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Mathematical Formaulae handbook

Mathematical Formaulae handbook

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- Research Statement
- Matrix Method
- 1.Mathematical Physics_GATE.pdf
- MATLAB workshop lecture 1.ppt
- General Solution of Equations of Motion of Axisymmetric Problem of Micro-Isotropic, Micro-Elastic Solid
- Son Dip on Thesis
- Mechanical Vibrations Ecole Centrale Nantes
- Small Oscillations
- DYNAMICAL ANALYSIS OF SILO SURFACE CLEANING ROBOT USING FINITE ELEMENT METHOD
- Comparison of MOR_MSD
- Hex Tet Comparison
- s 0036144598336745
- Gradient, Divergence, And Curl
- Similar Matrices
- Solving SLE Using Cramer
- Correlation Subspaces
- SPIE2
- ma_2015(1)
- HW LinearControl
- Robot Hand-Eye Calibration Using Structure-from-Motion

You are on page 1of 28

Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1

Bibliography; Physical Constants

1. Series . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2

Arithmetic and Geometric progressions; Convergence of series: the ratio test;

Convergence of series: the comparison test; Binomial expansion; Taylor and Maclaurin Series;

Power series with real variables; Integer series; Plane wave expansion

2. Vector Algebra . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3

Scalar product; Equation of a line; Equation of a plane; Vector product; Scalar triple product;

Vector triple product; Non-orthogonal basis; Summation convention

3. Matrix Algebra . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5

Unit matrices; Products; Transpose matrices; Inverse matrices; Determinants; 22 matrices;

Product rules; Orthogonal matrices; Solving sets of linear simultaneous equations; Hermitian matrices;

Eigenvalues and eigenvectors; Commutators; Hermitian algebra; Pauli spin matrices

4. Vector Calculus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7

Notation; Identities; Grad, Div, Curl and the Laplacian; Transformation of integrals

5. Complex Variables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9

Complex numbers; De Moivres theorem; Power series for complex variables.

6. Trigonometric Formulae . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10

Relations between sides and angles of any plane triangle;

Relations between sides and angles of any spherical triangle

7. Hyperbolic Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11

Relations of the functions; Inverse functions

8. Limits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12

9. Differentiation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13

10. Integration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13

Standard forms; Standard substitutions; Integration by parts; Differentiation of an integral;

Dirac -function; Reduction formulae

Diffusion (conduction) equation; Wave equation; Legendres equation; Bessels equation;

Laplaces equation; Spherical harmonics

13. Functions of Several Variables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18

Taylor series for two variables; Stationary points; Changing variables: the chain rule;

Changing variables in surface and volume integrals Jacobians

Fourier series; Fourier series for other ranges; Fourier series for odd and even functions;

Complex form of Fourier series; Discrete Fourier series; Fourier transforms; Convolution theorem;

Parsevals theorem; Fourier transforms in two dimensions; Fourier transforms in three dimensions

16. Numerical Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24

Finding the zeros of equations; Numerical integration of differential equations;

Central difference notation; Approximating to derivatives; Interpolation: Everetts formula;

Numerical evaluation of definite integrals

Range method; Combination of errors

18. Statistics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26

Mean and Variance; Probability distributions; Weighted sums of random variables;

Statistics of a data sample x 1 , . . . , xn ; Regression (least squares fitting)

Introduction

This Mathematical Formaulae handbook has been prepared in response to a request from the Physics Consultative

Committee, with the hope that it will be useful to those studying physics. It is to some extent modelled on a similar

document issued by the Department of Engineering, but obviously reflects the particular interests of physicists.

There was discussion as to whether it should also include physical formulae such as Maxwells equations, etc., but

a decision was taken against this, partly on the grounds that the book would become unduly bulky, but mainly

because, in its present form, clean copies can be made available to candidates in exams.

There has been wide consultation among the staff about the contents of this document, but inevitably some users

will seek in vain for a formula they feel strongly should be included. Please send suggestions for amendments to

the Secretary of the Teaching Committee, and they will be considered for incorporation in the next edition. The

Secretary will also be grateful to be informed of any (equally inevitable) errors which are found.

This book was compiled by Dr John Shakeshaft and typeset originally by Fergus Gallagher, and currently by

Dr Dave Green, using the TEX typesetting package.

Version 1.5 December 2005.

Bibliography

Abramowitz, M. & Stegun, I.A., Handbook of Mathematical Functions, Dover, 1965.

Gradshteyn, I.S. & Ryzhik, I.M., Table of Integrals, Series and Products, Academic Press, 1980.

Jahnke, E. & Emde, F., Tables of Functions, Dover, 1986.

J., Physics Handbook, Chartwell-Bratt, Bromley, 1980.

Speigel, M.R., Mathematical Handbook of Formulas and Tables.

(Schaums Outline Series, McGraw-Hill, 1968).

Physical Constants

Based on the Review of Particle Properties, Barnett et al., 1996, Physics Review D, 54, p1, and The Fundamental

Physical Constants, Cohen & Taylor, 1997, Physics Today, BG7. (The figures in parentheses give the 1-standarddeviation uncertainties in the last digits.)

permeability of a vacuum

permittivity of a vacuum

0

elementary charge

Planck constant

h/2

Avogadro constant

NA

mu

mass of electron

me

mass of proton

mp

Boltzmann constant

kB

StefanBoltzmann constant

gravitational constant

Other data

acceleration of free fall

2997 924 58 10 8 m s1

4 107 H m1

(by definition)

(by definition)

6626 075 5(40) 10 34 J s

1380 658(12) 10 23 J K1

5670 51(19) 10 8 W m2 K4

6672 59(85) 10 11 N m2 kg2

9806 65 m s 2

1

1. Series

Arithmetic and Geometric progressions

A.P.

G.P.

Sn = a + ( a + d) + ( a + 2d) + + [ a + (n 1)d] =

2

Sn = a + ar + ar + + ar

n1

1 rn

,

=a

1r

n

[2a + (n 1)d]

2

a

S =

1r

Sn = u1 + u2 + u3 + + un

converges as

if

un+1

<1

lim

n

un

If each term in a series of positive terms is less than the corresponding term in a series known to be convergent,

then the given series is also convergent.

Binomial expansion

(1 + x)n = 1 + nx +

x +

x +

2!

3!

n

If n is a positive integer the series terminates and is valid for all x: the term in x r is n Cr xr or

where n Cr

r

n!

is the number of different ways in which an unordered sample of r objects can be selected from a set of

r!(n r)!

n objects without replacement. When n is not a positive integer, the series does not terminate: the infinite series is

convergent for | x| < 1.

If y( x) is well-behaved in the vicinity of x = a then it has a Taylor series,

dy

u2 d2 y

u3 d3 y

y( x) = y( a + u) = y( a) + u

+

+

+

dx

2! dx2

3! dx3

where u = x a and the differential coefficients are evaluated at x = a. A Maclaurin series is a Taylor series with

a = 0,

x2 d2 y

x3 d3 y

dy

+

+

+

y( x) = y(0) + x

2

dx

2! dx

3! dx3

ex

ln(1 + x) =

x2

xn

+ +

+

2!

n!

3

2

x

xn

x

+

+ + (1)n+1 +

x

2

3

n

eix + eix

x2

x4

x6

= 1

+

+

2

2!

4!

6!

x3

x5

eix eix

= x

+

+

2i

3!

5!

1

2 5

x + x3 +

x +

3

15

x3

x5

x

+

3

5

1.3 x5

1 x3

+

+

x+

2 3

2.4 5

=1+x+

cos x

sin x

tan x

tan1 x

sin1 x

valid for 1 < x 1

valid for all values of x

valid for all values of x

valid for

<x<

2

2

valid for 1 x 1

valid for 1 < x < 1

Integer series

N

n

1

= 1+ 2+ 3+ + N =

N ( N + 1)

2

n2 = 12 + 22 + 32 + + N 2 =

1

N ( N + 1)(2N + 1)

6

n3 = 13 + 23 + 33 + + N 3 = [1 + 2 + 3 + N ] 2 =

1

N 2 ( N + 1)2

4

1

1

1

(1)n+1

= 1 + + = ln 2

n

2

3

4

1

1

1

(1)n+1

= 1 + + =

2n 1

3

5

7

4

1

n2

=1+

1

1

1

2

+ +

+ =

4

9

16

6

1

N ( N + 1)( N + 2)( N + 3)

4

N

n(n + 1)(n + 2) . . . (n + r) =

1

N ( N + 1)( N + 2) . . . ( N + r)( N + r + 1)

.

r+2

l =0

where Pl (cos ) are Legendre polynomials (see section 11) and j l (kr) are spherical Bessel functions, defined by

r

jl () =

J 1 (), with Jl ( x) the Bessel function of order l (see section 11).

2 l + /2

2. Vector Algebra

2

If i, j, k are orthonormal vectors and A = A x i + A y j + A z k then | A| = A2x + A2y + A2z . [Orthonormal vectors

orthogonal unit vectors.]

Scalar product

A B = | A| | B| cos

Bx

= A x Bx + A y B y + A z Bz = [ A x A y A z ] B y

Bz

Equation of a line

A point r ( x, y, z) lies on a line passing through a point a and parallel to vector b if

r = a + b

Equation of a plane

A point r ( x, y, z) is on a plane if either

(a) r b

d = |d|, where d is the normal from the origin to the plane, or

y

z

x

(b) + + = 1 where X, Y, Z are the intercepts on the axes.

X

Y

Z

Vector product

A B = n | A| | B| sin , where is the angle between the vectors and n is a unit vector normal to the plane containing

A and B in the direction for which A, B, n form a right-handed set of axes.

A B in determinant form

i

j

k

Ax A y Az

Bx B y Bz

A B in matrix form

0

Az A y

Bx

Az

0

Ax By

A y Ax

0

Bz

Ax

A B C = A B C = Bx

Cx

Ay

By

Cy

A z

Bz = A C B,

Cz

A ( B C ) = ( A C ) B ( A B)C,

etc.

( A B) C = ( A C ) B ( B C ) A

Non-orthogonal basis

A = A1 e1 + A2 e2 + A3 e3

A1 = 0 A

where 0 =

e2 e3

e1 (e2 e3 )

Summation convention

a

= ai ei

ab

= ai bi

( a b)i = i jk a j bk

i jkklm = il jm im jl

where 123 = 1;

i jk = ik j

3. Matrix Algebra

Unit matrices

The unit matrix I of order n is a square matrix with all diagonal elements equal to one and all off-diagonal elements

zero, i.e., ( I ) i j = i j . If A is a square matrix of order n, then AI = I A = A. Also I = I 1 .

I is sometimes written as In if the order needs to be stated explicitly.

Products

If A is a (n l ) matrix and B is a (l m) then the product AB is defined by

l

Aik Bk j

( AB)i j =

k=1

In general AB 6= BA.

Transpose matrices

If A is a matrix, then transpose matrix A T is such that ( A T )i j = ( A) ji .

Inverse matrices

If A is a square matrix with non-zero determinant, then its inverse A 1 is such that AA1 = A1 A = I.

( A1 )i j =

transpose of cofactor of A i j

| A|

where the cofactor of A i j is (1)i+ j times the determinant of the matrix A with the j-th row and i-th column deleted.

Determinants

If A is a square matrix then the determinant of A, | A| ( det A) is defined by

| A| =

i, j,k,...

where the number of the suffixes is equal to the order of the matrix.

22 matrices

If A =

a

c

b

d

then,

| A| = ad bc

AT =

a

b

c

d

A1 =

1

| A|

d

c

b

a

Product rules

( AB . . . N ) T = N T . . . B T A T

( AB . . . N )1 = N 1 . . . B1 A1

| AB . . . N | = | A| | B| . . . | N |

(if individual matrices are square)

Orthogonal matrices

An orthogonal matrix Q is a square matrix whose columns q i form a set of orthonormal vectors. For any orthogonal

matrix Q,

Q1 = Q T ,

| Q| = 1,

Q T is also orthogonal.

If A is square then Ax = b has a unique solution x = A 1 b if A1 exists, i.e., if | A| 6= 0.

An over-constrained set of equations Ax = b is one in which A has m rows and n columns, where m (the number

of equations) is greater than n (the number of variables). The best solution x (in the sense that it minimizes the

error | Ax b|) is the solution of the n equations A T Ax = A T b. If the columns of A are orthonormal vectors then

x = A T b.

Hermitian matrices

The Hermitian conjugate of A is A = ( A ) T , where A is a matrix each of whose components is the complex

conjugate of the corresponding components of A. If A = A then A is called a Hermitian matrix.

The n eigenvalues i and eigenvectors u i of an n n matrix A are the solutions of the equation Au = u. The

eigenvalues are the zeros of the polynomial of degree n, Pn ( ) = | A I |. If A is Hermitian then the eigenvalues

i are real and the eigenvectors u i are mutually orthogonal. | A I | = 0 is called the characteristic equation of the

matrix A.

Tr A = i ,

i

also | A| =

i .

i

If S is a symmetric matrix, is the diagonal matrix whose diagonal elements are the eigenvalues of S, and U is the

matrix whose columns are the normalized eigenvectors of A, then

U T SU =

and

S = UU T.

corresponding eigenvalue.

Commutators

[ A, B]

[ A, B]

[ A, B]

AB BA

= [ B, A]

= [ B , A ]

[ A + B, C ] = [ A, C ] + [ B, C ]

[ AB, C ]

= A[ B, C ] + [ A, C ] B

Hermitian algebra

b = (b1 , b2 , . . .)

Matrix form

Hermiticity

b A c = ( A b) c

Eigenvalues, real

Au i = (i) ui

Orthogonality

Completeness

Operator form

Z

O =

Bra-ket form

(O)

ui u j = 0

b = ui (ui b)

= i

i j = 0

Z

h|O|i

O |i i = i | i i

Oi = (i)i

Z

hi | j i = 0

= |i i hi |i

i

RayleighRitz

Lowest eigenvalue

b A b

0

b b

0 Z

h|O|i

h|i

(i 6 = j )

x =

0

1

1

,

0

x y = i z ,

y =

0

i

y z = i x ,

i

,

0

z =

z x = i y ,

1

0

0

1

x x = y y = z z = I

4. Vector Calculus

Notation

is a scalar function of a set of position coordinates. In Cartesian coordinates

= ( x, y, z); in cylindrical polar coordinates = (, , z); in spherical

polar coordinates = (r, , ); in cases with radial symmetry = (r).

A is a vector function whose components are scalar functions of the position

coordinates: in Cartesian coordinates A = iA x + jA y + kA z , where A x , A y , A z

are independent functions of x, y, z.

+ j +k

In Cartesian coordinates (del) i

y

x

y

z

grad = ,

div A = A,

curl A = A

Identities

grad(1 + 2 ) grad 1 + grad 2

div(curl A) 0,

curl(grad ) 0

grad( A1 A2 ) A1 (curl A2 ) + ( A1 grad) A2 + A2 (curl A1 ) + ( A2 grad) A1

Cartesian Coordinates

Conversion to

Cartesian

Coordinates

Cylindrical Coordinates

x = cos

Vector A

Axi + A y j + Az k

Gradient

i+

j+

k

x

y

z

Divergence

y = sin

b+

b+

b

i

j k

x y z

Ax A y Az

1

1

b

b

b

z

A A A z

2

2

2

+ 2 + 2

2

x

y

z

b + A

b

Arbr + A

b + A

b + Azb

A

z

1 A

A z

1 ( A )

+

+

z

Laplacian

z = r cos

z=z

A y

A z

A x

+

+

x

y

z

Curl A

Spherical Coordinates

1

1 b

b

br +

+

r

r

r sin

1 A sin

1 (r 2 Ar )

+

2

r

r sin

r

1 A

+

r sin

1

1 b

1

b

2

br

r sin r sin

r

Ar

rA

rA sin

1

1

2

r

+ 2

sin

r

r2 r

r sin

1 2

2

+ 2 2+ 2

Transformation of integrals

L = the distance along some curve C in space and is measured from some fixed point.

S = a surface area

bt = the unit tangent to C at the point P

b

n = the unit outward pointing normal

A = some vector function

n dS)

Z

Then

A bt dL =

and when A =

Z

() dL =

A dL

When S defines a closed region having a volume

also

( A) d =

() d =

(A b

n) dS =

dS

A dS

Z

( A) d =

(b

n A) dS

2

1

2

r sin 2

2

Stokess Theorem

When C is closed and bounds the open surface S,

Z

also

Z

( A) dS =

(b

n ) dS =

A dL

dL

Greens Theorem

Z

dS =

() d

Z

Z

2 + () () d

(2 2 ) d =

[() ()] dS

5. Complex Variables

Complex numbers

The complex number z = x + iy = r(cos + i sin ) = r ei( +2n), where i2 = 1 and n is an arbitrary integer. The

real quantity r is the modulus of z and the angle is the argument of z. The complex conjugate of z is z = x iy =

2

r(cos i sin ) = r ei ; zz = | z| = x2 + y2

De Moivres theorem

(cos + i sin )n = ein = cos n + i sin n

ez

z3

3!

z2

cos z

=1

2!

z2

ln(1 + z) = z

2

sin z

z2

zn

+ +

+

2!

n!

z5

+

5!

z4

+

4!

z3

+

=1+z+

=z

convergent for all finite z

convergent for all finite z

principal value of ln (1 + z)

This last series converges both on and within the circle | z| = 1 except at the point z = 1.

z3

z5

+

3

5

This last series converges both on and within the circle | z| = 1 except at the points z = i.

tan1 z

=z

z +

z +

2!

3!

This last series converges both on and within the circle | z| = 1 except at the point z = 1.

(1 + z)n = 1 + nz +

6. Trigonometric Formulae

cos2 A + sin 2 A = 1

sec2 A tan2 A = 1

cosec2 A cot2 A = 1

2 tan A

tan 2A =

.

1 tan2 A

cos A cos B =

cos( A + B) + cos( A B)

2

sin A sin B =

cos( A B) cos( A + B)

2

sin A cos B =

sin( A + B) + sin ( A B)

2

tan( A B) =

tan A tan B

1 tan A tan B

A+B

AB

cos

2

2

cos2 A =

1 + cos 2A

2

A+B

AB

sin

2

2

sin 2 A =

1 cos 2A

2

A+B

AB

cos

2

2

cos3 A =

3 cos A + cos 3A

4

sin 3 A =

3 sin A sin 3A

4

AB

A+B

sin

2

2

In a plane triangle with angles A, B, and C and sides opposite a, b, and c respectively,

a

b

c

=

=

= diameter of circumscribed circle.

sin A

sin B

sin C

a2 = b2 + c2 2bc cos A

a = b cos C + c cos B

b2 + c2 a2

2bc

ab

C

AB

=

cot

tan

2

a+b

2

q

1

1

1

area = ab sin C = bc sin A = ca sin B = s(s a)(s b)(s c),

2

2

2

cos A =

where s =

In a spherical triangle with angles A, B, and C and sides opposite a, b, and c respectively,

sin b

sin c

sin a

=

=

sin A

sin B

sin C

cos a = cos b cos c + sin b sin c cos A

cos A = cos B cos C + sin B sin C cos a

10

1

( a + b + c)

2

7. Hyperbolic Functions

x2

x4

1 x

( e + e x ) = 1 +

+

+

2

2!

4!

1

x3

x5

sinh x = ( ex e x ) = x +

+

+

2

3!

5!

cosh x =

cosh ix = cos x

cos ix = cosh x

sinh ix = i sin x

sinh x

tanh x =

cosh x

cosh x

coth x =

sinh x

sin ix = i sinh x

1

sech x =

cosh x

1

cosech x =

sinh x

cosh 2 x sinh 2 x = 1

cosh x sinh x

ex

2

tanh x 1

cosh x sinh x

e x

2

tanh x 1

sinh x

= sinh ( x)

sech x

cosh x

= cosh ( x)

cosech x = cosech( x)

tanh x

= tanh( x)

coth x

sinh x =

tanh x

2 tanh ( x/2)

2

1 tanh ( x/2)

=q

tanh x

1 tanh2 x

1 sech x

cosh x =

sech x

= sech( x)

= coth ( x)

1 + tanh2 ( x/2)

2

1 tanh ( x/2)

cosech 2 x + 1

r

cosh x 1

sinh ( x/2) =

2

cosh x 1

sinh x

tanh( x/2) =

=

sinh x

cosh x + 1

cosech x =

tanh(2x) =

coth x

1 tanh2 x

= q

1

1 tanh2 x

coth 2 x 1

r

cosh x + 1

cosh ( x/2) =

2

2 tanh x

1 + tanh 2 x

sinh (3x) = 3 sinh x + 4 sinh 3 x

tanh(3x) =

3 tanh x + tanh3 x

1 + 3 tanh2 x

11

cosh( x y) = cosh x cosh y sinh x sinh y

tanh( x y) =

tanh x tanh y

1 tanh x tanh y

1

sinh x + sinh y = 2 sinh ( x + y) cosh

2

1

sinh x sinh y = 2 cosh ( x + y) sinh

2

sinh x cosh x =

tanh x tanh y =

1

( x y)

2

1

( x y)

2

1 tanh ( x/2)

= e x

1 tanh( x/2)

sinh ( x y)

cosh x cosh y

coth x coth y =

Inverse functions

sinh ( x y)

sinh x sinh y

!

x2 + a2

sinh

a

!

p

x + x2 a2

1 x

cosh

= ln

a

a

1

a+x

1 x

tanh

= ln

a

2

ax

x

1

x

+a

1

coth

= ln

a

2

xa

s

2

x

a

a

sech1 = ln +

1

a

x

x2

s

2

a

a

x

+ 1

cosech1 = ln +

a

x

x2

1

x

= ln

a

1

1

cosh x + cosh y = 2 cosh ( x + y) cosh ( x y)

2

2

1

1

cosh x cosh y = 2 sinh ( x + y) sinh ( x y)

2

2

x+

for x a

for x2 < a2

for x2 > a2

for 0 < x a

for x 6= 0

8. Limits

nc xn 0 as n if | x| < 1 (any fixed c)

xn /n! 0 as n (any fixed x)

(1 + x/n)n ex as n , x ln x 0 as x 0

If f ( a) = g( a) = 0

12

then

lim

x a

f 0 ( a)

f ( x)

= 0

g( x)

g ( a)

(lHopitals

rule)

9. Differentiation

(uv)0 = u0 v + uv0 ,

u 0

v

u0 v uv0

v2

n!

n

n

=

where Cr

r!(n r)!

r

d

(sin x) = cos x

dx

d

(cos x) = sin x

dx

d

(tan x) = sec2 x

dx

d

(sec x) = sec x tan x

dx

d

(cot x) = cosec2 x

dx

d

(cosec x) = cosec x cot x

dx

d

(sinh x)

dx

d

(cosh x)

dx

d

(tanh x)

dx

d

(sech x)

dx

d

(coth x)

dx

d

(cosech x)

dx

Leibniz Theorem

= cosh x

= sinh x

= sech2 x

= sech x tanh x

= cosech2 x

= cosech x coth x

10. Integration

Standard forms

Z

xn dx =

1

dx

x

Z

eax dx

Z

Z

Z

Z

Z

Z

Z

Z

Z

Z

Z

xn+1

+c

n+1

= ln x + c

for n 6= 1

Z

ln x dx = x(ln x 1) + c

1

x

ax

ax

x e dx = e

2 +c

a

a

1 ax

e +c

a

x2

1

x ln x dx =

ln x

+c

2

2

x

1

1

dx = tan1

+c

2

2

a

a

a +x

a+x

1

1

1

1 x

tanh

ln

dx

=

+

c

=

+c

a

a

2a

ax

a2 x2

1

1

1

xa

1 x

dx = coth

+c=

+c

ln

a

a

2a

x+a

x2 a2

x

1

1

dx =

+c

2(n 1) ( x2 a2 )n1

( x2 a2 )n

x

1

dx = ln( x2 a2 ) + c

2

x2 a2

x

1

p

dx = sin1

+c

a

a2 x2

p

1

p

dx = ln x + x2 a2 + c

x2 a2

p

x

p

dx = x2 a2 + c

x2 a2

x i

p

1h p 2

a2 x2 dx =

x a x2 + a2 sin 1

+c

2

a

for x2 < a2

for x2 > a2

for n 6= 1

13

Z

Z

1

dx = cosec p

(1 + x) x p

cos( x ) dx =

for p < 1

1

sin ( x ) dx =

2

2

exp( x2 /2 2 ) dx = 2

Z

1 3 5 (n 1) n+1 2

n

2

2

x exp( x /2 ) dx =

Z

Z

Z

Z

Z

sin x dx

cos x dx

tan x dx

cot x dx

sinh x dx

= cosh x + c

= sin x + c

cosh x dx

= sinh x + c

= ln(cos x) + c

tanh x dx

= ln(cosh x) + c

= ln(sec x + tan x) + c

sech x dx

= 2 tan1 ( ex ) + c

= ln(sin x) + c

coth x dx

= ln(sinh x) + c

= cos x + c

sin (m + n) x

sin (m n) x

+c

2(m n)

2(m + n)

Z

sin (m + n) x

sin (m n) x

+

+c

cos mx cos nx dx =

2(m n)

2(m + n)

Z

sec x dx

sin mx sin nx dx =

if m2 6= n2

if m2 6= n2

Standard substitutions

If the integrand is a function of:

p

( a2 x2 ) or a2 x2

p

( x2 + a2 ) or x2 + a2

p

( x2 a2 ) or x2 a2

substitute:

x = a sin or x = a cos

x = a tan or x = a sinh

x = a sec or x = a cosh

If the integrand is a rational function of sin x or cos x or both, substitute t = tan( x/2) and use the results:

sin x =

2t

1 + t2

cos x =

1 t2

1 + t2

Z

Z

14

dx

p

( ax + b) px + q

dx

q

( ax + b) px2 + qx + r

dx =

substitute:

px + q = u2

ax + b =

1

.

u

2 dt

.

1 + t2

Integration by parts

Z

b

a

b Z b

u dv = uv

v du

a

a

Differentiation of an integral

If f ( x, ) is a function of x containing a parameter and the limits of integration a and b are functions of then

Z b( )

d

d

a ( )

f ( x, ) dx = f (b, )

db

da

f ( a, )

+

d

d

Z b( )

f ( x, ) dx.

a ( )

Special case,

d

dx

x

a

f ( y) dy = f ( x).

Dirac -function

1

(t ) =

2

exp[i(t )] d.

(t) = 0 if t 6= 0, also

(t ) f (t) dt = f ( ).

(t) dt = 1

Reduction formulae

Factorials

n! = n(n 1)(n 2) . . . 1,

0! = 1.

For any p > 1,

x p e x dx = p

1

ln(n!) n ln n n.

Z

x p (1 x)q dx =

x p1 e x dx = p!.

( 1/2)! =

( 1/2)! =

/ ,

2

etc.

p!q!

.

( p + q + 1)!

Trigonometrical

If m, n are integers,

m 1 / 2

n 1 / 2

sin m2 cosn d =

sin m cosn2 d

m+n 0

m+n 0

0

and can therefore be reduced eventually to one of the following integrals

Z / 2

sin m cos n d =

Z / 2

sin cos d =

1

,

2

Z / 2

0

sin d = 1,

Z / 2

0

cos d = 1,

Z / 2

0

d =

.

2

Other

If In =

xn exp( x2 ) dx

then

In =

(n 1)

In 2 ,

2

I0 =

1

2

I1 =

1

.

2

15

Diffusion (conduction) equation

= 2

t

Wave equation

2 =

1 2

c2 t2

Legendres equation

(1 x2 )

dy

d2 y

2x

+ l (l + 1) y = 0,

dx2

dx

1

solutions of which are Legendre polynomials Pl ( x), where Pl ( x) = l

2 l!

1

2

P0 ( x) = 1, P1 ( x) = x, P2 ( x) = (3x 1) etc.

2

Recursion relation

Pl ( x) =

1

[(2l 1) xPl 1 ( x) (l 1) Pl 2( x)]

l

Orthogonality

Z

Pl ( x) Pl 0 ( x) dx =

2

ll 0

2l + 1

Bessels equation

x2

d2 y

dy

+x

+ ( x2 m2 ) y = 0,

dx2

dx

Series form of Bessel functions of the first kind

(1)k ( x/2)m+2k

k!(m + k)!

k=0

Jm ( x ) =

(integer m).

16

d

dx

l

l

x2 1 , Rodrigues formula so

Laplaces equation

2 u = 0

u(, ) = An + Bn C exp(in) + D exp(in)

u(r, , ) = Arl + Br(l +1) Plm C sin m + D cos m

where l and m are integers with l |m| 0; A, B, C, D are constants;

| m |

d

Pl (cos )

Plm (cos ) = sin|m|

d(cos )

Pl0 (1) = 1.

u(, , z) = Jm (n) A cos m + B sin m C exp(nz) + D exp(nz)

Spherical harmonics

The normalized solutions Ylm ( , ) of the equation

1

2

1

sin

+

Ylm + l (l + 1)Ylm = 0

sin

sin2 2

are called spherical harmonics, and have values given by

s

m

2l + 1 (l |m|)! m

for m 0

m

im

Yl ( , ) =

(1)

Pl (cos ) e

4 (l + |m|)!

1

for m < 0

r

r

r

1

3

3

0

1

0

i.e., Y0 =

, Y1 =

cos , Y1 =

sin ei , etc.

4

4

8

Orthogonality

Z

0

The condition for I =

b

a

EulerLagrange equation.

F

d

=

y

dx

dy

F

0

. This is the

0 , where y =

dx

y

17

x

d =

dx +

dy +

dz + and

x +

y +

z +

x

y

z

x

y

z

is also written as

when the variables kept

where x, y, z, . . . are independent variables.

or

x

x

x

If = f ( x, y, z, . . .) then

y,...

If is a well-behaved function then

If = f ( x, y),

1

= ,

x

x y

y

y,...

2

2

=

etc.

x y

y x

y

x

y

= 1.

If ( x, y) is well-behaved in the vicinity of x = a, y = b then it has a Taylor series

2

2

1

2

2

+

+ 2uv

( x, y) = ( a + u, b + v) = ( a, b) + u

u

+v

+

+v

x

y

2!

x y

x2

y2

y=b

Stationary points

2

2

2

=

=

= 0. Unless 2 =

= 0, the following

2

x

y

x y

x

y

conditions determine whether it is a minimum, a maximum or a saddle point.

2

2

> 0, or

> 0,

2 2

Minimum:

2 2

x2

y2

>

and

2

2

2

2

x

y

x y

Maximum:

< 0, or

< 0,

2

2

x

y

2

2

2 2

Saddle point:

<

x y

x2 y2

A function = f ( x, y) has a stationary point when

If

2

2

2

=

=

= 0 the character of the turning point is determined by the next higher derivative.

x y

x2

y2

If = f ( x, y, . . .) and the variables x, y, . . . are functions of independent variables u, v, . . . then

x

y

=

+

+

u

x u

y u

x

y

=

+

+

v

x v

y v

etc.

18

If an area A in the x, y plane maps into an area A 0 in the u, v plane then

x x

Z

Z

u v

f ( x, y) dx dy =

f (u, v) J du dv where J =

A

A0

y y

u v

( x, y)

The Jacobian J is also written as

. The corresponding formula for volume integrals is

(u, v)

x x x

u v w

Z

Z

y y y

f ( x, y, z) dx dy dz =

f (u, v, w) J du dv dw

where now

J =

V

V0

u v w

z z z

u v w

Fourier series

If y( x) is a function defined in the range x then

y( x) c0 +

cm cos mx +

m=1

M0

sm sin mx

m=1

are

Z

1

y( x) dx

c0 =

2

Z

1

cm =

y( x) cos mx dx

Z

1

sm =

y( x) sin mx dx

(m = 1, . . . , M)

(m = 1, . . . , M 0 )

Variable t, range 0 t T, (i.e., a periodic function of time with period T, frequency = 2/ T).

y(t) c0 + cm cos mt + sm sin mt

where

T

T

T

y(t) dt, cm =

y(t) cos mt dt, sm =

y(t) sin mt dt.

2 0

0

0

Variable x, range 0 x L,

2mx

2mx

y( x) c0 + cm cos

+ sm sin

L

L

where

Z

Z

Z

2 L

1 L

2 L

2mx

2mx

dx, sm =

dx.

c0 =

y( x) dx, cm =

y( x) cos

y( x) sin

L 0

L 0

L

L 0

L

c0 =

19

If y( x) is an odd (anti-symmetric) function [i.e., y( x) = y( x)] defined in the range x , then only

Z

2

sines are required in the Fourier series and s m =

y( x) sin mx dx. If, in addition, y( x) is symmetric about

0

Z

4 / 2

y( x) sin mx dx (for m odd). If

x = /2, then the coefficients s m are given by sm = 0 (for m even), s m =

0

y( x) is an even (symmetric) function [i.e., y( x) = y( x)] defined in the range x , then only constant

Z

Z

2

1

y( x) dx, cm =

y( x) cos mx dx. If, in

and cosine terms are required in the Fourier series and c 0 =

0

0

addition, y( x) is anti-symmetric about x = , then c0 = 0 and the coefficients c m are given by cm = 0 (for m even),

2

Z

4 / 2

y( x) cos mx dx (for m odd).

cm =

0

[These results also apply to Fourier series with more general ranges provided appropriate changes are made to the

limits of integration.]

If y( x) is a function defined in the range x then

M

y( x)

Cm eimx ,

Cm =

1

2

y( x) eimx dx

with m taking all integer values in the range M. This approximation converges to y( x) as M under the same

conditions as the real form.

For other ranges the formulae are:

Variable t, range 0 t T, frequency = 2/ T,

y(t) =

Cm e

im t

Cm =

2

Variable x0 , range 0 x0 L,

y( x ) =

Cm e

i2mx0 / L

1

Cm =

L

L

0

y( x0 ) ei2mx / L dx0 .

0

If y( x) is a function defined in the range x which is sampled in the 2N equally spaced points x n =

nx/ N [n = ( N 1) . . . N ], then

y( xn ) = c0 + c1 cos xn + c2 cos 2xn + + c N 1 cos( N 1) xn + c N cos Nxn

1

y( xn )

c0 =

2N

1

cm =

y( xn ) cos mxn

N

1

cN =

y( xn ) cos Nxn

2N

1

sm =

y( xn ) sin mxn

N

1

y( xn ) sin Nxn

sN =

2N

each summation being over the 2N sampling points x n .

20

(m = 1, . . . , N 1)

(m = 1, . . . , N 1)

Fourier transforms

If y( x) is a function defined in the range x then the Fourier transform b

y() is defined by the equations

Z

Z

1

b

by() =

y() eit d,

y(t) eit dt.

y(t) =

2

y(t) =

by( f ) ei2 f t d f ,

by( f ) =

Z

Z

1

by() cos t d,

by() = 2

y(t) =

y(t) cos t dt.

0

0

If y(t) is anti-symmetric about t = 0 then

Z

Z

1

by() sin t d,

by() = 2

y(t) sin t dt.

y(t) =

0

0

Specific cases

y(t) = a,

= 0,

|t|

|t| >

= 0,

(Top Hat),

|t|

|t| >

(Saw-tooth),

(Gaussian),

(modulated function),

y(t) =

m =

by() = 2a

by() =

sin

2a sinc ( )

where

sinc( x) =

sin ( x)

x

2a

2

(

1

cos

)

=

a

sinc

2

2

by() = t0 exp 2 t20 /4

by() = bf ( 0 )

(t m ) (sampling function)

by() =

n =

( 2n/ )

21

Convolution theorem

If z(t) =

x( ) y(t ) d =

x(t ) y( ) d

Conversely, xcy = b

x by.

bz () = b

x() by().

Parsevals theorem

Z

y (t) y(t) dt =

1

2

by () by() d

b (k) =

V

V (r ) eikr d2 r

if azimuthally symmetric

b (k) =

V

V (r ) eikr d3 r

4

=

V (r) r sin kr dr

k 0

Z

1

b (k) eikr d3 k

V (r ) =

V

(2)3

22

(if b

y is normalised as on page 21)

if spherically symmetric

Examples

V (r )

1

4r

e r

4r

V (r )

2 V (r )

b (k)

V

1

k2

1

2

k + 2

b (k)

ikV

b (k)

k2 V

If y(t) is a function defined for t 0, the Laplace transform y(s) is defined by the equation

y(s) = L{ y(t)} =

est y(t) dt

Transform y(s)

(t)

Delta function

(t)

1

s

n!

sn+1

r

1

2 s3

r

tn

1

t /2

1

t /2

1

(s + a)

e at

sin t

(s2

s

(s2 + 2 )

(s2 2 )

s

(s2 2 )

cos t

sinh t

cosh t

e at y(t)

y( s + a )

e s y ( s )

y(t ) (t )

ty(t)

dy

dt

dn y

dtn

Z

Z

Z

t

0

t

0

t

0

y( ) d

x( ) y(t ) d

x(t ) y( ) d

+ 2

dy

ds

sy(s) y(0)

n

s y( s ) s

n1

y(0) s

n2

dy

dt

dn1 y

dtn1

0

y( s )

s

x ( s ) y( s )

Convolution theorem

[Note that if y(t) = 0 for t < 0 then the Fourier transform of y(t) is by() = y(i).]

23

Finding the zeros of equations

If the equation is y = f ( x) and x n is an approximation to the root then either

f ( xn )

.

xn+1 = xn 0

f ( xn )

xn xn1

or, xn+1 = xn

f ( xn )

f ( xn ) f ( xn1 )

(Newton)

(Linear interpolation)

If

dy

= f ( x, y) then

dx

yn+1 = yn + h f ( xn , yn ) where h = xn+1 xn

(Euler method)

yn+1 = yn + h f ( xn , yn )

h[ f ( xn , yn ) + f ( xn+1 , yn+1 )]

yn+1 = yn +

2

Putting

then

If y( x) is tabulated at equal intervals of x, where h is the interval, then y n+1/2 = yn+1 yn and

2 yn = yn+1/2 yn1/2

Approximating to derivatives

dy

dx

d2 y

dx2

y 1 + yn 1/2

yn+1 yn

yn yn1

n+ /2

h

h

2h

where h = xn+1 xn

2 y n

yn+1 2yn + yn1

=

h2

h2

y( x) = y( x0 + h) y0 + y1 +

1

1

2

( 1)2 y0 + ( 2 1)2 y1 +

3!

3!

where is the fraction of the interval h (= x n+1 xn ) between the sampling points and = 1 . The first two

terms represent linear interpolation.

Trapezoidal rule

The interval of integration is divided into n equal sub-intervals, each of width h; then

Z b

1

1

f ( x) dx h c f ( a) + f ( x1 ) + + f ( x j ) + + f (b)

2

2

a

where h = (b a)/n and x j = a + jh.

Simpsons rule

The interval of integration is divided into an even number (say 2n) of equal sub-intervals, each of width h =

(b a)/2n; then

Z b

h

f ( a) + 4 f ( x1 ) + 2 f ( x2 ) + 4 f ( x3 ) + + 2 f ( x2n2 ) + 4 f ( x2n1 ) + f (b)

f ( x) dx

3

a

24

These have the general form

For n = 2 :

For n = 3 :

xi = 05773;

y( x) dx ci y( xi )

1

Sample mean

x=

1

( x1 + x2 + xn )

n

Residual:

d=xx

1

Standard deviation of sample:

s = (d21 + d22 + d2n )1/2

n

1

(d21 + d22 + d2n )1/2

Standard deviation of distribution:

n1

1

m = = q

(d21 + d22 + d2n )1/2

Standard deviation of mean:

n

n ( n 1)

=q

n ( n 1)

x2i

xi

2

1 / 2

Range method

A quick but crude method of estimating is to find the range r of a set of n readings, i.e., the difference between

the largest and smallest values, then

r

.

n

This is usually adequate for n less than about 12.

Combination of errors

If Z = Z ( A, B, . . .) (with A, B, etc. independent) then

2

2

Z

Z

A +

B +

( Z )2 =

A

B

So if

(i)

Z = A B C,

(ii)

Z = AB or A/ B,

(iii)

Z = Am ,

(iv)

Z = ln A,

(v)

Z = exp A,

( Z )2 = ( A )2 + ( B )2 + (C )2

2 2 2

Z

B

A

=

+

Z

A

B

Z

=m A

Z

A

A

Z =

A

Z

= A

Z

25

18. Statistics

Mean and Variance

A random variable X has a distribution over some subset x of the real numbers. When the distribution of X is

discrete, the probability that X = x i is Pi . When the distribution is continuous, the probability that X lies in an

interval x is f ( x)x, where f ( x) is the probability density function.

Mean = E( X ) = Pi xi or

x f ( x) dx.

Variance 2 = V ( X ) = E[( X )2 ] =

Pi (xi )2 or

( x )2 f ( x) dx.

Probability distributions

Error function:

Binomial:

Poisson:

Normal:

x

2

2

e y dy

erf( x) =

0

n x n x

f ( x) =

p q

where q = (1 p),

x

x

e , and 2 =

x!

1

( x )2

f ( x) = exp

2 2

2

f ( x) =

If W = aX + bY then E(W ) = aE( X ) + bE(Y ). If X and Y are independent then V (W ) = a 2 V ( X ) + b2 V (Y ).

1

n

Sample mean x =

xi

1

Sample variance s =

n

2

( x i x )

1

x2

n i

x2 = E( x2 ) [E( x)]2

To fit a straight line by least squares to n pairs of points ( x i , yi ), model the observations by y i = + ( xi x) + i ,

where the i are independent samples of a random variable with zero mean and variance 2 .

Sample statistics: s 2x =

1

n

( x i x ) 2 ,

s2xy

s2y =

1

n

( y i y) 2 ,

s2xy =

1

n

n

(residual variance),

n2

s4

1

b ( xi x)}2 = s2 xy .

b

where residual variance = { yi

y

n

s2x

b=

b = y,

Estimators:

s2x

b ( x x); b 2 =

b+

; E(Y at x) =

b2

b 2

b are

b and

Estimates for the variances of

and 2 .

n

ns x

b=r=

Correlation coefficient:

26

s2xy

sx s y

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