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STRENGTH OF MATERIALS
(FOR IV SEMESTER)
UNIT I
ENERGY PRINCIPLES
Strain energy and strain energy density- strain energy in traction, shear in
flexure and torsion- Castiglianos theorem Principle of virtual work application
of energy theorems for computing deflections in beams and trusses Maxwells
reciprocal theorem.
1. Define strain energy and Proof stress.
Strain energy
Whenever a body is strained, the energy is absorbed in the body. The energy which is
absorbed in the body due to straining effect is known as strain energy. The strain energy stored in
the body is equal to the work done by the applied load in stretching the body
Proof stress
The stress induced in an elastic body when it possesses maximum strain energy is termed
as its proof stress.
2. Define: Resilience
The resilience is defined as the capacity of a strained body for doing work on the
removal of the straining force. The total strain energy stored in a body is commonly known as
resilience
3. Define Resilience, Proof Resilience and Modulus of Resilience.
Resilience
The resilience is defined as the capacity of a strained body for doing work on the
removal of the straining force. The total strain energy stored in a body is commonly known as
resilience.
Proof Resilience
The proof resilience is defined as the quantity of strain energy stored in a body when
strained up to elastic limit. The maximum strain energy stored in a body is known as proof
resilience.
Modulus of Resilience
It is defined as the proof resilience of a material per unit volume.
Proof resilience
Modulus of resilience = ------------------Volume of the body
4. State the two methods for analyzing the statically indeterminate structures.

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## a. Displacement method (equilibrium method (or) stiffness coefficient method.

b. Force method (compatibility method (or) flexibility coefficient method)
5. Define Castiglianos first theorem second Theorem.
First Theorem.
It states that the deflection caused by any external force is equal to the partial derivative of
the strain energy with respect to that force.
Second Theorem
It states that If U is the total strain energy stored up in a frame work in equilibrium under an
external force; its magnitude is always a minimum.
6. State the Principle of Virtual work.
It states that the workdone on a structure by external loads is equal to the internal energy
stored in a structure (Ue = Ui)
7. What is the strain energy stored in a rod of length l and axial rigidity AE to an axial force
P?
Strain energy stored
P2 L
U= -------2AE
8. State the various methods for computing the joint deflection of a perfect frame.
2. Deflection by Castiglianos First Theorem
3. Graphical method : Willot Mohr Diagram
9. State the deflection of the joint due to linear deformation.
n
v = U x
1
n
H = U x
1
PL
= --------Ae
U= vertical deflection
U= horizontal deflection

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## 10. State the deflection of joint due to temperature variation.

n
=UXA
1
= U11 + U2 2 + + Un n
If the change in length () of certain member is zero, the product U. for those members
will be substituted as zero in the above equation.
11. State the deflection of a joint due to lack of fit.
n
= U
1
= U11 + U2 2 + + Un n
If there is only one member having lack of fit 1, the deflection of a particular joint will be
equal to U11.
12. What is the effect of change in temperature in a particular member of a redundant
frame?
When any member of the redundant frame is subjected to a change in temperature, it will cause
a change in length of that particular member, which in turn will cause lack of fit stresses in all
other members of the redundant frame.
13. State the difference between unit load and strain energy method in the determination of
structures.
In strain energy method, an imaginary load P is applied at the point where the deflection is
desired to be determined. P is equated to zero in the final step and the deflection is obtained.
In the Unit Load method, a unit load (instead of P) is applied at the point where the deflection
is desired.
1. The external and internal forces are in equilibrium
2. Supports are rigid and no movement is possible
3. The material is strained well within the elastic limit.
15. State the comparison of Castiglianos first theorem and unit load method.
The deflection by the unit load method is given by
n PUL
= ------1 AE
n PL
------- x U
1 AE

=
n

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= x U ----- (i)
1
The deflection by castiglianos theorem is given by
n

PL P
AE W --------- (ii)

## By comparing (i) & (ii)

P
U
W
16. State Maxwells Reciprocal Theorem.
The Maxwells Reciprocal theorem states as The work done by the first system of
loads due to displacements caused by a second system of loads equals the work done by the
second system of loads due to displacements caused by the first system of loads.
17. Define degree of redundancy.
A frame is said to be statically indeterminate when the no of unknown reactions or stress
components exceed the total number of condition equations of equilibrium.
20. Define Perfect Frame.
If the number of unknowns is equal to the number of conditions equations available, the
frame is said to be a perfect frame.
21. State the two types of strain energies.
c.strain energy of distortion (shear strain energy)
d. strain energy of uniform compression (or) tension (volumetric strain energy)
22. State in which cases, Castiglianos theorem can be used.
1. To determine the displacements of complicated structures.
2. To find the deflection of beams due to shearing (or) bending forces (or)
bending moments are unknown.
3. To find the deflections of curved beams springs etc.
23. Define Proof stress.
The stress induced in an elastic body when it possesses maximum strain energy is termed as
its proof stress.

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## 12 Marks Questions And Answers

1. Derive the expression for strain energy in Linear Elastic Systems for the following
Let us consider a straight bar of Length L, having uniform cross- sectional area A. If an axial
load P is applied gradually, and if the bar undergoes a deformation , the work done, stored
as strain energy (U) in the body, will be equal to average force (1/2 P) multiplied by the
deformation .
Thus

U = P. But = PL / AE

U = P. PL/AE = P2 L / 2AE
---------- (i)
If, however the bar has variable area of cross section, consider a small of length dx and area
of cross section Ax. The strain energy dU stored in this small element of length dx will be,
from equation (i)
P2 dx
dU = --------2Ax E
The total strain energy U can be obtained by integrating the above expression over the length
of the bar.
L

U=

(ii)

P 2 dx
2 Ax E

## Let us now consider a member of length L subjected to uniform bending moment M.

Consider an element of length dx and let di be the change in the slope of the element due to
applied moment M. If M is applied gradually, the strain energy stored in the small element will
be
dU = Mdi
But
di
d
------ = ----- (dy/dx) = d2y/d2x = M/EI
dx
dx

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M
di = ------- dx
EI
Hence dU = M (M/EI) dx
= (M2/2EI) dx
Integrating
L

M 2 dx

2 EI
0

U =
2. State and prove the expression for castiglianos first theorem.
Castiglianos first theorem:
It states that the deflection caused by any external force is equal to the partial derivative
of the strain energy with respect to that force. A generalized statement of the theorem is as
follows:
If there is any elastic system in equilibrium under the action of a set of a forces
W1 , W2, W3 .Wn and corresponding displacements 1 , 2, 3. n and a set
of moments M1 , M2, M3Mn and corresponding rotations 1 , 2, 3,.. n , then
the partial derivative of the total strain energy U with respect to any one of the forces or
moments taken individually would yield its corresponding displacements in its direction of
actions.

Expressed mathematically,
U
1
W1
U
1
M 1

------------- (i)
-------------

(ii)

Proof:
Consider an elastic body as show in fig subjected to loads W 1, W2, W3 etc.
each applied independently. Let the body be supported at A, B etc. The reactions RA ,RB etc do
not work while the body deforms because the hinge reaction is fixed and cannot move (and
therefore the work done is zero) and the roller reaction is perpendicular to the displacements
of the roller. Assuming that the material follows the Hookes law, the displacements of the

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hold.
Let 1, 2, 3 etc be the deflections of points 1, 2, 3, etc in the direction of the
loads at these points. The total strain energy U is then given by
U = (W11 + W2 2 + .)

---------

(iii)

Let the load W1 be increased by an amount dW1, after the loads have been applied. Due to
this, there will be small changes in the deformation of the body, and the strain energy will be
increased slightly by an amount dU. expressing this small increase as the rate of change of U
with respect to W1 times dW1, the new strain energy will be
U
xdW1

W
1
U+

---------

(iv)

On the assumption that the principle of superposition applies, the final strain energy does
not depend upon the order in which the forces are applied. Hence assuming that dW 1 is acting
on the body, prior to the application of W1 , W2, W3 etc, the deflections will be
infinitely small and the corresponding strain energy of the second order can be neglected.
Now when W1, W2, W3 etc, are applied (with dW1 still acting initially), the points 1, 2,
3 etc will move through 1, 2, 3 etc. in the direction of these forces and the strain
energy will be given as above. Due to the application of W1, rides through a distance 1 and
produces the external work increment dU = dW1 . 1. Hence the strain energy, when the loads
are applied is
U+dW1.1

----------- (v)

## Since the final strain energy is by equating (iv) & (v).

U
xdW1

W
1
U+dW . = U +
1

1=

U
W1

U
Which proves the proportion. Similarly it can be proved that 1= M 1 .
Deflection of beams by castiglianos first theorem:
If a member carries an axial force the energies stored is given by
L
P 2 dx
2 Ax E
U= 0
In the above expression, P is the axial force in the member and is the function of external
load W1, W2,W3 etc. To compute the deflection 1 in the direction of W1
U L
P p
dx
W1
AE W1
0
1=
=

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If the strain energy is due to bending and not due to axial load
L
M 2 dx
2EI
U= 0
U L
M dx
W1 M
W1 EI
1=
=0
If no load is acting at the point where deflection is desired, fictitious load W is applied at the
point in the direction where the deflection is required. Then after differentiating but before
integrating the fictitious load is set to zero. This method is sometimes known as the fictitious
load method. If the rotation 1 is required in the direction of M1.
L

M dx
U
M

M 1 EI
1= M 1 = 0
3. Calculate the central deflection and the slope at ends of a simply supported beam
carrying a UDL w/ unit length over the whole span.
Solution:
a) Central deflection:
Since no point load is acting at the center where the deflection is required, apply the
fictitious load W, then the reaction at A and B will (WL/2 + W/2) each.
L
M dx
U

W 0 W EI
c=
=

## Consider a section at a distance x from A.

Bending moment at x,
wx 2
wL W

2
2
M= 2
M x

x
2

c
Putting W=0,

2
EI

l
2

wL W
wx 2 x

dx

2
2 2
0 2

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2
c
EI

l
2

wL wx 2 x

dx
x

2 2

0 2
l

2 wLx 3 wx 4 2

EI 12
16 0

5 wl 4
c
384 EI
b) Slope at ends
To obtain the slope at the end A, say apply a frictions moment A as shown in fig. The
wl m
wl m

l and 2
l
reactions at A and B will be 2
Measuring x from b, we get

A=

1
l

EI Mx Mx .Dx
0
M
-------------------------------- 2

Where Mx is the moment at a point distant x from the origin (ie, B) is a function of M.
wl m
Wx 2

l x- 2
Mx = 2
Mx x
in
m
l
2

A=

1
EI

wl m
Wx 2

2
l x - 2 X/2 Dx

Putting M=0
l

1 wl
WX 2 x
x
dx

Ei 0 2
2 l

1
A
EI

wL3
24 EI

wx 3 wx 4

6
8L 0

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## 4. State and prove the Castiglianos second Theorem.

Castiglianos second theorem:
It states that the strain energy of a linearly elastic system that is initially
unstrained will have less strain energy stored in it when subjected to a total load system than it
would have if it were self-strained.
u
t = 0
For example, if is small strain (or) displacement, within the elastic limit in the direction of
the redundant force T,
u
t =
=0 when the redundant supports do not yield (or) when there is no initial lack of fit in the
redundant members.

Proof:
Consider a redundant frame as shown in fig.in which Fc is a redundant member of
geometrical length L.Let the actual length of the member Fc be (L- ), being the initial lack
of fit.F2 C represents thus the actual length (L- ) of the member. When it is fitted to the truss,
the member will have to be pulled such that F2 and F coincide.
According to Hookes law
T (l ) TL

(approx )
AE
AE
F2 F1 = Deformation =
Where T is the force (tensile) induced in the member.

Hence FF1=FF2-F1 F2
TL
= AE ------------------------------------ ( i )

Let the member Fc be removed and consider a tensile force T applied at the corners F and C as
shown in fig.
FF1 = relative deflection of F and C

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u1
= T ------------------------------------------ ( ii )

According to castiglianos first theorem where U1 is the strain energy of the whole frame except
that of the member Fc.
Equating (i) and (ii) we get
u1
TL
T = -- AE
(or)
u1
TL
T + AE = ----------------------- ( iii )

## To strain energy stored in the member Fc due to a force T is

TL
T 2L
UFC = T. AE = 2 AE

U FC
TL

T
AE
TL
Substitute the value of AE in (iii) we get

u ' U FC
U

T
T
(or) T
U
0
When U= U + U Fc.If there is no initial lack of fit, =0 and hence T
1

Note:
i) Castiglianos theorem of minimum strain energy is used for the for analysis of statically
indeterminate beam ands portal tranes,if the degree of redundancy is not more than two.
ii) If the degree of redundancy is more than two, the slope deflection method or the moment
distribution method is more convenient.
5) A beam AB of span 3mis fixed at both the ends and carries a point load of 9 KN at C
distant 1m from A. The M.O.I. of the portion AC of the beam is 2I and that of portion CB is
I. calculate the fixed end moments and reactions.
Solution:
There are four unknowns Ma, Ra, Mb and Rb.Only two equations of static are available

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(ie)

v 0 and M 0

## This problem is of second degree indeterminacy.

First choose MA and MB as redundant.

A=

Mx M x
dx
U AB
0 EI R A
R A

-----------(1)

B
M M x
U AB
0 x
dx
EI M A
A
A= M A
1) For portion AC:

-------------(2)

## Taking A as the origin

Mx = -MA + RA x

M x
M x
x;
1
R A
M A

M .O.I 2 I

Limits of x: 0 to 1m
1
M x M x
- M A R A x x dx
dx

EI R A
2 EI
A
0

Hence

R 1
1 M A 1

2 EI
2
3
2

1 RA M A

2 EI 3
2

1
M x M x
- M A R A x 1
dx

dx

EI

R
2
EI
A
A
0

And

R A 1
1

M
1

A
2 EI
2

R
1 M A A
2 EI
2

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## For portion CB, Taking A as the origin we have

M x = M A R A X 9( X 1)
M x
M x
x;
1
R A
M A
M.O.I = I

Limits of x : 1 to 3 m

Hence
3
M x M x
- M A R A x - 9(x - 1) x dx
dx

EI R A
EI
C
1
B

1
= EI

26

4 M A 3 R A 42

And
3
M x M x
- M A R A x - 9(x - 1) - 1
dx

dx

EI

M
EI
A
C
1
B

1
2M A 4 R A 18
= EI

## Subs these values in (1) & (2) we get

U AB
0
R A

1 RA M A 1

EI 3
2 EI

26

4 M A 3 R A 42 0

2.08 MA = 9.88

__________ (3)

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U AB
0
M A

1
2 EI

M A RA 1
1 2 EI 2 M A 4 R A 18 0

MA 1.7RA

MA = 4.8 KN M
RA = 7.05 KN

## (assumed direction is correct)

M 0
To find MB, take moments at B, and apply the condition
there. Taking clockwise
moment as positive and anticlockwise moment as negative. Taking MB clockwise, we have
MB MA =RA (3) 9x2 = 0
MB 4.8 + (7.05x 3) -18 = 0
MB = 1.65 KN m (assumed direction is correct)
To find RB Apply

## V 0 for the whole frame.

RB = 9 RA = 9-7.05 = 1.95 KN
6.Using Castiglianos First Theorem, determine the deflection and rotation of the
overhanging end A of the beam loaded as shown in Fig.
Sol:
Rotation of A:
RB x L = -M
RB = -M/L
RB = M/L ( )
& RC = M/L ( )

U
1

M EI

M x.
A

B
M x
M x
1
dx
M x.
.dx

M
EI C
M

____________ (1)

## For any point distant x from A, between A and B (i.e.) x = 0 to x = L/3

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Mx = M

M x
1
and M

________ (2)

Mx = (M/L) x

M x x

L
and M

________ (3)

## Subs (2) & (3) in (1)

U
1
A

M EI

L/3

1
M (1).dx

EI
0

M x
x dx
L L
0

ML ML

3EI 3EI

2ML
(clockwise)
3EI

b) Deflection of A:
To find the deflection at A, apply a fictitious load W at A, in upward direction as
shown in fig.
4
R B xL ( M WL )
3
4
1
R B ( M WL )
3
L

4
1
RB ( M WL )
3
L

1
1
RC ( M WL )
3
L
B
M x
U
1
1
A
M x

W EI A
W
EI

## For the portion AB, x = 0 at A and x = L/3 at B

Mx = M + Wx

M x
x
W

M x
.dx
W

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## For the portion CB, x = 0 at C and x = L at B

1

1
M x M WL .x
8

L
M x x

W
3

1
A
EI

L/3

M Wx x 1 M 1 WL x . x dx

EI 0
3
L 3
0

Putting W = 0

1
A
EI

L/3

Mx dx 1

EI
0

Mx 2

dx

3
L

M x2 L /3 M x3 L
A ( )0
( )0
EI 2
3EI 3
ML2 ML2
A

18EI 9 EI
ML2
A
6 EI
7. Determine the vertical and horizontal displacements of the point C of the pin-jointed
frame shown in fig. The cross sectional area of AB is 100 sqmm and of AC and BC 150 mm2
each. E= 2 x 10 5 N/mm2. (By unit load method)
Sol:
The vertical and horizontal deflections of the joint C are given by
PuL
V
AE
Pu ' L
H
AE
2
2
AC = 3 4 5m
Reaction:
RA = -3/4

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RB = 3/4
Sin = 3/5 = 0.6; Cos = 4/5 = 0.8
Resolving vertically at the joint C, we get
6 = PAC cos + PBC sin
Resolving horizontally at the joint C, we get
PAC cos = PBC sin ;
PAC = PBC
PAC sin + PBC sin = 6
2 PAC sin = 6
PAC = 6/sin = 6/2 x 0.6 = 5 KN (tension)
PAC = PBC = 5 KN (tension)
Resolving horizontally at the joint C, we get
PAB = PAC cos
PAB = 5 cos ;
PAB = 5 x 0.8
PAB = 4 KN (comp)
B) Stresses due to unit vertical load at C:
Apply unit vertical load at C. The Stresses in each member will be 1/6 than of those
u AC u BC 5 / 6
u AB 4 / 6 2 / 3
C) Stresses due to unit horizontal load at C:
Assume the horizontal load towards left as shown in fig.
Resolving vertically at the joint C, we get
uCA ' sin uCB ' sin

u CA ' u CB '
Resolving horizontally at the joint C, we get

## u CB ' cos u CA ' cos 1

u CB ' cos u CB ' cos 1
2u CB ' cos 1
1
1

5 / 8KN (tension )
2 cos 2 x0.8
u CA ' 5 / 8 KN
u CB '

u CA ' 5 / 8 KN (comp)
Resolving horizontally at the joint B, we get

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## u AB ' u BC ' cos

u AB ' 5 / 8 x0.8 0.5 KN
u AB ' 0.5 KN (comp)

Member
AB
BC
CA

Length(L)
mm
8000
5000
5000

Area
(mm)2
100
150
150

P(KN)

U (kN)

PUL/A

U(KN)

PUL/A

-4
5
5

-2/3
5/6
5/6

640/3
2500/18
2500/18

-1/2
5/8
-5/8

160
2500/24
2500/24

## E = 2 X 105 n/mm2= 200 KN/m2

Pul 491

2.45mm

v AE 200

pu ' l 160

0.8mm
AE
200

8) The frame shown in fig. Consists of four panels each 25m wide, and the cross sectional
areas of the member are such that, when the frame carries equal loads at the panel points
of the lower chord, the stress in all the tension members is f n/mm 2 and the stress in all the
comparison members of 0.8 f N/mm2.Determine the values of f if the ratio of the maximum
deflection to span is 1/900 Take E= 2.0 x 105 N/mm2.

Sol:
The top chord members will be in compression and the bottom chord members, verticals,
and diagonals will be in tension. Due to symmetrical loading, the maximum deflection occurs at
C. Apply unit load at C to find u in all the members. All the members have been numbered 1, 2,
3.. etc., by the rule u8 = u10 = u12 = 0.
Reaction RA = RB = 1/2
1
= 45 ; cos = sin =

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RA
2

(comp)
sin
2
2 1
1
u 3 u 7 cos
.
u 4 (tension )
2
2 2

u 7

u9

u4
2

(tension )
cos
2

## Also, u 7 cos u 9 cos u1

u1
Member
1
3
4
7
8
9

2 1
2 1
x

x
1.0(comp)
2
2
2
2

Length (L) mm
2500
2500
2500
2500 (2)0.5
2500
2500(2)0.5

P (N/mm2)
-0.8 F
+F
+F
-0.8F
+F
+F

U
-1.0
+1/2
+1/2
-(2)0.5/2
0
+(2)0.5/2

PUL
+2000F
+1250F
+1250F
+2000F
0
+2500F
Sum:

C =

+9000F

PUL 9000 2

0.09
E
2 x10 5
F mm

1
1
100
xspan
x10000
900
900
9 mm
Hence 0.09 F = 100/9 (or) F = 100/(9 x 0.09) = 123.5 N/mm2.

9. Determine the vertical deflection of the joint C of the frame shown in fig. due to
temperature rise of 60 F in the upper chords only. The coefficient of expansion = 6.0 x 10 -6
per 1 F and E = 2 x 10 6 kg /cm2.

Sol:
Increase in length of each member of the upper chord = L t
= 400 x 6x 10-6 x 60
= 0.144 cm

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## The vertical deflection of C is given by

u
To find u, apply unit vertical load at C. Since the change in length () occurs only in the
three top chord members, stresses in these members only need be found out.
Reaction at A = 4/12 = 1/3
Reaction at B = 8/12 = 2/3
Passing a section cutting members 1 and 4, and taking moments at D, we get
U1 = (1/3 x 4) 1/3 = 4/9 (comp)
Similarly, passing a section cutting members 3 and 9 and taking moments at C, we get
2 1 8
u 3 x 4 (comp)
3 3 9
4
u 2 u1 (comp)
9
C u1 1 u 2 2 u 3 3
Also

4 4 8
C

x( 0.144)
9 9 9
C 0.256 cm

10) Using the principle of least work, analyze the portal frame shown in Fig. Also plot the
B.M.D.

Sol:
The support is hinged. Since there are two equations at each supports. They are H A, VA, HD,
M 0, H 0, V 0
and VD. The available equilibrium equation is three. (i.e.)
.
The structure is statically indeterminate to first degree. Let us treat the horizontal H ( ) at A
as redundant. The horizontal reaction at D will evidently be = (3-H) ( ). By taking moments at
D, we get
(VA x 3) + H (3-2) + (3 x 1) (2 1.5) (6 x 2) = 0
VA = 3.5 H/3
VD = 6 VA = 2.5 + H/3

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## By the theorem of minimum strain energy,

U
0
H
U AB U BE U CE U DC

0
H
H
H
H

## (1)For member AB:

Taking A as the origin.
1.x 2
M
H .x
2
M
x
H
3
U AB
1
M
M
dx
H
EI 0
H

1
EI

x2

Hx x dx

0
3

1 Hx 3 x 4

EI 3
8 0
1
9 H 10.12
EI

## (2) For the member BE:

Taking B as the origin.
H

M H x 3 3 x 1 1.5 3.5
x
3

Hx
M 3H 4.5 3.5 x
3
M
x
3
H
3
1
U BE
1
M

M
dx

H
EI 0
H

1
EI

3H 4.5 3.5 x
0

Hx
x
3 dx
3
3

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1

1
EI

Hx 2
2

dx
9
H

13
.
5

10
.
5
x

Hx

Hx

1
.
5
x

1
.
67
x

9
0

1
EI

Hx 2
2

dx
9
H

13
.
5

12
x

2
Hx

1
.
67
x

9
0

1
Hx 3
1 9 H 13.5 6 2 H 0.389 H
9 Hx 13.5 x 6 x 2 Hx 2 0.389 x 3
EI
27 0 EI
27

1
9 H 7 .9
EI

## (3) For the member CE:

Taking C as the origin
H
M (3 H ) x 2 ( 2.5 ) x
3
Hx 3
M 6 2 H 2.5 x
3
2
U CE
1
M
M
H
EI 0
H
2

1
Hx
x
6 2 H 2 .5 x
2

EI 0
3
3
=
2

EI

Hx 2
2

12

4
H

5
x

6
.
67
Hx

2
x

6
.
67
Hx

0
.
833
x

dx

9
0

EI

Hx 2
2

12

4
H

3
x

13
.
34
Hx

2
x

0
.
833
x

dx

9
0

1
= EI (10.96H - 15.78)
(4) For the member DC:
Taking D as the origin
M 3 H x 3 x Hx

M
x
x

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U DC
1

H
EI

1
EI

M H dx
0

3x Hx x dx
0

1 3 x 3 Hx 3
dx

EI 3
3 0

1
EI

3x

Hx 2 dx

1
Hx 3
dx
x 3
EI
3 0

1
= EI (2.67H -8)
Subs the values
U
0
H
1/EI (9-10.2) + (8.04H-7.9) + (10.96H-15.78) + (-8+2.67H) = 0
30.67H = 41.80
H = 1.36 KN
Hence
VA = 3.5 - H/3 = 3.5 - 1.36/3 = 3.05 KN
VD = 2.5 + H/3 = 2.5 + 1.36/3 = 2.95 KN

MA= MD =0
MB = (-1 x 32)/2 + (1.36 x 3) = -0.42 KN m
MC = - (3-H) 2 = - (3-1.36)2 =-3.28KNm
Bending moment Diagram:

## 11) A simply supported beam of span 6m is subjected to a concentrated load of 45 KN at

2m from the left support. Calculate the deflection under the load point. Take E = 200 x 106
KN/m2 and I = 14 x 10-6 m4.
Solution:
VA x 6 45 x 4=0
VA x 6 -180 = 0
VA = 30 KN
VB = Total Load VA = 15 KN

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## Virtual work equation:

L
c V mMdx
EI
0
RA x 6-1 x 4 =0
RA = 2/3 KN
RB = Total load RA = 1/3 KN
Virtual Moment:
Consider section between AC
M1 = 2/3 X1 [limit 0 to 2]
Section between CB
M2 = 2/3 X2-1 (X2-2 ) [limit 2 to 6 ]
Real Moment:
M1= 30 x X1
M2 = 30 x X2 -45 (X2 -2)

c V
0

m1 M 1 dx1 6 m2 M 2 dx 2

EI
EI
2
2 x1
2

x 2 x 2 2 30 x 2 45 x 2

30 x1
6
3
3

dx1
dx 2
EI
EI
0
2
2

1
2

20 x12 x 2 x 2 2 30 x 2 45 x 2 90 dx 2

EI 0
3

2
6
1
x

2
20 x1 2 2 15 x 2 90 dx 2
EI 0
3

2
2

1
20 x12 5 x 22 30 x 2 30 x 2 180dx 2

EI 0
2

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6

5 x 23 60 x 23

1 20 x1

180
x

EI 3 0 3
2
2
20 8 1 5 3

3
2
2

6 2 306 2 180 6 21

= EI 3 EI 3
1
53.33 346.67 960 720
EI
160
160

## 0.0571 m (or ) 57.1 mm

EI 200 x10 6 x14 x10 6
The deflection under the load = 57.1 mm

## 12) Define and prove the Maxwells reciprocal theorem.

The Maxwells reciprocal theorem stated as The work done by the first system loads
due to displacements caused by a second system of loads equals the work done by the second
system of loads due to displacements caused by the first system of loads.
Maxwells theorem of reciprocal deflections has the following three versions:
1. The deflection at A due to unit force at B is equal to deflection at B due to unit force
at A.
AB = BA
2. The slope at A due to unit couple at B is equal to the slope at B due to unit couple A
AB = BA
3. The slope at A due to unit load at B is equal to deflection at B due to unit couple.
'
' AB AB

Proof:
Mmdx

EI

Where,

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## M= bending moment at any point x due to external load.

m= bending moment at any point x due to unit load applied at the point where
deflection is required.
Let mXA=bending moment at any point x due to unit load at A
Let mXB = bending moment at any point x due to unit load at B.
M=mXA
To find deflection at B due to unit load at A, apply unit load at B.Then m= mXB
Hence,

m .m
Mmdx
BA
XA XB dx
EI
EI

____________

(i)

Similarly,
To find the deflection at A due to unit load at B, apply unit load at A.then m= mXA

mB.m XA
Mmdx
AB

dx
EI
EI

____________

(ii)

## Comparing (i) & (ii) we get

AB = BA
13. Using Castiglianos theorem, determine the deflection of the free end of the cantilever
beam shown in the fig. Take EI = 4.9 MN/m2.
(NOV / DEC 2003)
Solution:
Apply dummy load W at B. Since we have to determine the deflection of the free end.
Consider a section xx at a distance x from B. Then
M x Wx 30 x 1 20 * 1 * x 1.5 16 x 2
M M

dx
EI W

1
2
3

1
x 1
) x dx Wx * x 30( x 1) x 20 *1( x 1.5) * x 16( x 2
Wx * xdx Wx * x 30( x 1) x 20( x 1)(
EI
2

0
1
2

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2
1
x3 x 2
x 4 2 x 3 x 2
1 x 3 Wx 3 3
10
W
30

EI 3 0 3
3
2
4
3
2 1

3
Wx 3

x3 x2
x3
x3
2
2
20 0.75 x 16 x

30
2
3
2
3

3
2

Putting W =0

1
EI

7 3
15 14 3
19 5 19

19

30 3 2 10 4 3 2 30 3 2 20 3 3.75 16 3 5

1
EI

7
23
4
5
30 6 10 2 30 6 20 * 2.58 16 3

1x10 3
25 5.83 115 51.6 21.33
4.9 x10 6
0.446 m (or ) 44.64 mm

14. Fig shows a cantilever, 8m long, carrying a point loads 5 KN at the center and an udl of
2 KN/m for a length 4m from the end B. If EI is the flexural rigidity of the cantilever find
the reaction at the prop. (NOV/DEC 2004)
Solution:
To find Reaction at the prop, R (in KN)
Portion AC: ( origin at A )
4

U 1
0

Rx 2 dx R 2 x 3
2 EI

64 R 2 32 R 2

6 EI
3EI
6 EI 0

## Portion CB: ( origin at C )

Bending moment Mx = R (x+4) 5x 2x2/2
= R (x+4) 5x x2
4
M x 2 dx
U 2
2 EI
0
Total strain energy = U1 +U2

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U
0
R
At the propped end
4
dM x
U 64 R
M

x x
dx
R 3EI 0 EI
dR
=

64 R 1

3EI EI

R x 4 5 x

x 2 ( x 4)dx

64 R 1

3EI EI

64 R 1

3EI EI

R x 4

5 x x 4 x 2 ( x 4) dx

R x

8 x 16 5( x 2 4 x) ( x 3 4 x 2 ) dx

64 R 1 x 3
x3
x 4 4x 3
2
2

4
x

16
x

5
(

2
x
)

3EI EI 3
3
4
3 0

64 R 64
64
256 256
R
64 64 5(
32) (

)
3
3
3
4
3

## = 21.33 R + (149.33R 266.67 149.33)

= 21.33 R + (149.33 R 416)

## 21.33 R +149.33 R 416 =0

R = 2.347 KN
15.

A simply supported beam of span L is carrying a concentrated load W at the centre and a
uniformly distributed load of intensity of w per unit length. Show that Maxwells reciprocal
theorem holds good at the centre of the beam.
Solution:
Let the load W is applied first and then the uniformly distributed load w.
Deflection due to load W at the centre of the beam is given by
5Wl 4
384 EI
Hence work done by W due to w is given by:
5wl 4
U A, B Wx
384 EI

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## Deflection at a distance x from the left end due to W is given by

W
3l 2 x 4 x 2
48 EI
Work done by w per unit length due to W,

W x

l/2

U B , A 2 wx
0

U B, A

Ww

24 EI

W
(3l 2 x 4 x 2 )dx
48 EI

3l 2 l 2 l 4

2 2 2
U B, A

U A, B
Hence proved.

5 Wwl 4
384 EI

Ww
24 EI

3l 4 l 4

8 16

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## CE1252- STRENGTH OF MATERIALS

(FOR IV SEMESTER)

UNIT - II
INDETERMINATE BEAMS
Propped Cantilever and fixed end moments and reactions for concentrated load
(central, non central), uniformly distributed load, triangular load (maximum at centre and
maximum at end) Theorem of three moments analysis of continuous beams shear
force and bending moment diagrams for continuous beams (qualitative study only)
1. Define statically indeterminate beams.
If the numbers of reaction components are more than the conditions equations, the
structure is defined as statically indeterminate beams.
E=Rr
E = Degree of external redundancy
R = Total number of reaction components
r = Total number of condition equations available.
A continuous beam is a typical example of externally indeterminate structure.
2.

## State the degree of indeterminacy in propped cantilever.

For a general loading, the total reaction components (R) are equal to (3+2) =5,
While the total number of condition equations (r) are equal to 3. The beam is statically
indeterminate, externally to second degree. For vertical loading, the beam is statically
determinate to single degree.
E=Rr
=53=2
3. State the degree of indeterminacy in a fixed beam.
For a general system of loading, a fixed beam is statically indeterminate to third degree.
For vertical loading, a fixed beam is statically indeterminate to second degree.
E=Rr
R = 3 + 3 and r = 3
E = 6-3 = 3
R = 2+2 and r = 2
E=42=2

## 4. State the degree of indeterminacy in the given beam.

The beam is statically indeterminate to third degree of general system of loading.
R = 3+1+1+1 = 6
E = R-r
= 6-3 = 3

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## 5. State the degree of indeterminacy in the given beam.

The beam is statically determinate. The total numbers of condition equations are equal to 3+2 =
E = R-r
= 2+1+2-5
= 5-5
E=0
6. State the methods available for analyzing statically indeterminate structures.
i. Compatibility method
ii. Equilibrium method
7. Write the expression fixed end moments and deflection for a fixed beam carrying point

M A M B

WL
8

WL3
y max
192 EI
8. Write the expression fixed end moments and deflection for a fixed beam carrying eccentric
Wab 2
L2
Wa 2 b
MB 2
L
Wa 3 b 3
y max
3EIL3
9. Write the expression fixed end moments for a fixed due to sinking of support.
MA

M A M B

6 EI
L2

## 10. State the Theorem of three moments.

Theorem of three moments:
It states that If BC and CD are only two consecutive span of a continuous beam subjected to
an external loading, then the moments MB, MC and MD at the supports B, C and D are given
by

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_

6 a x 1 6a x
M B L1 2 M C ( L1 L2 ) M D .L2 1 2 2
L1
L2
Where
L1 = length of span AB
L2 = length of span BC
a1 = area of B.M.D due to vertical loads on span BC
a2 = area of B.M.D due to vertical loads on span CD
_

_

## x 2 = Distance of C.G of the B.M.D due to vertical loads on CD from D.

11. Draw the shape of the BMD for a fixed beam having end moments M in one support and
+M in the other.

12. What are the fixed end moments for a fixed beam of length L subjected to a concentrated
load w at a distance a from left end?
Fixed End Moment:
Wab 2
MA 2
L
Wab 2
MB 2
L
13. Explain the effect of settlement of supports in a continuous beam. (Nov/Dec 2003)
Due to the settlement of supports in a continuous beam, the bending stresses will alters
appreciably. The maximum bending moment in case of continuous beam is less when compare to
the simply supported beam.
14. What are the advantages of Continuous beams over Simply Supported beams?
(i)The maximum bending moment in case of a continuous beam is much less than in case of a
simply supported beam of same span carrying same loads.
(ii) In case of a continuous beam, the average B.M is lesser and hence lighter materials of
construction can be used it resist the bending moment.

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15. A fixed beam of length 5m carries a uniformly distributed load of 9 kN/m run over the
entire span. If I = 4.5x10-4 m4 and E = 1x107 kN/m2, find the fixing moments at the ends and
deflection at the centre.
Solution:
Given:
L = 5m
W = 9 kN/m2 , I = 4.5x10-4 m4 and E = 1x107 kN/m2
(i) The fixed end moment for the beam carrying udl:
WL2
MA = MB = 12
9 x (5) 2
18.75 KNm
= 12
(ii) The deflection at the centre due to udl:
WL4
yc
384 EI
9 x(5) 4
yc
3.254 mm
384 x1x10 7 x 4.5 x10 4
Deflection is in downward direction.
16. A fixed beam AB, 6m long is carrying a point load of 40 kN at its center. The M.O.I of the
beam is 78 x 106 mm4 and value of E for beam material is 2.1x105 N/mm2. Determine (i)
Fixed end moments at A and B.
Solution:

## Fixed end moments:

M A M B

WL
8

M A M B

50 x6
37.5 kNm
8

17. A fixed beam AB of length 3m is having M.O.I I = 3 x 106 mm4 and value of E for beam
material is 2x105 N/mm2. The support B sinks down by 3mm. Determine (i) fixed end
moments at A and B.
Solution:
Given:
L = 3m = 3000mm
I = 3 x 106 mm4
E = 2x105 N/mm2
= 3mm

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M A M B

6 EI
L2

6 x 2 x10 5 x3 x10 6 x3
(3000) 2
=
=12x105 N mm = 12 kN m.
18. A fixed beam AB, 3m long is carrying a point load of 45 kN at a distance of 2m from A. If
the flexural rigidity (i.e) EI of the beam is 1x104kNm2. Determine (i) Deflection under the
Solution:
Given:
L = 3m
W = 45 kN
EI = 1x104 kNm2
Wa 3b 3
yC
3EIL3
45 x(2) 3 x(1) 3
yC
3 x1x10 4 x(3) 2
y C 0.000444 m
y C 0.444 mm
The deflection is in downward direction.
19. A fixed beam of 5m span carries a gradually varying load from zero at end A to 10 kN/m at
end B. Find the fixing moment and reaction at the fixed ends.
Solution:
Given:

L = 5m
W = 10 kN/m
(i)

Fixing Moment:

WL2
WL2
MA
and M B
30
20

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10(5) 2 250

8.33 kNm
30
MA = 30
10(5) 2 250
MB

12.5 kNm
20
20
(ii)

Reaction at support:
3WL
7WL
RA
and RB
20
20

3 * 10 * 5 150

7.5 kN
20
20
7 *10 * 5 350
RB

17.5 kN
20
20
20. A cantilever beam AB of span 6m is fixed at A and propped at B. The beam carries a udl of
2kN/m over its whole length. Find the reaction at propped end.
Solution:
Given:
RA

L=6m,

w =2 kN/m

## Downward deflection at B due to the udl neglecting prop reaction P,

wl 4
8 EI
Upward deflection at B due to the prop reaction P at B neglecting the udl,
yB

Pl 3
yB
3EI
Upward deflection = Downward deflection
Pl 3
wl 4

3EI 8EI
P = 3WL/8 = 3*2*6/8 =4.5 kN

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## 16 Marks Questions And Answers

1. A fixed beam AB of length 6m carries point load of 160 kN and 120 kN at a distance of
2m and 4m from the left end A. Find the fixed end moments and the reactions at the
supports. Draw B.M and S.F diagrams.
Solution:
Given:
L
= 6m
= 160 kN
= 120 kN
Distance AC
= 2m
=4m
First calculate the fixed end moments due to loads at C and D separately and then

## Fixed End Moments:

For the load at C, a=2m and b=4m
W ab 2
M A1 C 2
L
160 x 2 x(4) 2
M A1
142.22 kNm
(6) 2
WC a 2 b
L2
160 x 2 2 x( 4)
M B1
71.11 kNm
(6) 2
For the load at D, a = 4m and b = 2m
W a b2
M A2 D 2
L
120 x 2 2 x (4)
M A2
53.33 kNm
(6) 2
M B1

WD a 2 b
L2
160 x 2 x(4) 2
M B2
106.66 kNm
(6) 2
Total fixing moment at A,
MA
= MA1 + MA2
M B2

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MA
Total fixing moment at B,
MB

= 142.22 + 53.33
= 195.55 kNm

=MB1 + MB2
= 71.11 + 106.66
= 177.77 kN m
B.M diagram due to vertical loads:
Consider the beam AB as simply supported. Let RA* and RB* are the reactions at A
and B due to simply supported beam. Taking moments about A, we get
*
R B x6 160 x 2 120 x 4
800
133.33 kN
6
RA*
= Total load - RB*=(160 +120) 133.33 = 146.67 kN
B.M at A = 0
B.M at C = RA* x 2 = 146.67 x 2 = 293.34 kN m
B.M at D = 133.33 x 2 = 266.66 kN m
B.M at B= 0
RB

S.F Diagram:
Let RA = Resultant reaction at A due to fixed end moments and vertical loads
RB
= Resultant reaction at B
Equating the clockwise moments and anti-clockwise moments about A,
RB x 6 + MA = 160 x 2 + 120 x 4 + MB
RB= 130.37 kN
RA = total load RB = 149.63 kN
S.F at A = RA = 149.63 kN
S.F at C = 149.63- 160 = -10.37 kN
S.F at D = -10.37 120 = -130.37 kN
S.F at B= 130.37 KN
2. A fixed beam AB of length 6m carries two point loads of 30 kN each at a distance of 2m
from the both ends. Determine the fixed end moments and draw the B.M diagram.
Sloution:
Given:
Length L = 6m
Point load at C = W1 = 30 kN
Point load at D = W2= 30 kN
Fixed end moments:
MA
= Fixing moment due to load at C + Fixing moment due to load at D

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2

Wab
Wab
1 12 1 2 22 2
L
L
2
30 x 2 x 4
30 x 4 x 2 2

40kN m
62
62
Since the beam is symmetrical,
MA = MB = 40 kNm
B.M Diagram:
To draw the B.M diagram due to vertical loads, consider the beam AB as simply
supported. The reactions at A and B is equal to 30kN.
B.M at A and B = 0
B.M at C =30 x 2 = 60 kNm
B.M at D = 30 x 2 = 60 kNm
3. Find the fixing moments and support reactions of a fixed beam AB of length 6m,
carrying a uniformly distributed load of 4kN/m over the left half of the span.
Solution:
Macaulays method can be used and directly the fixing moments and end reactions can be
calculated. This method is used where the areas of B.M diagrams cannot be determined
conveniently.
For this method it is necessary that UDL should be extended up to B and then compensated for
upward UDL for length BC as shown in fig.
The bending at any section at a distance x from A is given by,
d2y
x
( x 3)
R A x M A wx
2
2
EI dx
+w*(x-3) 2
x 3) 2
4x 2
=RAx MA- ( 2 ) +4( 2 )
= RAx MA- 2x2 +2(x-3)2
Integrating, we get
x2
x3
2( x 3) 3
dy
3
EI dx =RA 2 -MAx - 2 3 +C1 +
-------(1)
dy
When x=0, dx =0.
Substituting this value in the above equation up to dotted line,
C1 = 0
Therefore equation (1) becomes
x2
x 3 2( x 3) 3
dy
3
EI dx =RA 2 -MAx - 2 3 +
Integrating we get

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x3 M A x 2 2x 4
2( x 3) 4
EI y R A

C2
6
2
12
12
When x = 0 , y = 0
By substituting these boundary conditions upto the dotted line,
C2 = 0
R A x 3 M A x 2 x 4 1( x 3) 4
EI y

6
2
6
6
________(ii)
By subs x =6 & y = 0 in equation (ii)
0

R A 6 3 M A 6 2 6 4 1(6 3) 4

6
2
6
6

## 36 R A 18M A 216 13.5

18RA 9 MA = 101.25

------------- (iii)

dy
0
At x =6, dx
in equation (i)

62
2
2
3
3
0 R A x M A x6 x 6 6 3
2
3
3
18 R A M A x6 144 18 0
18 R A 6M A 126
By solving (iii) & (iv)
MA = 8.25 kNm
By substituting MA in (iv)
126 = 18 RA 6 (8.25)
RA = 9.75 kN
RB = 2.25 kN
By equating the clockwise moments and anticlockwise moments about B
MB + RA x 6 = MA + 4x3 (4.5)
MB = 3.75 kNm
Result:
MA = 8.25 kNm
MB = 3.75 kNm
RA = 9.75 kN
RB = 2.25 KN
4. A continuous beam ABC covers two consecutive span AB and BC of lengths 4m and 6m,
carrying uniformly distributed loads of 6kN/m and 10kN/m respectively. If the ends A and
C are simply supported, find the support moments at A,B and C. draw also B.M.D and
S.F.D.

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Solution:
Given Data:
Length AB, L1=4m.
Length BC, L2=6m
UDL on AB, w1=6kN/m
UDL on BC, w2=10kN/m
Support Moments:
Since the ends A and C are simply supported, the support moments at A and C will be
zero.
By using cleyperons equation of three moments, to find the support moments at B (ie)
MB.
6a1 x1 6a 2 x 2

4
6
MAL1 + 2MB(L1+L2) + MCL2 =
6a1 x1 6a 2 x 2

4
6
0 + 2MB(4+6) + 0 =
3a1 x1
a2 x2
2
20MB =
The B.M.D on a simply supported beam is carrying UDL is a parabola having an attitude
2
wL
of 8.
2
Area of B.M.D = 3 *L*h
wL2
2
= 3 * Span * 8
span
The distance of C.G of this area from one end, = 2
. a1=Area of B.M.D due to UDL on AB,
6(4 2 )
2
= 3 *4* 8
=32
L1
x1= 2
= 4/2
= 2 m.
a2= Area of B.M.D due to UDL on BC,
10(6 2 )
2
= 3 *6* 8
= 180m.
x2=L2 / 2
=6/2

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=3m
Substitute these values in equation(i).
We get,
3 * 32 * 2
(180 * 3)
2
20MB =
= 96+540
MB =31.8 kNm.
(ii)

B.M.D
The B.M.D due to vertical loads (UDL) on span AB and span BC.
Span AB:
2
w1 L1
= 8

Span BC:

6 * 42
= 8
=12kNm
2
w2 L2
= 8
10 * 6 2
= 8
=45kNm

(iii)

S.F.D:
To calculate Reactions,
For span AB, taking moments about B, we get
(RA*4)-(6*4*2) MB=0
4RA 48 = 31.8 (MB=31.8, -ve sign is due to hogging moment.
RA=4.05kN
Similarly,
For span BC, taking moment about B,
(Rc*6)-(6*10*3) MB=0
6RC 180=-31.8
RC=24.7kN.
=(6*4*(10*6))-(4.05+24.7)
=55.25kN.
RESULT:
MA=MC=0
MB=31.8kNm
RA=4.05kN
RB=55.25kN

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RC=24.7kN

5. A continuous beam ABCD of length 15m rests on four supports covering 3 equal spans
and carries a uniformly distributed load of 1.5 kN/m length .Calculate the moments and
reactions at the supports. Draw The S.F.D and B.M.D.
Solution:
Given:
Length AB = L1 = 5m
Length BC = L2 = 5m
Length CD = L3 = 5m
u.d.l w1 = w2 = w3 = 1.5 kN/m
Since the ends A and D are simply supported, the support moments at A and D will be Zero.
MA=0 and MD=0
For symmetry MB=0
(i)To calculate support moments:
To find the support moments at B and C, by using claperons equations of three moments for
ABC and BCD.
For ABC,
6a1 x1 6a 2 x 2

L
L2
1
M L +[2M (L +L )]+M L =
A

6a1 x1 6a 2 x 2

5
5
0+[2MB(5+5)]+[MC(5)]=
6
(a1 x1 a 2 x 2 )
20MB+5MC= 5
--------------------------------------(i)
a1=Area of BMD due to UDL on AB when AB is considered as simply supported beam.
w1 L1
2
* AB *
=3
Altitude of parabola
(Altitude of parabola= 8 )
2
1.5 * (5) 2
*5*
8
= 3
=15.625
x1=L1/2
=5/2=2.5m
Due to symmetry
.a2=a1=15.625

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x2=x1=2.5
subs these values in eqn(i)
6
[(15.625 * 2.5) (15.625 * 2.5)]
20MB+5MC = 5
=93.75
Due to symmetry MB=MC
20MB+5MB=93.75
MB=3.75kNm. MB=MC=3.75kNm.
(ii) To calculate BM due to vertical loads:
The BMD due to vertical loads(here UDL) on span AB, BC and CD (considering each span
as simply supported ) are shown by parabolas of altitude
2
w1 L1
1.5 * 1.5 2

4.6875kNm
8
8
each.
(iii)To calculate support Reactions:
Let RA,RB,RC and RD are the support reactions at A,B,C and D.
Due to symmetry
RA=RD
RB=RC
For span AB, Taking moments about B,
We get
MB=(RA*5)-(1.5*5*2.5)
-3.75=(RA*5)-18.75
RA=3.0kN.
Due to symmetry
RA=RD=3.0kN
RB=RC
3+RB+RB+3=1.5*15
RB=8.25kN
RC=8.25kN.
Result:
MA = MD = 0
MB=MC=3.75kNm.
RA=RD=3.0kN
RB=8.25kN
RC=8.25kN.

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6. a continuous beam ABCD, simply supported at A,B, C and D is loaded as shown in fig.
Find the moments over the beam and draw B.M.D and S.F.D. (Nov/ Dec 2003)
Solution:
Given:
Length AB = L1 = 6m
Length BC = L2 = 5m
Length CD = L3 = 4m
u.d.l on CD, w = 3 kN/m
(i) B.M.D due to vertical loads taking each span as simply supported:
W1 ab 9 * 2 * 4

12kNm
L
6
1
Consider beam AB, B.M at point load at E =
W 2ab 8 * 2 * 3

9.6kNm
L
6
2
Similarly B.M at F =
B.M at the centre of a simply supported beam CD, carrying U.D.L
2
wL
3 * 42
3
6kNm
8
8

## (ii) B.M.D due to support moments:

Since the beam is simply supported MA =MD = 0
By using Clapeyrons Equation of Three Moments:
a) For spans AB and BC

6a1 x1 6a 2 x 2

4
6
MAL1 + 2MB(L1+L2) + MCL2 =
6a x 6a 2 x 2
0 2 M B (6 5) M c (5) 1 1
6
5
6
22 M B 5M C a1 x1 a 2 x 2
5
------------ (i)
a1x1 = *6*12*L+a/3 = *6*12*(6+2)/3 = 96
a2x2 = *5*9.6*L+b/3 = *5*9.6*(6+4)/3 = 64
Substitute the values in equation (i)

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## 22MB + 5MC = 96+6/5*64

22MB + 5MC = 172.8

------------ (ii)

## b) For spans BC and CD

6 a 2 x 2 6a 3 x 3

L
L3
2
MBL2 + 2MC(L2+L3) + MDL3 =
6a 2 x 2 6a 3 x 3

5
4
MB*5 + 2MC(5+4) +0 =

6ax 2 6a3 x3

5
4
----------- (iii)
a2x2 = * 5 * 9.6 *(L+a)/3 =1/2 * 5 * 9.6 *(5+2)/3 = 56
a3x3 = 2/3 * 4*6*4/2 =32
Substitute these values in equation (iii)
6 * 56 6 * 32
5M B 18M C

5
4
5M B 18M C

5M B 18M C 115.2
By solving equations (ii) &(iv)
MB = 6.84 kNm and MC = 4.48 kNm
(iii) Support Reactions:
For the span AB, Taking moment about B,
MB = RA * 6 9*4
= 6 R A 36
36 6.84
4.86 KN
6
RA =
For the span CD, taking moments about C
4
M C RD 4 3 4
( M C 4.48)
2
RD = 4.88KN
For ABC taking moment about C
M = R A * 6 5 9 5 4 R B * 5 8 * 3
c

5 RB 81 24 4.86 * 11
RB = 9.41 kN
RC = Total load on ABCD (RA +RB+RD)
RC = (9+8+4*3) (4.86+9.41+4.88)
RC = 9.85 kN
Result:

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MA = MD = 0
MB = 6.84 kNm and MC = 4.48 kNm
RA = 4.86kN
RB = 9.41kN
RC = 9.85 kN
RD = 4.88KN
7. Using the theorem of three moments draw the shear force and bending moment
diagrams for the following continuous beam. (April / May 2003)
Solution:
Given:
Length AB, L1=4m.
Length BC, L2=3m.
Length CD, L3=4m.
UDL on AB, w=4 kN/m
(i)

## Bending Moment to Vertical Loads:

wL2 4 * 4 2

8
Consider beam AB, B.M= 8
=8kNm.
Similarly for beam BC,
W1 ab 6 * 2 *1

L
3
2
B.M=
=4kNm
Similarly for beam CD,
W2 ab 8 *1 * 3

4
B.M= L3

(ii)

=6kNm
Bending Moment to support moments:
Let MA,MB,MC And MD be the support moments at A,B,C and D. Since the ends is
simply supported, MA =MD=0.
By using Clayperons equation of three moments for span AB and
BC,
6a1 x1 6a 2 x 2

L
L2
1
M L +[2M (L +L ) ]+ M L =
A

6a1 x1 6a 2 x 2

3
0+[2MB(4+3)] MC(3) = 4
14MB+ 3MC = 1.5a1x1 + 2a2x2 ----------------------------(i)

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## a1x1= Moment of area BMD due to UDL

2 Base
*
* ( Base * Altitude)
2
= 3
2 4
* * (4 * 8)
=3 2
=42.33
a2x2= Moment of area BMD due to point load about point B
1 2*2
*
* (2 * 4)
3
=2
=5.33
Using these values in eqn (i),
14MB + 3MC =1.5(42.33) +(2*5.33)
14MB + 3MC =63.495+10.66 -------------------------(ii)
For span BC and CD,

6a 2 x 2 6 a 3 x 3

L
L3
2
MBL1+[2MC(L2+L3) ]+ MDL3 =
6a 2 x 2 6 a 3 x 3

3
3

MB(3)+[2MC(3+3) ]+ MDL3 =
3MB+12MC = 2a2x2 + 2a3x3 ------------------------(iii)
a2x2= Moment of area BMD due to point load about point C
2 *1
=(1/2)*2*4* 3
=2.66
a3x3= Moment of area BMD due to point load about point D
1
2*3
*1* 6 *
3
= 2
=6
Using these values in Eqn(iii),
3MB+ 12MC =2(2.66) + (2*6)
3MB + 12MC = 17.32 -------------------(iv)
Using eqn (ii) and (iii),
MB = 5.269 kN m
MC = 0.129 kN m
(iii)
Support Reaction:
For span AB, taking moment about B
M B RA * 4 4 * 4 * 2
-5.269 = RA *4 32

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RA *4=26.731
RA = 6.68 kN
For span CD, taking moment about C
M C RD * 4 8 *1
-0.129 = RD *4-8
RD = 1.967 kN
Now taking moment about C for ABC
M C R A (7 ) 4 * 4 * 5 R B * 3 6 * 1
M C 7 R A 4(20) 3R B 6

## 0.129 7(6.68) 80 3RB 6

RB = 13.037 kN
RC = Total load (RA +RB + RC)
= 4 * 4 6 8 6.68 1.967 13.037
RC = 8.316 kN
Result:
MA = MD = 0
MB = 5.269 kN m
MC = 0.129 kN m
RA = 6.68 kN
RB = 13.037 kN
RC = 8.316 kN
RD = 1.967 kN

8. A beam AB of 4m span is simply supported at the ends and is loaded as shown in fig.
Determine (i) Deflection at C (ii) Maximum deflection (iii) Slope at the end A.
E= 200 x 106 kN/m2 and I = 20 x 10-6 m4
Solution:
Given:
L = 4m
E= 200 x 106 kN/m2 and I = 20 x 10-6 m4
To calculate Reaction:
2
RB * 4 20 * 1 10 * 2( 1 1)
2
RB *4 = 20 + 20(3)
RB = 80/4 = 20 kN
RA = Total load - RB
= (10*2+20) -20
RA = 20 kN

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## By using Macaulays method:

d2y
10( x 2) 2
M X EI
20 x 20( x 1)
2
d x2
Integrating we get
3
dy
2
2 5( x 2)
EI
10 x C1 10( x 1)
dx
3
Integrating we get
10 x 3
10( x 1) 3 5( x 2) 4
EIy
C1 x C 2

3
3
12
---------- (ii)
When x = 0, y = 0 in equation (ii) we get C2 = 0
When x = 4m, y = 0 in equation (ii)
10
10
5
0 (4) 3 4C1
(4 1) 3
4 2 4
3
3
12
= 213.33 +4C1 90 -6.67
C1 = -29.16
Hence the slope and deflection equations are
Slope Equation:
3
dy
2
2 5( x 2)
EI
10 x 29.16 10( x 1)
dx
3
Deflection Equation:
10 x 3
10( x 1) 3 5( x 2) 4
EIy
29.16 x

3
3
12
(i)

Deflection at C, yC :
Putting x = 2m in the deflection equation, we get

(ii)

10(2) 3
10(2 1) 3
EIy
29.16(2)
3
3
= 26.67 -58.32 -3.33
= -34.98
yc = 8.74 (downward)
Maximum Deflection , ymax :

## The maximum deflection will be very near to mid-point C. Let us

assume that it occurs in the sections between D and C. For maximum deflection equating the
slope at the section to zero, we get
dy
10 x 2 29.16 10( x 1) 2
dx
10x2 -29.16 -10(x-1)2 = 0
10x2 -29.16 -10 (x2 -2x+1) = 0
EI

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x = 39.16/20 =1.958 m
10(1.958) 3
10(1.958 1) 3
EIy
29.16(1.958)
3
3
ymax = -35/EI
ymax = 8.75 mm (downward)
(iii)

## Slope at the end A, A:

Putting x = 0 in the slope equation,
dy
EI
29.16
dx
A = dy/dx = -29.16/EI
A = -0.417

Result:
(i)
Deflection at C = 8.74 mm
(ii)
Maximum deflection = 8.75 mm
(iii)
Slope at the end A, A = -0.417
9. A continuous beam is shown in fig. Draw the BMD indicating salient points.
(Nov/Dec 2004)
Solution:
Given:
Length L1 = 4m
Length L2 = 8m
Length L3 = 6m
Udl on BC w = 10 kN/m
Point load W1 = 40 kN
Point load W2 = 40 kN
(i)

W1 ab 40 * 3 *1

30 kNm
L
4
1
Consider beam AB, B.M =
For beam BC,
wL2 10(8) 2

80 kNm
8
B.M = 8
For beam CD,

W2 L3 40 * 6

60 kNm
4
B.M = 4
(ii) B.M due to support moments:
Let MA, MB, MC, MD be the support moments at A, B, C, D. Since the
end A and D are simply supported MA = MD = 0

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## For Span AB and BC:

M A L1 2 M B ( L1 L2 ) M C L2

6a1 x1 6a 2 x 2

L1
L2

6a1 x1 6a 2 x 2

4
8
2MB (12) +8 MC = -1.5a1x1 0.75 a2 x2
24 MB +8 MC = -1.5a1x1 0.75 a2 x2
----------- (i)
a1x1 = Moment of area of B.M.D due to point load
= *4*30*2/3*3 = 120
a2x2 = Moment of area of B.M.D due to udl
= 2/3 (Base x Altitude) x Base/2
= 2/3 (8*80)*8/2 = 1706.67
Using these values in equation (i)
24 MB +8 MC = -1.5(120) 0.75 (1706.67)
24 MB +8 MC = -1460.0025
---------------- (ii)
0 2M B ( 4 8 ) M C (8)

## For Span BC and CD:

M B L2 2 M C ( L2 L3 ) M D L3

6a 2 x 2 6a 3 x 3

L2
L3

6a 2 x 2 6a 3 x 3

8
6
8 MB + 28 MC = - 0.75 a2x2 - a3x3
-------------- (iii)
a2x2 = Moment of area of B.M.D due to udl
= 2/3 (Base x Altitude) x Base/2
= 2/3 (8*80)*8/2 = 1706.67
a3 x3 = Moment of area of B.M.D due to point load
= * b*h*L/3
= * 6*60*6/3
= 360
Using these values in equation (iii)
8 MB + 28 MC = - 0.75 (1706.67) 360
8 MB + 28 MC = - 1640.0025
------------------ (iv)
From (ii) & (iv)
MC = 45.526 kNm
MB = 45.657 kNm
Result:
MA = MD = 0
MC = 45.526 kNm
M B (8) 2M C (8 6) 0

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MB = 45.657 kNm

10. For the fixed beam shown in fig. draw BMD and SFD. (Nov / Dec 2004)
Solution:
(i)

## B.M.D due to vertical loads taking each span as simply supported:

Consider beam AB as simply supported. The B.M at the centre of AB
2
wL1
2 * (3) 2

2.25 kNm
8
8

(ii)

## B.M.D due to support moments:

As beam is fixed at A and B, therefore introduce an imaginary zero
span AA1 and BB1 to the left of A and to the right of B. The support moments at A1 and B1 are
zero.
Let M0 = Support moment at A1 and B1 and it is zero.
MA = Fixing moment at A
MB = Fixing moment at B
MC = Support moment at C
To find MA, MB and MC, Theorem of three moments is used.
(A)For the span A1A and AC,
M 0 * 0 2M A (0 L1 ) M C L1

6a0 x0 6a1 x1

L0
L1

6a1 x1
L1
6 MA + 3MC = - 2a1x1 ------------- (i)
a1x1 = moment of area of B.M.D due to udl on AB when it is considered as simply supported
= 2/3 * Base * Altitude * L1/2
= 2/3 * 3 * 2.25 * 3/2
a1x1 = 6.75
subs this values in equation (i) we get
6 MA + 3 MC = -13.50 ------------ (ii)
2 M A (3) M C (3)

## (b) For the span AC and CB:

M A L1 2 M C ( L1 L2 ) M B L2

6a1 x1 6a2 x2

L1
L2

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6a1 x1 6a2 x2

3
3
3 MA + 12 MC + 3 MB = 2a1x1 + 2a2x2
M A (3) 2 M C (3 3) M B (3)

a1x1 = moment of area of B.M.D due to udl on AB when it is considered as simply supported
= 2/3 * Base * Altitude * L1/2
= 2/3 * 3 * 2.25 * 3/2
a1x1 = 6.75
a2x2 = 0
3 MA + 12 MC + 3 MB = 13.5

----------- (ii)

## ( c ) For the span CB and BB1

M C L2 2M B ( L2 L0 ) M 0 * 0

6a2 x2 6a0 x0

L2
L0

6a2 x2
3
3MC + 6MB = 2a2x2
3M C 2M B (3)

a2x2 = 0
3MC + 6MB = 0
By solving (iii), (iv), (ii)
MC = 1.125 kNm
MA = 0.5625 kNm
MB = -0.5625 kNm
(iii)

Support Reactions:
Let RA, RB , and RC are the support reactions at A, B and C.
For the span AC, taking moment about C, we get
RA x 3 2 x 3 x 1.5 + MA = MC
RA x 3 9 + 0.5625 = 1.125
RA = 3.1875 kN
For the span CB, taking moment about C, we get
RB x 3 + M C = M B
RB x 3 + 1.125 = 0.5625
RB = 0.1875 kN

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## RC = Total load (RA + RB )

= 2*3*1.5 (3.1875 + 0.1875)
RC = 5.625 kN

Result:
MC = 1.125 kNm
MA = 0.5625 kNm
MB = -0.5625 kNm
RA = 3.1875 kN
RB = 0.1875 kN
RC = 5.625 kN

## CE1252- STRENGTH OF MATERIALS

(FOR IV SEMESTER)
UNIT III
COLUMNS
Eccentrically loaded short columns - middle third role core section Columns of
unsymmetrical sections-(angle channel sections) - Eulers theory of long columns critical
loads for prismatic columns with different end conditions; Rankine Gordon formula for
eccentrically loaded columns thick cylinder compound cylinder.
1.

Define columns
If the member of the structure is vertical and both of its ends are fixed rigidly while
subjected to axial compressive load, the member is known as column.
Example: A vertical pillar between the roof and floor.
2.

Define struts.
If the member of the structure is not vertical and one (or) both of its ends is Linged (or)
pin jointed, the bar is known as strut.
Example: Connecting rods, piston rods etc,
3.

i.

## Direct compressive stresses

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ii.
iii.

4.

Buckling stresses
Combined of direct compressive and buckling stresses.

## State the assumptions made in the Eulers column theory.

1. The column is initially perfectly straight and the load is applied axially.
2. The cross-section of the column is uniform throughout its length.
3. The column material is perfectly elastic, homogeneous and isotropic and obeys
Hookes law.
4. The self weight of column is negligible.

5.

1.
2.
3.
4.

6.

## Both the ends of the column are linged (or pinned)

One end is fixed and the other end is free.
Both the ends of the column are fixed.
One end is fixed and the other is pinned.

Write the expression for crippling load when the both ends of the column are
hinged.

2 EI
l2

E = Youngs Modulus
I = Moment of inertia
l = Length of column
7.

Write the expression for buckling load (or) Crippling load when both ends of the
column are fixed?
P

4 2 EI

L2
E = Youngs Modulus
I = Moment of inertia
l = Length of column

8.

Write the expression for crippling load when column with one end fixed and other
end linged.

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2 2 EI
l2
E = Youngs Modulus
I = Moment of inertia
l = Length of column
P

9.
Write the expression for buckling load for the column with one
other end free.
2 EI
P 2
4l
E = Youngs Modulus
I = Moment of inertia
l = Length of column
10.

fixed

and

## Explain equivalent length (or) Effective length.

If l is actual length of a column, then its equivalent length (or) effective length L may be
obtained by multiplying it with some constant factor C, which depends on the end fixation of the
column (ie) L = C x l.
11.

Write the Equivalent length (L) of the column in which both ends hinged and write

2 EI
P 2
L

Equivalent length (L) = Actual length (l)
E = Youngs Modulus
I = Moment of inertia
L= Length of column
12.

Write the relation between Equivalent length and actual length for all end
conditions of column.
Both ends linged
Both ends fixed

## One end fixed and other

end hinged
One end fixed and other
end free

L=l
l
L
2
L

Constant = 1
Constant =

l
2

L 2l

1
2

Constant =
Constant = 2

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13.

## Define core (or) Kernel of a section. (April/May 2003)

When a load acts in such a way on a region around the CG of the section So that in that
region stress everywhere is compressive and no tension is developed anywhere, then that area is
called the core (or) Kernal of a section. The kernel of the section is the area within which the line
of action of the eccentric load P must cut the cross-section if the stress is not to become tensile.
14.

## Derive the expression for core of a rectangular section.(Nov/Dec 2003)

The limit of eccentricity of a rectangular section b x d on either side of XX axis (or) YY
axis is d/6 to avoid tension at the base core of the rectangular section.
Core of the rectangular section = Area of the shaded portion

1 b d
2
2 3 6
bd
18
Derive the expression for core of a solid circular section of diameter D.

15.

The limit of eccentricity on either side of both XX (or) YY axis = D/8 to avoid tension of
the base.
Core of the circular section
= Area of the shaded portion

D / 8 2

16.

D 2
64

A steel column is of length 8m and diameter 600 mm with both ends hinged.
5
Determine the crippling load by Eulers formula. Take E 2.1 10 N/mm2.

d 4 600 4 6.36 10 9 mm 4
64
64

## Since the column is hinged at the both ends,

Equivalent length L = l

2 EI
Pcr 2
L
2 2.1 10 5 6.36 10 9

8000 2
2.06 10 8 N

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17.

## Define Slenderness ratio.

It is defined as the ratio of the effective length of the column (L) to the least radius of
L
gyration of its cross section (K) (i.e) the ratio of K is known as slenderness ratio.
L
Slenderness ratio = K
18.

## State the Limitations of Eulers formula.(April /May 2005)

a. Eulers formula is applicable when the slenderness ratio is greater than or equal to 80
b. Eulers formula is applicable only for long column
c. Eulers formula is thus unsuitable when the slenderness ratio is less than a certain
value.

19.

## Write the Rankines formula for columns.

P

K
P
A
fc

20.

=
=
=
=

f c A
L
1
K

Area of the column
Constant value depends upon the material.

I
A

Rankines constant

fc

2E

## Write the Rankines formula for eccentric column.

P

K
P
A
fc

=
=
=
=

f c A
2
eyc

L
1 2 1
k

Area of the column
Constant value depends upon the material.

I
A

Rankines constant

fc

2E

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21.

## Define thick cylinder.

If the ratio of thickness of the internal diameter of a cylindrical or spherical shell exceeds
1/20, it is termed as a thick shell.
The hoop stress developed in a thick shell varies from a maximum value at the inner
circumference to a minimum value at the outer circumference.
Thickness > 1/20
22.

i.
ii.
iii.

## The material of the shell is Homogeneous and isotropic.

Plane section normal to the longitudinal axis of the cylinder remains plane after
the application of internal pressure.
All the fibers of the material expand (or) contact independently without being

23.

## What is the middle third rule? (Nov/Dec 2003)

In rectangular sections, the eccentricity e must be less than or equal to b/6. Hence the
greatest eccentricity of the load is b/6 form the axis Y-Y and with respect to axis X X 1 the
eccentricity does not exceed d/6. Hence the load may be applied with in the middle third of the
base (or) Middle d/3.
1.

## Explain the failure of long column.

Solution:
A long column of uniform cross-sectional area A and of length l, subjected to an axial
compressive load P, as shown in fig. A column is known as long column if the length of the
column in comparison to its lateral dimensions is very large. Such columns do not fail y
crushing alone, but also by bending (also known buckling)
The load, at which the column just buckles, is known as buckling load and it is less than
the crushing load is less than the crushing load for a long column.
Buckling load is also known as critical just (or) crippling load. The value of buckling
load for long columns are long columns is low whereas for short columns the value of buckling
Let
l
p
A
e

=
length of the long column
=
Load (compressive) at which the column has jus
buckled.
=
Cross-sectional area of he column
=
Maximum bending of the column at the centre.

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P
A

P e
Z

=
Where

## Z = Section modulus about the axis of bending.

The extreme stresses on the mid-section are given by
Maximum stress =

0 + b

Minimum stress =

0 - b

The column will fail when maximum stress (i.e) 0 + b is more the crushing stress fc.
In case of long column, the direct compressive stresses are negligible as compared to
buckling stresses. Hence very long columns are subjected to buckling stresses.
2.
State the assumptions made in the Eulers column Theory. And explain the
sign conventions considered in columns. (April/May2003)
The following are the assumptions made in the Eulers column theory:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

The column is initially perfectly straight and the load is applied axially
The cross-section of the column is uniform throughout its length.
The column material is perfectly elastic, homogeneous and isotropic and
obeys Hookes law.
The length of the column is very large as compared to its lateral
dimensions
The direct stress is very small as compared to the bending stress
The column will fail by buckling alone.
The self-weight of column is negligible.

## The following are the sign conventions considered in columns:

1.
2.

3.

A moment which will tend to bend the column with its convexity towards its
initial centre line is taken as positive.
A moment which will tend to bend the column with its concavity towards its
initial center line is taken as negative.

Derive the expression for crippling load when the both ends of the column are
hinged.

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Solution:
Consider a column AB of length L hinged at both its ends A and B carries an axial
Consider any section X-X at a distance of x from B.
Let the deflection at X-X is y.
The bending moment at X-X due to the load P, M = P. y

d 2 y Py

k 2 y
2
EI
dx

Where

k2

p
EI

d2y
k 2 y 0
2
` dx
Solution of this differential equation is
y A cos kx B sin kx
p
B sin
y A cos x

EI

EI

## By using Boundary conditions,

At B,
At A,

x = 0, y = 0
x = l, y = 0

0 B sin l

Sinl

p
EI

p
0
EI

p
0, ,2 ,3 ......
EI
Now taking the lest significant value (i.e)
l

A=0

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p
2 p
2

l
EI
EI
;

2 EI
l2

`The Eulers crippling load for long column with both ends hinged.

2 EI
p 2
l
4. Derive the expression for buckling load (or) crippling load when both ends of the column
are fixed.
Solution:
Consider a column AB of length l fixed at both the ends A and B and caries an axial
crippling load P at A due to which buckling occurs. Under the action of the load P the column
will deflect as shown in fig.
Consider any section X-X at a distance x from B.Let the deflection at X-X is y.
Due to fixity at the ends, let the moment at A or B is M.

## Total moment at XX = M P.y

Differential equation of the elastic curve is

EI

d2y
M Py
dx 2

d 2 y py M

dx 2 EI IE
d 2 y py M p

dx 2 EI IE p

d 2 y py P M

dx 2 EI EI P
The general solution of the above differential equation is
M
y A cos x P / EI B sin x P / EI
P
(i)

## Where A and B are the integration constant

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At, N. x = 0 and y = 0
From (i)

0 A 1 B 0

M
p

M
p
Differentiating the equation (i) with respect to x,
A

dy
P
P
P
0
A
Sin x. P / EI B
Cos x.

dx
EI
EI
EI

dy
0
At the fixed end B, x = 0 and dx

P
0
EI

P
0
EI

Either B = 0 (or)
P
0
EI
Since
as p 0
B=0

M
p and B = 0 in equation (i)

A
Subs

M
P M
cos x.

P
EI P

1 cos x..

EI

## Again at the fixed end A, x = l, y = 0

y

M
P

M
1 Cos l. P / EI
P

l. P / EI 0,2 ,4 ,6 ........

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## Now take the least significant value 2

P
2
EI
P
l. 2 4 2
EI
l.

5.

4 2 EI
P 2
l
The crippling load for long column when both the ends of the column are fixed
Derive the expression for crippling load when column with one end fixed and other
end hinged. (April/May 2003)

Solution:
Consider a column AB of length l fixed at B and hinged at A. It carries an axial crippling
load P at A for which the column just buckles.
As here the column AB is fixed at B, there will be some fixed end moment at B. Let it be
M. To balance this fixing moment M, a horizontal push H will be exerted at A.
Consider any section X-X at a distance x from the fixed end B. Let the deflection at xx is
y.
Bending moment at xx = H (l-x) - Py
Differential equation of the elastic curve is,

d2y
EI 2 H l x Py
dx
d2y P
14 l x

y
2
EI
EI
dx
d2y P
H l x p

2
EI
EI
P
dx
d2y P
H l x p

2
EI
EI
EI
dx
The general solution of the above different equation is

www.studentskey.in 65

p
p H l x
B sin x.

y A cos x.

EI
EI
P

## Where A and B are the constants of integration.

(i)

At B, x = 0, y = 0
A

From (i)

Hl
P

P
H

EI P

H
EI

P
p

Again at the end A, x = l, y=0. substitute these values of x, y, A and B in equation (i)
0
H
P

Hl
H
Cos l. P / EI
P
P

EI
Sin. l. P / EI
p

EI
Sin l. P / EI
P

Hl
Cos l.
P

P / EI

tan l. P / EI .l P / EI .l

The value of tan P / EI .l in radians has to be such that its tangent is equal to itself. The
only angle whose tangent is equal to itself, is about 4.49 radians.

P / EI .l 4.49
P 2
2
l 4.49
EI
P 2
l 2 2
EI
(approx)

2 2 EI
P 2
l

The crippling load (or) buckling load for the column with one end fixed and one end hinged.
6.
Derive the expression for buckling load for the column with one end fixed and other

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end free.

(April/May 2003)

Solution:
Consider a column AB of length l, fixed at B and free at A, carrying an axial rippling load
P at D de to which it just buckles. The deflected form of the column AB is shown in fig. Let the
new position of A is A1.
Let a be the deflection at the free end. Consider any section X-X at a distance x from B.
Let the deflection at xx is y.
Bending moment due to critical load P at xx,

d2y
M EI 2 P a y
dx
EI

d2y
Pa py
dx2

d 2 y py pq

dx2 EI EI
The solution of the above differential equation is,

P
x. P a
y A cos x.

B
sin

EI
EI

## Where A and B are constants of integration.

At B, x = 0, y = 0
From (i), A = 0
Differentiating the equation (I w.r. to x

dy
P
P
P
x. P
A
Sin x.

B
Cos

dx
EI
EI
EI
EI

P
0 B
EI

As

P
0
EI

p 0

## Substitute A = -a and B = 0 in equation (i) we get,

www.studentskey.in 67

P
a
y a cos x.

EI

y a 1 cos x..
EI

(ii)

## At the free end A, x = l, y = a, substitute these values in equation (ii)

P
a a 1 cos1..

EI

P
cos1..
0

EI

P
3 5
, ,
EI
2 2 2
Now taking the least significant value,
1

EI 2

P 2
1

EI
4
2

2 EI
P 2
4l
The crippling load for the columns with one end fixed and other end free.
7. A steel column is of length 8 m and diameter 600 mm with both ends hinged. Determine
the crippling load by Eulers formula. Take E =2.1 x 105 N/mm2
Solution:
Given,
Actual length of the column, l = 8m = 8000 mm
Diameter of the column
E = 2.1 x 105 N/mm2

d= 600 mm

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d 4
64

600 4
64

I 6.36 10 9 mm 4
Since the column is hinged at the both ends,
Equivalent length L =l

Pcr

2 EI
L2

## 2 2 2.1 105 6.36 109

8000 2
= 2.06 x 108 N
8.

A mild steel tube 4m long, 3cm internal diameter and 4mm thick is used as a strut
with both ends hinged. Find the collapsing load, what will be the crippling load if
i.
ii.

## Both ends are built in?

One end is built in and one end is free?

Solution:
Given:
Actual length of the mild steel tube, l = 4m = 400 cm
Internal diameter of the tube,
d = 3 cm
Thickness of the tube, t = 4mm = 0.4cm.
External diameter of the tube, D = d + 2t
= 3+2(0.4)
= 3.8 cm.
Assuming E for steel = 2 x 106 Kg/cm2
M.O.I of the column section,

D4 d 4
64

3.8 4 3 2
64

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I = 6.26 cm 4
i.
Since the both ends of the tube are hinged, the effective length of the column
both ends are hinged.
L = l = 400 cm

2 EI
Pcr 2
L

2 2 10 6 6.26

400 2
Pcr 772.30 Kg.
The required collapsed load = 772.30 Kg.
ii.

## When both ends of the column are built in ,

then effective length of the column,
l 400
L
200cm
2
2

2 EI
Pcr 2
L

2 2 10 6 6.26

200 2
Pcr
iii.

= 3089.19 Kg.

When one end of the column is built in and the other end is free,
effective length of the column,
L = 2l
= 2 x 400
= 800 cm

2 EI
Pcr 2
L
2 2 10 6 6.26

800 2

when

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9.

## Pcr = 193.07 Kg.

A column having a T section with a flange 120 mm x 16 mm and web 150 mm x 16
mm is 3m long. Assuming the column to be hinged at both ends, find the crippling
load by using Eulers formula. E = 2 x 106 Kg/cm2.

Solution:
Given:
Flange width
Flange thickness
Length of the web
Width of the web

=
=
=
=

120 mm = 12 cm
16 mm = 1.6 cm
150 mm = 15cm
16mm = 1.6cm

E = 2 106 Kg/cm2
Length of the column, l = 3m = 300 cm.
Since the column is hinged at both ends, effective length of the column.
L = l = 300 cm.
From the fig. Y-Y is the axis of symmetry. The C.G of the whole section lies on Y-Y
axis.
Let the distance of the C.G from the 16 mm topmost fiber of the section = Y
1.6
15

12 1.6 15 1.61.6
2
2

Y
12 1.6 15 1.6

Y 5.41 cm
Distance of C.G from bottom fibre = (15+1.6) - 5.41
= 11.19cm
Now M.O.I of the whole section about X-X axis.

I XX

2
2
3
12 1.6 3
1.6 1.6 15
15

12 1.6 5.41
1.6 1511.19

12
2
12
2

## I XX 1188 .92 cm4

M.I of the whole section about Y-Y axis

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I yy

1.6 12 3 15 106 3

## 235 .52 cm4

12
12

I min 235.52cm 4

2 EI
Pcr 2
L
2
2 10 6 235.52

300 2

P 51655.32 Kg.

cr
;
10.
A steel bar of solid circular cross-section is 50 mm in diameter. The bar is pinned at
both ends and subjected to axial compression. If the limit of proportionality of the material
is
210 MPa and E = 200 GPa, determine the m minimum length to
which Eulers
formula is valid. Also determine the value of Eulers buckling load if the column has this
minimum length.

Solution:
Given,
Dia of solid circular cross-section, d = 50 mm
Stress at proportional limit, f = 210 Mpa
= 210 N/mm2
Youngs Modulus, E = 200 GPa = 200 x 10 3 N/mm2

50 2 1963 .49 mm 2
4
Area of cross section,
Least moment of inertia of the column section,
A

50 4 3.6.79 10 3 mm 4
64

I
306 .79 10 3
k
50 4 156 .25 mm 2
A
1963 .49
The bar is pinned at both ends,
2

## Effective length, L = Actual length, l

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2 EI
Pcr 2
L
Pcr
2E

A
L / K 2
For Eulers formula to be valid, value of its minimum effective length L may be found
out by equating the buckling stress to f
2E
210
2
L

K

2 E k 2
L
210
2

2 2 10 5 156 .25
L
210
2

## L = 1211.89 mm = 1212 mm = 1.212 m

The required minimum actual length l =L = 1.212 m
For this value of minimum length,

2 EI
2
L
2 2 10 5 306.75 10 3

1212 2
= 412254 N = 412.254 KN

Result:
Minimum actual length l = L = 1.212 m
=412.254 KN
11.
Explain Rankines Formula and Derive the Rankines formula for both short and
long column.
Solution:
Rankines Formula:
Eulers formula gives correct results only for long columns, which fail mainly due to
buckling. Whereas Rankines devised an empirical formula base don practical experiments for
determining the crippling or critical load which is applicable to all columns irrespective of
whether they a short or long.

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## If P is the crippling load by Rankines formula.

Pc is the crushing load of the column material
PE is the crippling load by Eulers formula.
Then the Empirical formula devised by Rankine known as Rankines formula stand as:

1 1
1

P Pe PE
For a short column, if the effective length is small, the value of P E will be very high and

1
1
P
the value of PE will be very small as compared to C and is negligible.
For the short column, (i.e)

P = PC

Thus for the short column, value of crippling load by Rankine is more or less equal to the

For long column having higher effective length, the value of P E is small and

1
PE

will

1
1
P
P
be large enough in comparison to C . So C is ignored.

1
1
PE
P
For the long column, C

(i.e) p PE
Thus for the long column the value of crippling load by Rankine is more or less equal to
the value of crippling load by Euler.

1
1
1

P
Pc
PE
1
P Pc
E
P
Pc PE
p

Pc PE
PE Pc

p
;

Pc
P
1 c
PE

2 EI
PE 2
L

## in the above equation,

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p
1

f c A
f c A
2
EI / L2

Where,
fc

Ak2

p
1
p

f c A
f c A

f c A
f c A L2
1

2 EI / L2
2 EAk 2
f c A

L
1

## where = Rankines constant

fc
2E

P = 1L / k
When Rankines constant is not given then find
2

fc
2E

The following table shows the value of fc and for different materials.
Material

fc N/mm2

Wrought iron

250

Cast iron

550

Mild steel

320

fc

2E

1
9000
1
1600
1
7500

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Timber

12.

1
750

50

A rolled steel joist ISMB 300 is to be used a column of 3 meters length with both
ends fixed. Find the safe axial load on the column. Take factor of safety 3, f c = 320
1

2
7500 . Properties of the column section.
N/mm and
Area = 5626 mm2, IXX = 8.603 x 107 mm4
Iyy =4.539 x 107 mm4

Solution:
Given:
Length of the column, l = 3m = 3000 mm
Factor of safety = 3
1

7500
fc = 320 N/mm2,
Area, A = 5626 mm2
IXX = 8.603 x 107 mm4
Iyy =4.539 x 107 mm4
The column is fixed at both the ends,
l 3000
L
1500mm
2
2
Effective length,

## Since Iyy is less then Ixx, The column section,

I I min I yy 4.539 10 7 mm 4
Least radius of gyration of the column section,
I
4.539 10 7
K

89.82mm
A
5626
Crippling load as given by Rakines formula,

pcr

f c A

L
1

Pcr = 1343522.38 N

320 5626

1 1500
1

7500 89.82

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## Allowing factor of safety 3,

Safe load = Factor of safety
1343522.38

447840.79 N
3

Result:
i.
ii.

## Crippling Load (Pcr) = 1343522.38 N

=447840.79N

13.
A built up column consisting of rolled steel beam ISWB 300 with two plates
200 mm x 10 mm connected at the top and bottom flanges. Calculate the safe load
the column carry, if the length is 3m and both ends are fixed. Take factor of safety 3
1

7500
fc = 320 N/mm2 and
Take properties of joist: A = 6133 mm2
IXX = 9821.6 x 104 mm4 ; Iyy = 990.1 x 104 mm4
Solution:
Given:
Length of the built up column, l = 3m = 3000 mm
Factor of safety
= 3
fc =320 N/mm2
1

7500
Sectional area of the built up column,
A 6133 2 200 10 10133mm 2
Moment of inertia of the built up column section abut xx axis,

200 10 3
2
I XX 9821.6 10 4 2
200 10155
12

## = 1.94 x 108 mm4

Moment of inertia of the built up column section abut YY axis,

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IYY

10 200 3

990 .1 10 2
12

## = 0.23 x 108 mm4

Since Iyy is less than Ixx , The column will tend to buckle about Y-Y axis.
Least moment of inertia of the column section,

I I min I YY 0.23 10 8 mm 4
The column is fixed at both ends.
Effective length,
l 3000
L
1500mm
2
2
Least radius of gyration o the column section,

J
0.23 10 8

47.64mm
A
10133

## Crippling load as given by Rankines formula,

pcr

f c A

L
1

320 10133

1 1500
1

7500 47.64

= 2864023.3 N

2864023.3
954674.43N
3

Result:

14.

=
=

2864023.3 N
954674.43 N

Derive Rankines and Euler formula for long columns under long columns under

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i.

Rankines formula:
Consider a short column subjected to an eccentric load P with an eccentricity e form the

axis.
Maximum stress = Direct Stress + Bending stress
fc

P M

A Z

P p.e. y c

A Ak 2

I
y

I Ak 2

I
A

where
A
Z
yc
k

=
=
=
=

fc

## Sectional are of the column

Sectional modulus of the column
Distance of extreme fibre from N.A

P
ey
1 2c
A
k

Where

ey

1 2c
k

f c A
L
1

## is the reduction factor for buckling of long column.

Where

ii.

Eulers formula

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## Maximum stress n the column = Direct stress + Bending stress

P e sec P / EI

l
2

A
Z
Hence, the maximum stress induced in the column having both ends hinged and an
P Pe
l

sec P / EI
A Z
2

eccentricity of e is

The maximum stress induced in the column with other end conditions are determined by
changing
the
length
in
terms
of
effective
length.
15.

A column of circular section has 150 mm dia and 3m length. Both ends of the
column are fixed. The column carries a load of 100 KN at an eccentricity of 15 mm
from the geometrical axis of the column. Find the maximum compressive stress in
the column section. Find also the maximum permissible eccentricity to avoid
tension in the column section. E = 1 x 105 N/mm2

Solution:
Given,
Diameter of the column,
D
Actual length of the column, l
P
E
Eccentricity,
e

=
=
=
=
=

D 2
A
4
Area of the column section

2
150
4
= 17671 mm2
Moment of inertia of the column section N.A.,

4
D 4 150
64
64
= 24.85 x 106 mm4

Section modulus,

I
I
Z
y D/2

150 mm
3m = 3000 mm
100 KN = 1000 x 103 N
1 x 105 N/mm2
15 mm

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24.85 10 6
331339mm 3
150
2
=
Both the ends of the column 2 are fixed.
l 3000
L
1500mm
2
2
Effective length of the column,
Now, the angle

L
100 10 3
1500
P / EI

5
6
2
2
1 10 24.85 10
= 0.1504 rad = 8.61 o
Maximum compressive stress,

P P e
L

sec P / EI
A
Z
2

## 100 10 3 100 10 3 15 sec 8.61o

17671
331339
= 10.22 N/mm2
To avoid tension we know,
P M

A Z

P p e sec .8.61o

A
Z

17671
331339
e = 18.50 mm
Result:
i.
ii.
16.

## Maximum compressive stress = 10.22 N/mm2

Maximum eccentricity
= 18.50 mm

## State the assumptions and derive Lames Theory?

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1.

i.
ii.

## The material of the shell is homogenous and isotropic

Plane sections normal to the longitudinal axis of the cylinder remain plane
after the application of internal pressure.
All the fibres of the material expand (or) contract independently without being

iii.
2

## Derivation of Lames Theory

Consider a thick cylinder
Let
rc
r0
Pi
Po

=
=
=
=

L
f2

=
=

## Length of the cylinder

Longitudinal stress.

Lames Equation:

f x px 2a
Px

b
x2

fx

fx

b
x2
b
x2

a 2a
a

where
fx
px
Px + dPx

=
=
=

## hoop stress induced in the ring.

Internal radial pressure in the fig.
External radial pressure in the ring.

The values of the two constants a and to b are found out using the following boundary
conditions:
i. Since the internal radial pressure is Pi,
At x = ri, Px = Pi
ii. Since the external radial pressure is P0,

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At x = r0, Px = P0
17.

## A thick steel cylinder having an internal diameter of 100 mm an external diameter

of 200 mm is subjected to an internal pressure of 55 M pa and an external pressure
of 7 Mpa. Find the maximum hoop stress.
Solution:
Given,

100
ri
50mm
2
200
ro
100mm
2
Internal pressure, Pi
External pressure, P0

=
=

55 Mpa
7 Mpa

In the hoop stress and radial stress in the cylinder at a distance of x from the centre is f x
and px respectively, using Lames equations,

fx

b
a
x2

b
a
x2
where a and b are constants,
Px

(i)

(ii)

## Now by equation, at x = 50 mm, Px = 55 MPa (Boundary condition)

Using these boundary condition in equation (ii)
b
Px 2 a
x

55

50 2

a
(iii)

## Then x = 100 mm, px = 7 Mpa

Using these boundary condition is equation (ii)

b
7
a
100 2
Solving (iii) & (iv)

(iv)

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b / 100 2 a 7
b / 50 2 a 55
(- )
(+)
3b

10000
= - 48

## Substitute a & b in equation (i)

160000
fx
9
x2
The value of fx is maximum when x is minimum
Thus fx is maximum for x = ri = 50 mm
160000

9
2

50
Maximum hoop stress
= 73 Mpa (tensile)
Result:
Maximum hoop stress = 73 MPa (tensile)
18.
A cast iron pipe has 200 mm internal diameter and 50 mm metal thickness. It
carries water under a pressure of 5 N/mm2. Find the maximum and minimum intensities of
circumferential
stress. Also sketch the distribution of circumferential stress and
Solution:
Given:
Internal diameter,
Wall thickness,
Internal pressure,
External pressure,

di
t
Pi
P0

=
=
=
=

200 mm
50 mm
5 N/mm2
0.

di 200

100mm
2
2
r0 ri t 100 50 150mm
ri

www.studentskey.in 84

Let fx and Px be the circumferential stress and radial stress at a distance of x from the centre of
the pipe respectively.
Using Lames equations,

b
a
x2
b
px 2 a
x
fx

(i)
(ii)

## where, a & b are arbitrary constants.

Now at x = 100 mm, Px = 5 N/mm2
At x = 150 mm, Px = 0
Using boundary condition is (ii)

5
0

100 2
b

150 2

a
(ii)

a
(iv)

fx

90000
90000
4, Px 2 4,
2
x
x

## Putting x = 100 mm, maxi circumferential stress.

fx

90000

100

4 13N / mm 2 tensile

## Putting x = 150 mm, mini circumferential stress.

fx

19.

90000

150

4 8 N / mm 2 tensile

## Explain the stresses in compound thick cylinders.

www.studentskey.in 85

Solution:
Consider a compound thick cylinder as shown in fig.
Let,
r1
=
Inner radius of the compound cylinder
r2

## Radius at the junction of the two cylinders

r3
=
Outer radius of the compound cylinder
When one cylinder is shrunk over the other, thinner cylinder is under compression and
the outer cylinder is under tension. Due to fluid pressure inside the cylinder, hoop stress will
develop. The resultant hoop stress in the compound stress is that algebraic sum of the hoop
stress due to initial shrinkage and that due to fluid pressure.
a.

## Stresses due to initial shrinkage:

Applying Lames Equations for the outer cylinder,

Px

b1
a1
x2

fx

b1
a1
x2

At x = r3, Px = 0

and at x = r2, px = p

## Applying Lames Equations for the inner cylinder

b2
a2
x2
b
f x 22 a2
x

Px

At x = r2, Px = p

b.

and at x = r3, px = 0

## Stresses due to Internal fluid pressure.

To find the stress in the compound cylinder due to internal fluid pressure alone, the inner
and outer cylinders will be considered together as one thick shell. Now applying Lames
Equation,

Px

B
x2

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fx

B
x2

At x = r1, Px = pf

## ( Pf being the internal fluid pressure)

At x = r3, px = 0
The resultant hoop stress is the algebraic sum of the hoop stress due to shrinking and due
internal fluid pressure.
20.

## A compound cylinder is composed of a tube of 250 mm internal diameter at 25 mm

wall thickness. It is shrunk on to a tube of 200 mm internal diameter. The radial
pressure at the junction is 8 N/mm2. Find the variation of hoop stress across the wall
of the compound cylinder, if it is under an internal fluid pressure of 60 N/mm 2
Solution:
Given:
Internal diameter of the outer tube, d1 = 250 mm
Wall thickness of the outer tuber ,
t = 25 mm
Internal diameter of the inner tube , d2
=
200 mm
P
=
8 N/mm2
Internal fluid pressure within the cylinder Pf =
60 N/mm2
External radius of the compound cylinder,

r2

d1 2t
2

1
250 2 25 150 mm
2
Internal radius of the compound cylinder,

d 2 200

100 mm
2
2
d
250
r1 1
125 mm
2
2
r1

Let the radial stress and hoop stress at a distance of x from the centre of the cylinder be
px and fx respectively.
i.

Hoop stresses due to shrinking of the outer and inner cylinders before fluid

a.

## Four outer cylinder:

Applying Lames Equation

www.studentskey.in 87

Px

b1
a1
x2

(i)

b1

fx

a1
x2
(ii)
Where a1 and b1 are arbitrary constants for the outer cylinder.
Now at x = 150 mm, Px = 0
X = 125 mm, Px = 8 N/mm2

b1

150 2
8

a1
(iii)

b1

125 2

a1
(iv)

## Solving equation (iii) & (iv) a1 = 18 ; b1 = 409091

fx

409091
18
x2

(v)
Putting x = 150 mm in the above equation stress at the outer surface,
fx

409091

150

18 36 N / mm 2

(tensile)
Again putting x = 125 mm in equation (v), stress at junction,

fx

409091
18 44 N / mm 2
2
125
(tensile)

## b). For inner cylinder:

Applying Lames Equation with usual Notations.

Px

b2
a2
x2

(iv)

fx

b2
a2
x2

(v)

## Now at x = 125 mm, Px = 8 N/mm2

x =100 mm, Px = 0

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b2

125 2
b2

a2
(vi)

a2

100 2

(vii)

## By solving (vi) & (vii) a2 = -22

b2 = -222222

fx

fx

222222

100

222222

125

22 44 .2 N / mm 2

(comp)
22 36 .2 N / mm 2

(comp)
iii. Hoop stresses due to internal fluid pressure alone for the compound cylinder:
In this case, the two tubes will be taken as a single thick cylinder. Applying Lames
equations with usual notations.
B

Px

x2

fx

(viii)

x2
At x = 150 mm,
x = 100 mm,

(ix)
Px = 0
Px = pf = 60 N/mm2

O

60

150 2
B

100 2

(x)

## By solving (x) & (xi)

A = 133, B = 3 x 106

(xi)

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3 10 6
f x 2 133
x

## Putting x = 150 mm, hoop stress at the outer surface

fx

3 10 6

150

133 266 N / mm 2

(Tensile)
Again putting x = 125 mm, hoop stress at the junction

fx

3 10 6

125

fx

iii.

3 10 6

100

## Resultant hoop stress (shrinkage +Fluid pressure):

a. Outer cylinder
Resultant hoop stress at the outer surface = 36 + 266
= 302 N/ mm2 (Tensile)
Resultant hoop stress at the junction = 44 + 325 = 369 N/mm2 (tensile)
b. Inner cylinder;
Resultant hoop stress at the inner face = - 44.2 + 433
= 388.8 N/mm2 (Tensile)
Resultant hoop stress at the junction = - 36.2 + 325
= 288.8 N/mm2 (Tensile)

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21.
A column with alone end hinged and the other end fixed has a length of 5m and a
hollow circular cross section of outer
diameter 100 mm and wall thickness 10 mm. If
350 N / mm 2 , Find the load that
E = 1.60 x 105
N/mm2 and crushing strength 0
the column may carry with a factor of safety of 2.5
according to Euler theory and
Rankine Gordon theory. If the column is hinged on both ends, find the safe load
according to the two theories. (April/May 2003)
Solution:
Given:
L = 5 m = 5000 mm
Outer diameter
D
=
100 mm
Inner diameter
d = D-2t
=
100 2 (10) = 80 mm
Thickness
=
10 mm
I
=
1.60 x 105 N/mm2
0 350 N / mm 2
f
=
2.5
i. Calculation of load by Eulers Theory:
Column with one end fixed and other end hinged.

2 2 EI
P 2
L

l
2

5000
2

3536.0 6 mm

2 3.14 1.60 10 5 I
2

3536.06 2

D4 d 4
64

100 4 80 4
64

100000000 40960000
64

## = 28.96 x 105 mm4

2
2 3.14 1.60 10 5 28.96 10 5
P
12503716.14
p = 73.074 x 103 N
I

ii.

## Calculation of load by Rankine-Gordon Theory:

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Rankines Constant

1
7500 (assume the column material is mild steel.)

f c A
2

L
1 a
K

## K = lest radius of Gyration

I
28.96 10 5

32.01
A
2826

100 2 80 2
4

10000 6400
4

fc = c

= 2826 mm2
P

350 28.26

1 3536.06
1

7500 32.01

989100
P
1.33 10 4 12203.036

P 60.94 10 4 N

iii.

Eulers theory

2 EI
P 2
L

L=l

## 3.14 1.60 10 5 28.96 10 5

5000 2

18.274 10 4
2 .5
P = 18.274 x 104 N ; Safe Load =
= 73096 N
Rankines Theory

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f c A

L
1 a
K

350 2826

1
1
7500

5000

32 .01

989100

1.33 10 4 24398.81

30.480 10 4
2 .5
= 121920 N

P = 30.480 x 104
Result:
i. Eulers Theory
One end fixed & one end hinged P = 73.074 x 103 N
Both ends hinged
P = 18.274 x 104 N
ii. Rankines Theory
One end fixed & one end hinged P = 60.94 x 104 N
Both ends hinged
P = 30.480 x 104 N
Eulers Theory = 73096 N
Rankines theory = 121920 N
22.

## A column is made up of two channel ISJC 200 mm and two 25 cm x 1 cm flange

plate as shown in fig. Determine by Rankines formula the safe load, the column of
6m length, with both ends fixed, can carry with a factor of safety 4. The properties
of one channel are A = 17.77 cm 2, Ixx = 1,161.2 cm4 and Iyy = 84.2 cm4. Distance of
centroid from back of web = 1.97 cm. Take f c = 0.32 KN/mm2 and Rankines
1

## Constant 7500 (April /May 2003)

Solution:
Given:
Length of the column l = 6 m = 600 mm
Factor of safety = 4
Yield stress, fc = 0.32 KN/mm2
1
a
7500
Rankines constant,
Area of column,
A = 2 (17.77+25 x 1)
A = 85.54 cm2
A = 8554 mm2
Moment of inertia of the column about X-X axis

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I XX

25 13

2 1,161.2
25 1 10.5 2
12

= 7839.0 cm4

1 25 3
2
2
8.42 17.77 5 1.97
12
= 4,499.0 cm4

I YY

## Iyy < IXX The column will tend to buckle in yy-direction

I = Iyy =4499.0 cm4
Column is fixed at both the ends
l 6000
L
3000mm
2
2

I
4499 10 4

72.5mm
A
855 4
f c .A

K
1 a
L

## Safe load of column F .O.S

2228

4
Result:

0.32 8554 . A
1 3000
1

75000 72 .5

=557 KN

= 2228 KN

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## CE1252- STRENGTH OF MATERIALS

(FOR IV SEMESTER)
UNIT IV

## STATE OF STRESS IN THREE DIMENSIONS

Spherical and deviatory components of stress tensor- determination of principal of
principal stresses and principal planes volumetric strain- dilation and distortion
Theories of failure principal stress dilatation. Principal strain shear stress - strain
energy and distortion energy theories - application in analysis of stress. Load carrying
capacity and design of members interaction problems and interaction curves residual
stresses.

UNIT IV
1.

Define stress
When a certain system of external forces act on a body then the body offers resistance to
these forces. This internal resistance offered by the body per unit area is called the stress
induced in the body.
2.

## Define principal planes.

The plane in which the shear stress is zero is called principal planes. The plane which is
independent of shear stress is known as principal plane.
3.

ijii

0
0

0 0

m 0
0 m

1
m x y z
3

4.

## Define Deviator stress tensor

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x m

ij1 xy

xz

l xy

y m

l yz

z m

xz
yz

5.

## Define volumetric strain

It is defined as the ratio between change in volume and original volume of the body and
is denoted by e v
6.
State the principal theories of failure.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

## Maximum principal stress theory

Maximum shear stress (or) stress difference theory
Strain energy theory
Shear strain energy theory
Maximum principal strain theory
Mohrs Theory

## State the Limitations of Maximum principal stress theory

1. On a mild steel specimen when spiel tension test is carried out sliding occurs
approximately 45o to the axis of the specimen; this shows that the failure in this case is
due to maximum shear stress rather than the direct tensile stress.
2. It has been found that a material which is even though weak in simple compression yet
can sustain hydrostatic pressure for in excess of the elastic limit in simple compression.

8.

## Explain maximum principal stress theory.

According to this theory failure will occur when the maximum principle tensile stress
(1) in the complex system reaches the value of the maximum stress at the elastic limit (et) in
the simple tension.
9.

## Define maximum shear stress theory

This theory implies that failure will occur when the maximum shear stress
maximum in
the complex system reaches the value of the maximum shear stress in simple tension at elastic
limit (i.e)

l max

10.

1 3 et

2
2

3
et
(or) 1
State the limitations of maximum shear stress theory.

i. The theory does not give accurate results for the state of stress of pure shear in which
the maximum amount of shear is developed (i.e) Torsion test.

ii. The theory does not give us close results as found by experiments on ductile

www.studentskey.in 96

11.

## Explain shear strain Energy theory.

This theory is also called Distortion energy Theory or Von Mises - Henky Theory.

According to this theory the elastic failure occurs where the shear strain energy per unit
volume in the stressed material reaches a value equal to the shear strain energy per unit volume
at the elastic limit point in the simple tension test.
12.

## State the limitations of Distortion energy theory.

1. The theory does to agree the experiment results for the material for which at is
quite different etc.
2. This theory is regarded as one to which conform most of the ductile material under

13.

## Explain Maximum principal strain theory

The theory states that the failure of a material occurs when the principal tensile strain in
the material reaches the strain at the elastic limit in simple tension (or) when the min minimum
principal strain (ie ) maximum principal compressive strain reaches the elastic limit in simple
compression.
14.

i.
ii.

15.

## The theory overestimates the behaviour of ductile materials.

The theory does no fit well with the experimental results except for brittle
materials for biaxial tension.

x . xz
xy

xy y yz

xz yz z
'
ij

16.

## Explain the three stress invariants.

The principal stresses are the roots of the cubic equation,

3 I 1 2 I 2 I 3 0
where

I1 x y z

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I 2 y y z x z 2 xy y 2 z 2 xz

I 3 x y Z x 2 xy y 2 xz z 2 xy 2 xy yz xz
17.

i.
ii.

18.

## Strain energy of distortion (shear strain energy)

Strain energy of dilatation.

## Explain Mohrs Theory

Let

The enveloping curve f must represent in this abscissa and ordinates e, the
normal and shearing stresses in the plane of slip.
2

3
1
2 1

2
2

Let

1
1 3
2

19.

1
1 3
2

p 2 lm 2
2

## State the total strain energy theory.

The total strain energy of deformation is given by

1 2

2
2
U
1 2 3 2v 1 2 2 3 3 1

2E

## and strain energy in simple tension is

02
2E

www.studentskey.in 98

20.

1
2
2
2
s
1 2 2 3 3 1
12 C

C
where

E
1

21
m

## 21. Explain the concept of stress?

When certain system of external forces act on a body then the body offers resistance to
these forces. This internal resistance offered by the body per unit area is called the stress
induced in the body.
The stress may be resolved into two components. The first one is the normal stress n,
which is the perpendicular to the section under examination and the second one is the shear stress
, which is operating in the plane of the section.

## 22. State the Theories of failure.

The principal theories are:
1.
Maximum principal stress theory
2.
Maximum shear stress (or) stress difference theory
3.
Strain energy theory
4.
Shear strain energy theory
5.
Maximum principal strain theory
6.
Mohrs Theory

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## SIXTEEN MARKS QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS:

1. The stress components at a point are given by the following array.
10 5 6
5

8 10
6 10 6
Mpa
Calculate the principal stress and principal planes.
Solution:
The principal stresses are the roots of the cubic equation
3 I 1 2 I 2 I 3 0

(1)

where,

I1 x y z

I 2 x y y z z x x2 y y2z x2 z
2
2
2
I 3 x y z x yz
y xz
z xy
2 xy yz xz

## are three stress invariants

The stress tensor

x . xy xz

ij yx y yz

zx zy z
By comparing stress tensor and the given away,

I 1 x y z
= 10 + 8 +6 =24

I 2 x y y z z x 2 xy 2 yz 2 xz
= (10 x 8) + (8 x 6) + (6 x 10) - (5)2 (10)2 (6)2
=80 + 48 + 60 - 25 100 -36
=27

I 3 x y z x 2 yz y 2 xz z 2 xy 2 xy yz xz

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## = 10 x 8 x 6 -10 (10)2 -8 (6 )2 - 6 (5)2 + 2(5) (10) (6)

=480 -1000-288-150+600
=-358
Substitute these values in (1) equation

3 24 2 27 358 0

(2)

We know that

From this

## 4Cos3 Cos3 3Cos

1
3
Cos3 Cos3 Cos 0
4
4

(3)

put,
rCos
rCos

I1
3

24
3

rCos 8
Equation (2) becomes
3

## r Cos 3 512 24 r 2 Cos 2 192 rCos 24 r 2 Cos 2 64 2rCos 8

27 (r cos + 8) + 358 =0
3
r Cos3 + 512 - 24 r2 Cos2+ + 192 r Cos - 24 r2 Cos2 - 1536 384 r Cos + 27 r Cos + 216 + 358 =0
r3 Cos3 - 165 r Cos - 450 = 0
Divided by r3
Cos 3

165

165 3

4
r2
r = 14.8324

and

Cos

450

0
r
r3
Comparing equation (3) and (4) ,w e get,
2

(4)

www.studentskey.in 101

450 Cos3

4
r3

Cos3

450 4

14.8324 3

Cos 3 = 0.551618
1 = 18.84o
2 = 1 + 120
2 = 138.84o
3 = 2 +120
3 = 258.84o
1

=
=

r Cos 1 + 8
14.8324 Cos (18.84o) + 8

=
=
=

22.04 MPa
14.8324 Cos 138. 84o + 8
- 3.17 MPa

=
=
=

r cos 3 + 8
14.8324 Cos 258. 84o + 8
5.13 MPa

18.84 o

22.04 MPa

138.84 o

-3.17 MPa

258.84 o

5.13 MPa

Result:

2.

Obtain the principal stresses and the related direction cosines for the following state
of stress.(April / May 2003)

3. 4 6
4
5 MPa
2

6 5 1
Solution:
The principal stresses are the roots of the cubic equation.

www.studentskey.in 102

3 I1 2 I 2 I 3 0

(1)

I 1 x y z
=3+2+1 =6

I 2 x y y z x x 2 y 2 yz 2 xz
= (3 x 2 ) + (2 x 1) + (1 x 3) - (4)2 - (5)2 - (6)2
= 11 16 - 25 - 36
I2 = -66

I 3 x y z x 2 yz y 2 xz z 2 xy 2 xy yz xz
=(3 x 2 x 1) - 3(5)2 - 2(6)2 - 1 (4)3 + 2 (4 x 6 x 5)
= 6 - 75 - 72 - 16 + 240
I3 = 83
Substitute these values in equation (1)

3 6 2 66 83 0

(2)

We know that

## 4Cos3 Cos3 3Cos

1
3
Cos3 Cos3 Cos
4
4
1
3
Cos3 Cos3 Cos
4
4

Put

rCos

(3)

I1
3

rCos 2
Equation (2) becomes

3 6 2 66 83 0

## r 3 Cos 3 8 3 r 2 Cos 2 2 3 rCos 4 6r 2 Cos 2

24r cos 24 66r cos 132 83 0
r Cos 27 rCos 66rCos 179 0
3

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Divided by r3

Cos 3

39
179
Cos 3 0
2
r
r

39 1

r2 4

r2 = 156
r = 12.48
179 Cos3

3
4
and r

## 716 = Cos 3 x (12.48 )3

716
Cos3
1943.765
Cos 3 = 0.3683573

3 = 68.38565
1 = 22.79o
2 = 1 + 120
2 = 142.79
3 = 2 +120
3 = 262.79

1 r cos 1 2
= 12.48 Cos (22.790) + 2
1 13.506MPa
2 rCos 2 2
= 12.48 Cos (142.79) + 2

2 7.939MPa

(4)

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3 rCos 3 2
= 12.48 Cos (262.79) + 2
= 0.433680 MPa
Result:

3.

= 22. 79o

13.506 MPa

= 142. 79o

-7.939 MPa

= 262. 79o

0.433680 MPa

## The state of stress at a point is given by

20 . 6 10
6
8 MPa
10

10 8 7
Determine the principal stresses and principal direction.
Solution:
The cubic equation

3 I 1 2 I 2 I 3 0

(1)

I 1 x y z
= 20 + 10 + 7 = 37
2
2
I 2 x y y z z x xy
yz
zx2

## =(20 x 10) + (10 x 7) + (7) x 20 + (36) + (64) + (100)

=200 + 70 + 140 + 26 + 64 + 100
I2=610

## I 3 x y z x yz2 y xz2 z xy2 2 xy yz zx

=(20 x 10 x 7) - 20 (64) - 10 (100) - 7 (36) + 2 (6) (8) (10)
=1400 - 1280 - 1000 252 + 960
=1308
Substitute these values in equation (1)

3 37 2 610 1308 0

(2)

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We know that

## 4Cos 3 Cos3 3Cos

1
3
Cos 3 Cos3 Cos
4
4
Cos 3

1
3
Cos3 Cos
4
4

rCos
Put

(3)

I1
3

rCos 12.33
Equation (2) becomes

3 37 2 610 1308 0
rCos 12.33 3 37 rCos 12.33 2 610 rCos 12.33 1308 0

## r 3 Cos 3 1874.516 r 2 Cos 2 36.99 456.087rCos 37 r 2 Cos 2 24.66rCos 152.0289

160 r Cos + 1972.80 - 1308 = 0
2

r 3Cos3 1874.516 36.99r 2Cos 2 456.087rCos 37r 2 Cos 2 9.12r 2Cos 2 5625.0693
160 r Cos + 1972.80 - 1308 = 0

r 3

Cos 3

295
4960.2693
Cos

0
r2
r3

## By comparing (3) & (4)

1 295

4 r2

(4)

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r2 = 1180
r = 34.35
and
Cos3 4960.2693

4
r3
Cos3 4960.2693

4
40534.331

3 = 60.6930
1
2

=
=

20.231o
1 + 120

140 .23

26.231 o

1 rCos 1 12.33
= 34.35 Cos (140.23o) + 12.33

1 44.530 MPa
2 rCos 2 12.33
= 34.35 Cos (140.231o) + 12.33
2 14.217 MPa
3 rCos 3 12.33
= 34.35 Cos (260.231o) + 12.33
3 6.5016
Result:
1 = 20.231o
2 = 140.23o

3 = 260.231o

2 = - 14.217 MPa

1 = 44.530 MPa

3 = 6.5016 MPa

## 4. Explain the Energy of Distortion ( shear strain energy ) and Dilatation

The strain energy can be split up on the following two strain energies.
i.
Strain energy of distortion (shear strain energy)
ii.
Strain energy of Dilatation (Strain energy of uniform compression (or)) tension
(or) volumetric strain energy )

www.studentskey.in 107

## Let e1 e2 an d e3 be the principal strain in the directions of principal stresses 1, 2 and 3.

Then
e1

1
1 2 3
E

e2

1
2 3 1
E

1
3 1 2
E
Adding the above equation we get,
e3

e1 e 2 e 3

1
1 2 3 2 1 2 3
E

1 2 3
1 2
E

## But e1 + e2 + e3 = e v (Volumetric strain)

1 2
ev
1 2 3
E

0, e 0

2
3
v
If 1
. This means that if sum of the three principal stress is
zero there is no volumetric change, but only the distortion occurs.

## From the above discussion,

1.
2.

When the sum of three principal stresses is zero, there is no volumetric change
but only the distortion occurs.
When the three principal stresses are equal to one another there is no distortion
but only volumetric change occurs.

Note:
In the above six theories,
et , ec
=
Tensile stress at the elastic limit in simple tension and
compression;
1, 2, 3

## Principal stresses in any complex system

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## (such that e1 > e2 > e3 )

It may be assumed that the loading is gradual (or) static (and there is no cyclic (or)
5.

## Explain the Maximum Principal stress Theory: ( Rankines Theory)

This is the simplest and the oldest theory of failure
According to this theory failure will occur when the maximum principle tensile
stress (1) in the complex system reaches the value of the maximum stress at the
elastic limit (et) in the simple tension (or) the minimum principal stress (that is, the
maximum principal compressive stress), reaches the elastic limit stress () in
simple compression.
(ie.) 1 = et (in simple tension)

3 ac

## Means numerical value of 3

If the maximum principal stress is the design criterion, the maximum principal stress
must not exceed the working for the material. Hence,

1
This theory disregards the effect of other principal stresses and of the shearing stresses
on other plane through the element. For brittle materials which do not fail by yielding
but fail by brittle fracture, the maximum principal stress theory is considered to be
reasonably satisfactory.
This theory appears to be approximately correct for ordinary cast irons and brittle
metals.
The maximum principal stress theory is contradicted in the following cases:
1.
2.

6.

On a mild steel specimen when simple tension test is carried out sliding occurs
approximately 45o to the axis of the specimen; this shows that the failure in the
case is due to maximum shear stress rather than the direct tensile stress.
It has been found that a material which is even though weak in simple
compression yet can sustain hydrostatic pressure for in excess of the elastic limit
in simple compression.

Explain the Maximum shear stress (or) Stress Difference theory (April /

May

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2003)
This theory is also called Guestis (or) Trescas theory.
This theory implies that failure will occur when the maximum shear stress
maximum in the complex system reaches the value of the maximum shear
stress in simple tension at the elastic limit i.e.

max

1 3 et

2
2

in simple tension.

3
et
(or) 1
In actual design et in the above equation is replaced by the safe stress.

This theory gives good correlation with results of experiments on ductile materials.
In the case of two dimensional tensile stress and then the maximum stress
difference calculated to equate it to et.
Limitations of this theory:
i.
ii.

iii.

7.

The theory does not give accurate results for the state of stress of pure shear in
which the maximum amount of shear is developed (ie) Torsion test.
The theory is not applicable in the case where the state of stress consists of
triaxial tensile stresses of nearly equal magnitude reducing, the shearing stress to
a small magnitude, so that failure would be by brittle facture rather than by
yielding.
The theory does not give as close results as found by experiments on ductile
materials. However, it gives safe results.

## Explain the Shear strain Energy Theory (April / May 2003)

This theory is also called Distortion Energy Theory: (or) Von Mises Henky Theory
2

According to this theory the elastic failure occurs where the shear strain energy per
unit volume in the stressed material reaches a value equal to the shear strain
energy per unit volume at the elastic limit point in the simple tension test.

Shear strain energy due to the principal stresses 1, 2, and 3 per unit volume of the
stress material.

1
US
12C

1 2 2 2 3 2 3 1 2

But for the simple tension test at the elastic limit point where there is only one principal

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stress (ie) et we have the shear strain energy per unit volume which is given by

1
2
2
2
U s1
e t 0 0 0 0 a t
12C

## Equating the two energies, we get

1 et

2 0
3 0

1 2 2 2 3 2 3 1 2 2 et2
The above theory has been found to give best results for ductile material for which
approximately.

et ec

## Limitations of Distortion energy theory:

1. Te theory does to agree with the experimental results for the material for which et is
quite different from ec.
2. The theory gives et 0 for hydrostatic pressure (or) tension, which means that the
material will never fail under any hydrostatic pressure (or) tension. When three equal
tensions are applied in three principal directions, brittle facture occurs and as such
maximum principal stress will give reliable results in this case.
3. This theory is regarded as one to which conform most of the ductile material under

8.

## Explain the Maximum principal strain Theory?

This theory associated with St Venent
The theory states that the failure of a material occurs when the principal tensile
strain in the material reaches the strain at the elastic limit in simple tension (or)
when the minimum principal strain (ie) maximum principal compressive strain
reaches the elastic limit in simple compression.
Principal strain in the direction of principal stress 1,
1
1

1 2 3

E
m

## Principal strain in the direction of the principal stress 3,

e1

e3

1
E

3 m 1 2

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The conditions to cause failure according to eh maximum principal strain theory are:

e1

et
E (e1 must be +Ve)

and

e3

ec
E (e3 must be -Ve)

1
1
E
1
3
E

1
2 3 et
m
E

1
1 2 et
m
E
1
1 1 3 et
m
1
3 1 3 ec
m

To prevent failure:
1
1 2 3 et
m
1
3 1 2 e c
m
At the point of elastic failure:
1
1 2 3 et
m

3
and
For design purposes,

1
1 2 e c
m

1
1 2 t
m
1
3 1 2 c
m
(where, t and c are the safe stresses)

Limitations:
i.
ii.

## The theory overestimates the behavior of ductile materials.

Te theory does not fit well with the experimental results except for brittle materials for
biaxial tension.

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9.

## Explain the Strain energy theory?

The total stain energy of deformation is given by

1
12 22 32 2v 1 2 2 3 3 1
2E
and the strain energy under simple tension is
U

e2
U
2E
Hence for the material to yield,

12 22 32 2v 1 2 2 3 3 1
The total elastic energy stored in a material before it reaches the plastic state can have no
significance as a limiting condition, since under high hydrostatic pressure, large amount of strain
energy ma be stored without causing either fracture (or) permanent deformation.
10.

## Explain Mohrs Theory?

A material may fail either through plastic slip (or) by fracture when either the shearing
stress in the planes of slip has increased.
Let f

The enveloping curve f must represent in their abscissa and ordinates , the
normal and shearing stresses in the plane of slip. Now
2

3
1
2 1

2
2

1
P 1 3
2
Let

1
1 3
2

then

p 2 2 m 2
This equation represents the family of major principal stress circles in parameter form.
The equation of this envelope is obtained by partially differentiating with respect to P

P 2 2
p m.

d m
dp

m2

2 2 p P 2 2 m 2

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m . 1

d m 2
dp

## principal stress in parameter form.

11.

In a steel member, at a point the major principal stress is 180 MN/m 2 and the minor
principal stresses is compressive. If the tensile yield point of the steel is 225 MN/m 2,
find the value of the minor principal stress at which yielding will commence,
according to each of the following criteria of failure.

i.
Maximum shearing stress
ii.
Maximum total strain energy
iii.
Maximum shear strain energy
Take Poissons ratio = 0.26
Solution:
Major principal stress,

1 180 MN / m 2

## Yield point stress

2 225MN / m 2

1
0.26
m
To calculate minor principal stress (2)

## (i) Maximum shearing stress criterion

2 1 e
= 180 - 225
2
2

= - 45 MN/m2
= 45 MN/m2 (comp)

## ii. Maximum total strain energy criterion:

12 22 32
3=0

2
1 2 2 3 3 1 e2
m

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## (180)2 + 22 - 2 x 0.26 x 180 2 = (225)2

32400 + 22 -93.6 2 = 50625
22 - 93.6 2 - 18225 = 0

9.36

93.6 2 4 18225
2

9.36 285.76
96.08MN / m2
2
(Only Ve sign is taken as 2 is compressive)

iii.

## Maximum shear strain energy criterion:

putting 3 = 0

1 2 2 2 2 1 2 2 e2
1 2 2 2

2 1 2 2 1

## (180)2 + (2)2+ - 180 2 = (225)2

(2)2 - 180 2 - 18225 = 0

180
2

180 2 4 18225
2

180 324.5
72.25MN / m 2
2

12.

## In a material the principal stresses are 60 MN/m 2, 48 MN/m2 and - 36 MN/m2.

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Calculate
i.
ii.
iii.
iv.

## Total strain energy

Volumetric strain energy
Shear strain energy
Factor of safety on the total strain energy criteria if the material
yields at 120 MN/m2.

## Take E = 200 GN/m2+ and 1/m = 0.3

Solution:
Given Data:
Principal stresses:
1
2

=
=

+ 60 MN/m2
+ 48 MN/m2

3
=
- 36 MN/m2
Yield stress, e = 120 MN /m2
E = 200 GN/m2, 1/m = 0.3
i. Total strain energy per unit volume:

2
2
2
1 2 3 m 1 2 2 3 3 1

12
10
U
60 2 48 2 36 2 2 0.3 60 48 48 36 60
9
2 200 10
U

1
2E

## U 2.5 3600 2304 1296 0.6 2880 1728 2160

U = 19.51 KNm/m3
ii. Volumetric strain energy per unit volume:

ev

1
60 48 36 2 1012 1 2 0.3 9 10 3
3
2 200 10

e v = 1.728 KN/m3
iii. shear strain energy per unit volume

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C
Where,

E
1

21
m

200
76.923GN / m 2
21 0.3

11012
2
2
2
es

60

48

48

36

36

60

12 76.923 10 9

## e s 1.083144 7056 9216 10 3

es 17.78 KNm / m 3
iv. Factor of safety (F.O.S)

e2 120 10 6

10 3 36 KNm / m 3
9
2 E 2 200 10
2

36

1.845
F.O.S 19.51

13.

calculate:
i.
ii.
iii.
iv.

## Total strain energy

Volumetric strain energy
Shear strain energy and
Factor of safety on the total strain energy criterion if the material
yield at 100 N/mm2.
Take E = 200 x 103 N/mm2 and poission ratio = 0 .28
Solution:
Given,
Principal stresses:

1 50 N / mm 2

2 40 N / mm 2
3 30 N / mm 2
Yield stress,

e 100 N / mm 2

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## i. Total strain energy per unit volume:

1
2E

2
2
2
1 2 3 m 1 2 2 3 3 1

1
50 2 40 2 30 2 2 0.3 50 40 40 30 30 50
3
2 200 10

1
2500 1600 900 0.6 2000 1200 1500
400 10 3

1
5000 0.6 700
400 10 3

1
5420
400 10 3

U = 13.55 KNm/m3
ii)Volumetric strain energy per unit volume:

ev

ev

1
1 2 2 2 1 2 / m
3
2E

1
50 40 30 2 1 2 0.33
3
2 200 10

1
60 2 0.4 3
3
400 10

ev

3600 0.001

3
10 3

ev = 1.2 K N m / m3
iii. Shear strain energy

1
1 2 2 2 3 2 3 1 2
es
12C

where

E
200 10 3

76.923 10 3 N / mm 2
21 1 / m 21 0.3

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1
2
2
2

es
50

40

40

30

30

50
12 76.923 10 3

es

1
100 4900 6400
923.076 10 3

e s 12.35KNn / m 3
iv. Factor of safety (F.O.S)
e2
100 2 254 KNm / m 3

2E
2 200 10 3
25
F .O.S
1.845
13.55

14.

calculate:
v.
vi.
vii.
viii.

## Total strain energy

Volumetric strain energy
Shear strain energy and
Factor of safety on the total strain energy criterion if the material
yield at 100 N/mm2.
Take E = 200 x 103 N/mm2 and poission ratio = 0 .28
Solution:
Given,
Principal stresses:

1 50 N / mm 2

2 40 N / mm 2
3 30 N / mm 2
Yield stress,

e 100 N / mm 2

## i. Total strain energy per unit volume:

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1
2E

2
2
2
1 2 3 m 1 2 2 3 3 1

1
50 2 40 2 30 2 2 0.3 50 40 40 30 30 50
3
2 200 10

1
2500 1600 900 0.6 2000 1200 1500
400 10 3

1
5000 0.6 700
400 10 3

1
5420
400 10 3

U = 13.55 KNm/m3
ii)Volumetric strain energy per unit volume:

ev

ev

1
1 2 2 2 1 2 / m
3
2E

1
50 40 30 2 1 2 0.33
3
2 200 10

1
60 2 0.4 3
3
400 10

ev

3600 0.001

3
10 3

ev = 1.2 K N m / m3
iii. Shear strain energy

1
1 2 2 2 3 2 3 1 2
es
12C

where

E
200 10 3

76.923 10 3 N / mm 2
21 1 / m 21 0.3

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1
2
2
2

es
50

40

40

30

30

50
12 76.923 10 3

es

1
100 4900 6400
923.076 10 3

e s 12.35KNn / m 3
iv. Factor of safety (F.O.S)
e2
100 2 254 KNm / m 3

2E
2 200 10 3
25
F .O.S
1.845
13.55

## CE1252- STRENGTH OF MATERIALS

(FOR IV SEMESTER)
UNIT V

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## 1.Define Unsymmetrical bending

The plane of loading (or) that of bending does not lie in (or) a plane that contains
the principle centroidal axis of the cross- section; the bending is called Unsymmetrical
bending.
2. State the two reasons for unsymmetrical bending.
(i) The section is symmetrical (viz. Rectangular, circular, I section) but the load
line is inclined to both the principal axes.
(ii) The section is unsymmetrical (viz. Angle section (or) channel section vertical
web) and the load line is along any centroidal axes.
3. Define shear centre.
The shear centre (for any transverse section of the beam) is the point of
intersection of the bending axis and the plane of the transverse section. Shear centre is
also known as centre of twist
4. Write the shear centre equation for channel section.
e

3b
A
6 w
Af

e = Distance of the shear centre (SC ) from the web along the symmetric axis XX
Aw = Area of the web
Af = Area of the flange
5. A channel Section has flanges 12 cm x 2 cm and web 16 cm x 1 cm. Determine the
shear centre of the channel.
Solution:
b= 12-0.5 = 11.5 cm
t1 = 2cm, t2 = 1cm, h= 18 cm
Af = bt1 = 11.5 x 2 = 23 cm2
Aw = ht2 = 18 x 1= 18 cm2
e

3b
A
6 w
Af

3(11 .5)
5.086 cm
18
6
23

## 6. Write the shear centre equation for unsymmetrical I section.

e

t1 h 2 (b2 b1 ) 2
4 I xx

e = Distance of the shear centre (SC) from the web along the symmetric axis XX
t1 = thickness of the flange
h = height of the web
b1 = width of the flange in right portion.

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## b2 = width of the flange in left portion.

Ixx = M.O.I of the section about XX axis.
7. State the assumptions made in Winklers Bach Theory.
(1) Plane sections (transverse) remain plane during bending.
(2) The material obeys Hookes law (limit state of proportionality is not
exceeded)
(4) The fibres are free to expand (or) contract without any constraining effect
8. State the parallel Axes and Principal Moment of inertia.
If the two axes about which the product of inertia is found, are such , that the
product of inertia becomes zero, the two axes are then called the principle axes. The
moment of inertia about a principal axes is called the principal moment of inertia.
9. Define stress concentration.
The term stress gradient is used to indicate the rate of increase of stress as a stress
raiser is approached. These localized stresses are called stress concentration.
10. Define stress concentration factor.
It is defined as the ratio of the maximum stress to the nominal stress.
Kt

max
nom

max
nom

= maximum stress
= nominal stress

## 11. Define fatigue stress concentration factor.

The fatigue stress concentration factor (Kf ) is defined as the ratio of flange limit
of unnotched specimen to the fatigue limit of notched specimen under axial (or) bending
K f 1 q( K t 1)

## Value of q ranges from zero to one.

12. Define shear flow.
Shear flow is defined as the ratio of horizontal shear force H over length of the
beam x. Shear flow is acting along the longitudinal surface located at discharge y1.Shear
flow is defined by q.
q

Q
H
V y z
x
Iz

## H = horizontal shear force

13. Explain the position of shear centre in various sections.
(i) In case of a beam having two axes of symmetry, the shear centre coincides
with the centroid.
(ii) In case of sections having one axis of symmetry, the shear centre does not
coincide with the centroid but lies on the axis of symmetry.

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## 14. State the principles involved in locating the shear centre.

The principle involved in locating the shear centre for a cross section of a beam
is that the loads acting on the beam must lie in a plane which contains the resultant shear
force on each cross-section of the beam as computed from the shearing stresses.
15. Determine the position of shear centre of the section of the beam shown in fig.
Solution:
t1 = 4 cm, b1 = 6 cm, b2 = 8 cm
h1 = 30 4 = 26 cm
e

t1 h 2 (b2 b1 ) 2
4 I xx

Ixx =
e

14 x 4 3
2 x 22 3
2
14 x 4(13) 3
20852 cm 4
12
12

4 x 26 2 (8 6) 2
0.9077 cm
4(20852

v cos u sin
b M

I VV
I UU

## b = bending stress in the curved bar

M = moment due to the load applied
IUU = Principal moment of inertia in the principal axes UU
IVV = Principal moment of inertia in the principal axes VV
17. Define the term Fatigue.
Fatigue is defined as the failure of a material under varying loads, well below the
18. State the types of fatigue stress.
(i) Direct stress
(ii) Plane bending
(iii) Rotating bending
(iv) Torsion
(v) Combined stresses
(a) Fluctuating or alternating stress
(b) Reversed stress.
19. State the reasons for stress- concentration.
When a large stress gradient occurs in a small, localized area of a structure, the
high stress is referred to as a stress concentration. The reasons for stress concentration are
(i) discontinuities in continuum (ii) contact forces.

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## 20. Define creep.

Creep can be defined as the slow and progressive deformation of a material with
time under a constant stress.
16 - MARKS QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS
1. Explain the stresses induced due to unsymmetrical bending.
Fig. shows the cross-section of a beam under the action of a bending moment M
acting in plane YY.
Also G = centroid of the section,
XX, YY = Co-ordinate axes passing through G,
UU, VV = Principal axes inclined at an angle to XX and YY axes respectively
The moment M in the plane YY can be resolved into its components in the planes
UU and VV as follows:
Moment in the plane UU, M = M sin
Moment in the plane VV, M = M cos
The components M and M have their axes along VV and UU respectively.
The resultant bending stress at the point (u,v) is given by,
b

## M ' u M " v M sin M cos

I VV
I UU
I VV
I UU

VCos uSin
b M

I vv
I UU

At any point the nature of b will depend upon the quadrant in which it lies. The equation
of the neutral axis (N.A) can be found by finding the locus of the points on which the
resultant stress is zero. Thus the points lying on neutral axis satisfy the condition that b = 0
VCos uSin
M

0
I vv
I UU

VCos uSin

0
I UU
I vv
I
Sin
v UU
u
Cos
I vv

(or)

v UU tan u
I vv

This is an equation of a straight line passing through the centroid G of the section and
inclined at an angle with UU where
I

tan UU tan
I vv

## Following points are worth noting:

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i.

The maximum stress will occur at a point which is at the greatest distance form
the neutral
All the points of the section on one side of neutral axis will carry stresses of the
same nature and on the other side of its axis, of opposite nature.
In the case where there is direct stress in addition to the bending stress, the neutral
axis will still be a straight line but will not pass through G (centroid of section.)

ii.
iii.

2. Derive the equation of Shear centre for channel section. April/May 2005
Fig shows a channel section (flanges: b x t 1 ; Web h x t2) with XX as the horizontal
symmetric axis.
Let S = Applied shear force. (Vertical downward X)
(Then S is the shear force in the web in the upward direction)
S1
=
Shear force in the top flange (there will be equal and opposite shear force
in the bottom flange as shown.)
Now, shear stress () in the flange at a distance of x from the right hand edge (of the top
flange)

SA y
I xa t

A y t1 .x

h
2 (where t = t1 , thickness of flange)

St1.x h S xh
.
I xx .t1 2 2 I xx
Shear force is elementary area

d A t1.dx .d A t1dz

b

.t1.dx
0

## (where b = breadth of the flange)

sht
S h
; t1 .dx 1
2 I xx
2 I xx

S1

xdx
0

S1

Sht1 b
.
I xx 4

(or)
Let e = Distance of the shear centre (sc) from taking moments of shear forces about the
centre O of the web,We get
S .e S1 .h

Sht1 b 2
S .t1 h 2 b 2

. .h
I xx 4
4 I xx

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b 2 h 2t1
4 I xx

(1)

2
3
b t 3
h t2h
1
Ixx 2
b.t1
2 12
12
Now,

bt13 b.t1h 2 t 2 h 3

6
2
12

bt h 2
t h3
1 2
2
12 (neglecting the term

bt13
3

## , being negligible in comparison to other

I xx

h
t 2 h bbt1
12

terms)(or)
Substitute the value of Ixx in equation (1) we get,
e

b 2 h 2 t1
3b 2 t1
12
2

4
h t 2 h 6bt1 t 2 h 6ht1

Let

## bt1 = Af (area of the flange)

ht2 = A (area of the web)
Then
3bA f
3b
e

A
Aw 6 A f
6 w
Af

3.

## Derive the equation of Shear center for unequal I-section

Solution:
Fig. shows an unequal I section which is symmetrical about XX axis.

## Shear stress in any layer,

SA y

It
where I = IXX =
Shear force S1 :

t3
h3
2 b1 b 2 1 b1 b2 t1 x

12
12

dA t1 dx. A y t1 .x.
b1

S1 =

dA

h
2

S .x.t1 h
xt 1 dx
I XX t1 2

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b1

S .x. h
t1 dx
I XX 2

Sht1
2 I XX

x 2 1 Sht1b12

4 I XX
2 0

Similarly the shear force (S2) in the other part of the flange,
Sht1b22
4 I XX
S2 =
Taking moments of the shear forces about the centre of the web O, we get
S2. h = S1. h + S .e (S3 = S for equilibrium)
(where, e = distance of shear centre from the centre of the web)
or, (S2 S1) h = S.e
Sh 2 t1 (b22 b12 )
S .e
4 I XX
4. Derive the stresses in curved bars using Winkler Bach Theory.
The simple bending formula, however, is not applicable for deeply curved beams where
the neutral and centroidal axes do not coincide. To deal with such cases Winkler Bach Theory
is used.
Fig shows a bar ABCD initially; in its unstrained state. Let ABCD be the strained
position of the bar.
Let R = Radius of curvature of the centroidal axis HG.
Y
=
Distance of the fiber EF from the centroidal layer HG.
R
=
M
=
Uniform bending moment applied to the beam (assumed
positive when tending to increase the curvature)

=
Original angle subtended by the centroidal axis HG at its
centre of curvature O and

=
Angle subtended by HG (after bending) a t the center of curvature

For finding the strain and stress normal to the section, consider the fibre EF at a distance
y from the centroidal axis.
Let be the stress in the strained layer EF under the bending moment M and e is strain in the
same layer.
e

Strain,

EF
( R y )

## R' y ' '

. 1
Ry

or
e0 = strain in the centroidal layer i.e. when y = 0

R' '
. 1
R
R' '
.
R

1 e

or

and 1+e =
Dividing equation (1) and (2) , we get

## R ' y ' '

.
Ry

--------- (1)
--------- (2)

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R ' y ' R
1 e

.
1 e0
R y R'

e0 .

y' y'
y
e0
R ' R'
R
y
1
R

or
According to assumption (3) , radial strain is zero
e

e0 .

i.e. y = y

y y
y
e0
R' R'
R
y
1
R

Strain,
Adding and subtracting the term e0. y/R, we get
y y
y
y
y
e 0 e 0 e0 .
R' R '
R
R
R
e
y
1
R
1 1
(1 e 0 )( ) y
R
' R
e e 0
y
1
R
e0 .

------------- (3)
From the fig. the layers above the centroidal layer is in tension and the layers below the
centroidal layer is in compression.
E (e 0

1 1
)y
R' R )
y
1
R

(1 e0 )(

Stress , = Ee =

___________ (4)

## Total force on the section, F =

Considering a small strip of elementary area dA, at a distance of y from the centroidal layer HG,
we have
.dA

1 1
)y
R
' R dA
F E e 0 .dA E
y
1
R
y
1 1
F E e0 . A E 1 e 0 ( )
dA
y
R, R
1
R

(1 e0 )(

F E e0 .dA E 1 e 0 (

1 1
)
R, R

____________ (5)

## where A = cross section of the bar

The total resisting moment is given given by

M . y.dA E

M E e 0 .0 E 1 e 0 (

e . ydA E

1 1 2
)y
R' R
dA
y
1
R

(1 e 0 )(

1 1
)
R, R

1 y dA

y2
dA
y
1
R

(since

ydA 0)

www.studentskey.in 129
2
1 1 y

dA
R' R

1 y
R

y2
dA Ah 2
y
1
R

M = E (1+e0)
Let
2
Where h = a constant for the cross section of the bar

M=E

1 1 2
Ah
(1+e0) R' R

Now,

----------- (6)

Ry

1 y .dA R y .dA y R y dA
R

1 y

dA 0

1
R

y2
.dA
y
1
R

ydA

1
Ah 2
R

y2
.dA
Ry

---------- (7)

## Hence equation (5) becomes

2
1 1 Ah
R' R R

F = Ee0 .A E (1+e0 )

F=0
2
1 1 Ah

## 0 = Ee0 .A E (1+e0 ) R' R R

2
1 1 Ah

= E (1+e0 ) R' R R

E e0 .A

2
1 1 Ah
R' R R

e0 = (1+e0 )

e0 R

e0 R

M=E h
Or

e0

Ah 2

M
EAR

M
E*
AR

(1+e0

e0 R

(or) h

1 1

) R' R

(1+e0

1 1
R' R

## in the equation (6)

= e0 EAR
substituting the value of e0 in equation (4)

y
y
1
R

e0 R
h

Ry
M
M
1

*
*
y h2
AR AR
1
R
2
M R y

AR h 2 R y

M
E*
AR

(or)

(Tensile)

y
y
1
R

R
h2

M
EAR

www.studentskey.in 130

M R 2 y
1

AR h 2 R y

(Compressive)
5. The curved member shown in fig. has a solid circular cross section 0.01 m in
diameter. If the maximum tensile and compressive stresses in the member are not to
exceed 150 MPa and 200 MPa. Determine the value of load P that can safely be
carried by the member.
Solution:
Given,
d = 0.10 m; R = 0.10 m; G = 150 MPa = 150 MN / m2 (tensile )
2 = 200 MPa = 200 MN / m2 (Compressive)
Refer to the fig . Area of cross section,

d 2
0.10 2 7.854 10 3 m 2
4
4
Bending moment, m = P (0.15 + 0.10) =0.25 P
d2
1 0.10 4
h2

.
16 128 0.10 2
= 7.031 x 10-4 m2
A

p
comp
A
Direct stress,
Bending stress at point 1 due to M:
M R2
y
b1
1 2

AR
R y
h
(tensile)

## Total stress at point 1,

1 d b1
150

150

P M R2
y

1 2

A
AR h
R y
(tensile)

P
7.854 10 3

0.10 2
0.05
1

3
4
0.10 0.05
7.854 10 0.10 7.031 10
0.25 P

= -127.32 P + 318.31 P x 5. 74
= 1699.78 P
P

150 10 3
88 .25 KN
1699 .78

## Bending stress at point 2 due to M:

(i)

www.studentskey.in 131

b2

M R2
y
1
2
AR h
R y

(comp)

2 d b 2
200

P M R2
y

A AR h 2 R y

0.102
P
0.25P
0.05

## 7.854 10 3 7.854 10 3 0.10 7.03110 4 0.10 0.05

=127.32 P + 318. 31 P x 13.22
= 4335.38 P
200
P
MN
4335.38
200 10 3
P
46.13KN
4335.38

(ii)

By comparing (i) & (ii) the safe load P will be lesser of two values
6. Fig. shows a frame subjected to a load of 2.4 kN. Find (i) The resultant stresses at a
point 1 and 2;(ii) Position of neutral axis. (April/May 2003)
Solution:
Area of section 1-2,
A = 48 * 18*10-6 = 8.64 * 10-4m2
Bending moment,
M = -2.4*103*(120+48) * = -403.2 Nm
M is taken as ve because it tends to decrease the curvature.
(i) Direct stress:
Direct stress d =
h2

Here

P
2.4 *10 3

*10 6 2.77 MN / m 2
A 8.64 *10 4

R3
2R D
2
log e
R
D
2R D

R = 48 mm = 0.048 m, D = 48 mm = 0.048 m
h2

2(0.048 ) 0.048
0.048 3
(0.048 ) 2
log e
0.048
2
(
0
.
048
)

0
.
048

## = 0.0482 (loge3 1) = 2.27 * 10-4 m2

(ii) Bending stress due to M at point 2:

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b2

M R 2 y
1

AR h 2 R y

0.048
0.024

*10 6 MN / m 2
1
4 0.048 0.024
* 0.048 2.27 *10

403 .2
8.64 *10

;
2

## = -9.722 (1-10.149) = 88.95 MN/m2 (tensile)

(iii) Bending stress due to M at point 1:
b1

M R 2 y
1

AR h 2 R y

0.048 2
0.024
1

*10 6 MN / m 2

4
4 0.048 _ 0.024
8.64 *10 * 0.048 2.27 *10

403 .2

## = -42.61 MN/m2 = 42.61 MN/m2 (comp)

(iv) Resultant stress:
Resultant stress at point 2,
2 = d + b2 = 2.77 + 88.95 = 91.72 MN/m2 (tensile)
Resultant stress at point 1,
1 = d + b1 = 2.77 -42.61 = 39.84 MN/m2 (comp)
(v) Position of the neutral axis:
Rh 2
y 2

R h2
0.048 * 2.27 *10 4
y

## 0.048 2 2.27 *10 4

= -0.00435 m = - 4.35 mm
Hence, neutral axis is at a radius of 4.35 mm

7. Fig. shows a ring carrying a load of 30 kN. Calculate the stresses at 1 and 2.
Solution:

## x12 2 cm 2 113 .1 cm 2 0.01131 m 2

Area of cross-section = 4

Here

h2
d

d2
1 d4

* 2 ......
= 16 128 R

## = 12 cm, R = 7.5 +6 = 13.5 cm

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12 2
1
12 4

*
2
= 16 128 13 .5

h2

## = 9.89 cm2 = 9.89*10-4 m2

P 30 *10 3

*10 6 2.65 MN / m 2
= A 0.01131

Direct Stress d
Bending stress at point 1 due to M,

R 2 y
1 2

h R y

b1

M
AR

b1

4050
0.01131 * 0.135

0.135 2
0.06

*10 6
1
4 0.135 0.06

9.89 *10
2.65*6.6

## Bending stress at point 2 due to M,

b2
b1

M
AR

R2 y
1 2
h R

4050
0.01131 * 0.135

0.135 2
1
4
9.89 *10

0.06

6
0.135 0.06 *10

2.65*13.

74
= 36.41 MN/m (comp)
Hence 1 = d + b1 = -2.65 + 17.675
= 15.05 MN /m2 (tensile)
and
2 = d + b2 = -2.65 36.41
= 39.06 MN/m2 (comp)
8. A curved bar is formed of a tube of 120 mm outside diameter and 7.5 mm thickness. The
centre line of this is a circular arc of radius 225 mm. The bending moment of 3 kNm
tending to increase curvature of the bar is applied. Calculate the maximum tensile and
compressive stresses set up in the bar.
Solution:
Outside diameter of the tube, d2 = 120 mm = 0.12 m
Thickness of the tube
= 7.5 mm
Inside diameter of the tube, d1 = 120-2*7.5 = 105 mm = 0.105m
Area of cross-section,
A

## 0.12 2 0.15 2 0.00265 m 2

4

Bending moment
M
Area of inner circle,
A1

= 3 kNm

0.105 2 0.00866 m 2
4

## Area of outer circle,

A2

0.12 2 0.01131 m 2
4

## For circular section,

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d2
1 d4

* 2 ......
= 16 128 R

h2
For inner circle,

4
d1 2
1 d1

* 2 ......
= 16 128 R

h2

0.105 2
1 0.105 4

*
7.08 *10 4
2
16
128
0
.
225
=

h2
For outer circle,

4
d22
1 d2
0.12 2
1
0.12 4

* 2 ......

*
9.32 *10 4
2
2
2
16
128
16
128
R
0
.
225
h
=
; h=
2
2
2
Ah A2 h2 A1 h1

## 0.00265 h2 = 0.01131*9.32*10-4 0.00866*7.078*10-4

h2 = 0.00166 m2, and R2/h2 = 0.2252/0.00166 = 30.49
Maximum stress at A,
A

M R 2 y
1

AR h 2 R y

(where, y = 60 mm = 0.06 m)

3 *10
0.06

6
2
1 30 .49
*10 MN / m
0.00265 * 0.225
0.225 0.06

## A = 37.32 MN/m2 (tensile)

Maximum stress at B,
B

M
AR

R 2 y
1 2

h R y

3 *10 3
0.00265 * 0.225

0.06

6
2
1 30 .49
*10 MN / m
0
.
225

0
.
06

## B = 50.75 MN/m2 (comp)

9. A curved beam has a T-section (shown in fig.). The inner radius is 300 mm. what is the
eccentricity of the section?
Solution:
Area of T-section,

= b1t1 + b2t2

## = 60*20 + 80*20 = 2800 mm2

To find c.g of T- section, taking moments about the edge LL, we get

A x A2 x 2
x 1 1
A1 A2

Now

(60 * 20)(

60
20) (80 * 20)(80 * 20 *10 )
2
(60 * 20 ) (80 * 20 )

=27.14 mm
R1 = 300 mm; R2 = 320 mm; R= 327.14 mm; R3 = 380 mm

www.studentskey.in 135

R3
A

R2
R
t1 . log e 3 R 2
b 2 . log e
R1
R2

320
(327 .14 ) 3
380
h2
) 20 * log e (
) (327 .14 ) 2
80 * log e (
2800
300
320
h2

## = 12503.8(5.16+3.44) 107020.6 = 512.08

Rh 2
327 .14 * 512 .08
2

1.56 mm ( )
2
2
R h (327 .14 ) 512 .08
y=

where y = e (eccentricity) = distance of the neutral axis from the centroidal axis.
Negative sign indicates that neutral axis is locates below the centroidal axis.
10. Fig. shows a C- frame subjected to a load of 120 kN. Determine the stresses at A and B.
Solution:
Area of cross section = b1t1 +b2t2+ b3t3
= 120*30 + 150*30 +180*30 = 0.0135 mm2
To find c.g of the section about the edge LL,

y1

A1 x1 A2 x 2
A1 A2

## (120 * 20 * 225 ) (150 * 30 * 15) (180 * 30 * 120 )

(120 * 30) (150 * 30) (180 * 30 )

=113 mm=0.113 m

## y2 = 240 113 = 127 mm = 0.127 m

R1 = 225 mm = 0.225 m
R2 = 225 + 30 = 255 mm = 0.255 m
R = 225 + 113 = 338 mm = 0.338 m
R3 = 225 +210 = 435 mm = 0.435 m
R4= 225 + 240 = 465 mm = 0.465 m
h2

R3
A

h2

(0.338 ) 3
0.0135

R2
R
t 3 log e 3
b2 log e
R
1
R2

b1 log e 4

R3

R 2

0.465
0.255
0.435
0.15 log e
0.03 log e
0.12 log e
0.225
0.255

0.435

0.338 2

P 120 *10 3

## *10 6 8.89 MN / m 2 (comp )

A
0.0135

Direct stress, d =
Bending moment, M = P*R
Bending stress at A due to the bending moment,
( b ) A

M
AR

R2
1 2
h

y2

R y2

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( b ) A

P*R
0.338 2
1
AR 0.008122

0.127

0.338 0.127

## = 8.89 (1+3.842) = 43.04 MN/m2 (tensile)

Bending stress at B due to the bending moment:
R2
1 2
h

( b ) A

M
AR

( b ) A

P*R
AR

Stress at A,

Stress at B,

y1

R y1

0.338 2
1
0.008122

0.113

0.338 0.113

= 8.89 ( 1- 7.064)
= -53.9 MN /m2 = 53.9 MN/m2 (comp)
= d + (b)A
= -8.89 + 43.04 = 34.15 MN/m2 (tensile)
= d + (b)B
= -8.89 53.9 = 62.79 MN/m2 (comp)

11. Derive the formula for the deflection of beams due to unsymmetrical bending.
Solution:
Fig. shows the transverse section of the beam with centroid G. XX and YY are
two rectangular co-ordinate axes and UU and VV are the principal axes inclined at an angle to
the XY set of co-ordinates axes. W is the load acting along the line YY on the section of the
beam. The load W can be resolved into the following two components:
(i)
W sin along UG
(ii)
W cos along VG
Let, u = Deflection caused by the component W sin along the line GU for its bending about
VV axis, and
v = Deflection caused by the component W cos along the line GV due to bending abodt
UU axis.
Then depending upon the end conditions of the beam, the values of u and v are given by
u

K W sin l 3
EI VV

K W cos l 3
EI UU

where,
K = A constant depending on the end conditions of the
beam and position of the load along the beam, and
l = length of the beam
The total or resultant deflection can then be found as follows:
u 2 v 2

Kl 3
E

W sin

I
VV

W cos

UU

www.studentskey.in 137

Kl 3
E

sin 2

I 2 VV

cos 2

I 2 UU

tan

I UU
u

v I VV tan

## 12. A 80 mm x 80 mm x 10 mm angle section shown in fig. is used as a simply supported

beam over a span of 2.4 m. It carries a load of 400 kN along the line YG, where G is the
centroid of the section. Calculate (i) Stresses at the points A, B and C of the mid section of
the beam (ii) Deflection of the beam at the mid-section and its direction with the load line
(iii) Position of the neutral axis. Take E = 200 GN/m2
Solution:
Let (X,Y) be the co-ordinate of centroid G, with respect to the rectangular axes
BX1 and BY1.
80 *10 * 40 70 *10 * 5 32000 3500

23 .66 mm
80 *10 70 *10
800 700

Now X = Y =
Moment of inertia about XX axis:

80 *10 3
10 * 70 3

I XX
80 *10 * (23 .66 5) 2
70 *10 * (45 23 .66 ) 2
12
12

## = (6666.66 + 278556) + (285833.33 + 318777) = 889833 mm4

= 8.898 * 105 mm4 = IYY (since it is an equal angle section)
Co-ordinates of G1 = + (40-23.66), - (23.66-5) = (16.34,- 18.66)
Co-ordinates of G2 = -(23.66-5). + (45 23.66) = (-18.66, + 21.34)
(Product of inertia about the centroid axes is zero because portions 1 and 2 are rectangular
strips)
If is the inclination of principal axes with GX, passing through G then,
tan 2

2 I XY
tan 90
I XY I XX

## (since Ixx =Iyy)

2 = 90
i.e. 1 = 45 and 2 = 90 + 45 = 135 are the inclinations of the principal axes GU and GV
respectively.
Principal moment of inertia:
IUU =

I I XX 2
1
( I XX I YY ) ( YY
) ( I XY ) 2
2
2

1
8.895 *10 5 8.898 *10 5 2
(8.895 *10 5 8.898 *10 5 ) (
) ( 5.226 *10 5 ) 2
2
=2

(i)

## = (8.898 + 5.2266) *105 = 14.1245*105 mm4

IUU + IVV = IXX + IYY
IVV = IXX IYY IUU
= 2*8.898 x 105 14.1246 x 105 = 3.67 x 105 mm4
Stresses at the points A, B and C:

www.studentskey.in 138

M

4
4

## The components of the bending moments are;

M = M sin = 2.4 x 105 sin 45 = 1.697 x 105 Nmm
M = M cos = 2.4 x 105 cos 45 = 1.697 x 105 Nmm
u,v co-ordinates:
Point A: x = -23.66, y = 80-23.66 = 56.34 mm
u = x cos + y sin
= -23.66 x cos 45 + 56.34 x sin 45 = 23.1 mm
v = y cos + x sin
= 56.34 cos 45 - (-23.66 x sin 45) = 56.56 mm
Point B:
x = -23.66, y = -23.66
u = x cos + y sin
= -23.66 x cos 45 + (-23.66 x sin 45 ) = - 33.45 mm
v = y cos + x sin
= -23.66 cos 45 - (-23.66 x sin 45) = 0
Point C ; x = 80 23.66 = 56.34, y = -23.66
u = x cos + y sin
= 56.34 cos 45 -23.66 x sin 45 = 23.1 mm
v = y cos + x sin
= -23.66 cos 45 - 56.34 sin 45) =- 56.56 mm
A

M 'u M"v

I VV
I UU

## 1.697 *10 5 (23 .1) 1.697 *10 5 (56 .56 )

A

17 .47 N / mm 2
3.67 x10 5
14 .1246 x10 5
1.697 *10 5 ( 33 .45 )
0
B

15 .47 N / mm 2
5
3.67 x10
14 .1246 x10 5
1.697 *10 5 (23 .1)
56 .56
B

3.788 N / mm 2
5
5
3.67 x10
14 .1246 x10

(ii)

## Deflection of the beam, :

The deflection is given by:

KWl 3
E

sin 2

I 2 VV

cos 2

I 2 UU

where K = 1/48 for a beam with simply supported ends and carrying a point load
at the centre.

W = 400 N

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Length

l = 2.4 m
E = 200 x 103 N/mm2
IUU = 14.1246 x 105 mm4
IVV = 3.67 x 105 mm4
Substituting the values, we get

## 1 400 x(2.4 x10 3 ) 3

48
E

sin 2 45

(3.67 x10 5 ) 2

cos 2 45

(14 .1246 x10 5 ) 2

= 1.1466 mm
The deflection will be inclined at an angle clockwise with the kine GV, given by
tan

I UU
14 .1246 x10 5
tan
tan 45 3.848
I VV
3.67 x10 5

## = 75.43 - 45 = 30.43 clockwise with the load line GY.

(iii) Position of the neutral axis:
The neutral axis will be at 90 - 30.43 = 59.57 anti-clockwise with the load line,
because the neutral axis is perpendicular to the line of deflection.