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in 1

STRENGTH OF MATERIALS

(FOR IV SEMESTER)

UNIT I

ENERGY PRINCIPLES

Strain energy and strain energy density- strain energy in traction, shear in

flexure and torsion- Castiglianos theorem Principle of virtual work application

of energy theorems for computing deflections in beams and trusses Maxwells

reciprocal theorem.

Two Marks Questions and Answers

1. Define strain energy and Proof stress.

Strain energy

Whenever a body is strained, the energy is absorbed in the body. The energy which is

absorbed in the body due to straining effect is known as strain energy. The strain energy stored in

the body is equal to the work done by the applied load in stretching the body

Proof stress

The stress induced in an elastic body when it possesses maximum strain energy is termed

as its proof stress.

2. Define: Resilience

The resilience is defined as the capacity of a strained body for doing work on the

removal of the straining force. The total strain energy stored in a body is commonly known as

resilience

3. Define Resilience, Proof Resilience and Modulus of Resilience.

Resilience

The resilience is defined as the capacity of a strained body for doing work on the

removal of the straining force. The total strain energy stored in a body is commonly known as

resilience.

Proof Resilience

The proof resilience is defined as the quantity of strain energy stored in a body when

strained up to elastic limit. The maximum strain energy stored in a body is known as proof

resilience.

Modulus of Resilience

It is defined as the proof resilience of a material per unit volume.

Proof resilience

Modulus of resilience = ------------------Volume of the body

4. State the two methods for analyzing the statically indeterminate structures.

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b. Force method (compatibility method (or) flexibility coefficient method)

5. Define Castiglianos first theorem second Theorem.

First Theorem.

It states that the deflection caused by any external force is equal to the partial derivative of

the strain energy with respect to that force.

Second Theorem

It states that If U is the total strain energy stored up in a frame work in equilibrium under an

external force; its magnitude is always a minimum.

6. State the Principle of Virtual work.

It states that the workdone on a structure by external loads is equal to the internal energy

stored in a structure (Ue = Ui)

Work of external loads = work of internal loads

7. What is the strain energy stored in a rod of length l and axial rigidity AE to an axial force

P?

Strain energy stored

P2 L

U= -------2AE

8. State the various methods for computing the joint deflection of a perfect frame.

1. The Unit Load method

2. Deflection by Castiglianos First Theorem

3. Graphical method : Willot Mohr Diagram

9. State the deflection of the joint due to linear deformation.

n

v = U x

1

n

H = U x

1

PL

= --------Ae

U= vertical deflection

U= horizontal deflection

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n

=UXA

1

= U11 + U2 2 + + Un n

If the change in length () of certain member is zero, the product U. for those members

will be substituted as zero in the above equation.

11. State the deflection of a joint due to lack of fit.

n

= U

1

= U11 + U2 2 + + Un n

If there is only one member having lack of fit 1, the deflection of a particular joint will be

equal to U11.

12. What is the effect of change in temperature in a particular member of a redundant

frame?

When any member of the redundant frame is subjected to a change in temperature, it will cause

a change in length of that particular member, which in turn will cause lack of fit stresses in all

other members of the redundant frame.

13. State the difference between unit load and strain energy method in the determination of

structures.

In strain energy method, an imaginary load P is applied at the point where the deflection is

desired to be determined. P is equated to zero in the final step and the deflection is obtained.

In the Unit Load method, a unit load (instead of P) is applied at the point where the deflection

is desired.

14. State the assumptions made in the Unit Load method.

1. The external and internal forces are in equilibrium

2. Supports are rigid and no movement is possible

3. The material is strained well within the elastic limit.

15. State the comparison of Castiglianos first theorem and unit load method.

The deflection by the unit load method is given by

n PUL

= ------1 AE

n PL

------- x U

1 AE

=

n

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= x U ----- (i)

1

The deflection by castiglianos theorem is given by

n

PL P

AE W --------- (ii)

P

U

W

16. State Maxwells Reciprocal Theorem.

The Maxwells Reciprocal theorem states as The work done by the first system of

loads due to displacements caused by a second system of loads equals the work done by the

second system of loads due to displacements caused by the first system of loads.

17. Define degree of redundancy.

A frame is said to be statically indeterminate when the no of unknown reactions or stress

components exceed the total number of condition equations of equilibrium.

20. Define Perfect Frame.

If the number of unknowns is equal to the number of conditions equations available, the

frame is said to be a perfect frame.

21. State the two types of strain energies.

c.strain energy of distortion (shear strain energy)

d. strain energy of uniform compression (or) tension (volumetric strain energy)

22. State in which cases, Castiglianos theorem can be used.

1. To determine the displacements of complicated structures.

2. To find the deflection of beams due to shearing (or) bending forces (or)

bending moments are unknown.

3. To find the deflections of curved beams springs etc.

23. Define Proof stress.

The stress induced in an elastic body when it possesses maximum strain energy is termed as

its proof stress.

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1. Derive the expression for strain energy in Linear Elastic Systems for the following

cases. (i) Axial loading (ii) Flexural Loading (moment (or) couple)

(i)Axial Loading

Let us consider a straight bar of Length L, having uniform cross- sectional area A. If an axial

load P is applied gradually, and if the bar undergoes a deformation , the work done, stored

as strain energy (U) in the body, will be equal to average force (1/2 P) multiplied by the

deformation .

Thus

U = P. But = PL / AE

U = P. PL/AE = P2 L / 2AE

---------- (i)

If, however the bar has variable area of cross section, consider a small of length dx and area

of cross section Ax. The strain energy dU stored in this small element of length dx will be,

from equation (i)

P2 dx

dU = --------2Ax E

The total strain energy U can be obtained by integrating the above expression over the length

of the bar.

L

U=

(ii)

P 2 dx

2 Ax E

Consider an element of length dx and let di be the change in the slope of the element due to

applied moment M. If M is applied gradually, the strain energy stored in the small element will

be

dU = Mdi

But

di

d

------ = ----- (dy/dx) = d2y/d2x = M/EI

dx

dx

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M

di = ------- dx

EI

Hence dU = M (M/EI) dx

= (M2/2EI) dx

Integrating

L

M 2 dx

2 EI

0

U =

2. State and prove the expression for castiglianos first theorem.

Castiglianos first theorem:

It states that the deflection caused by any external force is equal to the partial derivative

of the strain energy with respect to that force. A generalized statement of the theorem is as

follows:

If there is any elastic system in equilibrium under the action of a set of a forces

W1 , W2, W3 .Wn and corresponding displacements 1 , 2, 3. n and a set

of moments M1 , M2, M3Mn and corresponding rotations 1 , 2, 3,.. n , then

the partial derivative of the total strain energy U with respect to any one of the forces or

moments taken individually would yield its corresponding displacements in its direction of

actions.

Expressed mathematically,

U

1

W1

U

1

M 1

------------- (i)

-------------

(ii)

Proof:

Consider an elastic body as show in fig subjected to loads W 1, W2, W3 etc.

each applied independently. Let the body be supported at A, B etc. The reactions RA ,RB etc do

not work while the body deforms because the hinge reaction is fixed and cannot move (and

therefore the work done is zero) and the roller reaction is perpendicular to the displacements

of the roller. Assuming that the material follows the Hookes law, the displacements of the

points of loading will be linear functions of the loads and the principles of superposition will

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hold.

Let 1, 2, 3 etc be the deflections of points 1, 2, 3, etc in the direction of the

loads at these points. The total strain energy U is then given by

U = (W11 + W2 2 + .)

---------

(iii)

Let the load W1 be increased by an amount dW1, after the loads have been applied. Due to

this, there will be small changes in the deformation of the body, and the strain energy will be

increased slightly by an amount dU. expressing this small increase as the rate of change of U

with respect to W1 times dW1, the new strain energy will be

U

xdW1

W

1

U+

---------

(iv)

On the assumption that the principle of superposition applies, the final strain energy does

not depend upon the order in which the forces are applied. Hence assuming that dW 1 is acting

on the body, prior to the application of W1 , W2, W3 etc, the deflections will be

infinitely small and the corresponding strain energy of the second order can be neglected.

Now when W1, W2, W3 etc, are applied (with dW1 still acting initially), the points 1, 2,

3 etc will move through 1, 2, 3 etc. in the direction of these forces and the strain

energy will be given as above. Due to the application of W1, rides through a distance 1 and

produces the external work increment dU = dW1 . 1. Hence the strain energy, when the loads

are applied is

U+dW1.1

----------- (v)

U

xdW1

W

1

U+dW . = U +

1

1=

U

W1

U

Which proves the proportion. Similarly it can be proved that 1= M 1 .

Deflection of beams by castiglianos first theorem:

If a member carries an axial force the energies stored is given by

L

P 2 dx

2 Ax E

U= 0

In the above expression, P is the axial force in the member and is the function of external

load W1, W2,W3 etc. To compute the deflection 1 in the direction of W1

U L

P p

dx

W1

AE W1

0

1=

=

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If the strain energy is due to bending and not due to axial load

L

M 2 dx

2EI

U= 0

U L

M dx

W1 M

W1 EI

1=

=0

If no load is acting at the point where deflection is desired, fictitious load W is applied at the

point in the direction where the deflection is required. Then after differentiating but before

integrating the fictitious load is set to zero. This method is sometimes known as the fictitious

load method. If the rotation 1 is required in the direction of M1.

L

M dx

U

M

M 1 EI

1= M 1 = 0

3. Calculate the central deflection and the slope at ends of a simply supported beam

carrying a UDL w/ unit length over the whole span.

Solution:

a) Central deflection:

Since no point load is acting at the center where the deflection is required, apply the

fictitious load W, then the reaction at A and B will (WL/2 + W/2) each.

L

M dx

U

W 0 W EI

c=

=

Bending moment at x,

wx 2

wL W

2

2

M= 2

M x

x

2

c

Putting W=0,

2

EI

l

2

wL W

wx 2 x

dx

2

2 2

0 2

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2

c

EI

l

2

wL wx 2 x

dx

x

2 2

0 2

l

2 wLx 3 wx 4 2

EI 12

16 0

5 wl 4

c

384 EI

b) Slope at ends

To obtain the slope at the end A, say apply a frictions moment A as shown in fig. The

wl m

wl m

l and 2

l

reactions at A and B will be 2

Measuring x from b, we get

A=

1

l

EI Mx Mx .Dx

0

M

-------------------------------- 2

Where Mx is the moment at a point distant x from the origin (ie, B) is a function of M.

wl m

Wx 2

l x- 2

Mx = 2

Mx x

in

m

l

2

A=

1

EI

wl m

Wx 2

2

l x - 2 X/2 Dx

Putting M=0

l

1 wl

WX 2 x

x

dx

Ei 0 2

2 l

1

A

EI

wL3

24 EI

wx 3 wx 4

6

8L 0

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Castiglianos second theorem:

It states that the strain energy of a linearly elastic system that is initially

unstrained will have less strain energy stored in it when subjected to a total load system than it

would have if it were self-strained.

u

t = 0

For example, if is small strain (or) displacement, within the elastic limit in the direction of

the redundant force T,

u

t =

=0 when the redundant supports do not yield (or) when there is no initial lack of fit in the

redundant members.

Proof:

Consider a redundant frame as shown in fig.in which Fc is a redundant member of

geometrical length L.Let the actual length of the member Fc be (L- ), being the initial lack

of fit.F2 C represents thus the actual length (L- ) of the member. When it is fitted to the truss,

the member will have to be pulled such that F2 and F coincide.

According to Hookes law

T (l ) TL

(approx )

AE

AE

F2 F1 = Deformation =

Where T is the force (tensile) induced in the member.

Hence FF1=FF2-F1 F2

TL

= AE ------------------------------------ ( i )

Let the member Fc be removed and consider a tensile force T applied at the corners F and C as

shown in fig.

FF1 = relative deflection of F and C

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u1

= T ------------------------------------------ ( ii )

According to castiglianos first theorem where U1 is the strain energy of the whole frame except

that of the member Fc.

Equating (i) and (ii) we get

u1

TL

T = -- AE

(or)

u1

TL

T + AE = ----------------------- ( iii )

TL

T 2L

UFC = T. AE = 2 AE

U FC

TL

T

AE

TL

Substitute the value of AE in (iii) we get

u ' U FC

U

T

T

(or) T

U

0

When U= U + U Fc.If there is no initial lack of fit, =0 and hence T

1

Note:

i) Castiglianos theorem of minimum strain energy is used for the for analysis of statically

indeterminate beam ands portal tranes,if the degree of redundancy is not more than two.

ii) If the degree of redundancy is more than two, the slope deflection method or the moment

distribution method is more convenient.

5) A beam AB of span 3mis fixed at both the ends and carries a point load of 9 KN at C

distant 1m from A. The M.O.I. of the portion AC of the beam is 2I and that of portion CB is

I. calculate the fixed end moments and reactions.

Solution:

There are four unknowns Ma, Ra, Mb and Rb.Only two equations of static are available

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(ie)

v 0 and M 0

First choose MA and MB as redundant.

A=

Mx M x

dx

U AB

0 EI R A

R A

-----------(1)

B

M M x

U AB

0 x

dx

EI M A

A

A= M A

1) For portion AC:

-------------(2)

Mx = -MA + RA x

M x

M x

x;

1

R A

M A

M .O.I 2 I

Limits of x: 0 to 1m

1

M x M x

- M A R A x x dx

dx

EI R A

2 EI

A

0

Hence

R 1

1 M A 1

2 EI

2

3

2

1 RA M A

2 EI 3

2

1

M x M x

- M A R A x 1

dx

dx

EI

R

2

EI

A

A

0

And

R A 1

1

M

1

A

2 EI

2

R

1 M A A

2 EI

2

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M x = M A R A X 9( X 1)

M x

M x

x;

1

R A

M A

M.O.I = I

Limits of x : 1 to 3 m

Hence

3

M x M x

- M A R A x - 9(x - 1) x dx

dx

EI R A

EI

C

1

B

1

= EI

26

4 M A 3 R A 42

And

3

M x M x

- M A R A x - 9(x - 1) - 1

dx

dx

EI

M

EI

A

C

1

B

1

2M A 4 R A 18

= EI

U AB

0

R A

1 RA M A 1

EI 3

2 EI

26

4 M A 3 R A 42 0

2.08 MA = 9.88

__________ (3)

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U AB

0

M A

1

2 EI

M A RA 1

1 2 EI 2 M A 4 R A 18 0

MA 1.7RA

MA = 4.8 KN M

RA = 7.05 KN

M 0

To find MB, take moments at B, and apply the condition

there. Taking clockwise

moment as positive and anticlockwise moment as negative. Taking MB clockwise, we have

MB MA =RA (3) 9x2 = 0

MB 4.8 + (7.05x 3) -18 = 0

MB = 1.65 KN m (assumed direction is correct)

To find RB Apply

RB = 9 RA = 9-7.05 = 1.95 KN

6.Using Castiglianos First Theorem, determine the deflection and rotation of the

overhanging end A of the beam loaded as shown in Fig.

Sol:

Rotation of A:

RB x L = -M

RB = -M/L

RB = M/L ( )

& RC = M/L ( )

U

1

M EI

M x.

A

B

M x

M x

1

dx

M x.

.dx

M

EI C

M

____________ (1)

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Mx = M

M x

1

and M

________ (2)

Mx = (M/L) x

M x x

L

and M

________ (3)

U

1

A

M EI

L/3

1

M (1).dx

EI

0

M x

x dx

L L

0

ML ML

3EI 3EI

2ML

(clockwise)

3EI

b) Deflection of A:

To find the deflection at A, apply a fictitious load W at A, in upward direction as

shown in fig.

4

R B xL ( M WL )

3

4

1

R B ( M WL )

3

L

4

1

RB ( M WL )

3

L

1

1

RC ( M WL )

3

L

B

M x

U

1

1

A

M x

W EI A

W

EI

Mx = M + Wx

M x

x

W

M x

.dx

W

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1

1

M x M WL .x

8

L

M x x

W

3

1

A

EI

L/3

M Wx x 1 M 1 WL x . x dx

EI 0

3

L 3

0

Putting W = 0

1

A

EI

L/3

Mx dx 1

EI

0

Mx 2

dx

3

L

M x2 L /3 M x3 L

A ( )0

( )0

EI 2

3EI 3

ML2 ML2

A

18EI 9 EI

ML2

A

6 EI

7. Determine the vertical and horizontal displacements of the point C of the pin-jointed

frame shown in fig. The cross sectional area of AB is 100 sqmm and of AC and BC 150 mm2

each. E= 2 x 10 5 N/mm2. (By unit load method)

Sol:

The vertical and horizontal deflections of the joint C are given by

PuL

V

AE

Pu ' L

H

AE

A) Stresses due to External Loading:

2

2

AC = 3 4 5m

Reaction:

RA = -3/4

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RB = 3/4

Sin = 3/5 = 0.6; Cos = 4/5 = 0.8

Resolving vertically at the joint C, we get

6 = PAC cos + PBC sin

Resolving horizontally at the joint C, we get

PAC cos = PBC sin ;

PAC = PBC

PAC sin + PBC sin = 6

2 PAC sin = 6

PAC = 6/sin = 6/2 x 0.6 = 5 KN (tension)

PAC = PBC = 5 KN (tension)

Resolving horizontally at the joint C, we get

PAB = PAC cos

PAB = 5 cos ;

PAB = 5 x 0.8

PAB = 4 KN (comp)

B) Stresses due to unit vertical load at C:

Apply unit vertical load at C. The Stresses in each member will be 1/6 than of those

obtained due to external load.

u AC u BC 5 / 6

u AB 4 / 6 2 / 3

C) Stresses due to unit horizontal load at C:

Assume the horizontal load towards left as shown in fig.

Resolving vertically at the joint C, we get

uCA ' sin uCB ' sin

u CA ' u CB '

Resolving horizontally at the joint C, we get

u CB ' cos u CB ' cos 1

2u CB ' cos 1

1

1

5 / 8KN (tension )

2 cos 2 x0.8

u CA ' 5 / 8 KN

u CB '

u CA ' 5 / 8 KN (comp)

Resolving horizontally at the joint B, we get

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u AB ' 5 / 8 x0.8 0.5 KN

u AB ' 0.5 KN (comp)

Member

AB

BC

CA

Length(L)

mm

8000

5000

5000

Area

(mm)2

100

150

150

P(KN)

U (kN)

PUL/A

U(KN)

PUL/A

-4

5

5

-2/3

5/6

5/6

640/3

2500/18

2500/18

-1/2

5/8

-5/8

160

2500/24

2500/24

Pul 491

2.45mm

v AE 200

pu ' l 160

0.8mm

AE

200

8) The frame shown in fig. Consists of four panels each 25m wide, and the cross sectional

areas of the member are such that, when the frame carries equal loads at the panel points

of the lower chord, the stress in all the tension members is f n/mm 2 and the stress in all the

comparison members of 0.8 f N/mm2.Determine the values of f if the ratio of the maximum

deflection to span is 1/900 Take E= 2.0 x 105 N/mm2.

Sol:

The top chord members will be in compression and the bottom chord members, verticals,

and diagonals will be in tension. Due to symmetrical loading, the maximum deflection occurs at

C. Apply unit load at C to find u in all the members. All the members have been numbered 1, 2,

3.. etc., by the rule u8 = u10 = u12 = 0.

Reaction RA = RB = 1/2

1

= 45 ; cos = sin =

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RA

2

(comp)

sin

2

2 1

1

u 3 u 7 cos

.

u 4 (tension )

2

2 2

u 7

u9

u4

2

(tension )

cos

2

u1

Member

1

3

4

7

8

9

2 1

2 1

x

x

1.0(comp)

2

2

2

2

Length (L) mm

2500

2500

2500

2500 (2)0.5

2500

2500(2)0.5

P (N/mm2)

-0.8 F

+F

+F

-0.8F

+F

+F

U

-1.0

+1/2

+1/2

-(2)0.5/2

0

+(2)0.5/2

PUL

+2000F

+1250F

+1250F

+2000F

0

+2500F

Sum:

C =

+9000F

PUL 9000 2

0.09

E

2 x10 5

F mm

1

1

100

xspan

x10000

900

900

9 mm

Hence 0.09 F = 100/9 (or) F = 100/(9 x 0.09) = 123.5 N/mm2.

9. Determine the vertical deflection of the joint C of the frame shown in fig. due to

temperature rise of 60 F in the upper chords only. The coefficient of expansion = 6.0 x 10 -6

per 1 F and E = 2 x 10 6 kg /cm2.

Sol:

Increase in length of each member of the upper chord = L t

= 400 x 6x 10-6 x 60

= 0.144 cm

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u

To find u, apply unit vertical load at C. Since the change in length () occurs only in the

three top chord members, stresses in these members only need be found out.

Reaction at A = 4/12 = 1/3

Reaction at B = 8/12 = 2/3

Passing a section cutting members 1 and 4, and taking moments at D, we get

U1 = (1/3 x 4) 1/3 = 4/9 (comp)

Similarly, passing a section cutting members 3 and 9 and taking moments at C, we get

2 1 8

u 3 x 4 (comp)

3 3 9

4

u 2 u1 (comp)

9

C u1 1 u 2 2 u 3 3

Also

4 4 8

C

x( 0.144)

9 9 9

C 0.256 cm

10) Using the principle of least work, analyze the portal frame shown in Fig. Also plot the

B.M.D.

Sol:

The support is hinged. Since there are two equations at each supports. They are H A, VA, HD,

M 0, H 0, V 0

and VD. The available equilibrium equation is three. (i.e.)

.

The structure is statically indeterminate to first degree. Let us treat the horizontal H ( ) at A

as redundant. The horizontal reaction at D will evidently be = (3-H) ( ). By taking moments at

D, we get

(VA x 3) + H (3-2) + (3 x 1) (2 1.5) (6 x 2) = 0

VA = 3.5 H/3

VD = 6 VA = 2.5 + H/3

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U

0

H

U AB U BE U CE U DC

0

H

H

H

H

Taking A as the origin.

1.x 2

M

H .x

2

M

x

H

3

U AB

1

M

M

dx

H

EI 0

H

1

EI

x2

Hx x dx

0

3

1 Hx 3 x 4

EI 3

8 0

1

9 H 10.12

EI

Taking B as the origin.

H

M H x 3 3 x 1 1.5 3.5

x

3

Hx

M 3H 4.5 3.5 x

3

M

x

3

H

3

1

U BE

1

M

M

dx

H

EI 0

H

1

EI

3H 4.5 3.5 x

0

Hx

x

3 dx

3

3

www.studentskey.in 22

1

1

EI

Hx 2

2

dx

9

H

13

.

5

10

.

5

x

Hx

Hx

1

.

5

x

1

.

67

x

9

0

1

EI

Hx 2

2

dx

9

H

13

.

5

12

x

2

Hx

1

.

67

x

9

0

1

Hx 3

1 9 H 13.5 6 2 H 0.389 H

9 Hx 13.5 x 6 x 2 Hx 2 0.389 x 3

EI

27 0 EI

27

1

9 H 7 .9

EI

Taking C as the origin

H

M (3 H ) x 2 ( 2.5 ) x

3

Hx 3

M 6 2 H 2.5 x

3

2

U CE

1

M

M

H

EI 0

H

2

1

Hx

x

6 2 H 2 .5 x

2

EI 0

3

3

=

2

EI

Hx 2

2

12

4

H

5

x

6

.

67

Hx

2

x

6

.

67

Hx

0

.

833

x

dx

9

0

EI

Hx 2

2

12

4

H

3

x

13

.

34

Hx

2

x

0

.

833

x

dx

9

0

1

= EI (10.96H - 15.78)

(4) For the member DC:

Taking D as the origin

M 3 H x 3 x Hx

M

x

x

www.studentskey.in 23

U DC

1

H

EI

1

EI

M H dx

0

3x Hx x dx

0

1 3 x 3 Hx 3

dx

EI 3

3 0

1

EI

3x

Hx 2 dx

1

Hx 3

dx

x 3

EI

3 0

1

= EI (2.67H -8)

Subs the values

U

0

H

1/EI (9-10.2) + (8.04H-7.9) + (10.96H-15.78) + (-8+2.67H) = 0

30.67H = 41.80

H = 1.36 KN

Hence

VA = 3.5 - H/3 = 3.5 - 1.36/3 = 3.05 KN

VD = 2.5 + H/3 = 2.5 + 1.36/3 = 2.95 KN

MA= MD =0

MB = (-1 x 32)/2 + (1.36 x 3) = -0.42 KN m

MC = - (3-H) 2 = - (3-1.36)2 =-3.28KNm

Bending moment Diagram:

2m from the left support. Calculate the deflection under the load point. Take E = 200 x 106

KN/m2 and I = 14 x 10-6 m4.

Solution:

Taking moments about B.

VA x 6 45 x 4=0

VA x 6 -180 = 0

VA = 30 KN

VB = Total Load VA = 15 KN

www.studentskey.in 24

L

c V mMdx

EI

0

Apply unit vertical load at c instead of 45 KN

RA x 6-1 x 4 =0

RA = 2/3 KN

RB = Total load RA = 1/3 KN

Virtual Moment:

Consider section between AC

M1 = 2/3 X1 [limit 0 to 2]

Section between CB

M2 = 2/3 X2-1 (X2-2 ) [limit 2 to 6 ]

Real Moment:

The internal moment due to given loading

M1= 30 x X1

M2 = 30 x X2 -45 (X2 -2)

c V

0

m1 M 1 dx1 6 m2 M 2 dx 2

EI

EI

2

2 x1

2

x 2 x 2 2 30 x 2 45 x 2

30 x1

6

3

3

dx1

dx 2

EI

EI

0

2

2

1

2

20 x12 x 2 x 2 2 30 x 2 45 x 2 90 dx 2

EI 0

3

2

6

1

x

2

20 x1 2 2 15 x 2 90 dx 2

EI 0

3

2

2

1

20 x12 5 x 22 30 x 2 30 x 2 180dx 2

EI 0

2

www.studentskey.in 25

6

5 x 23 60 x 23

1 20 x1

180

x

EI 3 0 3

2

2

20 8 1 5 3

3

2

2

6 2 306 2 180 6 21

= EI 3 EI 3

1

53.33 346.67 960 720

EI

160

160

EI 200 x10 6 x14 x10 6

The deflection under the load = 57.1 mm

The Maxwells reciprocal theorem stated as The work done by the first system loads

due to displacements caused by a second system of loads equals the work done by the second

system of loads due to displacements caused by the first system of loads.

Maxwells theorem of reciprocal deflections has the following three versions:

1. The deflection at A due to unit force at B is equal to deflection at B due to unit force

at A.

AB = BA

2. The slope at A due to unit couple at B is equal to the slope at B due to unit couple A

AB = BA

3. The slope at A due to unit load at B is equal to deflection at B due to unit couple.

'

' AB AB

Proof:

By unit load method,

Mmdx

EI

Where,

www.studentskey.in 26

m= bending moment at any point x due to unit load applied at the point where

deflection is required.

Let mXA=bending moment at any point x due to unit load at A

Let mXB = bending moment at any point x due to unit load at B.

When unit load (external load) is applied at A,

M=mXA

To find deflection at B due to unit load at A, apply unit load at B.Then m= mXB

Hence,

m .m

Mmdx

BA

XA XB dx

EI

EI

____________

(i)

Similarly,

When unit load (external load) is applied at B, M=mXB

To find the deflection at A due to unit load at B, apply unit load at A.then m= mXA

mB.m XA

Mmdx

AB

dx

EI

EI

____________

(ii)

AB = BA

13. Using Castiglianos theorem, determine the deflection of the free end of the cantilever

beam shown in the fig. Take EI = 4.9 MN/m2.

(NOV / DEC 2003)

Solution:

Apply dummy load W at B. Since we have to determine the deflection of the free end.

Consider a section xx at a distance x from B. Then

M x Wx 30 x 1 20 * 1 * x 1.5 16 x 2

M M

dx

EI W

1

2

3

1

x 1

) x dx Wx * x 30( x 1) x 20 *1( x 1.5) * x 16( x 2

Wx * xdx Wx * x 30( x 1) x 20( x 1)(

EI

2

0

1

2

www.studentskey.in 27

2

1

x3 x 2

x 4 2 x 3 x 2

1 x 3 Wx 3 3

10

W

30

EI 3 0 3

3

2

4

3

2 1

3

Wx 3

x3 x2

x3

x3

2

2

20 0.75 x 16 x

30

2

3

2

3

3

2

Putting W =0

1

EI

7 3

15 14 3

19 5 19

19

30 3 2 10 4 3 2 30 3 2 20 3 3.75 16 3 5

1

EI

7

23

4

5

30 6 10 2 30 6 20 * 2.58 16 3

1x10 3

25 5.83 115 51.6 21.33

4.9 x10 6

0.446 m (or ) 44.64 mm

14. Fig shows a cantilever, 8m long, carrying a point loads 5 KN at the center and an udl of

2 KN/m for a length 4m from the end B. If EI is the flexural rigidity of the cantilever find

the reaction at the prop. (NOV/DEC 2004)

Solution:

To find Reaction at the prop, R (in KN)

Portion AC: ( origin at A )

4

U 1

0

Rx 2 dx R 2 x 3

2 EI

64 R 2 32 R 2

6 EI

3EI

6 EI 0

Bending moment Mx = R (x+4) 5x 2x2/2

= R (x+4) 5x x2

4

M x 2 dx

U 2

2 EI

0

Total strain energy = U1 +U2

www.studentskey.in 28

U

0

R

At the propped end

4

dM x

U 64 R

M

x x

dx

R 3EI 0 EI

dR

=

64 R 1

3EI EI

R x 4 5 x

x 2 ( x 4)dx

64 R 1

3EI EI

64 R 1

3EI EI

R x 4

5 x x 4 x 2 ( x 4) dx

R x

8 x 16 5( x 2 4 x) ( x 3 4 x 2 ) dx

64 R 1 x 3

x3

x 4 4x 3

2

2

4

x

16

x

5

(

2

x

)

3EI EI 3

3

4

3 0

64 R 64

64

256 256

R

64 64 5(

32) (

)

3

3

3

4

3

= 21.33 R + (149.33 R 416)

R = 2.347 KN

15.

A simply supported beam of span L is carrying a concentrated load W at the centre and a

uniformly distributed load of intensity of w per unit length. Show that Maxwells reciprocal

theorem holds good at the centre of the beam.

Solution:

Let the load W is applied first and then the uniformly distributed load w.

Deflection due to load W at the centre of the beam is given by

5Wl 4

384 EI

Hence work done by W due to w is given by:

5wl 4

U A, B Wx

384 EI

www.studentskey.in 29

W

3l 2 x 4 x 2

48 EI

Work done by w per unit length due to W,

W x

l/2

U B , A 2 wx

0

U B, A

Ww

24 EI

W

(3l 2 x 4 x 2 )dx

48 EI

3l 2 l 2 l 4

2 2 2

U B, A

U A, B

Hence proved.

5 Wwl 4

384 EI

Ww

24 EI

3l 4 l 4

8 16

www.studentskey.in 30

(FOR IV SEMESTER)

UNIT - II

INDETERMINATE BEAMS

Propped Cantilever and fixed end moments and reactions for concentrated load

(central, non central), uniformly distributed load, triangular load (maximum at centre and

maximum at end) Theorem of three moments analysis of continuous beams shear

force and bending moment diagrams for continuous beams (qualitative study only)

Two Marks Questions and Answers

1. Define statically indeterminate beams.

If the numbers of reaction components are more than the conditions equations, the

structure is defined as statically indeterminate beams.

E=Rr

E = Degree of external redundancy

R = Total number of reaction components

r = Total number of condition equations available.

A continuous beam is a typical example of externally indeterminate structure.

2.

For a general loading, the total reaction components (R) are equal to (3+2) =5,

While the total number of condition equations (r) are equal to 3. The beam is statically

indeterminate, externally to second degree. For vertical loading, the beam is statically

determinate to single degree.

E=Rr

=53=2

3. State the degree of indeterminacy in a fixed beam.

For a general system of loading, a fixed beam is statically indeterminate to third degree.

For vertical loading, a fixed beam is statically indeterminate to second degree.

E=Rr

For general system of loading:

R = 3 + 3 and r = 3

E = 6-3 = 3

For vertical loading:

R = 2+2 and r = 2

E=42=2

The beam is statically indeterminate to third degree of general system of loading.

R = 3+1+1+1 = 6

E = R-r

= 6-3 = 3

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The beam is statically determinate. The total numbers of condition equations are equal to 3+2 =

5. Since, there is a link at B. The two additional condition equations are at link.

E = R-r

= 2+1+2-5

= 5-5

E=0

6. State the methods available for analyzing statically indeterminate structures.

i. Compatibility method

ii. Equilibrium method

7. Write the expression fixed end moments and deflection for a fixed beam carrying point

load at centre.

M A M B

WL

8

WL3

y max

192 EI

8. Write the expression fixed end moments and deflection for a fixed beam carrying eccentric

point load.

Wab 2

L2

Wa 2 b

MB 2

L

Wa 3 b 3

y max

(under the load )

3EIL3

9. Write the expression fixed end moments for a fixed due to sinking of support.

MA

M A M B

6 EI

L2

Theorem of three moments:

It states that If BC and CD are only two consecutive span of a continuous beam subjected to

an external loading, then the moments MB, MC and MD at the supports B, C and D are given

by

www.studentskey.in 32

_

6 a x 1 6a x

M B L1 2 M C ( L1 L2 ) M D .L2 1 2 2

L1

L2

Where

MB = Bending Moment at B due to external loading

MC = Bending Moment at C due to external loading

MD = Bending Moment at D due to external loading

L1 = length of span AB

L2 = length of span BC

a1 = area of B.M.D due to vertical loads on span BC

a2 = area of B.M.D due to vertical loads on span CD

_

_

11. Draw the shape of the BMD for a fixed beam having end moments M in one support and

+M in the other.

12. What are the fixed end moments for a fixed beam of length L subjected to a concentrated

load w at a distance a from left end?

Fixed End Moment:

Wab 2

MA 2

L

Wab 2

MB 2

L

13. Explain the effect of settlement of supports in a continuous beam. (Nov/Dec 2003)

Due to the settlement of supports in a continuous beam, the bending stresses will alters

appreciably. The maximum bending moment in case of continuous beam is less when compare to

the simply supported beam.

14. What are the advantages of Continuous beams over Simply Supported beams?

(i)The maximum bending moment in case of a continuous beam is much less than in case of a

simply supported beam of same span carrying same loads.

(ii) In case of a continuous beam, the average B.M is lesser and hence lighter materials of

construction can be used it resist the bending moment.

www.studentskey.in 33

15. A fixed beam of length 5m carries a uniformly distributed load of 9 kN/m run over the

entire span. If I = 4.5x10-4 m4 and E = 1x107 kN/m2, find the fixing moments at the ends and

deflection at the centre.

Solution:

Given:

L = 5m

W = 9 kN/m2 , I = 4.5x10-4 m4 and E = 1x107 kN/m2

(i) The fixed end moment for the beam carrying udl:

WL2

MA = MB = 12

9 x (5) 2

18.75 KNm

= 12

(ii) The deflection at the centre due to udl:

WL4

yc

384 EI

9 x(5) 4

yc

3.254 mm

384 x1x10 7 x 4.5 x10 4

Deflection is in downward direction.

16. A fixed beam AB, 6m long is carrying a point load of 40 kN at its center. The M.O.I of the

beam is 78 x 106 mm4 and value of E for beam material is 2.1x105 N/mm2. Determine (i)

Fixed end moments at A and B.

Solution:

M A M B

WL

8

M A M B

50 x6

37.5 kNm

8

17. A fixed beam AB of length 3m is having M.O.I I = 3 x 106 mm4 and value of E for beam

material is 2x105 N/mm2. The support B sinks down by 3mm. Determine (i) fixed end

moments at A and B.

Solution:

Given:

L = 3m = 3000mm

I = 3 x 106 mm4

E = 2x105 N/mm2

= 3mm

www.studentskey.in 34

M A M B

6 EI

L2

6 x 2 x10 5 x3 x10 6 x3

(3000) 2

=

=12x105 N mm = 12 kN m.

18. A fixed beam AB, 3m long is carrying a point load of 45 kN at a distance of 2m from A. If

the flexural rigidity (i.e) EI of the beam is 1x104kNm2. Determine (i) Deflection under the

Load.

Solution:

Given:

L = 3m

W = 45 kN

EI = 1x104 kNm2

Deflection under the load:

In fixed beam, deflection under the load due to eccentric load

Wa 3b 3

yC

3EIL3

45 x(2) 3 x(1) 3

yC

3 x1x10 4 x(3) 2

y C 0.000444 m

y C 0.444 mm

The deflection is in downward direction.

19. A fixed beam of 5m span carries a gradually varying load from zero at end A to 10 kN/m at

end B. Find the fixing moment and reaction at the fixed ends.

Solution:

Given:

L = 5m

W = 10 kN/m

(i)

Fixing Moment:

WL2

WL2

MA

and M B

30

20

www.studentskey.in 35

10(5) 2 250

8.33 kNm

30

MA = 30

10(5) 2 250

MB

12.5 kNm

20

20

(ii)

Reaction at support:

3WL

7WL

RA

and RB

20

20

3 * 10 * 5 150

7.5 kN

20

20

7 *10 * 5 350

RB

17.5 kN

20

20

20. A cantilever beam AB of span 6m is fixed at A and propped at B. The beam carries a udl of

2kN/m over its whole length. Find the reaction at propped end.

Solution:

Given:

RA

L=6m,

w =2 kN/m

wl 4

8 EI

Upward deflection at B due to the prop reaction P at B neglecting the udl,

yB

Pl 3

yB

3EI

Upward deflection = Downward deflection

Pl 3

wl 4

3EI 8EI

P = 3WL/8 = 3*2*6/8 =4.5 kN

www.studentskey.in 36

1. A fixed beam AB of length 6m carries point load of 160 kN and 120 kN at a distance of

2m and 4m from the left end A. Find the fixed end moments and the reactions at the

supports. Draw B.M and S.F diagrams.

Solution:

Given:

L

= 6m

Load at C, WC

= 160 kN

Load at D, WC

= 120 kN

Distance AC

= 2m

Distance AD

=4m

First calculate the fixed end moments due to loads at C and D separately and then

add up the moments.

For the load at C, a=2m and b=4m

W ab 2

M A1 C 2

L

160 x 2 x(4) 2

M A1

142.22 kNm

(6) 2

WC a 2 b

L2

160 x 2 2 x( 4)

M B1

71.11 kNm

(6) 2

For the load at D, a = 4m and b = 2m

W a b2

M A2 D 2

L

120 x 2 2 x (4)

M A2

53.33 kNm

(6) 2

M B1

WD a 2 b

L2

160 x 2 x(4) 2

M B2

106.66 kNm

(6) 2

Total fixing moment at A,

MA

= MA1 + MA2

M B2

www.studentskey.in 37

MA

Total fixing moment at B,

MB

= 142.22 + 53.33

= 195.55 kNm

=MB1 + MB2

= 71.11 + 106.66

= 177.77 kN m

B.M diagram due to vertical loads:

Consider the beam AB as simply supported. Let RA* and RB* are the reactions at A

and B due to simply supported beam. Taking moments about A, we get

*

R B x6 160 x 2 120 x 4

800

133.33 kN

6

RA*

= Total load - RB*=(160 +120) 133.33 = 146.67 kN

B.M at A = 0

B.M at C = RA* x 2 = 146.67 x 2 = 293.34 kN m

B.M at D = 133.33 x 2 = 266.66 kN m

B.M at B= 0

RB

S.F Diagram:

Let RA = Resultant reaction at A due to fixed end moments and vertical loads

RB

= Resultant reaction at B

Equating the clockwise moments and anti-clockwise moments about A,

RB x 6 + MA = 160 x 2 + 120 x 4 + MB

RB= 130.37 kN

RA = total load RB = 149.63 kN

S.F at A = RA = 149.63 kN

S.F at C = 149.63- 160 = -10.37 kN

S.F at D = -10.37 120 = -130.37 kN

S.F at B= 130.37 KN

2. A fixed beam AB of length 6m carries two point loads of 30 kN each at a distance of 2m

from the both ends. Determine the fixed end moments and draw the B.M diagram.

Sloution:

Given:

Length L = 6m

Point load at C = W1 = 30 kN

Point load at D = W2= 30 kN

Fixed end moments:

MA

= Fixing moment due to load at C + Fixing moment due to load at D

www.studentskey.in 38

2

Wab

Wab

1 12 1 2 22 2

L

L

2

30 x 2 x 4

30 x 4 x 2 2

40kN m

62

62

Since the beam is symmetrical,

MA = MB = 40 kNm

B.M Diagram:

To draw the B.M diagram due to vertical loads, consider the beam AB as simply

supported. The reactions at A and B is equal to 30kN.

B.M at A and B = 0

B.M at C =30 x 2 = 60 kNm

B.M at D = 30 x 2 = 60 kNm

3. Find the fixing moments and support reactions of a fixed beam AB of length 6m,

carrying a uniformly distributed load of 4kN/m over the left half of the span.

Solution:

Macaulays method can be used and directly the fixing moments and end reactions can be

calculated. This method is used where the areas of B.M diagrams cannot be determined

conveniently.

For this method it is necessary that UDL should be extended up to B and then compensated for

upward UDL for length BC as shown in fig.

The bending at any section at a distance x from A is given by,

d2y

x

( x 3)

R A x M A wx

2

2

EI dx

+w*(x-3) 2

x 3) 2

4x 2

=RAx MA- ( 2 ) +4( 2 )

= RAx MA- 2x2 +2(x-3)2

Integrating, we get

x2

x3

2( x 3) 3

dy

3

EI dx =RA 2 -MAx - 2 3 +C1 +

-------(1)

dy

When x=0, dx =0.

Substituting this value in the above equation up to dotted line,

C1 = 0

Therefore equation (1) becomes

x2

x 3 2( x 3) 3

dy

3

EI dx =RA 2 -MAx - 2 3 +

Integrating we get

www.studentskey.in 39

x3 M A x 2 2x 4

2( x 3) 4

EI y R A

C2

6

2

12

12

When x = 0 , y = 0

By substituting these boundary conditions upto the dotted line,

C2 = 0

R A x 3 M A x 2 x 4 1( x 3) 4

EI y

6

2

6

6

________(ii)

By subs x =6 & y = 0 in equation (ii)

0

R A 6 3 M A 6 2 6 4 1(6 3) 4

6

2

6

6

18RA 9 MA = 101.25

------------- (iii)

dy

0

At x =6, dx

in equation (i)

62

2

2

3

3

0 R A x M A x6 x 6 6 3

2

3

3

18 R A M A x6 144 18 0

18 R A 6M A 126

By solving (iii) & (iv)

MA = 8.25 kNm

By substituting MA in (iv)

126 = 18 RA 6 (8.25)

RA = 9.75 kN

RB = Total load RA

RB = 2.25 kN

By equating the clockwise moments and anticlockwise moments about B

MB + RA x 6 = MA + 4x3 (4.5)

MB = 3.75 kNm

Result:

MA = 8.25 kNm

MB = 3.75 kNm

RA = 9.75 kN

RB = 2.25 KN

4. A continuous beam ABC covers two consecutive span AB and BC of lengths 4m and 6m,

carrying uniformly distributed loads of 6kN/m and 10kN/m respectively. If the ends A and

C are simply supported, find the support moments at A,B and C. draw also B.M.D and

S.F.D.

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Solution:

Given Data:

Length AB, L1=4m.

Length BC, L2=6m

UDL on AB, w1=6kN/m

UDL on BC, w2=10kN/m

Support Moments:

Since the ends A and C are simply supported, the support moments at A and C will be

zero.

By using cleyperons equation of three moments, to find the support moments at B (ie)

MB.

6a1 x1 6a 2 x 2

4

6

MAL1 + 2MB(L1+L2) + MCL2 =

6a1 x1 6a 2 x 2

4

6

0 + 2MB(4+6) + 0 =

3a1 x1

a2 x2

2

20MB =

The B.M.D on a simply supported beam is carrying UDL is a parabola having an attitude

2

wL

of 8.

2

Area of B.M.D = 3 *L*h

wL2

2

= 3 * Span * 8

span

The distance of C.G of this area from one end, = 2

. a1=Area of B.M.D due to UDL on AB,

6(4 2 )

2

= 3 *4* 8

=32

L1

x1= 2

= 4/2

= 2 m.

a2= Area of B.M.D due to UDL on BC,

10(6 2 )

2

= 3 *6* 8

= 180m.

x2=L2 / 2

=6/2

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=3m

Substitute these values in equation(i).

We get,

3 * 32 * 2

(180 * 3)

2

20MB =

= 96+540

MB =31.8 kNm.

(ii)

B.M.D

The B.M.D due to vertical loads (UDL) on span AB and span BC.

Span AB:

2

w1 L1

= 8

Span BC:

6 * 42

= 8

=12kNm

2

w2 L2

= 8

10 * 6 2

= 8

=45kNm

(iii)

S.F.D:

To calculate Reactions,

For span AB, taking moments about B, we get

(RA*4)-(6*4*2) MB=0

4RA 48 = 31.8 (MB=31.8, -ve sign is due to hogging moment.

RA=4.05kN

Similarly,

For span BC, taking moment about B,

(Rc*6)-(6*10*3) MB=0

6RC 180=-31.8

RC=24.7kN.

RB=Total load on ABC (RA+RB)

=(6*4*(10*6))-(4.05+24.7)

=55.25kN.

RESULT:

MA=MC=0

MB=31.8kNm

RA=4.05kN

RB=55.25kN

www.studentskey.in 42

RC=24.7kN

5. A continuous beam ABCD of length 15m rests on four supports covering 3 equal spans

and carries a uniformly distributed load of 1.5 kN/m length .Calculate the moments and

reactions at the supports. Draw The S.F.D and B.M.D.

Solution:

Given:

Length AB = L1 = 5m

Length BC = L2 = 5m

Length CD = L3 = 5m

u.d.l w1 = w2 = w3 = 1.5 kN/m

Since the ends A and D are simply supported, the support moments at A and D will be Zero.

MA=0 and MD=0

For symmetry MB=0

(i)To calculate support moments:

To find the support moments at B and C, by using claperons equations of three moments for

ABC and BCD.

For ABC,

6a1 x1 6a 2 x 2

L

L2

1

M L +[2M (L +L )]+M L =

A

6a1 x1 6a 2 x 2

5

5

0+[2MB(5+5)]+[MC(5)]=

6

(a1 x1 a 2 x 2 )

20MB+5MC= 5

--------------------------------------(i)

a1=Area of BMD due to UDL on AB when AB is considered as simply supported beam.

w1 L1

2

* AB *

=3

Altitude of parabola

(Altitude of parabola= 8 )

2

1.5 * (5) 2

*5*

8

= 3

=15.625

x1=L1/2

=5/2=2.5m

Due to symmetry

.a2=a1=15.625

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x2=x1=2.5

subs these values in eqn(i)

6

[(15.625 * 2.5) (15.625 * 2.5)]

20MB+5MC = 5

=93.75

Due to symmetry MB=MC

20MB+5MB=93.75

MB=3.75kNm. MB=MC=3.75kNm.

(ii) To calculate BM due to vertical loads:

The BMD due to vertical loads(here UDL) on span AB, BC and CD (considering each span

as simply supported ) are shown by parabolas of altitude

2

w1 L1

1.5 * 1.5 2

4.6875kNm

8

8

each.

(iii)To calculate support Reactions:

Let RA,RB,RC and RD are the support reactions at A,B,C and D.

Due to symmetry

RA=RD

RB=RC

For span AB, Taking moments about B,

We get

MB=(RA*5)-(1.5*5*2.5)

-3.75=(RA*5)-18.75

RA=3.0kN.

Due to symmetry

RA=RD=3.0kN

RB=RC

RA+RB+RC+RD=Total load on ABCD

3+RB+RB+3=1.5*15

RB=8.25kN

RC=8.25kN.

Result:

MA = MD = 0

MB=MC=3.75kNm.

RA=RD=3.0kN

RB=8.25kN

RC=8.25kN.

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6. a continuous beam ABCD, simply supported at A,B, C and D is loaded as shown in fig.

Find the moments over the beam and draw B.M.D and S.F.D. (Nov/ Dec 2003)

Solution:

Given:

Length AB = L1 = 6m

Length BC = L2 = 5m

Length CD = L3 = 4m

Point load W1 = 9kN

Point load W2 = 8kN

u.d.l on CD, w = 3 kN/m

(i) B.M.D due to vertical loads taking each span as simply supported:

W1 ab 9 * 2 * 4

12kNm

L

6

1

Consider beam AB, B.M at point load at E =

W 2ab 8 * 2 * 3

9.6kNm

L

6

2

Similarly B.M at F =

B.M at the centre of a simply supported beam CD, carrying U.D.L

2

wL

3 * 42

3

6kNm

8

8

Since the beam is simply supported MA =MD = 0

By using Clapeyrons Equation of Three Moments:

a) For spans AB and BC

6a1 x1 6a 2 x 2

4

6

MAL1 + 2MB(L1+L2) + MCL2 =

6a x 6a 2 x 2

0 2 M B (6 5) M c (5) 1 1

6

5

6

22 M B 5M C a1 x1 a 2 x 2

5

------------ (i)

a1x1 = *6*12*L+a/3 = *6*12*(6+2)/3 = 96

a2x2 = *5*9.6*L+b/3 = *5*9.6*(6+4)/3 = 64

Substitute the values in equation (i)

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22MB + 5MC = 172.8

------------ (ii)

6 a 2 x 2 6a 3 x 3

L

L3

2

MBL2 + 2MC(L2+L3) + MDL3 =

6a 2 x 2 6a 3 x 3

5

4

MB*5 + 2MC(5+4) +0 =

6ax 2 6a3 x3

5

4

----------- (iii)

a2x2 = * 5 * 9.6 *(L+a)/3 =1/2 * 5 * 9.6 *(5+2)/3 = 56

a3x3 = 2/3 * 4*6*4/2 =32

Substitute these values in equation (iii)

6 * 56 6 * 32

5M B 18M C

5

4

5M B 18M C

5M B 18M C 115.2

By solving equations (ii) &(iv)

MB = 6.84 kNm and MC = 4.48 kNm

(iii) Support Reactions:

For the span AB, Taking moment about B,

MB = RA * 6 9*4

= 6 R A 36

36 6.84

4.86 KN

6

RA =

For the span CD, taking moments about C

4

M C RD 4 3 4

( M C 4.48)

2

RD = 4.88KN

For ABC taking moment about C

M = R A * 6 5 9 5 4 R B * 5 8 * 3

c

5 RB 81 24 4.86 * 11

RB = 9.41 kN

RC = Total load on ABCD (RA +RB+RD)

RC = (9+8+4*3) (4.86+9.41+4.88)

RC = 9.85 kN

Result:

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MA = MD = 0

MB = 6.84 kNm and MC = 4.48 kNm

RA = 4.86kN

RB = 9.41kN

RC = 9.85 kN

RD = 4.88KN

7. Using the theorem of three moments draw the shear force and bending moment

diagrams for the following continuous beam. (April / May 2003)

Solution:

Given:

Length AB, L1=4m.

Length BC, L2=3m.

Length CD, L3=4m.

UDL on AB, w=4 kN/m

Point load in BC, W1=4kN/m

Point load in CD, W1=6kN

(i)

wL2 4 * 4 2

8

Consider beam AB, B.M= 8

=8kNm.

Similarly for beam BC,

W1 ab 6 * 2 *1

L

3

2

B.M=

=4kNm

Similarly for beam CD,

W2 ab 8 *1 * 3

4

B.M= L3

(ii)

=6kNm

Bending Moment to support moments:

Let MA,MB,MC And MD be the support moments at A,B,C and D. Since the ends is

simply supported, MA =MD=0.

By using Clayperons equation of three moments for span AB and

BC,

6a1 x1 6a 2 x 2

L

L2

1

M L +[2M (L +L ) ]+ M L =

A

6a1 x1 6a 2 x 2

3

0+[2MB(4+3)] MC(3) = 4

14MB+ 3MC = 1.5a1x1 + 2a2x2 ----------------------------(i)

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2 Base

*

* ( Base * Altitude)

2

= 3

2 4

* * (4 * 8)

=3 2

=42.33

a2x2= Moment of area BMD due to point load about point B

1 2*2

*

* (2 * 4)

3

=2

=5.33

Using these values in eqn (i),

14MB + 3MC =1.5(42.33) +(2*5.33)

14MB + 3MC =63.495+10.66 -------------------------(ii)

For span BC and CD,

6a 2 x 2 6 a 3 x 3

L

L3

2

MBL1+[2MC(L2+L3) ]+ MDL3 =

6a 2 x 2 6 a 3 x 3

3

3

MB(3)+[2MC(3+3) ]+ MDL3 =

3MB+12MC = 2a2x2 + 2a3x3 ------------------------(iii)

a2x2= Moment of area BMD due to point load about point C

2 *1

=(1/2)*2*4* 3

=2.66

a3x3= Moment of area BMD due to point load about point D

1

2*3

*1* 6 *

3

= 2

=6

Using these values in Eqn(iii),

3MB+ 12MC =2(2.66) + (2*6)

3MB + 12MC = 17.32 -------------------(iv)

Using eqn (ii) and (iii),

MB = 5.269 kN m

MC = 0.129 kN m

(iii)

Support Reaction:

For span AB, taking moment about B

M B RA * 4 4 * 4 * 2

-5.269 = RA *4 32

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RA *4=26.731

RA = 6.68 kN

For span CD, taking moment about C

M C RD * 4 8 *1

-0.129 = RD *4-8

RD = 1.967 kN

Now taking moment about C for ABC

M C R A (7 ) 4 * 4 * 5 R B * 3 6 * 1

M C 7 R A 4(20) 3R B 6

RB = 13.037 kN

RC = Total load (RA +RB + RC)

= 4 * 4 6 8 6.68 1.967 13.037

RC = 8.316 kN

Result:

MA = MD = 0

MB = 5.269 kN m

MC = 0.129 kN m

RA = 6.68 kN

RB = 13.037 kN

RC = 8.316 kN

RD = 1.967 kN

8. A beam AB of 4m span is simply supported at the ends and is loaded as shown in fig.

Determine (i) Deflection at C (ii) Maximum deflection (iii) Slope at the end A.

E= 200 x 106 kN/m2 and I = 20 x 10-6 m4

Solution:

Given:

L = 4m

E= 200 x 106 kN/m2 and I = 20 x 10-6 m4

To calculate Reaction:

Taking moment about A

2

RB * 4 20 * 1 10 * 2( 1 1)

2

RB *4 = 20 + 20(3)

RB = 80/4 = 20 kN

RA = Total load - RB

= (10*2+20) -20

RA = 20 kN

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d2y

10( x 2) 2

M X EI

20 x 20( x 1)

2

d x2

Integrating we get

3

dy

2

2 5( x 2)

EI

10 x C1 10( x 1)

dx

3

Integrating we get

10 x 3

10( x 1) 3 5( x 2) 4

EIy

C1 x C 2

3

3

12

---------- (ii)

When x = 0, y = 0 in equation (ii) we get C2 = 0

When x = 4m, y = 0 in equation (ii)

10

10

5

0 (4) 3 4C1

(4 1) 3

4 2 4

3

3

12

= 213.33 +4C1 90 -6.67

C1 = -29.16

Hence the slope and deflection equations are

Slope Equation:

3

dy

2

2 5( x 2)

EI

10 x 29.16 10( x 1)

dx

3

Deflection Equation:

10 x 3

10( x 1) 3 5( x 2) 4

EIy

29.16 x

3

3

12

(i)

Deflection at C, yC :

Putting x = 2m in the deflection equation, we get

(ii)

10(2) 3

10(2 1) 3

EIy

29.16(2)

3

3

= 26.67 -58.32 -3.33

= -34.98

yc = 8.74 (downward)

Maximum Deflection , ymax :

assume that it occurs in the sections between D and C. For maximum deflection equating the

slope at the section to zero, we get

dy

10 x 2 29.16 10( x 1) 2

dx

10x2 -29.16 -10(x-1)2 = 0

10x2 -29.16 -10 (x2 -2x+1) = 0

EI

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x = 39.16/20 =1.958 m

10(1.958) 3

10(1.958 1) 3

EIy

29.16(1.958)

3

3

ymax = -35/EI

ymax = 8.75 mm (downward)

(iii)

Putting x = 0 in the slope equation,

dy

EI

29.16

dx

A = dy/dx = -29.16/EI

A = -0.00729 radians

A = -0.417

Result:

(i)

Deflection at C = 8.74 mm

(ii)

Maximum deflection = 8.75 mm

(iii)

Slope at the end A, A = -0.417

9. A continuous beam is shown in fig. Draw the BMD indicating salient points.

(Nov/Dec 2004)

Solution:

Given:

Length L1 = 4m

Length L2 = 8m

Length L3 = 6m

Udl on BC w = 10 kN/m

Point load W1 = 40 kN

Point load W2 = 40 kN

(i)

B.M due to vertical loads:

W1 ab 40 * 3 *1

30 kNm

L

4

1

Consider beam AB, B.M =

For beam BC,

wL2 10(8) 2

80 kNm

8

B.M = 8

For beam CD,

W2 L3 40 * 6

60 kNm

4

B.M = 4

(ii) B.M due to support moments:

Let MA, MB, MC, MD be the support moments at A, B, C, D. Since the

end A and D are simply supported MA = MD = 0

www.studentskey.in 51

M A L1 2 M B ( L1 L2 ) M C L2

6a1 x1 6a 2 x 2

L1

L2

6a1 x1 6a 2 x 2

4

8

2MB (12) +8 MC = -1.5a1x1 0.75 a2 x2

24 MB +8 MC = -1.5a1x1 0.75 a2 x2

----------- (i)

a1x1 = Moment of area of B.M.D due to point load

= *4*30*2/3*3 = 120

a2x2 = Moment of area of B.M.D due to udl

= 2/3 (Base x Altitude) x Base/2

= 2/3 (8*80)*8/2 = 1706.67

Using these values in equation (i)

24 MB +8 MC = -1.5(120) 0.75 (1706.67)

24 MB +8 MC = -1460.0025

---------------- (ii)

0 2M B ( 4 8 ) M C (8)

M B L2 2 M C ( L2 L3 ) M D L3

6a 2 x 2 6a 3 x 3

L2

L3

6a 2 x 2 6a 3 x 3

8

6

8 MB + 28 MC = - 0.75 a2x2 - a3x3

-------------- (iii)

a2x2 = Moment of area of B.M.D due to udl

= 2/3 (Base x Altitude) x Base/2

= 2/3 (8*80)*8/2 = 1706.67

a3 x3 = Moment of area of B.M.D due to point load

= * b*h*L/3

= * 6*60*6/3

= 360

Using these values in equation (iii)

8 MB + 28 MC = - 0.75 (1706.67) 360

8 MB + 28 MC = - 1640.0025

------------------ (iv)

From (ii) & (iv)

MC = 45.526 kNm

MB = 45.657 kNm

Result:

MA = MD = 0

MC = 45.526 kNm

M B (8) 2M C (8 6) 0

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MB = 45.657 kNm

10. For the fixed beam shown in fig. draw BMD and SFD. (Nov / Dec 2004)

Solution:

(i)

Consider beam AB as simply supported. The B.M at the centre of AB

2

wL1

2 * (3) 2

2.25 kNm

8

8

(ii)

As beam is fixed at A and B, therefore introduce an imaginary zero

span AA1 and BB1 to the left of A and to the right of B. The support moments at A1 and B1 are

zero.

Let M0 = Support moment at A1 and B1 and it is zero.

MA = Fixing moment at A

MB = Fixing moment at B

MC = Support moment at C

To find MA, MB and MC, Theorem of three moments is used.

(A)For the span A1A and AC,

M 0 * 0 2M A (0 L1 ) M C L1

6a0 x0 6a1 x1

L0

L1

6a1 x1

L1

6 MA + 3MC = - 2a1x1 ------------- (i)

a1x1 = moment of area of B.M.D due to udl on AB when it is considered as simply supported

beam about B

= 2/3 * Base * Altitude * L1/2

= 2/3 * 3 * 2.25 * 3/2

a1x1 = 6.75

subs this values in equation (i) we get

6 MA + 3 MC = -13.50 ------------ (ii)

2 M A (3) M C (3)

M A L1 2 M C ( L1 L2 ) M B L2

6a1 x1 6a2 x2

L1

L2

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6a1 x1 6a2 x2

3

3

3 MA + 12 MC + 3 MB = 2a1x1 + 2a2x2

M A (3) 2 M C (3 3) M B (3)

a1x1 = moment of area of B.M.D due to udl on AB when it is considered as simply supported

beam about B

= 2/3 * Base * Altitude * L1/2

= 2/3 * 3 * 2.25 * 3/2

a1x1 = 6.75

a2x2 = 0

3 MA + 12 MC + 3 MB = 13.5

----------- (ii)

M C L2 2M B ( L2 L0 ) M 0 * 0

6a2 x2 6a0 x0

L2

L0

6a2 x2

3

3MC + 6MB = 2a2x2

3M C 2M B (3)

a2x2 = 0

3MC + 6MB = 0

By solving (iii), (iv), (ii)

MC = 1.125 kNm

MA = 0.5625 kNm

MB = -0.5625 kNm

(iii)

Support Reactions:

Let RA, RB , and RC are the support reactions at A, B and C.

For the span AC, taking moment about C, we get

RA x 3 2 x 3 x 1.5 + MA = MC

RA x 3 9 + 0.5625 = 1.125

RA = 3.1875 kN

For the span CB, taking moment about C, we get

RB x 3 + M C = M B

RB x 3 + 1.125 = 0.5625

RB = 0.1875 kN

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= 2*3*1.5 (3.1875 + 0.1875)

RC = 5.625 kN

Result:

MC = 1.125 kNm

MA = 0.5625 kNm

MB = -0.5625 kNm

RA = 3.1875 kN

RB = 0.1875 kN

RC = 5.625 kN

(FOR IV SEMESTER)

UNIT III

COLUMNS

Eccentrically loaded short columns - middle third role core section Columns of

unsymmetrical sections-(angle channel sections) - Eulers theory of long columns critical

loads for prismatic columns with different end conditions; Rankine Gordon formula for

eccentrically loaded columns thick cylinder compound cylinder.

TWO MARKS QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS

1.

Define columns

If the member of the structure is vertical and both of its ends are fixed rigidly while

subjected to axial compressive load, the member is known as column.

Example: A vertical pillar between the roof and floor.

2.

Define struts.

If the member of the structure is not vertical and one (or) both of its ends is Linged (or)

pin jointed, the bar is known as strut.

Example: Connecting rods, piston rods etc,

3.

i.

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ii.

iii.

4.

Buckling stresses

Combined of direct compressive and buckling stresses.

1. The column is initially perfectly straight and the load is applied axially.

2. The cross-section of the column is uniform throughout its length.

3. The column material is perfectly elastic, homogeneous and isotropic and obeys

Hookes law.

4. The self weight of column is negligible.

5.

1.

2.

3.

4.

6.

One end is fixed and the other end is free.

Both the ends of the column are fixed.

One end is fixed and the other is pinned.

Write the expression for crippling load when the both ends of the column are

hinged.

2 EI

l2

P = Crippling load

E = Youngs Modulus

I = Moment of inertia

l = Length of column

7.

Write the expression for buckling load (or) Crippling load when both ends of the

column are fixed?

P

4 2 EI

L2

P = Crippling load

E = Youngs Modulus

I = Moment of inertia

l = Length of column

8.

Write the expression for crippling load when column with one end fixed and other

end linged.

www.studentskey.in 56

2 2 EI

l2

P = Crippling load

E = Youngs Modulus

I = Moment of inertia

l = Length of column

P

9.

Write the expression for buckling load for the column with one

other end free.

2 EI

P 2

4l

P = Crippling load

E = Youngs Modulus

I = Moment of inertia

l = Length of column

10.

fixed

and

If l is actual length of a column, then its equivalent length (or) effective length L may be

obtained by multiplying it with some constant factor C, which depends on the end fixation of the

column (ie) L = C x l.

11.

Write the Equivalent length (L) of the column in which both ends hinged and write

the crippling load.

2 EI

P 2

L

Crippling Load

Equivalent length (L) = Actual length (l)

P = Crippling load

E = Youngs Modulus

I = Moment of inertia

L= Length of column

12.

Write the relation between Equivalent length and actual length for all end

conditions of column.

Both ends linged

Both ends fixed

end hinged

One end fixed and other

end free

L=l

l

L

2

L

Constant = 1

Constant =

l

2

L 2l

1

2

Constant =

Constant = 2

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13.

When a load acts in such a way on a region around the CG of the section So that in that

region stress everywhere is compressive and no tension is developed anywhere, then that area is

called the core (or) Kernal of a section. The kernel of the section is the area within which the line

of action of the eccentric load P must cut the cross-section if the stress is not to become tensile.

14.

The limit of eccentricity of a rectangular section b x d on either side of XX axis (or) YY

axis is d/6 to avoid tension at the base core of the rectangular section.

Core of the rectangular section = Area of the shaded portion

1 b d

2

2 3 6

bd

18

Derive the expression for core of a solid circular section of diameter D.

15.

The limit of eccentricity on either side of both XX (or) YY axis = D/8 to avoid tension of

the base.

Core of the circular section

= Area of the shaded portion

D / 8 2

16.

D 2

64

A steel column is of length 8m and diameter 600 mm with both ends hinged.

5

Determine the crippling load by Eulers formula. Take E 2.1 10 N/mm2.

d 4 600 4 6.36 10 9 mm 4

64

64

Equivalent length L = l

2 EI

Pcr 2

L

2 2.1 10 5 6.36 10 9

8000 2

2.06 10 8 N

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17.

It is defined as the ratio of the effective length of the column (L) to the least radius of

L

gyration of its cross section (K) (i.e) the ratio of K is known as slenderness ratio.

L

Slenderness ratio = K

18.

a. Eulers formula is applicable when the slenderness ratio is greater than or equal to 80

b. Eulers formula is applicable only for long column

c. Eulers formula is thus unsuitable when the slenderness ratio is less than a certain

value.

19.

P

K

P

A

fc

20.

=

=

=

=

f c A

L

1

K

Crippling load

Area of the column

Constant value depends upon the material.

I

A

Rankines constant

fc

2E

P

K

P

A

fc

=

=

=

=

f c A

2

eyc

L

1 2 1

k

Crippling load

Area of the column

Constant value depends upon the material.

I

A

Rankines constant

fc

2E

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21.

If the ratio of thickness of the internal diameter of a cylindrical or spherical shell exceeds

1/20, it is termed as a thick shell.

The hoop stress developed in a thick shell varies from a maximum value at the inner

circumference to a minimum value at the outer circumference.

Thickness > 1/20

22.

i.

ii.

iii.

Plane section normal to the longitudinal axis of the cylinder remains plane after

the application of internal pressure.

All the fibers of the material expand (or) contact independently without being

constrained by there adjacent fibers.

23.

In rectangular sections, the eccentricity e must be less than or equal to b/6. Hence the

greatest eccentricity of the load is b/6 form the axis Y-Y and with respect to axis X X 1 the

eccentricity does not exceed d/6. Hence the load may be applied with in the middle third of the

base (or) Middle d/3.

16 MARKS QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS

1.

Solution:

A long column of uniform cross-sectional area A and of length l, subjected to an axial

compressive load P, as shown in fig. A column is known as long column if the length of the

column in comparison to its lateral dimensions is very large. Such columns do not fail y

crushing alone, but also by bending (also known buckling)

The load, at which the column just buckles, is known as buckling load and it is less than

the crushing load is less than the crushing load for a long column.

Buckling load is also known as critical just (or) crippling load. The value of buckling

load for long columns are long columns is low whereas for short columns the value of buckling

load is high.

Let

l

p

A

e

=

length of the long column

=

Load (compressive) at which the column has jus

buckled.

=

Cross-sectional area of he column

=

Maximum bending of the column at the centre.

www.studentskey.in 60

P

A

P e

Z

=

Where

The extreme stresses on the mid-section are given by

Maximum stress =

0 + b

Minimum stress =

0 - b

The column will fail when maximum stress (i.e) 0 + b is more the crushing stress fc.

In case of long column, the direct compressive stresses are negligible as compared to

buckling stresses. Hence very long columns are subjected to buckling stresses.

2.

State the assumptions made in the Eulers column Theory. And explain the

sign conventions considered in columns. (April/May2003)

The following are the assumptions made in the Eulers column theory:

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

The column is initially perfectly straight and the load is applied axially

The cross-section of the column is uniform throughout its length.

The column material is perfectly elastic, homogeneous and isotropic and

obeys Hookes law.

The length of the column is very large as compared to its lateral

dimensions

The direct stress is very small as compared to the bending stress

The column will fail by buckling alone.

The self-weight of column is negligible.

1.

2.

3.

A moment which will tend to bend the column with its convexity towards its

initial centre line is taken as positive.

A moment which will tend to bend the column with its concavity towards its

initial center line is taken as negative.

Derive the expression for crippling load when the both ends of the column are

hinged.

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Solution:

Consider a column AB of length L hinged at both its ends A and B carries an axial

crippling load at A.

Consider any section X-X at a distance of x from B.

Let the deflection at X-X is y.

The bending moment at X-X due to the load P, M = P. y

d 2 y Py

k 2 y

2

EI

dx

Where

k2

p

EI

d2y

k 2 y 0

2

` dx

Solution of this differential equation is

y A cos kx B sin kx

p

B sin

y A cos x

EI

EI

At B,

At A,

x = 0, y = 0

x = l, y = 0

0 B sin l

Sinl

p

EI

p

0

EI

p

0, ,2 ,3 ......

EI

Now taking the lest significant value (i.e)

l

A=0

www.studentskey.in 62

p

2 p

2

l

EI

EI

;

2 EI

l2

`The Eulers crippling load for long column with both ends hinged.

2 EI

p 2

l

4. Derive the expression for buckling load (or) crippling load when both ends of the column

are fixed.

Solution:

Consider a column AB of length l fixed at both the ends A and B and caries an axial

crippling load P at A due to which buckling occurs. Under the action of the load P the column

will deflect as shown in fig.

Consider any section X-X at a distance x from B.Let the deflection at X-X is y.

Due to fixity at the ends, let the moment at A or B is M.

Differential equation of the elastic curve is

EI

d2y

M Py

dx 2

d 2 y py M

dx 2 EI IE

d 2 y py M p

dx 2 EI IE p

d 2 y py P M

dx 2 EI EI P

The general solution of the above differential equation is

M

y A cos x P / EI B sin x P / EI

P

(i)

www.studentskey.in 63

At, N. x = 0 and y = 0

From (i)

0 A 1 B 0

M

p

M

p

Differentiating the equation (i) with respect to x,

A

dy

P

P

P

0

A

Sin x. P / EI B

Cos x.

dx

EI

EI

EI

dy

0

At the fixed end B, x = 0 and dx

P

0

EI

P

0

EI

Either B = 0 (or)

P

0

EI

Since

as p 0

B=0

M

p and B = 0 in equation (i)

A

Subs

M

P M

cos x.

P

EI P

1 cos x..

EI

y

M

P

M

1 Cos l. P / EI

P

l. P / EI 0,2 ,4 ,6 ........

www.studentskey.in 64

P

2

EI

P

l. 2 4 2

EI

l.

5.

4 2 EI

P 2

l

The crippling load for long column when both the ends of the column are fixed

Derive the expression for crippling load when column with one end fixed and other

end hinged. (April/May 2003)

Solution:

Consider a column AB of length l fixed at B and hinged at A. It carries an axial crippling

load P at A for which the column just buckles.

As here the column AB is fixed at B, there will be some fixed end moment at B. Let it be

M. To balance this fixing moment M, a horizontal push H will be exerted at A.

Consider any section X-X at a distance x from the fixed end B. Let the deflection at xx is

y.

Bending moment at xx = H (l-x) - Py

Differential equation of the elastic curve is,

d2y

EI 2 H l x Py

dx

d2y P

14 l x

y

2

EI

EI

dx

d2y P

H l x p

2

EI

EI

P

dx

d2y P

H l x p

2

EI

EI

EI

dx

The general solution of the above different equation is

www.studentskey.in 65

p

p H l x

B sin x.

y A cos x.

EI

EI

P

(i)

At B, x = 0, y = 0

A

From (i)

Hl

P

P

H

EI P

H

EI

P

p

Again at the end A, x = l, y=0. substitute these values of x, y, A and B in equation (i)

0

H

P

Hl

H

Cos l. P / EI

P

P

EI

Sin. l. P / EI

p

EI

Sin l. P / EI

P

Hl

Cos l.

P

P / EI

tan l. P / EI .l P / EI .l

The value of tan P / EI .l in radians has to be such that its tangent is equal to itself. The

only angle whose tangent is equal to itself, is about 4.49 radians.

P / EI .l 4.49

P 2

2

l 4.49

EI

P 2

l 2 2

EI

(approx)

2 2 EI

P 2

l

The crippling load (or) buckling load for the column with one end fixed and one end hinged.

6.

Derive the expression for buckling load for the column with one end fixed and other

www.studentskey.in 66

end free.

(April/May 2003)

Solution:

Consider a column AB of length l, fixed at B and free at A, carrying an axial rippling load

P at D de to which it just buckles. The deflected form of the column AB is shown in fig. Let the

new position of A is A1.

Let a be the deflection at the free end. Consider any section X-X at a distance x from B.

Let the deflection at xx is y.

Bending moment due to critical load P at xx,

d2y

M EI 2 P a y

dx

EI

d2y

Pa py

dx2

d 2 y py pq

dx2 EI EI

The solution of the above differential equation is,

P

x. P a

y A cos x.

B

sin

EI

EI

At B, x = 0, y = 0

From (i), A = 0

Differentiating the equation (I w.r. to x

dy

P

P

P

x. P

A

Sin x.

B

Cos

dx

EI

EI

EI

EI

P

0 B

EI

As

P

0

EI

p 0

www.studentskey.in 67

P

a

y a cos x.

EI

y a 1 cos x..

EI

(ii)

P

a a 1 cos1..

EI

P

cos1..

0

EI

P

3 5

, ,

EI

2 2 2

Now taking the least significant value,

1

EI 2

P 2

1

EI

4

2

2 EI

P 2

4l

The crippling load for the columns with one end fixed and other end free.

7. A steel column is of length 8 m and diameter 600 mm with both ends hinged. Determine

the crippling load by Eulers formula. Take E =2.1 x 105 N/mm2

Solution:

Given,

Actual length of the column, l = 8m = 8000 mm

Diameter of the column

E = 2.1 x 105 N/mm2

d= 600 mm

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d 4

64

600 4

64

I 6.36 10 9 mm 4

Since the column is hinged at the both ends,

Equivalent length L =l

Eulers crippling load,

Pcr

2 EI

L2

8000 2

= 2.06 x 108 N

8.

A mild steel tube 4m long, 3cm internal diameter and 4mm thick is used as a strut

with both ends hinged. Find the collapsing load, what will be the crippling load if

i.

ii.

One end is built in and one end is free?

Solution:

Given:

Actual length of the mild steel tube, l = 4m = 400 cm

Internal diameter of the tube,

d = 3 cm

Thickness of the tube, t = 4mm = 0.4cm.

External diameter of the tube, D = d + 2t

= 3+2(0.4)

= 3.8 cm.

Assuming E for steel = 2 x 106 Kg/cm2

M.O.I of the column section,

D4 d 4

64

3.8 4 3 2

64

www.studentskey.in 69

I = 6.26 cm 4

i.

Since the both ends of the tube are hinged, the effective length of the column

both ends are hinged.

L = l = 400 cm

2 EI

Pcr 2

L

2 2 10 6 6.26

400 2

Pcr 772.30 Kg.

The required collapsed load = 772.30 Kg.

ii.

then effective length of the column,

l 400

L

200cm

2

2

Eulers crippling load,

2 EI

Pcr 2

L

2 2 10 6 6.26

200 2

Pcr

iii.

= 3089.19 Kg.

When one end of the column is built in and the other end is free,

effective length of the column,

L = 2l

= 2 x 400

= 800 cm

Eulers crippling load,

2 EI

Pcr 2

L

2 2 10 6 6.26

800 2

when

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9.

A column having a T section with a flange 120 mm x 16 mm and web 150 mm x 16

mm is 3m long. Assuming the column to be hinged at both ends, find the crippling

load by using Eulers formula. E = 2 x 106 Kg/cm2.

Solution:

Given:

Flange width

Flange thickness

Length of the web

Width of the web

=

=

=

=

120 mm = 12 cm

16 mm = 1.6 cm

150 mm = 15cm

16mm = 1.6cm

E = 2 106 Kg/cm2

Length of the column, l = 3m = 300 cm.

Since the column is hinged at both ends, effective length of the column.

L = l = 300 cm.

From the fig. Y-Y is the axis of symmetry. The C.G of the whole section lies on Y-Y

axis.

Let the distance of the C.G from the 16 mm topmost fiber of the section = Y

1.6

15

12 1.6 15 1.61.6

2

2

Y

12 1.6 15 1.6

Y 5.41 cm

Distance of C.G from bottom fibre = (15+1.6) - 5.41

= 11.19cm

Now M.O.I of the whole section about X-X axis.

I XX

2

2

3

12 1.6 3

1.6 1.6 15

15

12 1.6 5.41

1.6 1511.19

12

2

12

2

M.I of the whole section about Y-Y axis

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I yy

1.6 12 3 15 106 3

12

12

I min 235.52cm 4

2 EI

Pcr 2

L

2

2 10 6 235.52

300 2

P 51655.32 Kg.

cr

;

10.

A steel bar of solid circular cross-section is 50 mm in diameter. The bar is pinned at

both ends and subjected to axial compression. If the limit of proportionality of the material

is

210 MPa and E = 200 GPa, determine the m minimum length to

which Eulers

formula is valid. Also determine the value of Eulers buckling load if the column has this

minimum length.

Solution:

Given,

Dia of solid circular cross-section, d = 50 mm

Stress at proportional limit, f = 210 Mpa

= 210 N/mm2

Youngs Modulus, E = 200 GPa = 200 x 10 3 N/mm2

50 2 1963 .49 mm 2

4

Area of cross section,

Least moment of inertia of the column section,

A

50 4 3.6.79 10 3 mm 4

64

I

306 .79 10 3

k

50 4 156 .25 mm 2

A

1963 .49

The bar is pinned at both ends,

2

Eulers buckling load,

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2 EI

Pcr 2

L

Pcr

2E

A

L / K 2

For Eulers formula to be valid, value of its minimum effective length L may be found

out by equating the buckling stress to f

2E

210

2

L

K

2 E k 2

L

210

2

2 2 10 5 156 .25

L

210

2

The required minimum actual length l =L = 1.212 m

For this value of minimum length,

2 EI

2

L

2 2 10 5 306.75 10 3

1212 2

= 412254 N = 412.254 KN

Result:

Minimum actual length l = L = 1.212 m

Eulers buckling Load

=412.254 KN

11.

Explain Rankines Formula and Derive the Rankines formula for both short and

long column.

Solution:

Rankines Formula:

Eulers formula gives correct results only for long columns, which fail mainly due to

buckling. Whereas Rankines devised an empirical formula base don practical experiments for

determining the crippling or critical load which is applicable to all columns irrespective of

whether they a short or long.

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Pc is the crushing load of the column material

PE is the crippling load by Eulers formula.

Then the Empirical formula devised by Rankine known as Rankines formula stand as:

1 1

1

P Pe PE

For a short column, if the effective length is small, the value of P E will be very high and

1

1

P

the value of PE will be very small as compared to C and is negligible.

For the short column, (i.e)

P = PC

Thus for the short column, value of crippling load by Rankine is more or less equal to the

value of crushing load:

For long column having higher effective length, the value of P E is small and

1

PE

will

1

1

P

P

be large enough in comparison to C . So C is ignored.

1

1

PE

P

For the long column, C

(i.e) p PE

Thus for the long column the value of crippling load by Rankine is more or less equal to

the value of crippling load by Euler.

1

1

1

P

Pc

PE

1

P Pc

E

P

Pc PE

p

Pc PE

PE Pc

p

;

Pc

P

1 c

PE

2 EI

PE 2

L

www.studentskey.in 74

p

1

f c A

f c A

2

EI / L2

Where,

fc

Ak2

p

1

p

f c A

f c A

f c A

f c A L2

1

2 EI / L2

2 EAk 2

f c A

L

1

fc

2E

Crushing Load

P = 1L / k

When Rankines constant is not given then find

2

fc

2E

The following table shows the value of fc and for different materials.

Material

fc N/mm2

Wrought iron

250

Cast iron

550

Mild steel

320

fc

2E

1

9000

1

1600

1

7500

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Timber

12.

1

750

50

A rolled steel joist ISMB 300 is to be used a column of 3 meters length with both

ends fixed. Find the safe axial load on the column. Take factor of safety 3, f c = 320

1

2

7500 . Properties of the column section.

N/mm and

Area = 5626 mm2, IXX = 8.603 x 107 mm4

Iyy =4.539 x 107 mm4

Solution:

Given:

Length of the column, l = 3m = 3000 mm

Factor of safety = 3

1

7500

fc = 320 N/mm2,

Area, A = 5626 mm2

IXX = 8.603 x 107 mm4

Iyy =4.539 x 107 mm4

The column is fixed at both the ends,

l 3000

L

1500mm

2

2

Effective length,

I I min I yy 4.539 10 7 mm 4

Least radius of gyration of the column section,

I

4.539 10 7

K

89.82mm

A

5626

Crippling load as given by Rakines formula,

pcr

f c A

L

1

Pcr = 1343522.38 N

320 5626

1 1500

1

7500 89.82

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Crippling Load

Safe load = Factor of safety

1343522.38

447840.79 N

3

Result:

i.

ii.

Safe load

=447840.79N

13.

A built up column consisting of rolled steel beam ISWB 300 with two plates

200 mm x 10 mm connected at the top and bottom flanges. Calculate the safe load

the column carry, if the length is 3m and both ends are fixed. Take factor of safety 3

1

7500

fc = 320 N/mm2 and

Take properties of joist: A = 6133 mm2

IXX = 9821.6 x 104 mm4 ; Iyy = 990.1 x 104 mm4

Solution:

Given:

Length of the built up column, l = 3m = 3000 mm

Factor of safety

= 3

fc =320 N/mm2

1

7500

Sectional area of the built up column,

A 6133 2 200 10 10133mm 2

Moment of inertia of the built up column section abut xx axis,

200 10 3

2

I XX 9821.6 10 4 2

200 10155

12

Moment of inertia of the built up column section abut YY axis,

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IYY

10 200 3

990 .1 10 2

12

Since Iyy is less than Ixx , The column will tend to buckle about Y-Y axis.

Least moment of inertia of the column section,

I I min I YY 0.23 10 8 mm 4

The column is fixed at both ends.

Effective length,

l 3000

L

1500mm

2

2

Least radius of gyration o the column section,

J

0.23 10 8

47.64mm

A

10133

pcr

f c A

L

1

320 10133

1 1500

1

7500 47.64

= 2864023.3 N

Safe load

2864023.3

954674.43N

3

Result:

i. Crippling load

ii. Safe load

14.

=

=

2864023.3 N

954674.43 N

Derive Rankines and Euler formula for long columns under long columns under

Eccentric Loading?

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i.

Rankines formula:

Consider a short column subjected to an eccentric load P with an eccentricity e form the

axis.

Maximum stress = Direct Stress + Bending stress

fc

P M

A Z

P p.e. y c

A Ak 2

I

y

I Ak 2

I

A

where

A

Z

yc

k

=

=

=

=

fc

Sectional modulus of the column

Distance of extreme fibre from N.A

Least radius of gyration.

P

ey

1 2c

A

k

Where

ey

1 2c

k

For long column, loaded with axial loading, the crippling load,

f c A

L

1

Where

Hence for a long column loaded with eccentric loading, the safe load,

ii.

Eulers formula

www.studentskey.in 79

P e sec P / EI

l

2

A

Z

Hence, the maximum stress induced in the column having both ends hinged and an

P Pe

l

sec P / EI

A Z

2

eccentricity of e is

The maximum stress induced in the column with other end conditions are determined by

changing

the

length

in

terms

of

effective

length.

15.

A column of circular section has 150 mm dia and 3m length. Both ends of the

column are fixed. The column carries a load of 100 KN at an eccentricity of 15 mm

from the geometrical axis of the column. Find the maximum compressive stress in

the column section. Find also the maximum permissible eccentricity to avoid

tension in the column section. E = 1 x 105 N/mm2

Solution:

Given,

Diameter of the column,

D

Actual length of the column, l

Load on the column,

P

E

Eccentricity,

e

=

=

=

=

=

D 2

A

4

Area of the column section

2

150

4

= 17671 mm2

Moment of inertia of the column section N.A.,

4

D 4 150

64

64

= 24.85 x 106 mm4

Section modulus,

I

I

Z

y D/2

150 mm

3m = 3000 mm

100 KN = 1000 x 103 N

1 x 105 N/mm2

15 mm

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24.85 10 6

331339mm 3

150

2

=

Both the ends of the column 2 are fixed.

l 3000

L

1500mm

2

2

Effective length of the column,

Now, the angle

L

100 10 3

1500

P / EI

5

6

2

2

1 10 24.85 10

= 0.1504 rad = 8.61 o

Maximum compressive stress,

P P e

L

sec P / EI

A

Z

2

17671

331339

= 10.22 N/mm2

To avoid tension we know,

P M

A Z

P p e sec .8.61o

A

Z

17671

331339

e = 18.50 mm

Result:

i.

ii.

16.

Maximum eccentricity

= 18.50 mm

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1.

i.

ii.

Plane sections normal to the longitudinal axis of the cylinder remain plane

after the application of internal pressure.

All the fibres of the material expand (or) contract independently without being

constrained by their adjacent fibres.

iii.

2

Consider a thick cylinder

Let

rc

r0

Pi

Po

=

=

=

=

Outer radius of the cylinder

Internal radial pressure

External radial pressure

L

f2

=

=

Longitudinal stress.

Lames Equation:

f x px 2a

Px

b

x2

fx

fx

b

x2

b

x2

a 2a

a

where

fx

px

Px + dPx

=

=

=

Internal radial pressure in the fig.

External radial pressure in the ring.

The values of the two constants a and to b are found out using the following boundary

conditions:

i. Since the internal radial pressure is Pi,

At x = ri, Px = Pi

ii. Since the external radial pressure is P0,

www.studentskey.in 82

At x = r0, Px = P0

17.

of 200 mm is subjected to an internal pressure of 55 M pa and an external pressure

of 7 Mpa. Find the maximum hoop stress.

Solution:

Given,

100

ri

50mm

2

Inner radius of the cylinder,

200

ro

100mm

2

Outer radius of the cylinder,

Internal pressure, Pi

External pressure, P0

=

=

55 Mpa

7 Mpa

In the hoop stress and radial stress in the cylinder at a distance of x from the centre is f x

and px respectively, using Lames equations,

fx

b

a

x2

b

a

x2

where a and b are constants,

Px

(i)

(ii)

Using these boundary condition in equation (ii)

b

Px 2 a

x

55

50 2

a

(iii)

Using these boundary condition is equation (ii)

b

7

a

100 2

Solving (iii) & (iv)

(iv)

www.studentskey.in 83

b / 100 2 a 7

b / 50 2 a 55

(- )

(+)

3b

10000

= - 48

160000

fx

9

x2

The value of fx is maximum when x is minimum

Thus fx is maximum for x = ri = 50 mm

160000

9

2

50

Maximum hoop stress

= 73 Mpa (tensile)

Result:

Maximum hoop stress = 73 MPa (tensile)

18.

A cast iron pipe has 200 mm internal diameter and 50 mm metal thickness. It

carries water under a pressure of 5 N/mm2. Find the maximum and minimum intensities of

circumferential

stress. Also sketch the distribution of circumferential stress and

radial stress across the section.

Solution:

Given:

Internal diameter,

Wall thickness,

Internal pressure,

External pressure,

di

t

Pi

P0

=

=

=

=

200 mm

50 mm

5 N/mm2

0.

di 200

100mm

2

2

Internal radius

r0 ri t 100 50 150mm

ri

External radius

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Let fx and Px be the circumferential stress and radial stress at a distance of x from the centre of

the pipe respectively.

Using Lames equations,

b

a

x2

b

px 2 a

x

fx

(i)

(ii)

Now at x = 100 mm, Px = 5 N/mm2

At x = 150 mm, Px = 0

Using boundary condition is (ii)

5

0

100 2

b

150 2

a

(ii)

a

(iv)

fx

90000

90000

4, Px 2 4,

2

x

x

fx

90000

100

4 13N / mm 2 tensile

fx

19.

90000

150

4 8 N / mm 2 tensile

www.studentskey.in 85

Solution:

Consider a compound thick cylinder as shown in fig.

Let,

r1

=

Inner radius of the compound cylinder

r2

r3

=

Outer radius of the compound cylinder

When one cylinder is shrunk over the other, thinner cylinder is under compression and

the outer cylinder is under tension. Due to fluid pressure inside the cylinder, hoop stress will

develop. The resultant hoop stress in the compound stress is that algebraic sum of the hoop

stress due to initial shrinkage and that due to fluid pressure.

a.

Applying Lames Equations for the outer cylinder,

Px

b1

a1

x2

fx

b1

a1

x2

At x = r3, Px = 0

and at x = r2, px = p

b2

a2

x2

b

f x 22 a2

x

Px

At x = r2, Px = p

b.

and at x = r3, px = 0

To find the stress in the compound cylinder due to internal fluid pressure alone, the inner

and outer cylinders will be considered together as one thick shell. Now applying Lames

Equation,

Px

B

x2

www.studentskey.in 86

fx

B

x2

At x = r1, Px = pf

At x = r3, px = 0

The resultant hoop stress is the algebraic sum of the hoop stress due to shrinking and due

internal fluid pressure.

20.

wall thickness. It is shrunk on to a tube of 200 mm internal diameter. The radial

pressure at the junction is 8 N/mm2. Find the variation of hoop stress across the wall

of the compound cylinder, if it is under an internal fluid pressure of 60 N/mm 2

Solution:

Given:

Internal diameter of the outer tube, d1 = 250 mm

Wall thickness of the outer tuber ,

t = 25 mm

Internal diameter of the inner tube , d2

=

200 mm

Radial pressure at the junction

P

=

8 N/mm2

Internal fluid pressure within the cylinder Pf =

60 N/mm2

External radius of the compound cylinder,

r2

d1 2t

2

1

250 2 25 150 mm

2

Internal radius of the compound cylinder,

d 2 200

100 mm

2

2

d

250

r1 1

125 mm

2

2

Radius at the junction,

r1

Let the radial stress and hoop stress at a distance of x from the centre of the cylinder be

px and fx respectively.

i.

Hoop stresses due to shrinking of the outer and inner cylinders before fluid

pressure is admitted.

a.

Applying Lames Equation

www.studentskey.in 87

Px

b1

a1

x2

(i)

b1

fx

a1

x2

(ii)

Where a1 and b1 are arbitrary constants for the outer cylinder.

Now at x = 150 mm, Px = 0

X = 125 mm, Px = 8 N/mm2

b1

150 2

8

a1

(iii)

b1

125 2

a1

(iv)

fx

409091

18

x2

(v)

Putting x = 150 mm in the above equation stress at the outer surface,

fx

409091

150

18 36 N / mm 2

(tensile)

Again putting x = 125 mm in equation (v), stress at junction,

fx

409091

18 44 N / mm 2

2

125

(tensile)

Applying Lames Equation with usual Notations.

Px

b2

a2

x2

(iv)

fx

b2

a2

x2

(v)

x =100 mm, Px = 0

www.studentskey.in 88

b2

125 2

b2

a2

(vi)

a2

100 2

(vii)

b2 = -222222

fx

fx

222222

100

222222

125

22 44 .2 N / mm 2

(comp)

22 36 .2 N / mm 2

(comp)

iii. Hoop stresses due to internal fluid pressure alone for the compound cylinder:

In this case, the two tubes will be taken as a single thick cylinder. Applying Lames

equations with usual notations.

B

Px

x2

fx

(viii)

x2

At x = 150 mm,

x = 100 mm,

(ix)

Px = 0

Px = pf = 60 N/mm2

O

60

150 2

B

100 2

(x)

A = 133, B = 3 x 106

(xi)

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3 10 6

f x 2 133

x

fx

3 10 6

150

133 266 N / mm 2

(Tensile)

Again putting x = 125 mm, hoop stress at the junction

fx

3 10 6

125

fx

iii.

3 10 6

100

a. Outer cylinder

Resultant hoop stress at the outer surface = 36 + 266

= 302 N/ mm2 (Tensile)

Resultant hoop stress at the junction = 44 + 325 = 369 N/mm2 (tensile)

b. Inner cylinder;

Resultant hoop stress at the inner face = - 44.2 + 433

= 388.8 N/mm2 (Tensile)

Resultant hoop stress at the junction = - 36.2 + 325

= 288.8 N/mm2 (Tensile)

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21.

A column with alone end hinged and the other end fixed has a length of 5m and a

hollow circular cross section of outer

diameter 100 mm and wall thickness 10 mm. If

350 N / mm 2 , Find the load that

E = 1.60 x 105

N/mm2 and crushing strength 0

the column may carry with a factor of safety of 2.5

according to Euler theory and

Rankine Gordon theory. If the column is hinged on both ends, find the safe load

according to the two theories. (April/May 2003)

Solution:

Given:

L = 5 m = 5000 mm

Outer diameter

D

=

100 mm

Inner diameter

d = D-2t

=

100 2 (10) = 80 mm

Thickness

=

10 mm

I

=

1.60 x 105 N/mm2

0 350 N / mm 2

f

=

2.5

i. Calculation of load by Eulers Theory:

Column with one end fixed and other end hinged.

2 2 EI

P 2

L

l

2

5000

2

3536.0 6 mm

2 3.14 1.60 10 5 I

2

3536.06 2

D4 d 4

64

100 4 80 4

64

100000000 40960000

64

2

2 3.14 1.60 10 5 28.96 10 5

P

12503716.14

p = 73.074 x 103 N

I

ii.

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Rankines Constant

1

7500 (assume the column material is mild steel.)

f c A

2

L

1 a

K

I

28.96 10 5

32.01

A

2826

100 2 80 2

4

10000 6400

4

fc = c

= 2826 mm2

P

350 28.26

1 3536.06

1

7500 32.01

989100

P

1.33 10 4 12203.036

P 60.94 10 4 N

iii.

Eulers theory

2 EI

P 2

L

L=l

5000 2

18.274 10 4

2 .5

P = 18.274 x 104 N ; Safe Load =

= 73096 N

Rankines Theory

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f c A

L

1 a

K

350 2826

1

1

7500

5000

32 .01

989100

1.33 10 4 24398.81

Safe load

30.480 10 4

2 .5

= 121920 N

P = 30.480 x 104

Result:

i. Eulers Theory

One end fixed & one end hinged P = 73.074 x 103 N

Both ends hinged

P = 18.274 x 104 N

ii. Rankines Theory

One end fixed & one end hinged P = 60.94 x 104 N

Both ends hinged

P = 30.480 x 104 N

iii. Safe Load

Eulers Theory = 73096 N

Rankines theory = 121920 N

22.

plate as shown in fig. Determine by Rankines formula the safe load, the column of

6m length, with both ends fixed, can carry with a factor of safety 4. The properties

of one channel are A = 17.77 cm 2, Ixx = 1,161.2 cm4 and Iyy = 84.2 cm4. Distance of

centroid from back of web = 1.97 cm. Take f c = 0.32 KN/mm2 and Rankines

1

Solution:

Given:

Length of the column l = 6 m = 600 mm

Factor of safety = 4

Yield stress, fc = 0.32 KN/mm2

1

a

7500

Rankines constant,

Area of column,

A = 2 (17.77+25 x 1)

A = 85.54 cm2

A = 8554 mm2

Moment of inertia of the column about X-X axis

www.studentskey.in 93

I XX

25 13

2 1,161.2

25 1 10.5 2

12

= 7839.0 cm4

1 25 3

2

2

8.42 17.77 5 1.97

12

= 4,499.0 cm4

I YY

I = Iyy =4499.0 cm4

Column is fixed at both the ends

l 6000

L

3000mm

2

2

I

4499 10 4

72.5mm

A

855 4

f c .A

K

1 a

L

2228

4

Result:

Safe load = 557 KN

0.32 8554 . A

1 3000

1

75000 72 .5

=557 KN

= 2228 KN

www.studentskey.in 94

(FOR IV SEMESTER)

UNIT IV

Spherical and deviatory components of stress tensor- determination of principal of

principal stresses and principal planes volumetric strain- dilation and distortion

Theories of failure principal stress dilatation. Principal strain shear stress - strain

energy and distortion energy theories - application in analysis of stress. Load carrying

capacity and design of members interaction problems and interaction curves residual

stresses.

UNIT IV

TWO MARKS QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS

1.

Define stress

When a certain system of external forces act on a body then the body offers resistance to

these forces. This internal resistance offered by the body per unit area is called the stress

induced in the body.

2.

The plane in which the shear stress is zero is called principal planes. The plane which is

independent of shear stress is known as principal plane.

3.

ijii

0

0

0 0

m 0

0 m

1

m x y z

3

4.

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x m

ij1 xy

xz

l xy

y m

l yz

z m

xz

yz

5.

It is defined as the ratio between change in volume and original volume of the body and

is denoted by e v

6.

State the principal theories of failure.

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

Maximum shear stress (or) stress difference theory

Strain energy theory

Shear strain energy theory

Maximum principal strain theory

Mohrs Theory

1. On a mild steel specimen when spiel tension test is carried out sliding occurs

approximately 45o to the axis of the specimen; this shows that the failure in this case is

due to maximum shear stress rather than the direct tensile stress.

2. It has been found that a material which is even though weak in simple compression yet

can sustain hydrostatic pressure for in excess of the elastic limit in simple compression.

8.

According to this theory failure will occur when the maximum principle tensile stress

(1) in the complex system reaches the value of the maximum stress at the elastic limit (et) in

the simple tension.

9.

This theory implies that failure will occur when the maximum shear stress

maximum in

the complex system reaches the value of the maximum shear stress in simple tension at elastic

limit (i.e)

l max

10.

1 3 et

2

2

3

et

(or) 1

State the limitations of maximum shear stress theory.

i. The theory does not give accurate results for the state of stress of pure shear in which

the maximum amount of shear is developed (i.e) Torsion test.

ii. The theory does not give us close results as found by experiments on ductile

www.studentskey.in 96

11.

This theory is also called Distortion energy Theory or Von Mises - Henky Theory.

According to this theory the elastic failure occurs where the shear strain energy per unit

volume in the stressed material reaches a value equal to the shear strain energy per unit volume

at the elastic limit point in the simple tension test.

12.

1. The theory does to agree the experiment results for the material for which at is

quite different etc.

2. This theory is regarded as one to which conform most of the ductile material under

the action of various types of loading.

13.

The theory states that the failure of a material occurs when the principal tensile strain in

the material reaches the strain at the elastic limit in simple tension (or) when the min minimum

principal strain (ie ) maximum principal compressive strain reaches the elastic limit in simple

compression.

14.

i.

ii.

15.

The theory does no fit well with the experimental results except for brittle

materials for biaxial tension.

x . xz

xy

xy y yz

xz yz z

'

ij

16.

The principal stresses are the roots of the cubic equation,

3 I 1 2 I 2 I 3 0

where

I1 x y z

www.studentskey.in 97

I 2 y y z x z 2 xy y 2 z 2 xz

I 3 x y Z x 2 xy y 2 xz z 2 xy 2 xy yz xz

17.

i.

ii.

18.

Strain energy of dilatation.

Let

The enveloping curve f must represent in this abscissa and ordinates e, the

normal and shearing stresses in the plane of slip.

2

3

1

2 1

2

2

Let

1

1 3

2

19.

1

1 3

2

p 2 lm 2

2

The total strain energy of deformation is given by

1 2

2

2

U

1 2 3 2v 1 2 2 3 3 1

2E

02

2E

www.studentskey.in 98

20.

1

2

2

2

s

1 2 2 3 3 1

12 C

C

where

E

1

21

m

When certain system of external forces act on a body then the body offers resistance to

these forces. This internal resistance offered by the body per unit area is called the stress

induced in the body.

The stress may be resolved into two components. The first one is the normal stress n,

which is the perpendicular to the section under examination and the second one is the shear stress

, which is operating in the plane of the section.

The principal theories are:

1.

Maximum principal stress theory

2.

Maximum shear stress (or) stress difference theory

3.

Strain energy theory

4.

Shear strain energy theory

5.

Maximum principal strain theory

6.

Mohrs Theory

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1. The stress components at a point are given by the following array.

10 5 6

5

8 10

6 10 6

Mpa

Calculate the principal stress and principal planes.

Solution:

The principal stresses are the roots of the cubic equation

3 I 1 2 I 2 I 3 0

(1)

where,

I1 x y z

I 2 x y y z z x x2 y y2z x2 z

2

2

2

I 3 x y z x yz

y xz

z xy

2 xy yz xz

The stress tensor

x . xy xz

ij yx y yz

zx zy z

By comparing stress tensor and the given away,

I 1 x y z

= 10 + 8 +6 =24

I 2 x y y z z x 2 xy 2 yz 2 xz

= (10 x 8) + (8 x 6) + (6 x 10) - (5)2 (10)2 (6)2

=80 + 48 + 60 - 25 100 -36

=27

I 3 x y z x 2 yz y 2 xz z 2 xy 2 xy yz xz

www.studentskey.in 100

=480 -1000-288-150+600

=-358

Substitute these values in (1) equation

3 24 2 27 358 0

(2)

We know that

From this

1

3

Cos3 Cos3 Cos 0

4

4

(3)

put,

rCos

rCos

I1

3

24

3

rCos 8

Equation (2) becomes

3

27 (r cos + 8) + 358 =0

3

r Cos3 + 512 - 24 r2 Cos2+ + 192 r Cos - 24 r2 Cos2 - 1536 384 r Cos + 27 r Cos + 216 + 358 =0

r3 Cos3 - 165 r Cos - 450 = 0

Divided by r3

Cos 3

165

165 3

4

r2

r = 14.8324

and

Cos

450

0

r

r3

Comparing equation (3) and (4) ,w e get,

2

(4)

www.studentskey.in 101

450 Cos3

4

r3

Cos3

450 4

14.8324 3

Cos 3 = 0.551618

1 = 18.84o

2 = 1 + 120

2 = 138.84o

3 = 2 +120

3 = 258.84o

1

=

=

r Cos 1 + 8

14.8324 Cos (18.84o) + 8

=

=

=

22.04 MPa

14.8324 Cos 138. 84o + 8

- 3.17 MPa

=

=

=

r cos 3 + 8

14.8324 Cos 258. 84o + 8

5.13 MPa

18.84 o

22.04 MPa

138.84 o

-3.17 MPa

258.84 o

5.13 MPa

Result:

2.

Obtain the principal stresses and the related direction cosines for the following state

of stress.(April / May 2003)

3. 4 6

4

5 MPa

2

6 5 1

Solution:

The principal stresses are the roots of the cubic equation.

www.studentskey.in 102

3 I1 2 I 2 I 3 0

(1)

I 1 x y z

=3+2+1 =6

I 2 x y y z x x 2 y 2 yz 2 xz

= (3 x 2 ) + (2 x 1) + (1 x 3) - (4)2 - (5)2 - (6)2

= 11 16 - 25 - 36

I2 = -66

I 3 x y z x 2 yz y 2 xz z 2 xy 2 xy yz xz

=(3 x 2 x 1) - 3(5)2 - 2(6)2 - 1 (4)3 + 2 (4 x 6 x 5)

= 6 - 75 - 72 - 16 + 240

I3 = 83

Substitute these values in equation (1)

3 6 2 66 83 0

(2)

We know that

1

3

Cos3 Cos3 Cos

4

4

1

3

Cos3 Cos3 Cos

4

4

Put

rCos

(3)

I1

3

rCos 2

Equation (2) becomes

3 6 2 66 83 0

24r cos 24 66r cos 132 83 0

r Cos 27 rCos 66rCos 179 0

3

www.studentskey.in 103

Divided by r3

Cos 3

39

179

Cos 3 0

2

r

r

39 1

r2 4

r2 = 156

r = 12.48

179 Cos3

3

4

and r

716

Cos3

1943.765

Cos 3 = 0.3683573

3 = 68.38565

1 = 22.79o

2 = 1 + 120

2 = 142.79

3 = 2 +120

3 = 262.79

1 r cos 1 2

= 12.48 Cos (22.790) + 2

1 13.506MPa

2 rCos 2 2

= 12.48 Cos (142.79) + 2

2 7.939MPa

(4)

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3 rCos 3 2

= 12.48 Cos (262.79) + 2

= 0.433680 MPa

Result:

3.

= 22. 79o

13.506 MPa

= 142. 79o

-7.939 MPa

= 262. 79o

0.433680 MPa

20 . 6 10

6

8 MPa

10

10 8 7

Determine the principal stresses and principal direction.

Solution:

The cubic equation

3 I 1 2 I 2 I 3 0

(1)

I 1 x y z

= 20 + 10 + 7 = 37

2

2

I 2 x y y z z x xy

yz

zx2

=200 + 70 + 140 + 26 + 64 + 100

I2=610

=(20 x 10 x 7) - 20 (64) - 10 (100) - 7 (36) + 2 (6) (8) (10)

=1400 - 1280 - 1000 252 + 960

=1308

Substitute these values in equation (1)

3 37 2 610 1308 0

(2)

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We know that

1

3

Cos 3 Cos3 Cos

4

4

Cos 3

1

3

Cos3 Cos

4

4

rCos

Put

(3)

I1

3

rCos 12.33

Equation (2) becomes

3 37 2 610 1308 0

rCos 12.33 3 37 rCos 12.33 2 610 rCos 12.33 1308 0

160 r Cos + 1972.80 - 1308 = 0

2

r 3Cos3 1874.516 36.99r 2Cos 2 456.087rCos 37r 2 Cos 2 9.12r 2Cos 2 5625.0693

160 r Cos + 1972.80 - 1308 = 0

r 3

Cos 3

295

4960.2693

Cos

0

r2

r3

1 295

4 r2

(4)

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r2 = 1180

r = 34.35

and

Cos3 4960.2693

4

r3

Cos3 4960.2693

4

40534.331

3 = 60.6930

1

2

=

=

20.231o

1 + 120

140 .23

26.231 o

1 rCos 1 12.33

= 34.35 Cos (140.23o) + 12.33

1 44.530 MPa

2 rCos 2 12.33

= 34.35 Cos (140.231o) + 12.33

2 14.217 MPa

3 rCos 3 12.33

= 34.35 Cos (260.231o) + 12.33

3 6.5016

Result:

1 = 20.231o

2 = 140.23o

3 = 260.231o

2 = - 14.217 MPa

1 = 44.530 MPa

3 = 6.5016 MPa

The strain energy can be split up on the following two strain energies.

i.

Strain energy of distortion (shear strain energy)

ii.

Strain energy of Dilatation (Strain energy of uniform compression (or)) tension

(or) volumetric strain energy )

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Then

e1

1

1 2 3

E

e2

1

2 3 1

E

1

3 1 2

E

Adding the above equation we get,

e3

e1 e 2 e 3

1

1 2 3 2 1 2 3

E

1 2 3

1 2

E

1 2

ev

1 2 3

E

0, e 0

2

3

v

If 1

. This means that if sum of the three principal stress is

zero there is no volumetric change, but only the distortion occurs.

1.

2.

When the sum of three principal stresses is zero, there is no volumetric change

but only the distortion occurs.

When the three principal stresses are equal to one another there is no distortion

but only volumetric change occurs.

Note:

In the above six theories,

et , ec

=

Tensile stress at the elastic limit in simple tension and

compression;

1, 2, 3

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It may be assumed that the loading is gradual (or) static (and there is no cyclic (or)

impact load.)

5.

This is the simplest and the oldest theory of failure

According to this theory failure will occur when the maximum principle tensile

stress (1) in the complex system reaches the value of the maximum stress at the

elastic limit (et) in the simple tension (or) the minimum principal stress (that is, the

maximum principal compressive stress), reaches the elastic limit stress () in

simple compression.

(ie.) 1 = et (in simple tension)

3 ac

If the maximum principal stress is the design criterion, the maximum principal stress

must not exceed the working for the material. Hence,

1

This theory disregards the effect of other principal stresses and of the shearing stresses

on other plane through the element. For brittle materials which do not fail by yielding

but fail by brittle fracture, the maximum principal stress theory is considered to be

reasonably satisfactory.

This theory appears to be approximately correct for ordinary cast irons and brittle

metals.

The maximum principal stress theory is contradicted in the following cases:

1.

2.

6.

On a mild steel specimen when simple tension test is carried out sliding occurs

approximately 45o to the axis of the specimen; this shows that the failure in the

case is due to maximum shear stress rather than the direct tensile stress.

It has been found that a material which is even though weak in simple

compression yet can sustain hydrostatic pressure for in excess of the elastic limit

in simple compression.

Explain the Maximum shear stress (or) Stress Difference theory (April /

May

www.studentskey.in 109

2003)

This theory is also called Guestis (or) Trescas theory.

This theory implies that failure will occur when the maximum shear stress

maximum in the complex system reaches the value of the maximum shear

stress in simple tension at the elastic limit i.e.

max

1 3 et

2

2

in simple tension.

3

et

(or) 1

In actual design et in the above equation is replaced by the safe stress.

This theory gives good correlation with results of experiments on ductile materials.

In the case of two dimensional tensile stress and then the maximum stress

difference calculated to equate it to et.

Limitations of this theory:

i.

ii.

iii.

7.

The theory does not give accurate results for the state of stress of pure shear in

which the maximum amount of shear is developed (ie) Torsion test.

The theory is not applicable in the case where the state of stress consists of

triaxial tensile stresses of nearly equal magnitude reducing, the shearing stress to

a small magnitude, so that failure would be by brittle facture rather than by

yielding.

The theory does not give as close results as found by experiments on ductile

materials. However, it gives safe results.

This theory is also called Distortion Energy Theory: (or) Von Mises Henky Theory

2

According to this theory the elastic failure occurs where the shear strain energy per

unit volume in the stressed material reaches a value equal to the shear strain

energy per unit volume at the elastic limit point in the simple tension test.

Shear strain energy due to the principal stresses 1, 2, and 3 per unit volume of the

stress material.

1

US

12C

1 2 2 2 3 2 3 1 2

But for the simple tension test at the elastic limit point where there is only one principal

www.studentskey.in 110

stress (ie) et we have the shear strain energy per unit volume which is given by

1

2

2

2

U s1

e t 0 0 0 0 a t

12C

1 et

2 0

3 0

1 2 2 2 3 2 3 1 2 2 et2

The above theory has been found to give best results for ductile material for which

approximately.

et ec

1. Te theory does to agree with the experimental results for the material for which et is

quite different from ec.

2. The theory gives et 0 for hydrostatic pressure (or) tension, which means that the

material will never fail under any hydrostatic pressure (or) tension. When three equal

tensions are applied in three principal directions, brittle facture occurs and as such

maximum principal stress will give reliable results in this case.

3. This theory is regarded as one to which conform most of the ductile material under

the action of various types of loading.

8.

This theory associated with St Venent

The theory states that the failure of a material occurs when the principal tensile

strain in the material reaches the strain at the elastic limit in simple tension (or)

when the minimum principal strain (ie) maximum principal compressive strain

reaches the elastic limit in simple compression.

Principal strain in the direction of principal stress 1,

1

1

1 2 3

E

m

e1

e3

1

E

3 m 1 2

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The conditions to cause failure according to eh maximum principal strain theory are:

e1

et

E (e1 must be +Ve)

and

e3

ec

E (e3 must be -Ve)

1

1

E

1

3

E

1

2 3 et

m

E

1

1 2 et

m

E

1

1 1 3 et

m

1

3 1 3 ec

m

To prevent failure:

1

1 2 3 et

m

1

3 1 2 e c

m

At the point of elastic failure:

1

1 2 3 et

m

3

and

For design purposes,

1

1 2 e c

m

1

1 2 t

m

1

3 1 2 c

m

(where, t and c are the safe stresses)

Limitations:

i.

ii.

Te theory does not fit well with the experimental results except for brittle materials for

biaxial tension.

www.studentskey.in 112

9.

The total stain energy of deformation is given by

1

12 22 32 2v 1 2 2 3 3 1

2E

and the strain energy under simple tension is

U

e2

U

2E

Hence for the material to yield,

12 22 32 2v 1 2 2 3 3 1

The total elastic energy stored in a material before it reaches the plastic state can have no

significance as a limiting condition, since under high hydrostatic pressure, large amount of strain

energy ma be stored without causing either fracture (or) permanent deformation.

10.

A material may fail either through plastic slip (or) by fracture when either the shearing

stress in the planes of slip has increased.

Let f

The enveloping curve f must represent in their abscissa and ordinates , the

normal and shearing stresses in the plane of slip. Now

2

3

1

2 1

2

2

1

P 1 3

2

Let

1

1 3

2

then

p 2 2 m 2

This equation represents the family of major principal stress circles in parameter form.

The equation of this envelope is obtained by partially differentiating with respect to P

P 2 2

p m.

d m

dp

m2

2 2 p P 2 2 m 2

www.studentskey.in 113

m . 1

d m 2

dp

11.

In a steel member, at a point the major principal stress is 180 MN/m 2 and the minor

principal stresses is compressive. If the tensile yield point of the steel is 225 MN/m 2,

find the value of the minor principal stress at which yielding will commence,

according to each of the following criteria of failure.

i.

Maximum shearing stress

ii.

Maximum total strain energy

iii.

Maximum shear strain energy

Take Poissons ratio = 0.26

Solution:

Major principal stress,

1 180 MN / m 2

2 225MN / m 2

1

0.26

m

To calculate minor principal stress (2)

2 1 e

= 180 - 225

2

2

= - 45 MN/m2

= 45 MN/m2 (comp)

12 22 32

3=0

2

1 2 2 3 3 1 e2

m

www.studentskey.in 114

32400 + 22 -93.6 2 = 50625

22 - 93.6 2 - 18225 = 0

9.36

93.6 2 4 18225

2

9.36 285.76

96.08MN / m2

2

(Only Ve sign is taken as 2 is compressive)

iii.

putting 3 = 0

1 2 2 2 2 1 2 2 e2

1 2 2 2

2 1 2 2 1

(2)2 - 180 2 - 18225 = 0

180

2

180 2 4 18225

2

180 324.5

72.25MN / m 2

2

12.

www.studentskey.in 115

Calculate

i.

ii.

iii.

iv.

Volumetric strain energy

Shear strain energy

Factor of safety on the total strain energy criteria if the material

yields at 120 MN/m2.

Solution:

Given Data:

Principal stresses:

1

2

=

=

+ 60 MN/m2

+ 48 MN/m2

3

=

- 36 MN/m2

Yield stress, e = 120 MN /m2

E = 200 GN/m2, 1/m = 0.3

i. Total strain energy per unit volume:

2

2

2

1 2 3 m 1 2 2 3 3 1

12

10

U

60 2 48 2 36 2 2 0.3 60 48 48 36 60

9

2 200 10

U

1

2E

U = 19.51 KNm/m3

ii. Volumetric strain energy per unit volume:

ev

1

60 48 36 2 1012 1 2 0.3 9 10 3

3

2 200 10

e v = 1.728 KN/m3

iii. shear strain energy per unit volume

www.studentskey.in 116

C

Where,

E

1

21

m

200

76.923GN / m 2

21 0.3

11012

2

2

2

es

60

48

48

36

36

60

12 76.923 10 9

es 17.78 KNm / m 3

iv. Factor of safety (F.O.S)

Strain energy per unit volume under uniaxial loading is

e2 120 10 6

10 3 36 KNm / m 3

9

2 E 2 200 10

2

36

1.845

F.O.S 19.51

13.

calculate:

i.

ii.

iii.

iv.

Volumetric strain energy

Shear strain energy and

Factor of safety on the total strain energy criterion if the material

yield at 100 N/mm2.

Take E = 200 x 103 N/mm2 and poission ratio = 0 .28

Solution:

Given,

Principal stresses:

1 50 N / mm 2

2 40 N / mm 2

3 30 N / mm 2

Yield stress,

e 100 N / mm 2

www.studentskey.in 117

1

2E

2

2

2

1 2 3 m 1 2 2 3 3 1

1

50 2 40 2 30 2 2 0.3 50 40 40 30 30 50

3

2 200 10

1

2500 1600 900 0.6 2000 1200 1500

400 10 3

1

5000 0.6 700

400 10 3

1

5420

400 10 3

U = 13.55 KNm/m3

ii)Volumetric strain energy per unit volume:

ev

ev

1

1 2 2 2 1 2 / m

3

2E

1

50 40 30 2 1 2 0.33

3

2 200 10

1

60 2 0.4 3

3

400 10

ev

3600 0.001

3

10 3

ev = 1.2 K N m / m3

iii. Shear strain energy

1

1 2 2 2 3 2 3 1 2

es

12C

where

E

200 10 3

76.923 10 3 N / mm 2

21 1 / m 21 0.3

www.studentskey.in 118

1

2

2

2

es

50

40

40

30

30

50

12 76.923 10 3

es

1

100 4900 6400

923.076 10 3

e s 12.35KNn / m 3

iv. Factor of safety (F.O.S)

Strain energy per unit volume under uniaxial loading is

e2

100 2 254 KNm / m 3

2E

2 200 10 3

25

F .O.S

1.845

13.55

14.

calculate:

v.

vi.

vii.

viii.

Volumetric strain energy

Shear strain energy and

Factor of safety on the total strain energy criterion if the material

yield at 100 N/mm2.

Take E = 200 x 103 N/mm2 and poission ratio = 0 .28

Solution:

Given,

Principal stresses:

1 50 N / mm 2

2 40 N / mm 2

3 30 N / mm 2

Yield stress,

e 100 N / mm 2

www.studentskey.in 119

1

2E

2

2

2

1 2 3 m 1 2 2 3 3 1

1

50 2 40 2 30 2 2 0.3 50 40 40 30 30 50

3

2 200 10

1

2500 1600 900 0.6 2000 1200 1500

400 10 3

1

5000 0.6 700

400 10 3

1

5420

400 10 3

U = 13.55 KNm/m3

ii)Volumetric strain energy per unit volume:

ev

ev

1

1 2 2 2 1 2 / m

3

2E

1

50 40 30 2 1 2 0.33

3

2 200 10

1

60 2 0.4 3

3

400 10

ev

3600 0.001

3

10 3

ev = 1.2 K N m / m3

iii. Shear strain energy

1

1 2 2 2 3 2 3 1 2

es

12C

where

E

200 10 3

76.923 10 3 N / mm 2

21 1 / m 21 0.3

www.studentskey.in 120

1

2

2

2

es

50

40

40

30

30

50

12 76.923 10 3

es

1

100 4900 6400

923.076 10 3

e s 12.35KNn / m 3

iv. Factor of safety (F.O.S)

Strain energy per unit volume under uniaxial loading is

e2

100 2 254 KNm / m 3

2E

2 200 10 3

25

F .O.S

1.845

13.55

(FOR IV SEMESTER)

UNIT V

TWO MARKS QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS

www.studentskey.in 121

The plane of loading (or) that of bending does not lie in (or) a plane that contains

the principle centroidal axis of the cross- section; the bending is called Unsymmetrical

bending.

2. State the two reasons for unsymmetrical bending.

(i) The section is symmetrical (viz. Rectangular, circular, I section) but the load

line is inclined to both the principal axes.

(ii) The section is unsymmetrical (viz. Angle section (or) channel section vertical

web) and the load line is along any centroidal axes.

3. Define shear centre.

The shear centre (for any transverse section of the beam) is the point of

intersection of the bending axis and the plane of the transverse section. Shear centre is

also known as centre of twist

4. Write the shear centre equation for channel section.

e

3b

A

6 w

Af

e = Distance of the shear centre (SC ) from the web along the symmetric axis XX

Aw = Area of the web

Af = Area of the flange

5. A channel Section has flanges 12 cm x 2 cm and web 16 cm x 1 cm. Determine the

shear centre of the channel.

Solution:

b= 12-0.5 = 11.5 cm

t1 = 2cm, t2 = 1cm, h= 18 cm

Af = bt1 = 11.5 x 2 = 23 cm2

Aw = ht2 = 18 x 1= 18 cm2

e

3b

A

6 w

Af

3(11 .5)

5.086 cm

18

6

23

e

t1 h 2 (b2 b1 ) 2

4 I xx

e = Distance of the shear centre (SC) from the web along the symmetric axis XX

t1 = thickness of the flange

h = height of the web

b1 = width of the flange in right portion.

www.studentskey.in 122

Ixx = M.O.I of the section about XX axis.

7. State the assumptions made in Winklers Bach Theory.

(1) Plane sections (transverse) remain plane during bending.

(2) The material obeys Hookes law (limit state of proportionality is not

exceeded)

(3) Radial strain is negligible.

(4) The fibres are free to expand (or) contract without any constraining effect

from the adjacent fibres.

8. State the parallel Axes and Principal Moment of inertia.

If the two axes about which the product of inertia is found, are such , that the

product of inertia becomes zero, the two axes are then called the principle axes. The

moment of inertia about a principal axes is called the principal moment of inertia.

9. Define stress concentration.

The term stress gradient is used to indicate the rate of increase of stress as a stress

raiser is approached. These localized stresses are called stress concentration.

10. Define stress concentration factor.

It is defined as the ratio of the maximum stress to the nominal stress.

Kt

max

nom

max

nom

= maximum stress

= nominal stress

The fatigue stress concentration factor (Kf ) is defined as the ratio of flange limit

of unnotched specimen to the fatigue limit of notched specimen under axial (or) bending

loads.

K f 1 q( K t 1)

12. Define shear flow.

Shear flow is defined as the ratio of horizontal shear force H over length of the

beam x. Shear flow is acting along the longitudinal surface located at discharge y1.Shear

flow is defined by q.

q

Q

H

V y z

x

Iz

13. Explain the position of shear centre in various sections.

(i) In case of a beam having two axes of symmetry, the shear centre coincides

with the centroid.

(ii) In case of sections having one axis of symmetry, the shear centre does not

coincide with the centroid but lies on the axis of symmetry.

www.studentskey.in 123

The principle involved in locating the shear centre for a cross section of a beam

is that the loads acting on the beam must lie in a plane which contains the resultant shear

force on each cross-section of the beam as computed from the shearing stresses.

15. Determine the position of shear centre of the section of the beam shown in fig.

Solution:

t1 = 4 cm, b1 = 6 cm, b2 = 8 cm

h1 = 30 4 = 26 cm

e

t1 h 2 (b2 b1 ) 2

4 I xx

Ixx =

e

14 x 4 3

2 x 22 3

2

14 x 4(13) 3

20852 cm 4

12

12

4 x 26 2 (8 6) 2

0.9077 cm

4(20852

v cos u sin

b M

I VV

I UU

M = moment due to the load applied

IUU = Principal moment of inertia in the principal axes UU

IVV = Principal moment of inertia in the principal axes VV

17. Define the term Fatigue.

Fatigue is defined as the failure of a material under varying loads, well below the

ultimate static load, after a finite number of cycles of loading and unloading.

18. State the types of fatigue stress.

(i) Direct stress

(ii) Plane bending

(iii) Rotating bending

(iv) Torsion

(v) Combined stresses

(a) Fluctuating or alternating stress

(b) Reversed stress.

19. State the reasons for stress- concentration.

When a large stress gradient occurs in a small, localized area of a structure, the

high stress is referred to as a stress concentration. The reasons for stress concentration are

(i) discontinuities in continuum (ii) contact forces.

www.studentskey.in 124

Creep can be defined as the slow and progressive deformation of a material with

time under a constant stress.

16 - MARKS QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS

1. Explain the stresses induced due to unsymmetrical bending.

Fig. shows the cross-section of a beam under the action of a bending moment M

acting in plane YY.

Also G = centroid of the section,

XX, YY = Co-ordinate axes passing through G,

UU, VV = Principal axes inclined at an angle to XX and YY axes respectively

The moment M in the plane YY can be resolved into its components in the planes

UU and VV as follows:

Moment in the plane UU, M = M sin

Moment in the plane VV, M = M cos

The components M and M have their axes along VV and UU respectively.

The resultant bending stress at the point (u,v) is given by,

b

I VV

I UU

I VV

I UU

VCos uSin

b M

I vv

I UU

At any point the nature of b will depend upon the quadrant in which it lies. The equation

of the neutral axis (N.A) can be found by finding the locus of the points on which the

resultant stress is zero. Thus the points lying on neutral axis satisfy the condition that b = 0

VCos uSin

M

0

I vv

I UU

VCos uSin

0

I UU

I vv

I

Sin

v UU

u

Cos

I vv

(or)

v UU tan u

I vv

This is an equation of a straight line passing through the centroid G of the section and

inclined at an angle with UU where

I

tan UU tan

I vv

www.studentskey.in 125

i.

The maximum stress will occur at a point which is at the greatest distance form

the neutral

All the points of the section on one side of neutral axis will carry stresses of the

same nature and on the other side of its axis, of opposite nature.

In the case where there is direct stress in addition to the bending stress, the neutral

axis will still be a straight line but will not pass through G (centroid of section.)

ii.

iii.

2. Derive the equation of Shear centre for channel section. April/May 2005

Fig shows a channel section (flanges: b x t 1 ; Web h x t2) with XX as the horizontal

symmetric axis.

Let S = Applied shear force. (Vertical downward X)

(Then S is the shear force in the web in the upward direction)

S1

=

Shear force in the top flange (there will be equal and opposite shear force

in the bottom flange as shown.)

Now, shear stress () in the flange at a distance of x from the right hand edge (of the top

flange)

SA y

I xa t

A y t1 .x

h

2 (where t = t1 , thickness of flange)

St1.x h S xh

.

I xx .t1 2 2 I xx

Shear force is elementary area

d A t1.dx .d A t1dz

b

.t1.dx

0

sht

S h

; t1 .dx 1

2 I xx

2 I xx

S1

xdx

0

S1

Sht1 b

.

I xx 4

(or)

Let e = Distance of the shear centre (sc) from taking moments of shear forces about the

centre O of the web,We get

S .e S1 .h

Sht1 b 2

S .t1 h 2 b 2

. .h

I xx 4

4 I xx

www.studentskey.in 126

b 2 h 2t1

4 I xx

(1)

2

3

b t 3

h t2h

1

Ixx 2

b.t1

2 12

12

Now,

bt13 b.t1h 2 t 2 h 3

6

2

12

bt h 2

t h3

1 2

2

12 (neglecting the term

bt13

3

I xx

h

t 2 h bbt1

12

terms)(or)

Substitute the value of Ixx in equation (1) we get,

e

b 2 h 2 t1

3b 2 t1

12

2

4

h t 2 h 6bt1 t 2 h 6ht1

Let

ht2 = A (area of the web)

Then

3bA f

3b

e

A

Aw 6 A f

6 w

Af

3.

Solution:

Fig. shows an unequal I section which is symmetrical about XX axis.

SA y

It

where I = IXX =

Shear force S1 :

t3

h3

2 b1 b 2 1 b1 b2 t1 x

12

12

dA t1 dx. A y t1 .x.

b1

S1 =

dA

h

2

S .x.t1 h

xt 1 dx

I XX t1 2

www.studentskey.in 127

b1

S .x. h

t1 dx

I XX 2

Sht1

2 I XX

x 2 1 Sht1b12

4 I XX

2 0

Similarly the shear force (S2) in the other part of the flange,

Sht1b22

4 I XX

S2 =

Taking moments of the shear forces about the centre of the web O, we get

S2. h = S1. h + S .e (S3 = S for equilibrium)

(where, e = distance of shear centre from the centre of the web)

or, (S2 S1) h = S.e

Sh 2 t1 (b22 b12 )

S .e

4 I XX

4. Derive the stresses in curved bars using Winkler Bach Theory.

The simple bending formula, however, is not applicable for deeply curved beams where

the neutral and centroidal axes do not coincide. To deal with such cases Winkler Bach Theory

is used.

Fig shows a bar ABCD initially; in its unstrained state. Let ABCD be the strained

position of the bar.

Let R = Radius of curvature of the centroidal axis HG.

Y

=

Distance of the fiber EF from the centroidal layer HG.

R

=

Radius of curvature of HG

M

=

Uniform bending moment applied to the beam (assumed

positive when tending to increase the curvature)

=

Original angle subtended by the centroidal axis HG at its

centre of curvature O and

=

Angle subtended by HG (after bending) a t the center of curvature

For finding the strain and stress normal to the section, consider the fibre EF at a distance

y from the centroidal axis.

Let be the stress in the strained layer EF under the bending moment M and e is strain in the

same layer.

e

Strain,

EF

( R y )

. 1

Ry

or

e0 = strain in the centroidal layer i.e. when y = 0

R' '

. 1

R

R' '

.

R

1 e

or

and 1+e =

Dividing equation (1) and (2) , we get

.

Ry

--------- (1)

--------- (2)

www.studentskey.in 128

R ' y ' R

1 e

.

1 e0

R y R'

e0 .

y' y'

y

e0

R ' R'

R

y

1

R

or

According to assumption (3) , radial strain is zero

e

e0 .

i.e. y = y

y y

y

e0

R' R'

R

y

1

R

Strain,

Adding and subtracting the term e0. y/R, we get

y y

y

y

y

e 0 e 0 e0 .

R' R '

R

R

R

e

y

1

R

1 1

(1 e 0 )( ) y

R

' R

e e 0

y

1

R

e0 .

------------- (3)

From the fig. the layers above the centroidal layer is in tension and the layers below the

centroidal layer is in compression.

E (e 0

1 1

)y

R' R )

y

1

R

(1 e0 )(

Stress , = Ee =

___________ (4)

Considering a small strip of elementary area dA, at a distance of y from the centroidal layer HG,

we have

.dA

1 1

)y

R

' R dA

F E e 0 .dA E

y

1

R

y

1 1

F E e0 . A E 1 e 0 ( )

dA

y

R, R

1

R

(1 e0 )(

F E e0 .dA E 1 e 0 (

1 1

)

R, R

____________ (5)

The total resisting moment is given given by

M . y.dA E

M E e 0 .0 E 1 e 0 (

e . ydA E

1 1 2

)y

R' R

dA

y

1

R

(1 e 0 )(

1 1

)

R, R

1 y dA

y2

dA

y

1

R

(since

ydA 0)

www.studentskey.in 129

2

1 1 y

dA

R' R

1 y

R

y2

dA Ah 2

y

1

R

M = E (1+e0)

Let

2

Where h = a constant for the cross section of the bar

M=E

1 1 2

Ah

(1+e0) R' R

Now,

----------- (6)

Ry

1 y .dA R y .dA y R y dA

R

1 y

dA 0

1

R

y2

.dA

y

1

R

ydA

1

Ah 2

R

y2

.dA

Ry

---------- (7)

2

1 1 Ah

R' R R

F = Ee0 .A E (1+e0 )

F=0

2

1 1 Ah

2

1 1 Ah

= E (1+e0 ) R' R R

E e0 .A

2

1 1 Ah

R' R R

e0 = (1+e0 )

e0 R

e0 R

M=E h

Or

e0

Ah 2

M

EAR

M

E*

AR

(1+e0

e0 R

(or) h

1 1

) R' R

(1+e0

1 1

R' R

= e0 EAR

substituting the value of e0 in equation (4)

y

y

1

R

e0 R

h

Ry

M

M

1

*

*

y h2

AR AR

1

R

2

M R y

AR h 2 R y

M

E*

AR

(or)

(Tensile)

y

y

1

R

R

h2

M

EAR

www.studentskey.in 130

M R 2 y

1

AR h 2 R y

(Compressive)

5. The curved member shown in fig. has a solid circular cross section 0.01 m in

diameter. If the maximum tensile and compressive stresses in the member are not to

exceed 150 MPa and 200 MPa. Determine the value of load P that can safely be

carried by the member.

Solution:

Given,

d = 0.10 m; R = 0.10 m; G = 150 MPa = 150 MN / m2 (tensile )

2 = 200 MPa = 200 MN / m2 (Compressive)

Load P:

Refer to the fig . Area of cross section,

d 2

0.10 2 7.854 10 3 m 2

4

4

Bending moment, m = P (0.15 + 0.10) =0.25 P

d2

1 0.10 4

h2

.

16 128 0.10 2

= 7.031 x 10-4 m2

A

p

comp

A

Direct stress,

Bending stress at point 1 due to M:

M R2

y

b1

1 2

AR

R y

h

(tensile)

1 d b1

150

150

P M R2

y

1 2

A

AR h

R y

(tensile)

P

7.854 10 3

0.10 2

0.05

1

3

4

0.10 0.05

7.854 10 0.10 7.031 10

0.25 P

= -127.32 P + 318.31 P x 5. 74

= 1699.78 P

P

150 10 3

88 .25 KN

1699 .78

(i)

www.studentskey.in 131

b2

M R2

y

1

2

AR h

R y

(comp)

2 d b 2

200

P M R2

y

A AR h 2 R y

0.102

P

0.25P

0.05

=127.32 P + 318. 31 P x 13.22

= 4335.38 P

200

P

MN

4335.38

200 10 3

P

46.13KN

4335.38

(ii)

By comparing (i) & (ii) the safe load P will be lesser of two values

Safe load = 46.13 KN.

6. Fig. shows a frame subjected to a load of 2.4 kN. Find (i) The resultant stresses at a

point 1 and 2;(ii) Position of neutral axis. (April/May 2003)

Solution:

Area of section 1-2,

A = 48 * 18*10-6 = 8.64 * 10-4m2

Bending moment,

M = -2.4*103*(120+48) * = -403.2 Nm

M is taken as ve because it tends to decrease the curvature.

(i) Direct stress:

Direct stress d =

h2

Here

P

2.4 *10 3

*10 6 2.77 MN / m 2

A 8.64 *10 4

R3

2R D

2

log e

R

D

2R D

R = 48 mm = 0.048 m, D = 48 mm = 0.048 m

h2

2(0.048 ) 0.048

0.048 3

(0.048 ) 2

log e

0.048

2

(

0

.

048

)

0

.

048

(ii) Bending stress due to M at point 2:

www.studentskey.in 132

b2

M R 2 y

1

AR h 2 R y

0.048

0.024

*10 6 MN / m 2

1

4 0.048 0.024

* 0.048 2.27 *10

403 .2

8.64 *10

;

2

(iii) Bending stress due to M at point 1:

b1

M R 2 y

1

AR h 2 R y

0.048 2

0.024

1

*10 6 MN / m 2

4

4 0.048 _ 0.024

8.64 *10 * 0.048 2.27 *10

403 .2

(iv) Resultant stress:

Resultant stress at point 2,

2 = d + b2 = 2.77 + 88.95 = 91.72 MN/m2 (tensile)

Resultant stress at point 1,

1 = d + b1 = 2.77 -42.61 = 39.84 MN/m2 (comp)

(v) Position of the neutral axis:

Rh 2

y 2

R h2

0.048 * 2.27 *10 4

y

= -0.00435 m = - 4.35 mm

Hence, neutral axis is at a radius of 4.35 mm

7. Fig. shows a ring carrying a load of 30 kN. Calculate the stresses at 1 and 2.

Solution:

Area of cross-section = 4

Here

h2

d

d2

1 d4

* 2 ......

= 16 128 R

www.studentskey.in 133

12 2

1

12 4

*

2

= 16 128 13 .5

h2

P 30 *10 3

*10 6 2.65 MN / m 2

= A 0.01131

Direct Stress d

Bending stress at point 1 due to M,

R 2 y

1 2

h R y

b1

M

AR

b1

4050

0.01131 * 0.135

0.135 2

0.06

*10 6

1

4 0.135 0.06

9.89 *10

2.65*6.6

b2

b1

M

AR

R2 y

1 2

h R

4050

0.01131 * 0.135

0.135 2

1

4

9.89 *10

0.06

6

0.135 0.06 *10

2.65*13.

74

= 36.41 MN/m (comp)

Hence 1 = d + b1 = -2.65 + 17.675

= 15.05 MN /m2 (tensile)

and

2 = d + b2 = -2.65 36.41

= 39.06 MN/m2 (comp)

8. A curved bar is formed of a tube of 120 mm outside diameter and 7.5 mm thickness. The

centre line of this is a circular arc of radius 225 mm. The bending moment of 3 kNm

tending to increase curvature of the bar is applied. Calculate the maximum tensile and

compressive stresses set up in the bar.

Solution:

Outside diameter of the tube, d2 = 120 mm = 0.12 m

Thickness of the tube

= 7.5 mm

Inside diameter of the tube, d1 = 120-2*7.5 = 105 mm = 0.105m

Area of cross-section,

A

4

Bending moment

M

Area of inner circle,

A1

= 3 kNm

0.105 2 0.00866 m 2

4

A2

0.12 2 0.01131 m 2

4

www.studentskey.in 134

d2

1 d4

* 2 ......

= 16 128 R

h2

For inner circle,

4

d1 2

1 d1

* 2 ......

= 16 128 R

h2

0.105 2

1 0.105 4

*

7.08 *10 4

2

16

128

0

.

225

=

h2

For outer circle,

4

d22

1 d2

0.12 2

1

0.12 4

* 2 ......

*

9.32 *10 4

2

2

2

16

128

16

128

R

0

.

225

h

=

; h=

2

2

2

Ah A2 h2 A1 h1

h2 = 0.00166 m2, and R2/h2 = 0.2252/0.00166 = 30.49

Maximum stress at A,

A

M R 2 y

1

AR h 2 R y

(where, y = 60 mm = 0.06 m)

3 *10

0.06

6

2

1 30 .49

*10 MN / m

0.00265 * 0.225

0.225 0.06

Maximum stress at B,

B

M

AR

R 2 y

1 2

h R y

3 *10 3

0.00265 * 0.225

0.06

6

2

1 30 .49

*10 MN / m

0

.

225

0

.

06

9. A curved beam has a T-section (shown in fig.). The inner radius is 300 mm. what is the

eccentricity of the section?

Solution:

Area of T-section,

= b1t1 + b2t2

To find c.g of T- section, taking moments about the edge LL, we get

A x A2 x 2

x 1 1

A1 A2

Now

(60 * 20)(

60

20) (80 * 20)(80 * 20 *10 )

2

(60 * 20 ) (80 * 20 )

=27.14 mm

R1 = 300 mm; R2 = 320 mm; R= 327.14 mm; R3 = 380 mm

www.studentskey.in 135

R3

A

R2

R

t1 . log e 3 R 2

b 2 . log e

R1

R2

320

(327 .14 ) 3

380

h2

) 20 * log e (

) (327 .14 ) 2

80 * log e (

2800

300

320

h2

Rh 2

327 .14 * 512 .08

2

1.56 mm ( )

2

2

R h (327 .14 ) 512 .08

y=

where y = e (eccentricity) = distance of the neutral axis from the centroidal axis.

Negative sign indicates that neutral axis is locates below the centroidal axis.

10. Fig. shows a C- frame subjected to a load of 120 kN. Determine the stresses at A and B.

Solution:

Load (P) = 120 kN

Area of cross section = b1t1 +b2t2+ b3t3

= 120*30 + 150*30 +180*30 = 0.0135 mm2

To find c.g of the section about the edge LL,

y1

A1 x1 A2 x 2

A1 A2

(120 * 30) (150 * 30) (180 * 30 )

=113 mm=0.113 m

R1 = 225 mm = 0.225 m

R2 = 225 + 30 = 255 mm = 0.255 m

R = 225 + 113 = 338 mm = 0.338 m

R3 = 225 +210 = 435 mm = 0.435 m

R4= 225 + 240 = 465 mm = 0.465 m

h2

R3

A

h2

(0.338 ) 3

0.0135

R2

R

t 3 log e 3

b2 log e

R

1

R2

b1 log e 4

R3

R 2

0.465

0.255

0.435

0.15 log e

0.03 log e

0.12 log e

0.225

0.255

0.435

0.338 2

P 120 *10 3

A

0.0135

Direct stress, d =

Bending moment, M = P*R

Bending stress at A due to the bending moment,

( b ) A

M

AR

R2

1 2

h

y2

R y2

www.studentskey.in 136

( b ) A

P*R

0.338 2

1

AR 0.008122

0.127

0.338 0.127

Bending stress at B due to the bending moment:

R2

1 2

h

( b ) A

M

AR

( b ) A

P*R

AR

Stress at A,

Stress at B,

y1

R y1

0.338 2

1

0.008122

0.113

0.338 0.113

= 8.89 ( 1- 7.064)

= -53.9 MN /m2 = 53.9 MN/m2 (comp)

= d + (b)A

= -8.89 + 43.04 = 34.15 MN/m2 (tensile)

= d + (b)B

= -8.89 53.9 = 62.79 MN/m2 (comp)

11. Derive the formula for the deflection of beams due to unsymmetrical bending.

Solution:

Fig. shows the transverse section of the beam with centroid G. XX and YY are

two rectangular co-ordinate axes and UU and VV are the principal axes inclined at an angle to

the XY set of co-ordinates axes. W is the load acting along the line YY on the section of the

beam. The load W can be resolved into the following two components:

(i)

W sin along UG

(ii)

W cos along VG

Let, u = Deflection caused by the component W sin along the line GU for its bending about

VV axis, and

v = Deflection caused by the component W cos along the line GV due to bending abodt

UU axis.

Then depending upon the end conditions of the beam, the values of u and v are given by

u

K W sin l 3

EI VV

K W cos l 3

EI UU

where,

K = A constant depending on the end conditions of the

beam and position of the load along the beam, and

l = length of the beam

The total or resultant deflection can then be found as follows:

u 2 v 2

Kl 3

E

W sin

I

VV

W cos

UU

www.studentskey.in 137

Kl 3

E

sin 2

I 2 VV

cos 2

I 2 UU

tan

I UU

u

v I VV tan

beam over a span of 2.4 m. It carries a load of 400 kN along the line YG, where G is the

centroid of the section. Calculate (i) Stresses at the points A, B and C of the mid section of

the beam (ii) Deflection of the beam at the mid-section and its direction with the load line

(iii) Position of the neutral axis. Take E = 200 GN/m2

Solution:

Let (X,Y) be the co-ordinate of centroid G, with respect to the rectangular axes

BX1 and BY1.

80 *10 * 40 70 *10 * 5 32000 3500

23 .66 mm

80 *10 70 *10

800 700

Now X = Y =

Moment of inertia about XX axis:

80 *10 3

10 * 70 3

I XX

80 *10 * (23 .66 5) 2

70 *10 * (45 23 .66 ) 2

12

12

= 8.898 * 105 mm4 = IYY (since it is an equal angle section)

Co-ordinates of G1 = + (40-23.66), - (23.66-5) = (16.34,- 18.66)

Co-ordinates of G2 = -(23.66-5). + (45 23.66) = (-18.66, + 21.34)

(Product of inertia about the centroid axes is zero because portions 1 and 2 are rectangular

strips)

If is the inclination of principal axes with GX, passing through G then,

tan 2

2 I XY

tan 90

I XY I XX

2 = 90

i.e. 1 = 45 and 2 = 90 + 45 = 135 are the inclinations of the principal axes GU and GV

respectively.

Principal moment of inertia:

IUU =

I I XX 2

1

( I XX I YY ) ( YY

) ( I XY ) 2

2

2

1

8.895 *10 5 8.898 *10 5 2

(8.895 *10 5 8.898 *10 5 ) (

) ( 5.226 *10 5 ) 2

2

=2

(i)

IUU + IVV = IXX + IYY

IVV = IXX IYY IUU

= 2*8.898 x 105 14.1246 x 105 = 3.67 x 105 mm4

Stresses at the points A, B and C:

www.studentskey.in 138

M

4

4

M = M sin = 2.4 x 105 sin 45 = 1.697 x 105 Nmm

M = M cos = 2.4 x 105 cos 45 = 1.697 x 105 Nmm

u,v co-ordinates:

Point A: x = -23.66, y = 80-23.66 = 56.34 mm

u = x cos + y sin

= -23.66 x cos 45 + 56.34 x sin 45 = 23.1 mm

v = y cos + x sin

= 56.34 cos 45 - (-23.66 x sin 45) = 56.56 mm

Point B:

x = -23.66, y = -23.66

u = x cos + y sin

= -23.66 x cos 45 + (-23.66 x sin 45 ) = - 33.45 mm

v = y cos + x sin

= -23.66 cos 45 - (-23.66 x sin 45) = 0

Point C ; x = 80 23.66 = 56.34, y = -23.66

u = x cos + y sin

= 56.34 cos 45 -23.66 x sin 45 = 23.1 mm

v = y cos + x sin

= -23.66 cos 45 - 56.34 sin 45) =- 56.56 mm

A

M 'u M"v

I VV

I UU

A

17 .47 N / mm 2

3.67 x10 5

14 .1246 x10 5

1.697 *10 5 ( 33 .45 )

0

B

15 .47 N / mm 2

5

3.67 x10

14 .1246 x10 5

1.697 *10 5 (23 .1)

56 .56

B

3.788 N / mm 2

5

5

3.67 x10

14 .1246 x10

(ii)

The deflection is given by:

KWl 3

E

sin 2

I 2 VV

cos 2

I 2 UU

where K = 1/48 for a beam with simply supported ends and carrying a point load

at the centre.

Load ,

W = 400 N

www.studentskey.in 139

Length

l = 2.4 m

E = 200 x 103 N/mm2

IUU = 14.1246 x 105 mm4

IVV = 3.67 x 105 mm4

Substituting the values, we get

48

E

sin 2 45

(3.67 x10 5 ) 2

cos 2 45

(14 .1246 x10 5 ) 2

= 1.1466 mm

The deflection will be inclined at an angle clockwise with the kine GV, given by

tan

I UU

14 .1246 x10 5

tan

tan 45 3.848

I VV

3.67 x10 5

(iii) Position of the neutral axis:

The neutral axis will be at 90 - 30.43 = 59.57 anti-clockwise with the load line,

because the neutral axis is perpendicular to the line of deflection.

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