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# CHAPTER 8

8.1. A point charge, Q = 0.3 C and m = 3 1016 kg, is moving through the field E = 30 az V/m.
Use Eq. (1) and Newtons laws to develop the appropriate dierential equations and solve them,
subject to the initial conditions at t = 0: v = 3 105 ax m/s at the origin. At t = 3 s, find:
a) the position P (x, y, z) of the charge: The force on the charge is given by F = qE, and Newtons
second law becomes:
F = ma = m

d2 z
= qE = (0.3 106 )(30 az )
dt2

describing motion of the charge in the z direction. The initial velocity in x is constant, and
so no force is applied in that direction. We integrate once:
dz
qE
= vz =
t + C1
dt
m
The initial velocity along z, vz (0) is zero, and so C1 = 0. Integrating a second time yields the
z coordinate:
qE 2
z=
t + C2
2m
The charge lies at the origin at t = 0, and so C2 = 0. Introducing the given values, we find
z=

## (0.3 106 )(30) 2

t = 1.5 1010 t2 m
2 3 1016

At t = 3 s, z = (1.5 1010 )(3 106 )2 = .135 cm. Now, considering the initial constant
velocity in x, the charge in 3 s attains an x coordinate of x = vt = (3105 )(3106 ) = .90 m.
In summary, at t = 3 s we have P (x, y, z) = (.90, 0, .135).
b) the velocity, v: After the first integration in part a, we find
vz =

qE
t = (3 1010 )(3 106 ) = 9 104 m/s
m

Including the intial x-directed velocity, we finally obtain v = 3 105 ax 9 104 az m/s.
c) the kinetic energy of the charge: Have
K.E. =

1
1
m|v|2 = (3 1016 )(1.13 105 )2 = 1.5 105 J
2
2

138

8.2. Compare the magnitudes of the electric and magnetic forces on an electron that has attained a
velocity of 107 m/s. Assume an electric field intensity of 105 V/m, and a magnetic flux density
associated with that of the Earths magnetic field in temperate latitudes, 0.5 gauss. We use the
Lorentz Law, F = Fe + Fm = q(E + v B), where |B| = 0.5 G = 5.0 105 T. We find
|Fe | = (1.6 1019 C)(105 V/m) = 1.6 1014 N
|Fm | = (1.6 1019 C)(107 m/s)(5.0 105 T) = 8.0 1017 N = 0.005|Fe |
8.3. A point charge for which Q = 2 1016 C and m = 5 1026 kg is moving in the combined fields
E = 100ax 200ay + 300az V/m and B = 3ax + 2ay az mT. If the charge velocity at t = 0 is
v(0) = (2ax 3ay 4az ) 105 m/s:
a) give the unit vector showing the direction in which the charge is accelerating at t = 0: Use
F(t = 0) = q[E + (v(0) B)], where
v(0) B = (2ax 3ay 4az )105 (3ax + 2ay az )103 = 1100ax + 1400ay 500az
So the force in newtons becomes
F(0) = (21016 )[(100+1100)ax +(1400200)ay +(300500)az ] = 41014 [6ax +6ay az ]
The unit vector that gives the acceleration direction is found from the force to be
aF =

6ax + 6ay az

73

## b) find the kinetic energy of the charge at t = 0:

K.E. =

1
1
m|v(0)|2 = (5 1026 kg)(5.39 105 m/s)2 = 7.25 1015 J = 7.25 fJ
2
2

8.4. Show that a charged particle in a uniform magnetic field describes a circular orbit with an orbital
period that is independent of the radius. Find the relationship between the angular velocity and
magnetic flux density for an electron (the cyclotron frequency).
A circular orbit can be established if the magnetic force on the particle is balanced by the
centripital force associated with the circular path. We assume a circular path of radius R, in
which B = B0 az is normal to the plane of the path. Then, with particle angular velocity , the
velocity is v = R a . The magnetic force is then Fm = qvB = qR a B0 az = qRB0 a .
This force will be negative (pulling the particle toward the center of the path) if the charge
is positive and motion is in the a direction, or if the charge is negative, and motion is in
positive a . In either case, the centripital force must counteract the magnetic force. Assuming
particle mass m, the force balance equation is qRB0 = m2 R, from which = qB0 /m. The
revolution period is T = 2/ = 2m/(qB0 ), which is independent of R. For an electron, we
have q = 1.6 109 C, and m = 9.1 1031 kg. The cyclotron frequency is therefore
c =

q
B0 = 1.76 1011 B0 s1
m

139

8.5. A rectangular loop of wire in free space joins points A(1, 0, 1) to B(3, 0, 1) to C(3, 0, 4) to D(1, 0, 4)
to A. The wire carries a current of 6 mA, flowing in the az direction from B to C. A filamentary
current of 15 A flows along the entire z axis in the az direction.
a) Find F on side BC:
Z C
FBC =
Iloop dL Bfrom wire at BC
B

Thus

FBC =

(6 103 ) dz az

150
ay = 1.8 108 ax N = 18ax nN
2(3)

b) Find F on side AB: The field from the long wire now varies with position along the loop
segment. We include that dependence and write
Z 3
150
45 103
FAB =
(6 103 ) dx ax
ay =
0 ln 3 az = 19.8az nN
2x

1
c) Find Ftotal on the loop: This will be the vector sum of the forces on the four sides. Note that
by symmetry, the forces on sides AB and CD will be equal and opposite, and so will cancel.
This leaves the sum of forces on sides BC (part a) and DA, where
FDA =

(6 103 ) dz az

150
ay = 54ax nN
2(1)

## The total force is then Ftotal = FDA + FBC = (54 18)ax = 36 ax nN

8.6. Show that the dierential work in moving a current element IdL through a distance dl in a magnetic
field B is the negative of that done in moving the element Idl through a distance dL in the same
field: The two dierential work quantities are written as:
dW = (IdL B) dl and dW 0 = (Idl B) dL
We now apply the vector identity, Eq.(A.6), Appendix A: (A B) C = (B C) A, and write:
(IdL B) dl = (B dl) IdL = (Idl B) dL

QED

8.7. Uniform current sheets are located in free space as follows: 8az A/m at y = 0, 4az A/m at y = 1,
and 4az A/m at y = 1. Find the vector force per meter length exerted on a current filament
carrying 7 mA in the aL direction if the filament is located at:
a) x = 0, y = 0.5, and aL = az : We first note that within the region 1 < y < 1, the magnetic
fields from the two outer sheets (carrying 4az A/m) cancel, leaving only the field from the
center sheet. Therefore, H = 4ax A/m (0 < y < 1) and H = 4ax A/m (1 < y < 0).
Outside (y > 1 and y < 1) the fields from all three sheets cancel, leaving H = 0 (y > 1,
y < 1). So at x = 0, y = .5, the force per meter length will be
F/m = Iaz B = (7 103 )az 40 ax = 35.2ay nN/m
b.) y = 0.5, z = 0, and aL = ax : F/m = Iax 40 ax = 0.
c) x = 0, y = 1.5, aL = az : Since y = 1.5, we are in the region in which B = 0, and so the force
is zero.
140

8.8. Two conducting strips, having infinite length in the z direction, lie in the xz plane. One occupies
the region d/2 < x < b + d/2 and carries surface current density K = K0 az ; the other is situated
at (b + d/2) < x < d/2 and carries surface current density K0 az .
a) Find the force per unit length in z that tends to separate the two strips:

We begin by evaluating the magnetic field arising from the left-hand strip (in the region x < 0)
at any location on the x axis. Because the source strip is infinite in z, this field will not depend
on z and will be valid at any location in the x-z plane. We use the Biot-Savart law and find
the field at a fixed point x0 on the x axis. The Biot-Savart law reads:
Z
K aR
H(x0 ) =
da
2
s 4R
where the integral is taken over the left strip area, and where R
p is the distance from point
(x, z) on the strip to the fixed observation point, x0 . Thus R = (x x0 )2 + z 2 , and
aR =
so that
H(x0 ) =

d
2

( d
2 +b)

(x x0 ) ax z az
p
(x x0 )2 + z 2

K0 az [(x x0 ) ax z az ]
3/2

4 [(x x0 )2 + z 2 ]

dx dz

## Taking the cross product leaves only a y component:

H(x0 ) =

d
2

( d
2 +b)

K0 ay (x x0 )

3/2

4 [(x x0 )2 + z 2 ]

dx dz

## It is easiest to evaluate the z integral first, leading to

K0
H0 =
ay
4

d
2

( d
2 +b)

Z d2

z
K0
dx

p
dx =
ay

2
2
2
(x x0 )
(x x0 ) (x x0 ) + z
( d
2 +b)

## Evaluate the x integral to find:

d2
K0
K0

H0 =
ay ln(x x0 ) d
=
ln
2
2
( 2 +b)

"

d
2

+ b + x0
d
2 + x0

ay A/m

Now the force acting on the right-hand strip per unit length is
Z
F = K B da
s

where K is the surface current density in the right-hand strip, and B is the magnetic flux
density (0 H) arising from the left strip, evaluated within the right strip area (over which the
integral is taken). Over a unit lengh in z, the force integral is written:
F=

(b+ d
2)
d
2

0 K0
k0 az
ln
2
141

"

d
2

#
+ b + x0
ay dx0 dz
d
2 + x0

8.8a (continued)
The z integration yields a factor of 1, the cross product gives an x-directed force, and we can
rewrite the expression as:

d
d
ln
+ b + x0 ln
+ x0
dx0
d
2
2
2

(b+ d2 )
0 K02
d
d
d
d
=
ax
+ b + x0 ln
+ b + x0 x0
+ x0 ln
+ x0 + x0
2
2
2
2
2
d

0 K02
F=
ax
2

(b+ d
2)

Evaluating this result over the integration limits and then simplifying results in the following
expression, which is one of many ways of writing the result:
0 dK02
F=
ax
2

"
!

#
1 + 2b
2b
b
d
1+
ln
ln 1 +
d
d
1 + db

b) let b approach zero while maintaining constant current, I = K0 b, and show that the force per
unit length approaches 0 I 2 /(2d) N/m.
As b gets small, so does the ratio b/d. We may then write:
1
1+

b
d

"
2 #
b
b
.
= 1 +
d
d

0 dK02
F=
ax
2

"
"

2 !#

#
2b
2b
b
b
b
1+
ln 1 +
1 +
ln 1 +
d
d
d
d
d

## The product in the natural log function is expanded:

0 dK02
F=
ax
2

2b
b
b2
2b 2b2
2b2
b
1+
ln 1 + 2 +
2 + 2 ln 1 +
d
d d
d
d
d
d

All terms in the natural log functions involve 1 + f (b/d) where f (b/d) << 1. Therefore, we
.
may expand the log functions in power series, keeping only the first terms: i.e., ln(1 + f ) = f ,
if f << 1. With this simplification, the force becomes:
. 0 dK02
F=
ax
2

2b
b
b2
2b3
b
1+

+ 3
d
d d2
d
d

## Expanding and simplifying, the final result is

. 0 (bK0 )2
F=
ax N/m
2d
where the term, 4b4 /d4 , has been neglected.

142

b
<< 1
d

8.9. A current of 100az A/m flows on the conducting cylinder = 5 mm and +500az A/m is present
on the conducting cylinder = 1 mm. Find the magnitude of the total force acting to split the
outer cylinder apart along its length: The dierential force acting on the outer cylinder arising
from the field of the inner cylinder is dF = Kouter B, where B is the field from the inner cylinder,
evaluated at the outer cylinder location:
2(1)(500)0
a = 1000 a T
2(5)

B=

Thus dF = 100az 1000 a = 104 0 a N/m2 . We wish to find the force acting to split the outer
cylinder, which means we need to evaluate the net force in one cartesian direction on one half of
the cylinder. We choose the upper half (0 < < ), and integrate the y component of dF over
this range, and over a unit length in the z direction:
Fy =

10 0 a ay (5 10

) d dz =

## 500 sin d = 1000 = 4 105 N/m

Note that we did not include the self force arising from the outer cylinders B field on itself.
Since the outer cylinder is a two-dimensional current sheet, its field exists only just outside the
cylinder, and so no force exists. If this cylinder possessed a finite thickness, then we would need
to include its self-force, since there would be an interior field and a volume current density that
would spatially overlap.

8.10. A planar transmission line consists of two conducting planes of width b separated d m in air,
carrying equal and opposite currents of I A. If b >> d, find the force of repulsion per meter of
length between the two conductors.
Take the current in the top plate in the positive z direction, and so the bottom plate current
is directed along negative z. Furthermore, the bottom plate is at y = 0, and the top plate is
at y = d. The magnetic field stength at the bottom plate arising from the current in the top
plate is H = K/2 ax A/m, where the top plate surface current density is K = I/b az A/m.
Now the force per unit length on the bottom plate is
F=

Kb Bb dS

where Kb is the surface current density on the bottom plate, and Bb is the magnetic flux
density arising from the top plate current, evaluated at the bottom plate location. We obtain
F=

I
0 I
0 I 2
az
ax dS =
ay N/m
b
2b
2b

143

8.11. a) Use Eq. (14), Sec. 8.3, to show that the force of attraction per unit length between two
filamentary conductors in free space with currents I1 az at x = 0, y = d/2, and I2 az at x = 0,
y = d/2, is 0 I1 I2 /(2d): The force on I2 is given by

I I
I1 I2
aR12 dL1
F2 = 0
dL2
2
4
R12
Let z1 p
indicate the z coordinate along I1 , and z2 indicate the z coordinate along I2 . We then have
R12 = (z2 z1 )2 + d2 and
(z2 z1 )az day
aR12 = p
(z2 z1 )2 + d2
Also, dL1 = dz1 az and dL2 = dz2 az The inside integral becomes:
I
I
Z
aR12 dL1
[(z2 z1 )az day ] dz1 az
d dz1 ax
=
=
2
R12
[(z2 z1 )2 + d2 ]1.5
[(z

z1 )2 + d2 ]1.5
2

## The force expression now becomes

I Z
Z Z
I1 I2
d dz1 ax
I1 I2 1
d dz1 dz2 ay
F2 = 0
dz2 az = 0
2 + d2 ]1.5
2
2 1.5
4
[(z

z
)
4
[(z
2
1
2 z1 ) + d ]

Note that the outside integral is taken over a unit length of current I2 . Evaluating, obtain,
Z 1
I1 I2 d ay
0 I1 I2
F2 = 0
(2)
dz2 =
ay N/m
4d2
2d
0
as expected.

b) Show how a simpler method can be used to check your result: We use dF2 = I2 dL2 B12 ,
where the field from current 1 at the location of current 2 is
0 I1
B12 =
ax T
2d
so over a unit length of I2 , we obtain
0 I1
I1 I2
ax = 0
ay N/m
2d
2d
This second method is really just the first over again, since we recognize the inside integral of
the first method as the Biot-Savart law, used to find the field from current 1 at the current 2
location.
F2 = I2 az

8.12. Two circular wire rings are parallel to each other, share the same axis, are of radius a, and are
separated by distance d, where d << a. Each ring carries current I. Find the approximate force
of attraction and indicate the relative orientations of the currents.
With the loops very close to each other, the primary force on each segment of current in
either loop can be assumed to arise from the local B field from the immediately adjacent
segment in the other loop. So the problem becomes essentially that of straightening out both
loops and considering them as two parallel wires of length L = 2a. The magnetic induction
at points very close to either current loop is approximately that of an infinite straight wire,
.
or B = 0 I/(2d). The force is therefore found using Eq. (11) to be
F = ILB = I(2a)

0 I
0 aI 2
=
2d
d

If the force is attractive, then the currents must be in the same direction.
144

8.13. A current of 6A flows from M (2, 0, 5) to N (5, 0, 5) in a straight solid conductor in free space. An
infinite current filament lies along the z axis and carries 50A in the az direction. Compute the
vector torque on the wire segment using:
a) an origin at (0, 0, 5): The B field from the long wire at the short wire is B = (0 Iz ay )/(2x) T.
Then the force acting on a dierential length of the wire segment is
dF = Iw dL B = Iw dx ax

0 Iz
0 Iw Iz
ay =
dx az N
2x
2x

## Now the dierential torque about (0, 0, 5) will be

dT = RT dF = xax

0 Iw Iz
0 Iw Iz
dx az =
dx ay
2x
2

The net torque is now found by integrating the dierential torque over the length of the wire
segment:
T=

0 Iw Iz
30 (6)(50)
dx ay =
ay = 1.8 104 ay N m
2
2

## b) an origin at (0, 0, 0): Here, the only modification is in RT , which is now RT = x ax + 5 az So

now
0 Iw Iz
0 Iw Iz
dT = RT dF = [xax + 5az ]
dx az =
dx ay
2x
2
Everything from here is the same as in part a, so again, T = 1.8 104 ay N m.
c) an origin at (3, 0, 0): In this case, RT = (x 3)ax + 5az , and the dierential torque is
dT = [(x 3)ax + 5az ]

0 Iw Iz
0 Iw Iz (x 3)
dx az =
dx ay
2x
2x

Thus
T=

0 Iw Iz (x 3)
5
5

dx ay = 6.0 10
3 3 ln
ay = 1.5 105 ay N m
2x
2

145

8.14. A solenoid is 25cm long, 3cm in diameter, and carries 4 A dc in its 400 turns. Its axis is perpendicular to a uniform magnetic field of 0.8 Wb/m2 in air. Using an origin at the center of the solenoid,
calculate the torque acting on it.
First, we consider the torque, referenced to the origin, of a single wire loop of radius a in the
plane z = z0 . This is one loop of the solenoid. We will take the applied magnetic flux density
as in the ax direction and write it as B = B0 ax . The dierential torque associated with a
dierential current element on this loop, referenced to the origin, will be:
dT = R dF
where R is the vector directed from the origin to the current element, and is given by R =
z0 az + aa , and where
dF = IdL B = Ia d a B0 ax = IaB0 cos d az
So now
dT = (z0 az + aa ) (IaB0 cos d az ) = a2 IB0 cos d a
Using a = cos ay sin ax , the dierential torque becomes
dT = a2 IB0 cos (cos ay sin ax ) d
Note that there is no dependence on z0 . The net torque on the loop is now
Z
Z 2

T = dT =
a2 IB0 cos2 ay cos sin ax d = a2 IB0 ay
0

But we have 400 identical turns at dierent z locations (which dont matter), so the total
torque will be just the above result times 400, or:
T = 400a2 IB0 ay = 400(1.5 102 )2 (4)(0.8)ay = 0.91ay N m
8.15. A solid conducting filament extends from x = b to x = b along the line y = 2, z = 0. This
filament carries a current of 3 A in the ax direction. An infinite filament on the z axis carries 5
A in the az direction. Obtain an expression for the torque exerted on the finite conductor about
an origin located at (0, 2, 0): The dierential force on the wire segment arising from the field from
the infinite wire is
dF = 3 dx ax

50
150 cos dx
150 x dx

a =
az =
az
2
2
2(x2 + 4)
2 x + 4

## So now the dierential torque about the (0, 2, 0) origin is

dT = RT dF = x ax

150 x dx
150 x2 dx
a
=
ay
z
2(x2 + 4)
2(x2 + 4)

## The torque is then

Z

h
ib
150 x2 dx
150
1 x
a
=
a
x

2
tan
y
y
2
2
2 b
b 2(x + 4)

b
= (6 106 ) b 2 tan1
ay N m
2

T=

146

8.16. Assume that an electron is describing a circular orbit of radius a about a positively-charged nucleus.
a) By selecting an appropriate current and area, show that the equivalent orbital dipole moment
is ea2 /2, where is the electrons angular velocity: The current magnitude will be I = Te ,
where e is the electron charge and T is the orbital period. The latter is T = 2/, and so
I = e/(2). Now the dipole moment magnitude will be m = IA, where A is the loop area.
Thus
e 2 1 2
m=
a = ea //
2
2
b) Show that the torque produced by a magnetic field parallel to the plane of the orbit is ea2 B/2:
With B assumed constant over the loop area, we would have T = m B. With B parallel to
the loop plane, m and B are orthogonal, and so T = mB. So, using part a, T = ea2 B/2.
c) by equating the Coulomb and centrifugal forces, show that is (40 me a3 /e2 )1/2 , where me
is the electron mass: The force balance is written as
e2
= me 2 a =
40 a2

40 me a3
e2

1/2

//

d) Find values for the angular velocity, torque, and the orbital magnetic moment for a hydrogen
atom, where a is about 6 1011 m; let B = 0.5 T: First
=

T =

(1.60 1019 )2
12
4(8.85 10 )(9.1 1031 )(6 1011 )3

1/2

1
(3.42 1016 )(1.60 1019 )(0.5)(6 1011 )2 = 4.93 1024 N m
2

Finally,
m=

T
= 9.86 1024 A m2
B

147

8.17. The hydrogen atom described in Problem 16 is now subjected to a magnetic field having the same
direction as that of the atom. Show that the forces caused by B result in a decrease of the angular
velocity by eB/(2me ) and a decrease in the orbital moment by e2 a2 B/(4me ). What are these
decreases for the hydrogen atom in parts per million for an external magnetic flux density of 0.5
T? We first write down all forces on the electron, in which we equate its coulomb force toward the
nucleus to the sum of the centrifugal force and the force associated with the applied B field. With
the field applied in the same direction as that of the atom, this would yield a Lorentz force that is
radially outward in the same direction as the centrifugal force.
Fe = Fcent + FB

= 0 =

e2
= me 2 a + eaB
| {z }
40 a2
QvB

e2
40 me a3

2 =
Therefore
= 0
.
But = 0 , and so

e2
eB
eB

= 02
3
40 me a
me
me
s

.
= 0 1

eB .
eB
=

0
02 me
202 me
eB
20 me

= 0

eB
//
2me

## As for the magnetic moment, we have

e 2 1
eB
1
1 e2 a2 B
2 . 1
2
m = IS =
a = ea = ea 0
= 0 ea2
//
2
2
2
2me
2
4 me
Finally, for a = 6 1011 m, B = 0.5 T, we have

eB 1 . eB 1
1.60 1019 0.5
=
=
=
= 1.3 106

2me
2me 0
2 9.1 1031 3.4 1016
where 0 = 3.4 1016 sec1 is found from Problem 16. Finally,
m
e2 a2 B
2 . eB
=

=
= 1.3 106
m
4me
ea2
2me 0

148

8.18. Calculate the vector torque on the square loop shown in Fig. 8.16 about an origin at A in the field
B, given:
a) A(0, 0, 0) and B = 100ay mT: The field is uniform and so does not produce any translation
of the loop. Therefore, we may use T = IS B about any origin, where I = 0.6 A and
S = 16az m2 . We find T = 0.6(16)az 0.100ay = 0.96 ax Nm.
b) A(0, 0, 0) and B = 200ax + 100ay mT: Using the same reasoning as in part a, we find
T = 0.6(16)az (0.200ax + 0.100ay ) = 0.96ax + 1.92ay Nm
c) A(1, 2, 3) and B = 200ax + 100ay 300az mT: We observe two things here: 1) The field is
again uniform and so again the torque is independent of the origin chosen, and 2) The field
diers from that of part b only by the addition of a z component. With S in the z direction,
this new component of B will produce no torque, so the answer is the same as part b, or
T = 0.96ax + 1.92ay Nm.
d) A(1, 2, 3) and B = 200ax + 100ay 300az mT for x 2 and B = 0 elsewhere: Now, force is
acting only on the y-directed segment at x = +2, so we need to be careful, since translation
will occur. So we must use the given origin. The dierential torque acting on the dierential
wire segment at location (2,y) is dT = R(y) dF, where
dF = IdL B = 0.6 dy ay [0.2ax + 0.1ay 0.3az ] = [0.18ax 0.12az ] dy
and R(y) = (2, y, 0) (1, 2, 3) = ax + (y 2)ay 3az . We thus find
dT = R(y) dF = [ax + (y 2)ay 3az ] [0.18ax 0.12az ] dy
= [0.12(y 2)ax + 0.66ay + 0.18(y 2)az ] dy
The net torque is now
T=

## [0.12(y 2)ax + 0.66ay + 0.18(y 2)az ] dy = 0.96ax + 2.64ay 1.44az Nm

8.19. Given a material for which m = 3.1 and within which B = 0.4yaz T, find:
a) H: We use B = 0 (1 + m )H, or
H=

0.4yay
= 77.6yaz kA/m
(1 + 3.1)0

## b) = (1 + 3.1)0 = 5.15 106 H/m.

c) r = (1 + 3.1) = 4.1.
d) M = m H = (3.1)(77.6yay ) = 241yaz kA/m
e) J = H = (dHz )/(dy) ax = 77.6 ax kA/m2 .
f) Jb = M = (dMz )/(dy) ax = 241 ax kA/m2 .
g) JT = B/0 = 318ax kA/m2 .
149

## 8.20. Find H in a material where:

a) r = 4.2, there are 2.7 1029 atoms/m3 , and each atom has a dipole moment of 2.6 1030 ay
A m2 . Since all dipoles are identical, we may write M = N m = (2.7 1029 )(2.6 1030 ay ) =
0.70ay A/m. Then
M
0.70 ay
H=
=
= 0.22 ay A/m
r 1
4.2 1
b) M = 270 az A/m and = 2 H/m: Have r = /0 = (2 106 )/(4 107 ) = 1.59. Then
H = 270az /(1.59 1) = 456 az A/m.
c) m = 0.7 and B = 2az T: Use
H=

B
2az
=
= 936 az kA/m
0 (1 + m )
(4 107 )(1.7)

## d) Find M in a material where bound surface current densities

of 12 az A/m and 9 az A/m
H
exist at = 0.3 m and = 0.4 m, respectively: We use M dL = Ib , where, since currents
are in the z direction and are symmetric about the z axis, we chose the path integrals to be
circular loops centered on and normal to z. From the symmetry, M will be -directed and
will vary only with radius. Note first that for < 0.3 m, no bound current will be enclosed
by a path integral, so we conclude that M = 0 for < 0.3m. At radii between the currents
the path integral will enclose only the inner current so,
I

M dL = 2M = 2(0.3)12 M =

3.6
a A/m (0.3 < < 0.4m)

Finally, for > 0.4 m, the total enclosed bound current is Ib,tot = 2(0.3)(12)2(0.4)(9) = 0,
so therefore M = 0 ( > 0.4m).
8.21. Find the magnitude of the magnetization in a material for which:
a) the magnetic flux density is 0.02 Wb/m2 and the magnetic susceptibility is 0.003 (note that
this latter quantity is missing in the original problem statement): From B = 0 (H + M) and
from M = m H, we write
B
M=
0

1
1
B
0.02
+1
=
=
= 47.7 A/m
m
0 (334)
(4 107 )(334)

b) the magnetic field intensity is 1200 A/m and the relative permeability is 1.005: From B =
0 (H + M) = 0 r H, we write
M = (r 1)H = (.005)(1200) = 6.0 A/m
c) there are 7.2 1028 atoms per cubic meter, each having a dipole moment of 4 1030 A m2
in the same direction, and the magnetic susceptibility is 0.0003: With all dipoles identical the
dipole moment density becomes
M = n m = (7.2 1028 )(4 1030 ) = 0.288 A/m
150

8.22. Under some conditions, it is possible to approximate the eects of ferromagnetic materials by
assuming linearity in the relationship of B and H. Let r = 1000 for a certain material of which
a cylindrical wire of radius 1mm is made. If I = 1 A and the current distribution is uniform, find
a) B: We apply Amperes circuital law to a circular path of radius around the wire axis, and
where < a:
2
I
I H=
a2
2a2
= 200 a Wb/m2

2H =

B=

10000 I
(103 )4 107 (1)
a
=
a

2a2
2 106

## b) H: Using part a, H = B/r 0 = /(2) 106 a A/m.

c) M:

M = B/0 H =

(2000 2)
106 a = 1.59 108 a A/m
4

d) J:
J=H=

1 d(H )
az = 3.18 105 az A/m
d

Jb = M =

1 d(M )
az = 3.18 108 az A/m2
d

## e) Jb within the wire:

8.23. Calculate values for H , B , and M at = c for a coaxial cable with a = 2.5 mm and b = 6 mm
if it carries current I = 12 A in the center conductor, and = 3 H/m for 2.5 < < 3.5 mm,
= 5 H/m for 3.5 < < 4.5 mm, and = 10 H/m for 4.5 < < 6 mm. Compute for:
a) c = 3 mm: Have
I
12
H =
=
= 637 A/m
2
2(3 103 )
Then B = H = (3 106 )(637) = 1.91 103 Wb/m2 .

## Finally, M = (1/0 )B H = 884 A/m.

b. c = 4 mm: Have
I
12
H =
=
= 478 A/m
2
2(4 103 )
Then B = H = (5 106 )(478) = 2.39 103 Wb/m2 .
Finally, M = (1/0 )B H = 1.42 103 A/m.
c) c = 5 mm: Have
H =

I
12
=
= 382 A/m
2
2(5 103 )

## Then B = H = (10 106 )(382) = 3.82 103 Wb/m2 .

Finally, M = (1/0 )B H = 2.66 103 A/m.

151

8.24. Two current sheets, K0 ay A/m at z = 0 and K0 ay A/m at z = d, are separated by an inhomogeneous material for which r = az + 1, where a is a constant.
a) Find expressions for H and B in the material: The z variation in the permeability leaves the
H field unaected, and so we may find this using Amperes circuital law. This is done in
Chapter 7, culminating in Eq. (12) there. Applying this to the conductor in the z = 0 plane,
we find
H = K an = K0 ay az = K0 ax A/m
b) find the total flux that crosses a 1m2 area on the yz plane: Because the permeability varies
with z, the flux will depend on the location and dimensions of the 1m2 area. Choose a rectangle
located in the range 0 < y < y1 , and z1 < z < z2 , where we require that (z2 z1 )y1 = 1.
Therefore, y1 = 1/(z2 z1 ). The flux through this area is now
Z
Z z2 Z 1/(z2 z1 )
Z z2
0 K0
m = H dS =
0 K0 (az + 1) ax ax dy dz =
(az + 1) dz
(z2 z1 ) z1
s
z1
0
i
ha
i
0 K0 h a 2
=
(z2 z12 ) + (z2 z1 ) = 0 K0 (z2 + z1 ) + 1 Wb/m2
(z2 z1 ) 2
2
8.25. A conducting filament at z = 0 carries 12 A in the az direction. Let r = 1 for < 1 cm, r = 6
for 1 < < 2 cm, and r = 1 for > 2 cm. Find
a) H everywhere: This result will depend on the current and not the materials, and is:
H=

I
1.91
a =
A/m (0 < < )
2

## b) B everywhere: We use B = r 0 H to find:

B( < 1 cm) = (1)0 (1.91/) = (2.4 106 /)a T
B(1 < < 2 cm) = (6)0 (1.91/) = (1.4 105 /)a T
B( > 2 cm) = (1)0 (1.91/) = (2.4 106 /)a T where is in meters.
8.26. A long solenoid has a radius of 3cm, 5,000 turns/m, and carries current I = 0.25 A. The region
0 < < a within the solenoid has r = 5, while r = 1 for a < < 3 cm. Determine a so that
a) a total flux of 10 Wb is present: First, the magnetic flux density in the coil is written in
general as B = nI az Wb/m2 . Using b = 0.03m as the outer radius, the total flux in the coil
becomes
Z
Z
Z
Z
Z
2

B dS =
50 nI d d +
s
0
0
2

2 0 2
2
2
= 0 nI 5a + (b a ) = 0 nI 4a b

m =

0 nI d d

## Solve for a to find a = 2.7 cm.

b) Find a so that the flux is equally-divided between the regions 0 < < a and a < < 3 cm:
Using the expression for the flux in part a, we set
b
3
5a2 = b2 a2 a = = = 1.22 cm
6
6
152

8.27. Let r1 = 2 in region 1, defined by 2x+3y4z > 1, while r2 = 5 in region 2 where 2x+3y4z < 1.
In region 1, H1 = 50ax 30ay + 20az A/m. Find:
a) HN 1 (normal component of H1 at the boundary): We first need a unit vector normal to the
surface, found through
aN =

(2x + 3y 4z)
2ax + 3ay 4az

=
= .37ax + .56ay .74az
| (2x + 3y 4z)|
29

Since this vector is found through the gradient, it will point in the direction of increasing
values of 2x + 3y 4z, and so will be directed into region 1. Thus we write aN = aN 21 . The
normal component of H1 will now be:
HN 1 = (H1 aN 21 )aN 21
= [(50ax 30ay + 20az ) (.37ax + .56ay .74az )] (.37ax + .56ay .74az )
= 4.83ax 7.24ay + 9.66az A/m
b) HT 1 (tangential component of H1 at the boundary):
HT 1 = H1 HN 1
= (50ax 30ay + 20az ) (4.83ax 7.24ay + 9.66az )
= 54.83ax 22.76ay + 10.34az A/m
c) HT 2 (tangential component of H2 at the boundary): Since tangential components of H are
continuous across a boundary between two media of dierent permeabilities, we have
HT 2 = HT 1 = 54.83ax 22.76ay + 10.34az A/m
d) HN 2 (normal component of H2 at the boundary): Since normal components of B are continuous across a boundary between media of dierent permeabilities, we write 1 HN 1 = 2 HN 2
or
HN 2 =

r1
2
HN 1 = (4.83ax 7.24ay + 9.66az ) = 1.93ax 2.90ay + 3.86az A/m
R 2
5

## e) 1 , the angle between H1 and aN 21 : This will be

H1
50ax 30ay + 20az
cos 1 =
aN 21 =
(.37ax + .56ay .74az ) = 0.21
|H1 |
(502 + 302 + 202 )1/2
Therefore 1 = cos1 (.21) = 102 .
f) 2 , the angle between H2 and aN 21 : First,
H2 = HT 2 + HN 2 = (54.83ax 22.76ay + 10.34az ) + (1.93ax 2.90ay + 3.86az )
= 52.90ax 25.66ay + 14.20az A/m

H2
52.90ax 25.66ay + 14.20az
cos 2 =
aN 21 =
(.37ax + .56ay .74az ) = 0.09
|H2 |
60.49

## Therefore 2 = cos1 (.09) = 95 .

153

8.28. For values of B below the knee on the magnetization curve for silicon steel, approximate the curve
by a straight line with = 5 mH/m. The core shown in Fig. 8.17 has areas of 1.6 cm2 and lengths
of 10 cm in each outer leg, and an area of 2.5 cm2 and a length of 3 cm in the central leg. A coil
of 1200 turns carrying 12 mA is placed around the central leg. Find B in the:
a) center leg: We use mmf = R, where, in the central leg,
Rc =

Lin
3 102
=
= 2.4 104 H
Ain
(5 103 )(2.5 104 )

## In each outer leg, the reluctance is

Ro =

Lout
10 102
=
= 1.25 105 H
Aout
(5 103 )(1.6 104 )

The magnetic circuit is formed by the center leg in series with the parallel combination of the
two outer legs. The total reluctance seen at the coil location is RT = Rc +(1/2)Ro = 8.65104
H. We now have
mmf
14.4
=
=
= 1.66 104 Wb
RT
8.65 104
The flux density in the center leg is now
B=

1.66 104
=
= 0.666 T
A
2.5 104

b) center leg, if a 0.3-mm air gap is present in the center leg: The air gap reluctance adds to the
Rair =

0.3 103
= 9.55 105 H
(4 107 )(2.5 104 )

Now the total reluctance is Rnet = RT + Rair = 8.56 104 + 9.55 105 = 1.04 106 . The
flux in the center leg is now
=

14.4
= 1.38 105 Wb
1.04 106

and
B=

1.38 105
= 55.3 mT
2.5 104

154

8.29. In Problem 8.28, the linear approximation suggested in the statement of the problem leads to a flux
density of 0.666 T in the center leg. Using this value of B and the magnetization curve for silicon
.
steel, what current is required in the 1200-turn coil? With B = 0.666 T, we read Hin = 120 A t/m
in Fig. 8.11. The flux in the center leg is = 0.666(2.5 104 ) = 1.66 104 Wb. This divides
equally in the two outer legs, so that the flux density in each outer leg is
Bout

1 1.66 104
=
= 0.52 Wb/m2
2 1.6 104

.
Using Fig. 8.11 with this result, we find Hout = 90 A t/m We now use
I

H dL = N I

to find
I=

1
(120)(3 102 ) + (90)(10 102 )
(Hin Lin + Hout Lout ) =
= 10.5 mA
N
1200

155

8.30. A rectangular core has fixed permeability r >> 1, a square cross-section of dimensions a a, and
has centerline dimensions around its perimeter of b and d. Coils 1 and 2, having turn numbers N1
and N2 , are wound on the core. Consider a selected core cross-sectional plane as lying within the
xy plane, such that the surface is defined by 0 < x < a, 0 < y < a.
a) With current I1 in coil 1, use Amperes circuital law to find the magnetic flux density as
a function of position over the core cross-section: Along the midline of the core (at which
x = d/2), the path integral for H in Amperes law becomes
I

H dL = (2b + 2d)H

At all other points in the core interior, but o the midline, the path integral becomes
I
H dL = [2(d + a 2x) + 2(b + a 2x)] H = Iencl = N1 I1
The flux density magnitudes are therefore
B11 = B12 = H =

r 0 N1 I1
2(d + b + 2a 4x)

## in which we are assuming no y variation.

b) Integrate your result of part a to determine the total magnetic flux within the core: This will
be the integral of B over the core cross-section:
m

a
r 0 N1 I1
1

= B dS =
dx dy = r 0 N1 I1 a ln [d + b + 2a 4x]
2(d
+
b
+
2a

4x)
8
0
s
0
0

1
d + b + 2a
= r 0 N1 I1 a ln
Wb
8
d + b 2a
a

L11

N1 B11
1
d + b + 2a
2
=
= r 0 N1 a ln
H
I1
8
d + b 2a

## d) find the mutual inductance between coils 1 and 2.

M12

N2 B12
1
d + b + 2a
=M =
= r 0 N1 N2 a ln
H
I1
8
d + b 2a

156

8.31. A toroid is constructed of a magnetic material having a cross-sectional area of 2.5 cm2 and an
eective length of 8 cm. There is also a short air gap 0.25 mm length and an eective area of 2.8
cm2 . An mmf of 200 A t is applied to the magnetic circuit. Calculate the total flux in the toroid
if:
a) the magnetic material is assumed to have infinite permeability: In this case the core reluctance,
Rc = l/(A), is zero, leaving only the gap reluctance. This is
Rg =

d
0.25 103
=
= 7.1 105 H
0 Ag
(4 107 )(2.5 104 )

Now
=

mmf
200
=
= 2.8 104 Wb
Rg
7.1 105

b) the magnetic material is assumed to be linear with r = 1000: Now the core reluctance is no
longer zero, but
8 102
Rc =
= 2.6 105 H
(1000)(4 107 )(2.5 104 )
The flux is then
=

mmf
200
=
= 2.1 104 Wb
Rc + Rg
9.7 105

c) the magnetic material is silicon steel: In this case we use the magnetization curve, Fig. 8.11,
and employ an iterative process to arrive at the final answer. We can begin with the value of
found in part a, assuming infinite permeability: (1) = 2.8 104 Wb. The flux density
(1)
in the core is then Bc = (2.8 104 )/(2.5 104 ) = 1.1 Wb/m2 . From Fig. 8.11, this
(1) .
corresponds to magnetic field strength Hc = 270 A/m. We check this by applying Amperes
circuital law to the magnetic circuit:
I
H dL = Hc(1) Lc + Hg(1) d
(1)

(1)

where Hc Lc = (270)(8 102 ) = 22, and where Hg d = (1) Rg = (2.8 104 )(7.1 105 ) =
199. But we require that
I
H dL = 200 A t

whereas the actual result in this first calculation is 199 + 22 = 221, which is too high. So, for
(2)
(2)
a second trial, we reduce B to Bc = 1 Wb/m2 . This yields Hc = 200 A/m from Fig. 8.11,
and thus (2) = 2.5 104 Wb. Now
I
H dL = Hc(2) Lc + (2) Rg = 200(8 102 ) + (2.5 104 )(7.1 105 ) = 194
This is less than 200, meaning that the actual flux is slightly higher than 2.5 104 Wb.
I will leave the answer at that, considering the lack of fine resolution in Fig. 8.11.

157

8.32. a) Find an expression for the magnetic energy stored per unit length in a coaxial transmission line
consisting of conducting sleeves of negligible thickness, having radii a and b. A medium of relative
permeability r fills the region between conductors. Assume current I flows in both conductors,
in opposite directions.
Within the coax, the magnetic field is H = I/(2) a . The energy density is then
wm =

1
r 0 I 2
BH=
J/m3
2
8 2 2

## The energy per unit length in z is therefore

Wm =

wm dv =

r 0 I 2
r 0 I 2

d
d
dz
=
ln
8 2 2
4

b
J/m
a

b) Obtain the inductance, L, per unit length of line by equating the energy to (1/2)LI 2 .
2Wm
r 0
L=
=
ln
I2
2

b
H/m
a

8.33. A toroidal core has a square cross section, 2.5 cm < < 3.5 cm, 0.5 cm < z < 0.5 cm. The
upper half of the toroid, 0 < z < 0.5 cm, is constructed of a linear material for which r = 10,
while the lower half, 0.5 cm < z < 0, has r = 20. An mmf of 150 A t establishes a flux in the
a direction. For z > 0, find:
a) H (): Amperes circuital law gives:
2H = N I = 150 H =

150
= 23.9/ A/m
2

## b) B (): We use B = r 0 H = (10)(4 107 )(23.9/) = 3.0 104 / Wb/m2 .

c) z>0 : This will be
z>0 =

Z Z

B dS =
7

= 5.0 10

Wb

.005

.035

.025

3.0 104
ddz = (.005)(3.0 104 ) ln

.035
.025

d) Repeat for z < 0: First, the magnetic field strength will be the same as in part a, since the
calculation is material-independent. Thus H = 23.9/ A/m. Next, B is modified only by the
new permeability, which is twice the value used in part a: Thus B = 6.0 104 / Wb/m2 .
Finally, since B is twice that of part a, the flux will be increased by the same factor, since
the area of integration for z < 0 is the same. Thus z<0 = 1.0 106 Wb.
e) Find total : This will be the sum of the values found for z < 0 and z > 0, or total =
1.5 106 Wb.

158

8.34. Determine the energy stored per unit length in the internal magnetic field of an infinitely-long
straight wire of radius a, carrying uniform current I.
We begin with H = I/(2a2 ) a , and find the integral of the energy density over the unit
length in z:
Z
Z 1 Z 2 Z a
1
0 2 I 2
0 I 2
2
We =
0 H dv =

d
d
dz
=
J/m
2 4
16
vol 2
0
0
0 8 a
8.35. The cones = 21 and = 159 are conducting surfaces and carry total currents of 40 A, as shown
in Fig. 8.18. The currents return on a spherical conducting surface of 0.25 m radius.
a) Find H in the region 0 < r < 0.25, 21 < < 159 , 0 < < 2: We can apply Amperes
circuital law and take advantage of symmetry. We expect to see H in the a direction and it
would be constant at a given distance from the z axis. We thus perform the line integral of
H over a circle, centered on the z axis, and parallel to the xy plane:
I
Z 2
H dL =
H a r sin a d = Iencl. = 40 A
0

Assuming that H is constant over the integration path, we take it outside the integral and
solve:
40
20
H =
H=
a A/m
2r sin
r sin
b) How much energy is stored in this region? This will be

Z
Z 2 Z 159 Z .25
Z
1
2000
1000 159 d
2
2
WH =
0 H =
r sin dr d d =

sin
2 r2 sin2
v 2
0
21
21

0
1000
tan(159/2)
=
ln
= 1.35 104 J

tan(21/2)
8.36. The dimensions of the outer conductor of a coaxial cable are b and c, where c > b. Assuming = 0 ,
find the magnetic energy stored per unit length in the region b < < c for a uniformly-distributed
total current I flowing in opposite directions in the inner and outer conductors.
We first need to find the magnetic field inside the outer conductor volume. Amperes circuital
law is applied to a circular path of radius , where b < < c. This encloses the entire center
conductor current (assumed in the positive z direction), plus that part of the z-directed
outer conductor current that lies inside . We obtain:
2

b2
c 2
2H = I I 2
=I 2
c b2
c b2
So that

I
c 2
H=
a A/m (b < < c)
2 c2 b2

## The energy within the outer conductor is now

2

Z
Z 1 Z 2 Z c
1
0 I 2
c
2
2
2
Wm =
0 H dv =
2c + d d, dz
2 2
2 2 2
vol 2
0
0
b 8 (c b )

0 I 2
1
2 2
4 4
=
ln(c/b) (1 b /c ) + (1 b /c ) J
4(1 b2 /c2 )2
4
159

8.37. Find the inductance of the cone-sphere configuration described in Problem 8.35 and Fig. 8.18.
The inductance is that oered at the origin between the vertices of the cone: From Problem 8.35,
the magnetic flux density is B = 200 /(r sin ). We integrate this over the crossectional area
defined by 0 < r < 0.25 and 21 < < 159 , to find the total flux:
=

159

21

0.25

200
50
tan(159/2)
50
r dr d =
ln
=
(3.37) = 6.74 106 Wb
r sin

tan(21/2)

## Now L = /I = 6.74 106 /40 = 0.17 H.

Second method: Use the energy computation of Problem 8.35, and write
2WH
2(1.35 104 )
=
= 0.17 H
I2
(40)2

L=

8.38. A toroidal core has a rectangular cross section defined by the surfaces = 2 cm, = 3 cm, z = 4
cm, and z = 4.5 cm. The core material has a relative permeability of 80. If the core is wound with
a coil containing 8000 turns of wire, find its inductance: First we apply Amperes circuital law to
a circular loop of radius in the interior of the toroid, and in the a direction.
I

H dL = 2H = N I

H =

NI
2

The flux in the toroid is then the integral over the cross section of B:
=

Z Z

B dL =

.045

.04

.03

.02

r 0 N I
r 0 N I
d dz = (.005)
ln
2
2

## The flux linkage is then given by N , and the inductance is

L=

N
(.005)(80)(4 107 )(8000)2
=
ln(1.5) = 2.08 H
I
2

160

.03
.02

## 8.39. Conducting planes in air at z = 0 and z = d carry surface currents of K0 ax A/m.

a) Find the energy stored in the magnetic field per unit length (0 < x < 1) in a width w (0 <
y < w): First, assuming current flows in the +ax direction in the sheet at z = d, and in ax
in the sheet at z = 0, we find that both currents together yield H = K0 ay for 0 < z < d and
zero elsewhere. The stored energy within the specified volume will be:
WH =

1
0 H 2 dv =
2

1
1
0 K02 dx dy dz = wd0 K02 J/m
2
2

b) Calculate the inductance per unit length of this transmission line from WH = (1/2)LI 2 , where
I is the total current in a width w in either conductor: We have I = wK0 , and so
L=

2 wd
2 dw
0 d
0 K02 = 2 2
0 K02 =
H/m
2
I 2
w K0 2
w

c) Calculate the total flux passing through the rectangle 0 < x < 1, 0 < z < d, in the plane
y = 0, and from this result again find the inductance per unit length:
=

0 Hay ay dx dz =

Then
L=

0 K0 dx dy = 0 dK0

0 dK0
0 d
=
=
H/m
I
wK0
w

8.40. A coaxial cable has conductor radii a and b, where a < b. Material of permeability r 6= 1 exists in
the region a < < c, while the region c < < b is air-filled. Find an expression for the inductance
per unit length.
In both regions, the magnetic field will be H = I/(2) a A/m. So the flux per unit length
between conductors will be the sum of the fluxes in both regions. We integrate over a plane
surface of constant , unit length in z, and between radii a and b:
m =

BdS =

r 0 I
d dz+
2

c
0 I
0 I
b
d dz =
r ln
+ ln
Wb/m
2
2
a
c

## The inductance per unit length is then L = m /I (with one turn), or

c
0
b
L=
r ln
+ ln
H/m
2
a
c

161

8.41. A rectangular coil is composed of 150 turns of a filamentary conductor. Find the mutual inductance
in free space between this coil and an infinite straight filament on the z axis if the four corners of
the coil are located at
a) (0,1,0), (0,3,0), (0,3,1), and (0,1,1): In this case the coil lies in the yz plane. If we assume that
the filament current is in the +az direction, then the B field from the filament penetrates the
coil in the ax direction (normal to the loop plane). The flux through the loop will thus be
=

0 I
0 I
ax (ax ) dy dz =
ln 3
2y
2

## The mutual inductance is then

M=

N
1500
=
ln 3 = 33 H
I
2

b) (1,1,0), (1,3,0), (1,3,1), and (1,1,1): Now the coil lies in the x = 1 plane, and the field from
the filament penetrates in a direction that is not normal to the plane of the coil. We write the
B field from the filament at the coil location as
B=
The flux through the coil is now
=

0 Ia
p
2 y 2 + 1

0 Ia
p
(ax ) dy dz =
2 y 2 + 1

0 I sin
p
dy dz
2 y 2 + 1

3
0 Iy
0 I

2
dy
dz
=
ln(y
+
1)
= (1.6 107 )I
2(y 2 + 1)
2
1

## The mutual inductance is then

M=

N
= (150)(1.6 107 ) = 24 H
I

8.42. Find the mutual inductance between two filaments forming circular rings of radii a and a, where
a << a. The field should be determined by approximate methods. The rings are coplanar and
concentric.
We use the result of Problem 8.4, which asks for the magnetic field at the origin, arising from
a circular current loop of radius a. That solution is reproduced below: Using the Biot-Savart
law, we have IdL = Iad a , R = a, and aR = a . The field at the center of the circle is
then
Z 2
Z 2
Id az
I
Hcirc =
=
=
az A/m
2
4a
4a
2a
0
0
We now approximate that field as constant over a circular area of radius a, and write the
flux linkage (for the single turn) as
0 I(a)2
.
m = (a)2 Bouter =
2a
162

M=

m
0 (a)2
=
I
2a

8.43. a) Use energy relationships to show that the internal inductance of a nonmagnetic cylindrical wire
of radius a carrying a uniformly-distributed current I is 0 /(8) H/m. We first find the magnetic
field inside the conductor, then calculate the energy stored there. From Amperes circuital law:
2
I
a2

2H =
Now
WH =

1
0 H2 dv =
2
2

H =
2

I
A/m
2a2

0 I 2 2
0 I 2

d
d
dz
=
J/m
8 2 a4
16

## Now, with WH = (1/2)LI , we find Lint = 0 /(8) as expected.

b) Find the internal inductance if the portion of the conductor for which < c < a is removed: The
hollowed-out conductor still carries current I, so Amperes circuital law now reads:
2

(2 c2 )
I
c2
2H =
H =
A/m
(a2 c2 )
2 a2 c2
and the energy is now
Z 1 Z 2 Z
WH =

Z a
0 I 2 (2 c2 )2
0 I 2
C4
3
2
d d dz =
2c +
d
2 2 2
2 2
4(a2 c2 )2 c

0
0
c 8 (a c )

a
0 I 2
1 4
4
2 2
2
4
=
(a c ) c (a c ) + c ln
J/m
4(a2 c2 )2 4
c
a

## The internal inductance is then

Lint

2WH
0 a4 4a2 c2 + 3c4 + 4c4 ln(a/c)
=
=
H/m
I2
8
(a2 c2 )2

8.44. Show that the external inductance per unit length of a two-wire transmission line carrying equal
and opposite currents is approximately (/) ln(d/a) H/m, where a is the radius of each wire and
d is the center-to-center wire spacing. On what basis is the approximation valid?
Suppose that one line is positioned along the z axis, with the other in the x-z plane at
x = d. With equal and opposite currents, I, and with the z axis wire current in the positive
z direction, the magnetic flux density in the x-z plane (arising from both currents) will be
I
ay Wb/m2 (a < x < d a)
x

B(x) =

m =

B dS =

(da)

I
I
ay ay dx dz =
ln
x

## Now, the external inductance will be L = m /I, which becomes

d
.
L = ln
H/m

a
under the assumption that a << d.
163

da
a