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# NIU Physics PhD Candidacy Exam Standard Formula Sheet

Pauli Matrices
x =

0 1
1 0

y =

0 i
i 0

z =

1 0
0 1

Definite Integrals
For n = non-negative integer,
Z

xn ex dx = n!
0

(2n)!
2n+1
n! (2 )
0
Z
n!
2
x2n+1 ex dx =
2 n+1
0
Z

x2n ex dx =

where 0! = 1 and n! = 1 2 . . . (n 1) n.
Stirlings Approximation:

1
n! =
2 n
exp n +
+ O(1/n2 )
12n
ln(n!) = n ln(n) n
(for n 1)

n+1/2

Legendre Polynomials:
P0 (x) = 1,

P1 (x) = x,

## P5 (x) = (63x5 70x3 + 15x)/8

Spherical Harmonics:
`=0:
`=1:
`=2:

For all ` :

1
r 4
r
3
3 i
1
0
Y1 (, ) =
cos
Y1 (, ) =
e
sin
8
r 4
r
5
15 i
(3 cos2 1)
Y21 (, ) =
e
sin cos
Y20 (, ) =
16
8
r
15 2i 2
Y22 (, ) =
e
sin
s 32
Y00 (, )

Y`0 (, ) =

2` + 1
P` (cos )
4

Numerical Constants:
h = 1.05 1027 erg sec = 1.05 1034 J sec

## c = 3.00 1010 cm/sec = 3.00 108 m/sec

hc = 1.97 107 eV m

0 = 8.85 1012 C2 /N m2

## me = 9.11 1028 g = 9.11 1031 kg = 0.511 MeV/c2

hc = 1.24 106 eV m
0 = 4 107 N/A2

## Spherical Coordinates (r, , )

Relations to rectangular (Cartesian) coordinates and unit vectors:
x
= r sin cos + cos cos sin
y = r sin sin + cos sin + cos
z = r cos sin

x = r sin cos
y = r sin sin
z = r cos
p

r = x
sin cos + y sin sin + z cos
= x
cos cos + y cos sin z sin

=
x sin + y cos

r = x2 +p
y2 + z2
= tan1 ( x2 + y 2 /z)
= tan1 (y/x)
Line element:

d~` = r dr + r d + r sin d

Volume element:

d = r 2 sin dr d d

~ = f r + 1 f + 1 f
f
r
r
r sin

Divergence:

1 v
~ ~v = 1 (r2 vr ) + 1

(sin v ) +
r2 r
r sin
r sin

Curl:

~ ~v =

Laplacian:

1 2
1

f
f =
(rf ) + 2
sin
2
r r
r sin

1 vr
1
v
1

(sin v )
r +

(r v )
r sin

r sin
r

1
vr
+

(r v )
r r

1
2f
r2 sin2 2

## Cylindrical Coordinates (r, , z)

Relations to rectangular (Cartesian) coordinates and unit vectors:
x
= r cos sin
y = r sin + cos
z = z

x = r cos
y = r sin
z = z
p

r = x
cos + y sin

=
x sin + y cos
z = z

r = x2 + y 2
= tan1 (y/x)
z = z
Line element:

d~` = r dr + r d + z dz

Volume element:

d = r dr d dz

~ = f r + 1 f + f z
f
r
r
z

Divergence:

~ ~v = 1 (rvr ) + 1 v + vz

r r
r
z

Curl:

~ ~v =

Laplacian:

1
f
f =
r
r r
r
2

v
1 vz
vr
vz 1
vr
r +
+
z

(rv )
r
z
z
r
r r

1 2f
2f
+
r2 2
z 2

Vector Formulae
~ and B
~ are vector functions and is a scalar function.
In the following formulae, A
~ ()
~

= 0
~ (
~ A)
~ = 0

~
~ (
~ A)
~ = (
~
~ A)
~ 2 A

~ A
~ B)
~ = (A
~ )
~ B
~ + (B
~ )
~ A
~+A
~ (
~ B)
~ +B
~ (
~ A)
~
(
~ (A
~ B)
~ = B
~ (
~ A)
~ A
~ (
~ B)
~

~ (A
~ B)
~ = A(
~
~ B)
~ B(
~
~ A)
~ + (B
~ )
~ A
~ (A
~ )
~ B
~

~ ( A)
~ = A
~
~ +
~ A
~

~ ( A)
~ =
~ A
~A
~
~