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Briefly describe what happens in each of the five project management process groups
(initiating, planning, executing, monitoring and controlling, and closing). What types of activities
occur before initiating a project?
Initiating. Every project manager needs to get started. In the initial phase of project
management, obtaining the necessary permissions and approvals to begin is the main goal. Often,
a document stating the need for the project is created in order to explain to the sponsor how the
needs will be met, and approximately how much it will cost. Everything at the initiating stage
should be stated in broad terms.
Planning. Developing objects and defining goals mark this phase of the project. Portions of the
project should be broken down and deadlines scheduled. Additionally, this is the phase in which
the project manager puts together a staff and begins to assign tasks and roles. Estimated costs
provide the foundation for a project budget.
Executing. With everything in place and goals clearly defined and being worked on by members
of the project team, it is time to begin creating the end product of the work. Contracts are
administered as needed, and team members should make periodic reports on their status.
Everything that goes into making the plan a reality takes place during execution.
Monitoring and controlling. When the execution stage is well under way the project manager
should begin making sure everything is going according to plan. As products and stages of the
executed planning are completed, they are submitted to the sponsor for approval. If adjustments
need to be made, they are handled during this stage.
Closing. This project management group marks the end of the project. The project manager
arranges for final delivery of the product, and the sponsor accepts. Everything should be
carefully documented in writing, and records of contracts, transactions, and other agreements
should be updated. Debriefing on the project, as well as plans for any necessary follow up,
should be made at this time.
2. Approximately how much time do good project managers spend on each process group, and
Andy Crowes that research found that alpha project manager spend about 2% of their time
initiating, 21% planning, 69% executing, 5% monitoring and controlling, and 3% close projects.
The most time should be spent on executing, followed by planning.
3. Why do organizations need to tailor project management concepts, such as those found in the
PMBOK Guide, to create their own methodologies?
Organizations have different ways of doing things, so they often develop their own
4. What are some of the key outputs of each process group?
Some of the key outputs might include a charter, a project management plan, deliverable,
performance reports, and close procurement.
5. What are some of the typical challenges project teams face during each of the five process
groups? You can frame your discussion based on a project described in one of the feature boxes

in this chapter (for example, the What Went Right? or What Went Wrong? feature). You can also
frame your discussion on one of PMIs Project of the Year Award winners, or on a well-known
project failure like the Denver International Airport baggage handling system.
Project selection is an important decision, as any project to be executed must fit the
organizations vision, mission, goals, strategies and objectives, and at the same time, it must
cover current or future needs the company might have.
6. What are the main differences between the two versions of the JWD Consulting case study?
When should you use a more prescriptive or agile approach? Do you think users of the JWD
Consulting Intranet site would prefer one release of the software or several incremental ones?
What are some pros and cons of each approach?
The main difference is that three iterations of software are delivered instead of one. An agile
approach normally works best when requirements are unclear or change frequently. Answers will
vary on user preferences. There could be training issues with multiple releases, but there could be
business value in getting some releases earlier.