kopernikus Gesamtausgabe I, Opus de revolutionibus caelestibus
manu propria, Faksimile-Wiedergabe. Munich-Berlin.
1949. Nikolaus Kopernikus Gesamtausgabe II, De revolutionibus orbium caelestium,
Textkritische Ausgabe Ed. F. Zeller, K. Zeller. Munich.
1952. On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres. Trans. C. G. Wallis. Great
Books of the Western World 16. Chicago, etc.

Bibliographical Abbreviations


1959. Uber die Kreisbewegungen der We1tk6rper. Ed. G. Kraus, comm. A. Birkenmajer. Berlin. 1,1-11 in Menzzer's translation.
1973. Nicolai Copernici opera omnia I, De revolutionibus, codicis propria auctoris
manu scripti imago phototypa, prolegomenis instruxit: G. Zathey. WarsawCracow.
1975. Nicolai Copernici opera omnia II, De revolutionibus libri sex. Ed. R. Gansiniec,
J. Domanski, J. Dobrzycki, comm. A. Birkenmajer, J. Dobrzycki. WarsawCracow.
1976. On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres. Trans. A. M. Duncan with
introduction and notes. Newton Abbot-London-Vancouver, New York.
1978. Nicolas Copernicus. On the Revolutions, ed. J. Dobrzycki, trans. and comm.
E. Rosen. Warsaw-Cracow.
See also Koyre (1970).
Curtze, M. 1874. ReJiquiae Copernicanae I & II. ZMP 19, 76-82,432-58.
1875. Reliquiae Copernicanae III. ZMP 20,221-48.
1878. Inedita Copernicana. MCVT 1.
1882. Erganzungen zu den "Inedita Copernicana." MCVT 4,1-9.
Czartoryski, P. 1978. The Library of Copernicus. SC 16,355-96.
Czwalina, A. 1959. Ptolemaeus, die Bahnen der Planeten Venus und Merkur. Centaurus
6, 1-35.
Delambre, J. B. J. 1817. Histoire de I'astronomie ancienne. 2v. Paris.
1819. Histoire de I'astronomie du Moyen Age. Paris.
1821. Histoire de I'astronomie moderne. 2v. Paris.
Devreesse, R. 1965. Le Fonds Grec de la Biblioteque Vaticane des Origines a Paul V.
Studi e Testi 244, Citta del Vaticano.
Dobrzycki, J. 1963. Katalog gwiazd w De revolutionibus. Studia i Materialy z Dziejow
Nauki Polskiej, C 7, 109-53.
1965. Theoria Precesji w Astronomii Sredniowiecznej. Studia i Materialy z Dziejow
Nauki Polskiej, C 11,3-47.
See also Biskup and Dobrzycki (1972), Copernicus (1975), (1978).
Doppelmayr, J. G. 1730. Historische Nachricht von den Niirnbergischen Mathematicis
und Kiinstlern. Nuremberg.
Dreyer, J. L. E. 1890. Tycho Brahe. A Picture of Scientific Life and Work in the Sixteenth
Century. Edinburgh. Repr. New York, 1963.
1906. History of Planetary Systems from Thales to Kepler. Cambridge. Repr. as
A History of Astronomy from Thales to Kepler. New York, 1953.
See also Brahe (1913-29).
DSB. Dictionary of Scientific Biography.
Eusebius. 1483. Chronicon. Trans. Jerome. Venice.
1529. Chronicon. Trans. Jerome. Basel.
AI-Farghani. 1537. Rudimenta astronomica. Trans. John of Seville. Nuremberg.
Contains :llso al-Battani (1537).
Folkerts, M. 1976. Johann Werner. DSB 14,272-77.
Gingerich, O. 1971. The Theory of Mercury from Antiquity to Kepler. Actes de XII
Congres International d'histoire des sciences III A, 57-64.


Bibliographical Abbreviations

1973. The Role of Erasmus Reinhold and the Prutenic Tables in the Dissemination
of Copernican Theory. SC 6, 43--62, 123-25.
1975. Remarks on Copernicus's Observations. In Westman (1975), 99-107.
1978. Early Copernican Ephemerides. SC 16,403-17.
1981. An Early Tradition of an Extended Errata List for Copernicus's "De Revolutionibus." JHA 12,47-52.
Goldstein, B. R. 1964. On the Theory of Trepidation according to Thabit b. Qurra and
al-Zarqallu and its implications for homocentric planetary theory. Centaurus 10,
1967. The Arabic Version of Ptolemy's Planetary Hypotheses. Trans. Amer. Philos.
Soc. N.S. 57,4.
1977. Ibn Mucadh's Treatise on Twilight and the Height of the Atmosphere. AHES 17,
Goldstein, B. R. and F. W. Sawyer. 1977. Remarks on Ptolemy's Equant Model in
Islamic Astronomy. Appendix: On Ptolemy'S Determination of the Apsidal Line
for Venus. TIPIEMATA. Festschrift fUr Willy Hartner. Ed. Y. Maeyama and
G. Saltzer. Wiesbaden. 165-81.
Goldstine, H. H. 1973. New and Full Moons 1001 B.c. to A.D. 1651. Memoirs Amer.
Philos. Soc. 94. Philadelphia.
Grafton, A. 1973. Michael Maestlin's Account of Copernican Planetary Theory. Proc.
Amer. Philos. Soc. 117,523-50.
HAMA. See Neugebauer (1975).
Hamann, G. ed. 1980. Regiomontanus-Studien. Sitz. d. ost. Akad. d. Wiss., phil-hist.
Kl. 364. Vienna.
Harrassowitz, O. pub!, 1971. Deutsche Buchdrucker des fiinfzehnten Jahrunderts.

Hartner, W. 1955 The Mercury Horoscope of Marcantonio Michie! of Venice: A Study

in the History of Renaissance Astrology and Astronomy. Vistas in Astronomy 1,
84-138. Also in Hartner (1968), 440-95.
1964. Medieval Views on Cosmic Dimensions and Ptolemy's Kitab al-Manshiirat.
Melanges Alexandre Koyre. Paris. I, 254-82. Also in Hartner (1968), 319--48.
1968. Oriens-Occidens. Ausgewahlte Schriften. Hildesheim.
1969. Nasir ai-Din al-Tiisi's Lunar Theory. Physis 11,287-304.
1974a. Ptolemy, Azarquiel, Ibn al-Sha!ir, and Copernicus on Mercury. A Study of
Parameters. AIHS 24,5-25.
1974b. Ptolemy'S and Copernicus' Mercury Models. An Accuracy Test. AIHS 24,
1980. Ptolemaische Astronomie im Islam und zur Zeit des Regiomontanus. In
Hamann (1980), 109-24.
Heiberg, J. L. See Ptolemy, 1898, 1903, 1907.
Henderson, J. A. 1973. On the Distances between Sun, Moon, and Earth according to
Ptolemy, Copernicus and Reinhold. Yale University Dissertation.
1975. Erasmus Reinhold's Determination of the Distance of the Sun from the Earth.
In Westman (1975), 108-29.
Herz, N. 1887-94. Geschichte der Bahnbestimmung von Planeten und Kometen. 2v.
1897. Allgemeine Einleitung in die Astronomie. In W. Valentiner, Handworterbuch
der Astronomie. 3v. in 4. Breslau. I, 1-163.

Bibliographical Abbreviations


Hill, G. W. 1900. Ptolemy's Problem. AstronomicaUournal2l, 33-35. Also in Collected

Mathematical Works 4 (1907), 207-11.
Hipler, F. 1876. Die Chorographie des Joachim Rheticus. ZMP. Hist.-lit. Abteil. 21,
Hom, W. 1951. Sebastian Miinster's Map of Prussia and its Variants. Imago Mundi 7,
Hugonnard-Roche, H., E. Rosen, J.-P. Verdet. 1975. Introductions a l'astronomie
Copernic. Paris.
Hugonnard-Roche, H. and J.-P. Verdet. 1982. Rheticus, Narratio prima. Ed. crit.,
trad. franc. et comm. SC 20.
Jiibir Ibn Afla~. 1534. Gebri Filii AIDa Hispalensis, de astronomia libri IX. Nuremberg.
Contained in Apianus (1534).
Jarzebowski, L. 1971. Biblioteka Mikolaja Kopernika. Torun.
JHA. Journal for the History of Astronomy.
JHAS. Journal for the History of Arabic Science.
Kamienski, M. 1963. Obserwacje Kopernika w Swietle Astronomii Wspolczesnej.
Studia i Materialy z Dziejow Nauki Polskiej. Seria C, Z. 7, 85-108.
Kennedy, E. S. 1966. Late Medieval Planetary Theory. Isis 57, 365-78.
1983. Studies in the Islamic Exact Sciences. Beirut.
Kennedy, E. S. and I. Ghanem. 1976. The Life and Work of Ibn al-Shiitir. An Arab
Astronomer of the Fourteenth Century. Aleppo.
Kennedy, E. S. and V. Roberts. 1959. The Planetary Theory of Ibn al-Shiitir. Isis 50,
Kepler, J. 1858-71. Opera omnia. Ed. Ch. Frisch. 8v. in 9. Frankfurt-Erlangen.
1937-. Gesammelte Werke. Munich.
Kesten, H. 1945. The World of Copernicus. Trans. from German by E. B. Ashton and
M. Guterman. New York.
AI-Khwiirizmi. See Suter (1914), Neugebauer (1962).
King, D. A. 1975. Ibn al-Shiitir. DSB 12, 357-64.
Koestler, A. 1959. The Sleepwalkers, a History of Man's Changing Vision of the
Universe. New York.
Koyre, A. 1961. La revolution astronomique. Paris.
1970. Des Revolutions des Orbes Celestes. Paris. Trans. of De rev. 1,1-11 with
intro. and notes.
Kremer, R. L. 1980. Bernard Walther's Astronomical Observations. JHA 11, 174-91.
1981. The Use of Bernard Walther's Astronomical Observations: Theory and
Observation in Early Modern Astronomy. JHA 12, 124-32.
1983. Walther's Solar Observations: A Reply to R. R. Newton. Quarterly Journal of
the Royal Astronomical Society 24,36--47.
Kuhn, T. S. 1957. The Copernican Revolution, Planetary Astronomy in the Development of Western Thought. Cambridge, Mass.
Langermann, T. 1979. Ibn al-Haytham's Hay'at al-'iilam. Harvard University Dissertation.
Lindhagen, A. 1881. Nicolai Copernici de hypothesibus motuum coelestium a se
constitutis commentariolus. Bihang till K. Svenska Vet. Akad. Handlinger,
Band 6 N:o 12.
List, M. 1978. Marginalien zum Handexemplar Keplers von Copernicus: De revolutionibus orbium coelestium (Nurnberg, 1543). SC 16,443-60.


Bibliographical Abbreviations

Manitius, K. See Ptolemy (1912-13).

MCVT. Mitteilungen des Coppernicus-Vereins fUr Wissenschaft und Kunst zu Thorn.
Menzzer, C. L. See Copernicus (1879).
Millas Vallicrosa, J. M. 1942. Las traducciones orientales en los manuscritos de la
Biblioteca Catedral de Toledo. Madrid.
1943-50. Estudios sobre Azarquiel. Madrid-Granada.
Moesgaard, K. P. 1968. The 1717 Egyptian Years and the Copernican Theory of
Precession. Centaurus 13, 120-38.
1974. Success and Failure in Copernicus' Planetary Theory. AIHS 24, 73-111, 243318.
1974a. Thiibit Ibn Qurra between Ptolemy and Copernicus: An Analysis of Thiibit's
Solar Theory. AHES 12, 199-216.
Muller, A. 1899. Nicolai Copernici de hypothesi bus motuum coelestium a se constitutis
commentariolus. Zeitschrift fur die Geschichte und Altertumskunde Ermlands 12,
Muller, Johannes of Konigsberg. See Regiomontanus.
Nallino, C. A. 1899-1907. AI-Battiini sive al-Battenii Opus Astronomicum. Pubblicazioni del Reale Osservatorio di Brera in Milano 40, 3v. Milan. See also al-Battiini
Neugebauer, O. 1962. The Astronomical Tables of al-Khwiirizml. Hist. Filos. Skr.
Dan. Vid. Se1sk. 4, no. 2. Copenhagen. See also Suter (1914).
1962a. Thiibit ben Qurra "On the Solar Year" and "On the Motion of the Eighth
Sphere." Proc. Amer. Philos. Soc. 106,264-99.
1968. On the Planetary Theory of Copernicus. Vistas in Astronomy 10,89-103.
1968a. Three Copernican Tables. Centaurus 12,97-106.
1975. A History of Ancient Mathematical Astronomy (HAMA). 3 pts. SpringerVerlag, Berlin-Heidelberg-New York.
Neugebauer, O. and D. Pingree. 1971. The Pancasiddhiintikii of Variihamihira. Hist.
Filos. Skr. Dan. Vid. Selsk. 6,1. 2 pts. Copenhagen.
Neugebauer, P. V. Tafe1n zur astronomischen Chronologie. Leipzig:
1912. I Sterntafeln von 4000 v. Christ bis zur Gegenwart.
1914. II. Tafeln fUr Sonne, Planeten und Mond.
1922. III. Hilfstafeln zur Berechnung von Himmelserscheinungen.
1929. Astronomische Chronologie. 2v. Berlin-Leipzig.
1938. Tafeln zur Berechnung der jahrlichen Auf- und Untergange der Planeten
zwischen .i\quator und 40 nordlicher und sudlicher Breite. Astronomische
Nachrichten 264, No. 6331, 313-22.
Nunes, P. 1943. Obras II. De crepusculis. Lisbon.
Oppolzer, Th. R. von. 1887. Canon der Finsternisse. Denkschr. d. kais. Akad. d. Wiss.,
math.-naturwiss. Kl. 52. Vienna. Repr. New York, 1962.
Pannekoek, A. 1945. A remarkable place in Copernicus' "De Revolutionibus"
Bulletin of the Astronomical Institutes of the Netherlands 10 (No. 366), 68-69.
1947-48. Planetary Theories. Popular Astronomy 55-56.
Pedersen, 0.1974. A Survey of the Almagest. Odense.
Peurbach, G. ca. 1472. Theoricae novae planetarum. Nuremberg. Printed by Regiomontanus. Repr. in Regiomontanus (1972).

Bibliographical Abbreviations


1514. Tabulae eclipsium. Vienna.

See also Regiomontanus.
Pingree, D. 1970. On the Classification of Indian Planetary Tables. JHA 1,95-108.
1978. History of Mathematical Astronomy in India. DSB 15,533-633.
Price, D. J. de S. 1959. Contra-Copernicus ... Critical Problems in the History of
Science, ed. M. Clagett, Madison, 197-218.
Prowe, L. 1883-84. Nicolaus Coppernicus. 2v. in 3. Berlin. Repr. Osnabrock, 1967.
Ptolemy. 1482. Cosmographia. Ulm.
1515. Almagestum Cl. Ptolemaei. Venice. Trans. Gerard ofCremona.
1551. Omnia, que extant, opera, Geographia excepta. Basel. Contains trans of
Almagest by George of Trebizond.
Opera quae extant omnia. Ed. 1. L. Heiberg. Leipzig:
1898-1903. I. Syntaxis mathematica. 2 pts.
1907. Opera astronomica minora.
1912-13. Ptolemiius, Handbuch der Astronomie. Trans. K. Manitius. 2v. Leipzig.
Repr. Leipzig, 1963.
1984. Ptolemy's Almagest. Trans. and annot. by G. J. Toomer. London-New York.

Ragep, F. J. 1982. Cosmography in the "Tadhkira" ofNa~ir ai-Din al-Tusi. Harvard

University Dissertation. Ed., trans., and comm. on Book I and Book II, chap. 1-11.
Regiomontanus, J. ca. 1474. Disputationes contra cremonensia deliramenta. Nuremberg. Printed by Regiomontanus. Repr. in Regiomontanus (1972).
1490. Tabulae directionum et profectionum. Augsburg. Copernicus's copy Uppsala
Univ. Bibl. 34.VII.65.
1533. De triangulis omnimodis libri quinque. Nuremberg. Repr. in Regiomontanus
1541. Compositio tabularum sinuum rectorum. Nuremberg.
1972. Opera collectanea. Ed. F. Schmeidler. Osnabrock.
See also Schoener (1544).
Regiomontanus, J. and G. Peurbach. ca. 1463. Epitome in Almagestum Ptolemaei.
Venice Bibl. Naz. Mar. MS Lat. 328, fr. 1-117.
1496. Epytoma Joannis de monte regio In almagestum ptolemaei. Venice. Repr. in
Regiomontanus (1972).
Reinhold, E. Commentarius in opus revolutionibus Copernici. Berlin, Deutsche
Staatsbibl. MS fol. lat. 391.
1551. Prutenicae Tabulae Coelestium Motuum. Tiibingen.
Rheticus, G. J. 1540. Ad clarissimum virum D. Ioannem Schonerum, de libris revolutionum ... D. Doctoris Nicolai Copernici Torunnaei ... narratio prima. Danzig.
Repr. Osnabriick, 1967. See also Copernicus (1873); Prowe (1883-84) 2; Kepler
(1937-) 1; Zeller (1943); Rosen (1971); Hugonnard-Roche, Rosen, Verdet (1975);
Hugonnard-Roche and Verdet (1982).
Riddell, R. C. 1978. The Latitudes of Venus and Mercury in the Almagest. AHES 19,
1980. Parameter Disposition in pre-Newtonian Planetary Theories. AHES 23, 87157.
Roberts, V. 1957. The Solar and Lunar Theory of Ibn ash-Shiilir: A Pre-Copernican
Copernican Model. Isis 48,428-32.
1966. The Planetary Theory of Ibn al-Shatir: Latitudes of the Planets. Isis 57, 208-19.


Bibliographical Abbreviations

Rome, A. 1927. L'Astrolabe et Ie Meteoroscope d'apres Ie commentaire de Pappus

sur Ie 5" livre de l'Almagest. Annales de la Societe scientifique de Bruxelles, ser A,
Sci. math. 47, 1927,2. Memoires, 77-102.
Rosen, E. 1943. The Authentic Title of Copernicus's Major Work. Journal of the
History of Ideas 4, 457-74.
1971. Three Copernican Treatises. 3rd. ed. New York.
1977. When Did Copernicus Write the" Revolutions"? Sudhoffs Archiv 61, 144--55.
1982. The Earliest Translation of Copernicus' .. Revolutions" into German. Sudhoffs
Archiv 66, 301-05.
See also Copernicus (1978), Hugonnard-Roche, Rosen, Verdet (1975).
Rossmll.(!.n, F. 1948. Nicolaus Kopernicus, Erster Entwurfseines Weltsystems. Munich.
Repr. Darmstadt, 1966.
Sabra, A. I. 1967. The Authorship of the Liber de crepusculis. Isis 58,77-85.
1972. Ibn al-Haytham. tiSB 6, 189-210.
1978. An Eleventh-Century Refutation of Ptolemy's Planetary Theory. SC 16,
1979. Ibn al-Haytham's Treatise: Solution of Difficulties Concerning the Movement
of Iltiffif. JHAS 3, 388-422.
Sabra, A. I. and N. Shehaby. 1971. Ibn al-Haytham, AI-Shukiik 'ala Batlamyiis. Cairo.
Saliba, G. 1979a. The Original Source of Qutb ai-Din al-Shirazi's Planetary Model
JHAS 3, 4-18.
1979b. The First Non-Ptolemaic Astronomy at the Maraghah School. Isis 70, 571-76.
1980. Ibn Sina and Abu 'Ubayd al-Juzjani: The Problem of the Ptolemaic Equant.
JHAS 4, 376-404.
Samuel, A. E. 1972. Greek and Roman Chronology. Handbuch der Altertumswissenschaft I, 7. Munich.
Sc. Studia Copernicana. Wroclaw-Warsaw-Cracow-Gdansk.
Schoener, J. 1533. Opusculum geographicum ex diversorum libris ac cartis summa
cura et diligentia collectum. ex urbe Norica (Nuremberg).
1536. Tabulae astronomicae, quas uulgo ... resolutas vocant. Nuremberg.
1544. Scripta clarissimi mathematici M. Ionnis Regiomontani. Nuremberg. Repr. in
Regiomontanus (1972).
Schram, R. 1908. Kalendariographische und chronologische Tafeln. Leipzig.
Shipman, J. C. 1967. Johannes Petreius, Nuremberg Publisher of Scientific Works,
1524-1550. Homage to a Bookman. Essays on Manuscripts, Books and Printing
written for Hans P. Kraus on his 60th Birthday, Oct. 121967. Berlin.
Suchodolski, B. ed. 1973. Poland, the Land of Copernicus. Wroclaw.
Suter, H. 1914. Die astronomischen Tafeln des Muhammed Ibn Musa al-Khwarizmi.
D. Kgl. Vidensk. Selsk. Skrifter, 7 Raekke, Hist. og Filos. Afd. III, 1. Copenhagen.
See also Neugebauer (1962).
Swerdlow, N. M. 1972. Aristotelian Planetary Theory in the Renaissance: Giovanni
Battista Amico's Homocentric Spheres. JHA 3, 36-48.
1973. The Derivation and First Draft of Copernicus's Planetary Theory. A Translation of the Commentariolus with Commentary. Proc. Amer. Philos. Soc. 117,
1973a. AI-Battani's Determination of the Solar Distance. Centaurus 17,97-105.
1974. The Holograph of De Revolutionibus and the Chronology of its Composition.
JHA 5,186-98.

Bibliographical Abbreviations


1975. On Copernicus' Theory of Precession. In Westman (1975), 49-98.

1975a. The Planetary Theory of Francois Viete. I. The Fundamental Planetary
Models. JHA 6, 185-208.
1975b. Copernicus's Four Models of Mercury. SC 13, 141-55.
1976. Pseudodoxia Copernicana ... AIHS 26, 108-58.
1980. Long-period Motions of the Earth in De revolutionibus. Centaurus 24,212-45.
1981. On Establishing the Text of "De Revolutionibus." JHA 12, 35-46.
Toomer, G. J. 1968. A Survey of the Toledan Tables. Osiris 15, 5-174.
1969. The Solar Theory of az-Zarqiil. A History of Errors. Centaurus 14, 306-36.
1980. Hipparchus' Empirical Basis for His Lunar Mean Motions. Centaurus 24,
See also Ptolemy (1984).
Tropfke, J. 1923. Geschichte der Elementar-Mathematik V (Trigonometrie). BerlinLeipzig.
Tuckerman, B. 1962. Planetary, Lunar, and Solar Positions 601 B. C. to A.D. 1 at Fiveday and Ten-day Intervals. Memoirs Amer. Philos. Soc. 56. Philadelphia.
1964. Planetary, Lunar, and Solar Positions A.D. 2 to A.D. 1649 at Five-day and
Ten-day Intervals. Memoirs Amer. Philos. Soc. 59. Philadelphia.
Valla, G. 1501. De expetendis et fugiendis rebus ... 2v. Venice.
Viete, F. 1646. Opera mathematica. Ed. F. van Schooten. Leyden. Repr. Hildesheim,
Vogt. H. 1920. Des Kalender des Claudius Ptolemiius. S. B. d. Heidelberger Akad. d.
Wiss., phil.-hist. Kl. 1920 Abh. 15.
Werner, J. 1522. Libellus Ioannis Verneri Nurembergensis super vigintiduobus elementis conicis ... eiusdem Ioannis, de motu octauae Sphaerae, Tractatus duo. Nuremberg.
Westman, R. ed. 1975. The Copernican Achievement. Berkeley.
Whiteside, D. T. 1974. Keplerian Planetary Eggs, Laid and Unlaid, 1600-1605. JHA 5,
Wilson, C. 1972. The Inner Planets and the Keplerian Revolution. Centaurus 17,
Zeller, K. 1943. Des Georg Joachim Rheticus erster Bericht uber die 6 Bucher des
Kopernikus von den Kreisbewegungen der Himmelsbahnen. Munich-Berlin.
Zeller, M. C. 1946. The Development of Trigonometry from Regiomontanus to Pitiscus.
Univ. of Michigan Diss. 1944. Ann Arbor.
Zinner, E. 1937. Arbeiten zur Geschichte der Astronomie XIII. Vierteljahrschrift der
astronomischen Gesellschaft 72,56-58.
1943. Entstehung und Ausbreitung der Coppernicanischen Lehre. S.B. d. Phys.-med.
Sozietiit zu Erlangen 74.
1951. Astronomie: Geschichte ihrer Probleme. Munich.
1968. Leben und Wirken des Joh. Muller von Konigsberg, genannt Regiomontanus.
Zweite Auflage. Osnabrock.
ZMP. Zeitschrift fUr Mathematik und Physik.

Subject Index

The- index is arranged analytically, that is, subjects are gathered under general headings,
e.g. planetary theory of longitude, spherical astronomy, under which may be found specific
entries, e.g. equation of center, oblique ascension, and cross-references are provided for larger
subjects. Frequently occurring names, e.g. Ptolemy, Regiomontanus, Copernicus, and titles
of books, e.g. the Almagest, Epitome of the Almagest, De revolutionibus, are indexed only
selectively, while incidental references to names and books, and secondary works referred to
in footnotes, are not indexed.

abbreviations. See notations and symbols

adjusted mean longitude 170
Albrecht von Hohenzollern 12ff., 27, 30,
Aldebaran, occultation 266ff.
Alfonsine Tables, passim 4, 9, 42f., 49, 54,
74, 93, 123, 129, 143f., I 56f.,
175 n., 190,208,214 n., 227, 229,
252, 254, 272, 274, 278 n., 279,
285, 386, 445ff., 449ff., 456, 497,
512f., 524
Copernicus's notes in 4, 54ff., 272 n.,
372, 498, 524 n., 529
use in Commentariolus 60ff.
Alfonso X 49
Almagest. See Ptolemy
Almagesti minoris libri VI 49, 5lf., 158 n.
Amico, G. B. 48
analemma 109f., 13lf.
Antonio de Montulmo 25
Apian, P. 24, 100 n.
Apollonius of Perga 34,461
Apollonius's Theorem 165,46Iff.
Arabic astronomy 41ff. See also Maragha
Aratus 121
Archimedes 148,286,317
arcus visionis 119ff.
Aristarchus 133, 148
armillary (spherical astrolabe) 53, 68f., 121f.,
216,219, 309ff., 348
Ash-Sha!ir. See Ibn ash-Shatir

Babylonian astronomy
planetary periods 302f.
System B lunar periods 198
Bainbridge, J. 475 n.
Baranowski, J. 89
AI-Battani 24,42,48, 52, 61, 72ff., 120, 128,
13lff., 140f., 148, 15lf., 157f., 165,
250f., 278 n., 279, 386, 475ff.
Bessarion, J. 50f.
Bianchini, G. 50,54,104
Biem, Martin 66
Birkenmajer, A. 90
Brahe, Tycho 57, 123, 131 n., 234, 270f., 322,
Brahmagupta 208 n.
Buchtana~~ar 187
Callippus 148, 198
Camerarius, J. 24,29
Campanus of Novara 4, 49
Cardano, J. 104
catalogue of stars. See stars
Censorinus 129 n, 143, 183ff., 198
center (centrum) 297
center of the world 160f., 360f.
Chapter of Warmia lOff.
Chioniades, G. 47
chorography 28
chronology I 82ff.
epochs or eras 142f., 183ff.


Subject Index

chronology, epochs or eras (cont.)

Alexander 142f., 184ft".
Alfonso 143
Augustus (Alexandrian) 185
Augustus (Egyptian) 142f., I 84f.
Augustus (Julian) 142, 184, 186
Caesar's Calendar Reform 142f., 184,
Christ (Anno Dominz) 142f., 184ft".
Deluge 143
Dionysius 418,425
Era Caesaris 143 n.
Foundation of Rome 185
Kaliyuga 143
Nabonassar 142f., 184f.
Olympiad 142f., 184, 186
Philip 183, I 85f.
Spanish Era 143 n.
years, Egyptian, julian 183f.
Clavius, C. f03, 134 n.
coals. See owls
Commentariolus. See Copernicus, N., works
on astronomy
Copernicus, A., brother ofN. Copernicus 4,
5, 15,28 n.
Copernicus, N.
biography 3ft".
administrative duties 12
almanach and new tables 17f.
books and sources of astronomy 4, 24,
chronology oflife 30ft".
Commentariolus and planned larger
work 8ft".
works on
De lateribus et angulis triangulorum


52,99, 100 n.
See works on
hesitancy to publish 18ft".
persuaded by Giese 22ft".
publication 25ft". passim
education in Cracow and Italy 4ft".
horoscope 3, 454ft"., 529, 533
Letter on Werner's De motu octavae
sphaerae 16. See works on
map of Prussia II n., 19,28
medical practice 15f.
observations 5, 10, 13, 20, 64ft". See
reform of Prussian coinage (Monete
cudende ratio) 14f.


Rheticus's visit and assistance 24ft".

translation of Theophylactus Simocatta
troubles with Dantiscus about Anna
Schillings 19, 25
war between East Prussia and
Poland 12f.
works on astronomy
Commentariolus, passim 8ft". , 55, 60ft"..
135, 157, 208, 214 n., 294, 299.
372f., 386, 409f., 485, 494f., 508,
editions and translations 92
summary of contents 60ft".
De revolutionibus passim
autograph manuscript (M) 85ft".
dating of contents 86ft".
editions 89f.
Nuremberg edition (N) 86
summary of contents 70ft".
conclusion to summary 83ft".
distance, parallax, apparent diameter of sun and moon 75f.
eclipse theory 76f.
lunar theory 74f.
planetary theory 77ft".
latitude: superior planets 8lf.
inferior planets 82f.
longitude: superior planets 77f.
inferior planets 79ft".
precession and obliquity 72, 74
solar theory 73f.
text 85ft".
translations 90f.
Letter on Werner's De motu octavae
sphaerae 16,92, 122 n., 188 n.
Corvinus, L. 7
cosmology. See planets, distances
Curtze, M. 90

Dantiscus, J. 18f., 28 n., 88

day-radius 109
deferent 30 I
Delambre, J. B. J. 182 n., 215 n.
De motu octavae sphaerae (attr. to Thiibit)
42, 128
De revolutionibus. See Copernicus, N., works
on astronomy
Dionysius 425
distances. See sun, moon, planets
Dobrzycki, J. 90
Domanski, J. 90

Subject Index
Dominico Maria di Novara 5, 55, 133 n.
Donner, G. 30
Duncan, A. M. 91

earth, motions of I 27ff.

earth-sine 109
eccentric model of second anomaly. See
planetary theory of longitude,
second anomaly
eclipses, observations 66, 200, Chap. 4
eclipses, theory of 27 Iff.
annular 256, 282
apparent conjunction in solar eclipses
delay (mora) 282f.
digits (puncta) 66, 200, 282f.
area digits 285f.
distinction of ecliptic syzygies 278ff.
lunar 278
solar 279ff., 282
duration 283ff.
magnitude 282f.
minutes of immersion and delay (minuta
casus and morae) 283ff.
phases 283ff.
syzygies, mean 271ff.
syzygies, true 274ff.
velocity of anomaly 274f.
velocity of elongation 275, 280f.
ellipse 134f., 197
Epitome of the Almagest. See Regiomontanus
epochs. See chronology; solar, lunar,
planetary theory; individual
planets; parameters
equant (point, circle, eccentric) 95,293
equation of time (equation of days) 172ff.
applied 203, 206, 209, 211f., 217, 220ff.,
224f., 229, 236f., 276, 278, 392, 398
computation 177
from epoch 177ff.
maximum equation 175ff.
maximum value of A. - IX 180ff.
specimen computation 179
variation 175ff.
equatoria 40
equinoxes 67, 105 n., 148f.
eras. See chronology
Eratosthenes 105, 133 n.
Euclid 4,24,54,204,314,463
Eusebius 183, I 86ff.
evection 194, 197


AI-Farghani 24, 48, 475

Ferber, H. 54 n., 269 n.
Fer11er, M. 12, 13, 15,21,28
Frauenburg, latitude 67, 131
Funck, J. 187

GaIileo 479
Gansiniec, R. 90
Gasser, A. P. 24
geography 28, I 88ff., 213
George ofTrebizond 50f., 88, 92,123,133 n.,
378 n., 451 n., 512f., 527 n.
Gerard of Cremona 48, 50f., 88, 92, 123,
187, 378, 389,451 n., 500 n., 512f.
Giese, T. 2Iff., 25, 27, 29f., 85 n.
Gingerich, O. 86
Goldstein, B. R. 475

Hamilton, N. T. 405 n.
Hartmann, G. 28 n.
Hartner, W. 475
AI-Haytham. See Ibn al-Haytham
Heiberg, J. L. 92
heliocentric theory. See also planetary theory
of longitude, second anomaly;
planets, distances
Copernicus's derivation 8f., 55ff.
Herberstein, S. von 17
Hipparchus 34f., 73, 105, 110, 128f., 148-66
passim, 198ff., 202, 216ff., 228,
horoscope of Copernicus. See Copernicus, N.
horoscopus (ascendant) Iliff.
Hosius, S. 22 n.
Hulagu 45
hypothesis 26, 40

Ibn Ezra 181 n.

ibn al-Haytham 44f., 49, 120, 294, 486 n.
Ibn-Mu'adh 120
Ibn ash-Shatir 9, 46f., 61ff., 74, 78, 80, 135,
193, 196, 208 n., 214 n., 294f.,
372f., 386, 405ff., 446, 486 n.,
495 n.
Indian astronomy 41,80,109,208 n., 214 n.,
250, 303 n., 386
instruments. See armillary, parallactic instrument, plinth, quadrant, rectangulus or radius astronomicus


Subject Index

Jiibir ibn Aflai}. 24,48, 52, 180,254,308 n.,

Jiibir's Theorem 102
Jerome 187
John of Saxony 49
Jupiter 337ft".
correction of mean anomaly 346f.
distance, equation of anomaly 348f.
eccentricity, mean anomaly, longitude of
Copernicus's derivation 339ft".
Ptolemy'S derivation 337ft".
epochs 347
inclinations of orbital plane 502
motion of apogee 347
observations 337, 348
AI-Juzjiini 45 n.
Kennedy, E. S. 46,290
Kepler, J., passim 24, 26 n., 32, 85, 293,
296f., 300 n., 483, 489, 494
Kepler's laws 292, 297
Keskinto Inscription 303 n.
AI-Khwiirizmi 208 n., 214 n., 250
Koppernigk, N., father ofN. Copernicus 3
Lauterwalt, M. 457 n.
length of daylight 108f., 112f.
librations 134, 483, 494, 508
Lossainen, F. von 7, 12, 15
lunar theory 194ft". See also moon, parallax,
Copernicus's model I 96f.
first inequality 201ft".
radius of epicycle 202ft".
Copernicus's derivation 206ft".
Ptolemy's derivation 202ft".
latitude 219ft"., 228f., 234f., 528
mean motions (elongation, anomaly,
argument oflatitude) 197ft".,225
correction of argument of latitude
correction of elongation and anomaly
epochs 211ft".,223ft".
Ptolemy'S model 194f.
Copernicus's objections 195f.
parameters 195
second inequality 213ft".
eft"ect at syzygy 20lf., 213, 215f.
radii of epicycles 214
tables 225ft".
applied 393, 399

specimen computation 229f.

trigonometric computation 216ft".
verification 231
Luther, M. 3, 13,21

Maestlin, M. 296 n.
Magini, G. 5 n.
AI-Ma'miin, Caliph 181 n.
Manitius, K. 91f.
manshiiriit 40
Mariigha astronomy and "school" vii, 6,
45ft"., 55, 63, 290, 294f.
transmission to Italy 47f.
Mars 349ft". See also stations and retrogradations
correction of mean anomaly 36lf.
distance, equation of anomaly 363ft".
eccentricity, mean anomaly, longitude of
Copernicus's derivation 351ft".
Ptolemy's derivation 349ft".
epochs 363
inclinations of orbital plane 5OOf.
intersection with sphere of mean sun 57
motion of apogee 357ft"., 362
observations 349,364
reduction of eccentricity 355, 356ft".
Matthew of Miechow 8
mean motions. See solar, lunar, planetary
theory; precession; parameters
Melanchthon, P. 23, 29
Menelaus 132, 138
Menelaus'S Theorem 102
Menzzer, C. L. 90f.
Mercury 403ft".
apsidalline 417f., 432, 44Of.
comparison of equations and elongations
in models of Ptolemy and
Copernicus 422ft".
Copernicus's models 409ft".
Commentariolus 409f.
De revolutionibus 410
alternate model in V,32 412ft".
relation to deflection 414f., 511
original model in M 412
correction of mean anomaly 424ft"., 439
development of models 405ft".
eccentricities 419f.
elongations at iC = 1200 420ft".
epochs 440f.
equation of center 405f.,41Of.
motion of apogee 44Of.
observations 415f., 425f., 429ft".

Subject Index
periods of invisibility 403f., 515
Ptolemy's model 405
radius of orbit 420
Meton 198
midheaven Iliff.
Moesgaard 139, 359f.
moon. See also lunar theory, eclipses,
diameter, apparent 242,251,255
tabulation 255
diameter, true 249
distance 240ff.
observations 200
velocity 274 ff.
motus declination is (motion of the inclination),
60, 127
Muler, N. 89
Muller, J. of Kiinigsberg. See Regiomontanus
Nabonassar I 86ff. See also chronology,
Nabuchodonosor I 86ff.
Nallino, C. A. 91
Narratio prima. See Rheticus
nonagesimal 116
notation and symbols (listed in Part 2) 539ff.
Nunes, P. 103 n., 110 n., 120,215 n.
obliquity of ecliptic 67, 104f.
variation of obliquity I 29ff.
anomaly I 37f.
epochs 144
limits 105, 137, 141f.
model 134ff.
observational record 133
verification 147
observations. See sun, moon, planetary
theory, individual planets, precession, eclipses, obliquity of
ecliptic, stars
Copernicus's records 65
kinds of observations made by Copernicus
alignments, conjunctions, occultations
eclipses 66
oppositions 67ff.
zenith distances 67
occultation of Aldebaran 266ff.
occultation of Venus 329ff.
Olympic Games 129 n.
orbis mag nus (great sphere) 60
orbit 95


Osiander, A. 13,23, 26f., 160, 187, 484f.

Otho, V. 85 n.
owls 99
Pancasiddhantika 110 n., 208 n.
Paracelsus 23
parallactic instrument 53, 67f., 122, 131,
parallax 232ff.
lunar 200, 233ff., 250f.
applied 266ff., 393f., 399
test of 266ff.
resolution into longitude and latitude
applied 263ff., 393f., 399
tables 279f.
solar 249f.
ta ble 256ff.
columns 3-7, parallax 257
columns 8-9, interpolation 258ff.
specimen computation 261f.
parameters (listed in Part 2) 543ff.
Paul of Middelburg 8
Petreius, J. 23f., 25, 29f.
Peurbach, G. 50f., 105, 133 n., 158 n.
Epitome of the Almagest. See Regiomontanus
Tabulae eclipsium 4, 50, 54, 77, 252, 254,
Theoricae novae planetarum 50, 54f., 129,
250,294, 512f.
Pflaum, J. 54, 65
physical planetary models (spheres, uniform
circular motion, and such) 40,
43ff., 55, 57f., 63, 77, 293f., 474,
484, 508f., 511
Pirkheimer, W. 53
planet. See planetary theory of longitude, of
planets, stations and retrogradations, observations
planetary theory of latitude 483ff. See also
individual planets
apparent latitude of superior and inferior
planets 486f.,491
heliocentric and geocentric latitude 487f.
method of computation 487f.
orbital planes through mean and true
sun 489ff.
transformation of models 488f.
inferior planets 505ff.
Copernicus's model
deflection 414f., 510f., 523f.
inclination and slant 507f.

Subject Index


planetary theory of latitude, inferior planets


computation from model

deflection 526
inclination 5l7ff.
slant 522f.
correct computation of inclination and
slant 533ff.
derivation of parameters 514ff.
effect of distance on deflection
inclination 516f.
slant 519ff.
extrema of apparent latitudes 515f.
phenomena 505f.
Ptolemy's model 506f.
inclination and slant of epicycle
inclination of eccentric 509
parameters 515
transformation to Copernicus's model
reduction to the ecliptic 517ff., 522
technical terms 512f.
superior planets 492ff.
Copernicus's model 494
computation from model 503ff.
example for Mars 504f.
derivation of parameters 497ff.
longitude of northern limit 497f.
inclinations of orbital planes 499ff.
See also individual planets
extrema of apparent latitudes 497f.
phenomena 492
Ptolemy's model 492f.
parameters 495ff.
inclinations of eccentric and epicyclic planes 497
longitude of northern limit 496
transformation to Copernicus's model
numerical relations 503
tables and their use 527ff.
inferior planets 517ff., 522f., 526, 530ff.
specimen computation 533
superior planets 503ff., 527ff.
specimen computation 529f.
planetary theory of longitude 289ff. See also
planetary models, stations and
first anomaly 292ff.
Copernicus's model 295ff.
departure from circularity 296ff.

equation of center 297ff.

Maragha models 46f., 295, 299
Ptolemy's model 38, 292f.
bisection of eccentricity 37
Copernicus's objections 293f.
inferior planets 369ff. See Venus, Mercury
heliocentric transformation of Ptolemy's
model 370f.
meaning of "apogee" 370,381
remarks on Copernicus's derivations
44 Iff.
mean motions 30 Iff.
motion of apogee. See individual planets
second anomaly 29lf.
eccentric model 56f., 62, 80, 372f., 409
superior planets 295ff. See Saturn,
Jupiter, Mars
derivation of elements 307ff.
apogee 319, 321
correction and iteration 315ff.
distance 322f.
eccentricity 313ff.
epoch 321
equation of the anomaly 323
mean anomaly 319ff.
mean eccentric anomaly 315
mean longitude 319
motion between oppositions 31 Iff.
observations 309ff.
oppositions 67ff., 309ff.
test of elements 315
remarks on Copernicus's derivations
tables of corrections 444ff.
arrangement and computation 444ff.
column 3, equation of center 445f.
column 4, coefficient of interpolation
column 5, least equation of anomaly
column 6, excess of the equation of
anomaly 447f.
computation of longitude 452ff.
specimen computation 454ff.
numerical evaluation 449ff.
tables of mean motions 306, 443f.
technical terms 300f.
transformations of models 299f.
variation of eccentricity 161, 300. See
Mars, Venus
verification 457ff.
distances 472ff.
periods of invisibility 496,515

Subject Index
Plato of Tivoli 48
plinth 105, 148
Polentz, G. von 21
Praetorius, J. 29f.
precession 129ft'.
anomaly 137f., 140f.
description I 29f.
epochs 142ft'.
equation I 39f.
mean precession 138f., 156f.
model 134ft'.
observational record 130ft'.
tables 144f.
specimen computation 145f.
verification 147
Proclus 24, 475
Prophatius 133
prosneusis 194f., 214, 294


Prowe, L. 3
Ptolemaic System 474
Ptolemy, passim 33ft'.
Almagest, passim
editions and translations 92
summary of contents 346'.
lunar theory 35ft'.
planetary theory of latitude 39f.
planetary theory of longitude 37ft'.
solar theory 34
Canobic Inscription 143,405 n.
Geography 5, 16, 189f., 213
Handy Tables 33, 40, 48, 71, 114 n., 118,
120, 122, 175 n., 183, 214 n., 279,
405 n., 445ft'., 486, 515
Kanon Basileion 183, 187
Phaseis 71, 118f.
Planetary Hypotheses 33, 40, 43f., 57f.,
120, 244, 294, 405 n., 406 n.,
473ft'., 486, 497, 515, 530
use of observations 34ft'.
Ptolemy's Theorem 100
purpose of this study 94f.
quadrant 67, 105


rectangulus or radius astronomicus

53, 70
Reformation in Prussia 13, 15, 19,21
refraction 67, 238
Regiomontanus, J., passim 50ft'. , 65f., 72,
100 n, 105, 133 n., 138, 512 n.
De triangulis omnimodis 24, 52, 103f.,
464 n.


Epitome of the Almagest, passim

viii, 51f.,
56f., 73, 93, 152, 157f., 180ft'., 199,
233f., 251, 254, 279, 308, 372,
378f., 469, 512f.
Tabulae directionum 4, 52, 54, 93, 104,
lllf., 217
Reinhold, E. 23, 175 n., 279 n., 318, 363,
452 n., 531 n.
retrogradations. See stations and retrogradations
Rheticus, G. J., passim 23ft'., 85ft'., 99, 437f.,
457 n., 527 n.
biography of Copernicus 3 n., 29
Borussiae encomium 22
Ephemerides novae 20

German Chorography 27
map of Prussia 27f.
Narratio prima, passim 25,28,64 n., 65 n.,
82, 92, 142, 361, 385 n., 508 n.,
Ar-Rijiil, In iudiciis astrorum 4,49,54
risings and settings 118ft'.
Rosen, E. 88,91
Salmanassar I 87f.
Santritter, J. 49,524
Saturn 324ft'.
correction of mean anomaly 333f.
distance, equation of anomaly 335f.
eccentricity, mean eccentric anomaly, longitude of apogee
Copernicus's derivation 327ft'.
Ptolemy'S derivation 324f.
epochs 334
inclinations of orbital plane 50lf.
motion of apogee 334
observations 5, 65, 324, 335
saving the phenomena 270
Scaliger, J. I 87f.
Schillings, A. 19,25
Schoenberg, N. 17f.,21
Schoener, J. 23,24,49,53, 189f., 429, 437f.
Scultetus, A. II n., 19,28
semidiameters, apparent. See sun, moon,
shadow of the earth
table 254ft'.
shadow lengths 107f.
shadow of an ass 526
shadow of the earth
apparent diameter and radius 242,251ft'.
tabulation 255f.
variation 251ft'., 255
distance to vertex 244ff., 252


Subject Index

Ash-Shatir. See Ibn ash-Shatir

Ash-Shirazi, QUlb ad-Din 45 n., 46f., 78,
sidereal year. See solar theory
Sigismund I 7, 12f., 19
solar theory I48ff. See also sun, paralIax,
epochs 155f., I 64f.
first inequality 150ff.
eccentricity and direction of apsidal line
Copernicus's derivation I 52ff.
Ptolemy'S derivation 151
maximum equation 154
models 150
mean anomaly 164, 167
mean motion of apogee 163f.
mean sidereal and tropical motions I 54f.,
second inequality I 57ff.
equation of apogee 163
models I 59ff.
retrogradation of apogee 163, 165f.
variation of eccentricity I 62f.
sidereal year 149, I 55ff.
tables I 66ff.
specimen computation 170
tropical year 148f., 156f.
verification 17lf.
spheres. See physical planetary models
spherical astronomy 104ff.
ascensional correction 108ff.
angle between ecliptic and circle of altitude
correction to tables of 0(,15, and y 106, 145,
declination 105
horizon angle 1I5f.
length of daylight 108f., 112f.
maximum value of A. - 0( 180ff.
meridian angle 106
normed right ascension 114 n.
oblique ascension I I Iff.
obliquity of ecliptic 104f. See obliquity of
ortive amplitude 108ff.
right ascension 106, 114
tables 106, IlOf., Il2, Il6
transformation of coordinates 106f.
zenith distance 117[., 264[.
Aldebaran (0( Tauri) 5,65,229,264, 266ff.
Canicula (Procyon or Sirius) 129
Regulus (0( Leonis) 67, 122, 130, 188

Spica (0( Virginis) 67, 122f., 130ff., 145f.,

Y Arietis 121, 123, 144
0( Librae
69, 363f.
f3 Scorpii 69, 130, 348, 398f., 425f.
15 Scorpii 69, 335, 425f.
TC Scorpii
69, 335
rJ Virginis 389f.
catalogue of stars 71, 121ff.
distances and sizes 477ff.
stations and retrogradations 460ff.
ApolIonius's Theorem 165,46Iff.
application 463ff.
Mars at mean distance 464f.
earlier versions 466f.
at greatest distance 468ff.
at least distance 470ff.
velocity in longitude and anomaly 467
Stoeffier, J. 54, 65f.
sun. See also solar theory, paralIax, eclipses
diameter, apparent 250, 254
tabulation 254f.
diameter, true 248f.
distance 243ff.
AI-Battani 245f.
Copernicus 246ff.
Ptolemy 244f.
true sun 160f., 357ff., 489f.
velocity 250
superatio (excess) 274f.

tables (in Part 2) 55 Iff.

Tabulae resolutae 4,49, 54, 456
Teutonic Order 4, I Iff.
Thabit ibn Qurra 42f., 48, 52, 73, 128, 149,
152, 157
Theon 375
Theophylactus Simocatta 7
time, measurement of 66ff.
Timocharis 72,81,127,132, I 37ff., 374, 389,
Toledan Tables 42f., 48, 52, 133 n., 158,
175 n., 181 n., 214 n., 279 n., 386
Toomer, G. J. 92
trigonometry 99ff.
computation of table of sines 99ff.
plane 10 If.
spherical 102ff.
tropical year. See solar theory
A\-Tiisi, Na~ir ad-Din 45ff., 294, 296 n.
"Tiisi couple" 46f., 62f., 72, 135, 408f.,

Subject Index
twilight 120
Tycho. See Brahe
Tychonic theory 57f., 292, 322
Ulugh Beg 120 n.
uniform circular motion 195. See physical
planetary models
AI-'UrQI, Mii'ayyad ad-DIn 45,47,78, 294f.,
Ursus, N. R. 90
Valla, G. 93, 123, 132,475
velocity. See sun, moon, eclipses, stations and
Venus 370, 372ff.
apsidalline 379ff.
Copernicus's models 372ff.
correction of mean anomaly 389ff.
original version in M 397ff.
revised version 389ff., 396
eccentricities 381ff.
epochs 397,4Olf.
equation of center 373f.
observations 374ff., 389f., 392, 397f.
date of observation of 127 Oct 12 378f.
errors in greatest elongations 377
occultation of 1529 Mar 12 392ff.
occurrence of greatest elongations 377,
Ptolemy's model 370
radius of orbit 381ff.
reduction of eccentricity 384f., 389


Viete, F. 141 n., 142 n., 161

visibility phases 118ff. See also planets,
periods of invisibility
Vitelo 24
Voltaire 11

Wallis, C. G. 91
Walther, B. 23,53,68,70,81, 183,404,415,
424, 428ff.
Wapowski, B. 16ff.
war between East Prussia and Poland 12f.
Warmia (Ermland) lOff.
Watzenrode, B., mother ofN. Copernicus 3
Watzenrode, L., uncle of N. Copernicus, 3-7
passim, 15
Werner, J. 16,23, 53, 72, 129, 131, 133 n.,
138, 188 n.
Whiteside, D. T., his letter 197 n.
Widmanstadt, J. A. 17

Yahya ibn Abi Mansiir 181 n.

Egyptian, julian. See chronology
sidereal, tropical. See solar theory

Zacuto, A. 302
Az-Zarqal 42,48,52,73, 129, 133, 134, 152,
157f., 165, 181 n.
Zell, H. 11,28
Zeller, F. and K. 90