Winter Issue 2015/2016

THE DIRT
The VNLA Quarterly Newsletter
Volume 41, Issue 4

2016 Perennial Plant of the Year
Photo Courtesy of the Missouri Botanical Garden

Michael Dirr at New England Grows
New Invasive Pest Found in Vermont

president’s letter
inside this
issue

Where does the time go? It’s hard
to believe that I am sitting down
for the last time to write this letter
as the second of my two terms as
Green Works President comes to a
close. Not that I’ll miss having this
letter hanging over my head and
wondering, as some late night
radios host likely do, is anybody is
out there listening?
As I reflect back on the last four
years I am happy to say that Green
Works has continued to be a vibrant
professional association that is
fulfilling its mission to advance the
green industry in Vermont. I would like
to be able to take the credit for our
recent successes but I have simply
been a guy with a title surrounded by
a board and executive secretary
whose dedication and hard work
deserves all the credit. I am grateful
to have been a part of this team and
have learned that it truly is in giving
that you receive.
Our programs and speakers at our
meetings over the past several years
have continued to improve and the
generous commitment of time and
materials, from so many of you,
resulted in our most successful flower
show to date. Looking ahead, I am
certain that this upward trend will
continue.
While I will have completed my term
in the executive seat, I will not
disappear from the scene
completely. I plan to continue on the
board of directors for another two
years as past president with your vote
of approval at our business meeting
in February. If that sounded like a
campaign plea, I can assure that it
wasn’t and I would happily step
aside to allow anyone with the desire

and energy to fill the seat. I just
sincerely enjoy working with this
group and it’s hard to imagine going
cold turkey following so many years
in the mix. I find great satisfaction in
being part of such a hard-working
and selfless group of people who
recognize the value in their
contribution toward a common goal.
So, I would like to take this opportunity
to say thanks to each member of our
board of directors over these past four
years for all that you have done to
keep the train rolling. A special thanks
to Kristina for her tireless dedication,
support, and focus as the driving
force behind all that we do. We are
truly fortunate to have her on board
for all these years.
Lastly, thanks to all of you, our
members, VCHers, vendors and
advertisers for your perennial
contributions to Green Works and all
that we strive to achieve. We are all
lucky to be part of such a great
industry of individuals who share a
passion for what we do. Thanks!
I’m looking forward to seeing you all
at the meeting in February and
wishing you all the best for a healthy
and prosperous 2017.
VJ Comai, Green Works/VNLA/
President
2

Board of Directors

3

New Green Works
Members/VCH

4

Michael Dirr at New
England Grows

5

Green Works Winter
Meeting & the 2017
Vermont Flower Show

6

2016 Perennial of
the Year

7

The Career Corner:
Job Opportunities

8

Recapping a Panel
Discussion from NE
Grows

9

Third Time’s a Charm?
or Neonicotinoid
Legisltation

10

NE Grows Wrap Up

12

News from the U

13

New Invasive Pest
Found in Vermont

14

News from the Agency
of Ag

16

Book Review

17

Recap-Green Works
Winter Workshop

18

Industry Calendar

22

board of directors
PRESIDENT
VJ Comai
Bartlett Tree Experts
184 Tamarack Rd
Charlotte, VT 05445
802.296.1797
vcomai@bartlett.com
VICE-PRESIDENT
Ed Burke
Rocky Dale Gardens
806 Rocky Dale Road
Bristol, VT 05443
802.453.2782
ed@rockydalegardens.com
SECRETARY/TREASURER
Nate Carr
Church Hill Landscapes, Inc.
287 Church Hill Road
Charlotte, VT 05445
802.425.5222
nate@churchhilllandscapes.com
DIRECTORS
David Burton
Ginkgo Design, LLC
22 Pearl Street
Essex Junction, VT 05452
802.857.5104
ginkgodesignvt@gmail.com
Carrie Chalmers
Quoyburray Farm
239 Lawrence Hill Road
Weston, VT 05161
802.375.5930
carriechalmers6694@gmail.com
Hannah Decker
Fairfax Perennial Farm, Inc.
7 Blackberry Hill Road
Fairfax, VT 05454
802.849.2775
perennialfarm@surfglobal.net

For information on
Advertising
in The Dirt
contact

Marlys Eddy
Vermont Technical College
PO Box 500
Randolph Center, VT 05061
802.728.1207
meddy@vtc.edu
Shannon Lee
Sisters of Nature
135 Phyllis Lane
Waterville, VT 05492
802.825.1851
sistersofnature@yahoo.com
Ashley Robinson
Ashley Robinson Landscape Designer
PO Box 28
Charlotte, VT 05445
802.922.1924
arobinsonld@gmail.com
ADMINISTRATIVE SECRETARY
Kristina MacKulin
Green Works/VNLA
P.O. Box 92
N. Ferrisburgh, VT 05473
Toll Free: 888.518.6484; 802.425.5117
Fax 802.425.5122
Kristina@greenworksvermont.org
www.greenworksvermont.org
COMMITTEES
BUDGET AND FINANCE
COMMITTEE CHAIR
Nate Carr
Church Hill Landscapes, Inc.
802.425.5222

INDUSTRY AWARDS COMMITTEE CHAIR
Ed Burke
Rocky Dale Gardens
802.453.2782
LEGISLATIVE COMMITTEE CHAIR
Shannon Lee
Sisters of Nature
802.825.1851
MARKETING & EDUCATION
COMMITTEE CHAIR
Ed Burke
Rocky Dale Gardens
802.453.2782
MEMBERSHIP COMMITTEE CHAIR
VJ Comai
Bartlett Tree Experts
802.425.6222
PROGRAM COMMITTEE CHAIR
VJ Comai
Bartlett Tree Experts
802.425.6222
RESEARCH & AWARDS
COMMITTEE CHAIR
VJ Comai
Bartlett Tree Experts
802.296.1797
VERMONT CERTIFIED HORTICULTURIST
COMMITTEE
Nate Carr
Church Hill Landscapes, Inc.
802.425.5222

Connect with Green Works
on Social Media!
Connect with us, post to our pages, or let us know
something special you would like to share and we'll share it.
It's another way for us to help your business thrive!
Join the conversation! You can find us here...
Facebook: @greenworksvt & @vermontflowershow

Kristina at the
Green Works Office
888.518.6484

Twitter: @greenworksvt & @vtflowershow
Instagram: @greenworksvt & @vtflowershow

3

New Vermont Certified
Horticulturists

New Green Works Members

Marie Limoge
diStefano Landscaping, Inc.
PO Box 56
Jericho, VT 05465
802-279-5900
marie@distefanolandscaping.com
www.distefanolandcaping.com
Category: Hardscaping, Landscape Designer,
Landscape Design/Build; Landscaping Install
Maintenance

Fred C. Gloeckner & Co., Inc.
David J. Toohey
62 A Plainfield Pike
Foster, RI 02825
800-345-3787
dtoohey@fredgloeckner.com
www.fredgloeckner.com
Associate Member
Category: Wholesale Broker, Supplier
Green Thumb Farms
Scott Mohla
123 West Fryeburg Road
PO Box 147
Fryeburg, ME 04037
207-935-3341
scott@greenthumbfarms.com
www.greenthumbfarms.com
Associate Member
Category: Supplier, Sod Producer

Kristin Sprenkle
diStefano Landscaping, Inc.
PO Box 56
Jericho, VT 05465
802-279-5900
ksprenkle22@gmail.com
www.distefanolandcaping.com
Category: Hardscaping, Landscape Designer,
Landscape Design/Build; Landscaping Install
Maintenance

Welcome and
thanks for joining!

Welcome and thanks for
becoming certified!

got certification? Get Your VCH Study Manual Today!
Now is a great time to order the all new VCH study
manuals for yourself and/or your employees. Prove
your level of professionalism and commitment to
excellence to your clients and get certified.

The cost of the
manual is $50 for
members and $75 for
non-members. Please
contact Kristina in the
office if you are
interested in ordering
a copy. You can also
order a copy on the
Green Works website.
Exams are offered by
appointment and at
the winter and
summer meetings.

The new manual is also a great resource to have on
your bookshelf (remember books?)! Topics covered
include:





Identification of Plants and Pests
Business Practices and Safety
Plant & Soil Information
Sustainable Landscape Topics
Specific Landscape Topics
Pest Problems, Pesticide

4

Michael Dirr at New England Grows
by Ed Burke, Rocky Dale Gardens
To hear Michael Dirr tell it, there isn’t a tree that doesn’t
deserve some kind of reputation be it wonderful or
wimpy. Dr. Dirr spoke at the 2016 New England Grows
conference held this past December, (2015) and as
usual he did not disappoint.

In his second talk, Dirr took us on a tour of some of the
“Noble” trees he has discovered and visited throughout
the country. These included the usual Oaks, Maples,
Ginkgos, and Beech trees but also some surprises like
Honeylocust and Birch. It was a great tour d’force and
featured some impressive specimens.

His first talk was titled A Cornucopia of New Flowering
Trees and Shrubs. Here, Dirr guided us through a mouthwatering slide show of new selections of some of his
favorite woody plant species. While many of these
would be considered annuals in parts of Vermont, there
are some plants worth considering in the northern
climate. These include a purple-leaf American
Hazelnut, Corylus americana, with purple involucres,
(the spiny collection of bracts that surround the nut)
being bred at Rutgers, some new Cephalanthus
cultivars and crosses, Diervilla sessilifolia cultivars with
dark foliage, a seedless Syringa reticultata subsp.
pekinensis called ‘Snow Dance’, a new Fothergilla
called ‘Suzanne’ with outstanding red fall color and a
more compact habit than ‘Mt Airy’, and of course
many new Hydrangeas.

Dirr not only talked about the need to plant and
preserve these “Noble” trees, but also introduced us to
the breeding work being done on many common
names such as Ulmus, Carpinus caroliniana, Zelkova,
Catalpa, Celtis, Ostrya, Tilia, and Quercus, to name a
few. And he could not have said enough good things
about the good old American Beech, Fagus
grandiflora. After he remarked that there are no
cultivars or selections of this tree that he knows of, I
offered to give him one of two weeping specimens we
actually have at Rocky Dale called ‘Cameron’s
Weeping’. For this he was ecstatic!
One of the more interesting and I think “about time”
ideas he spoke about was the “20 under 20” program
that Bailey Nursery has created in response to the
tortured-looking tree trimming necessitated by power
lines. The idea is to create 20 trees under 20 feet tall
that can be planted under power lines and get
municipalities, homeowners and power companies to
participate in the program. This is a new program that
has not been released yet, but watch for it, it’s coming.

Dirr has a special place in his heart for Cercis. At Rocky
Dale, we have tried many of the new cultivars with
mixed success. We had ‘Little Woody’ in the garden for
3 years until it succumbed to the bitter winter of 2014.
More success was had in the Burlington area with ‘Pink
Cascade’ and ‘Ruby Falls’, the latter with some severe
dieback from the winter of 2014. His slides of Cercis
‘Rising Sun’ and ‘Carolina Sweetheart’ make you want
to move to a reliable zone 5 where they still may be a
bit tender! Other small statured trees on his list included
one of my favorites, Maackia amurensis that is hardy to
zone 3 and seldom planted. This tree has mosaic- like
coppery-green exfoliating bark and slightly fragrant
white flowers that appear in mid summer. And he
mentioned two Chionanthus cultivars, ‘Emerald Knight’
and ‘White Knight’, another underused species with
fragrant blooms in late spring after all the crabapples
and lilacs are done.

Dirr summed up his talk with a very profound statement
that I think we could all use in our marketing:
“The True Meaning of Life is to Plant a Tree Under
Whose Shade You Do Not Intend to Sit”
--Nelson Henderson.
I never tire of hearing Michael Dirr speak about trees.
His wit and passion is palpable and we couldn’t have a
better advocate for the Green Industry. For more on
the trees that Dr. Dirr talked about at New England
Grows, visit http://greenworksvermont.org/2016/01/04/
michael-dirr-at-new-england-grows/.

NEW National Hydrangea Test Garden
A new national hydrangea test garden is
scheduled to open in 2016 at the Heritage
Museums & Gardens, Sandwich, Massachusetts.
For the next five years, new hybrid varieties of
hydrangeas will be planted, grown, and studied
by professional growing experts from across the
country. For more information please visit: http://
www.lgrmag.com/national-hydrangea-testgarden-debut-next-year.
5

Green Works:
Winter Meeting & Trade Show

Green Works: Announcing
2017 Vermont Flower Show
Mark your calendars! The next Vermont Flower
Show will be held on March 3-4, 2017 at the
Champlain Valley Exposition. With our most
successful show ever in 2015, we are excited to
look ahead to our next show. The Garden Display
Committee held their first brainstorm session/
meeting on January 7, 2017. This committee is
actively seeking new members! If you have time
this winter to be part of the brainstorming/design
and/or would like to join the committee please
contact Melita Bass, chair at
melitabass@gmavt.net.

WHEN: February 12, 2016
WHERE: Sheraton Burlington Hotel &
Conference Center
TIME: 8AM - 4:30 PM
Pre-register by February 1, 2016!
HIGHLIGHTS:

It takes two committee to put this show together!
The Flower Show Committee helps organize the
other aspects of the show, which include:
marketing the show, sponsorship, seminars and
workshops, the family room, cooking
demonstrations, volunteers, and more. If you
have a knack for one of these areas or are just
generally interested in getting involved for 2017,
please contact Kristina in the office at
kristina@greenworksvermont.org. This committee
will begin their work in late summer.

• Keynote speaker Claudia West, ecological
sales manager at North Creek Nurseries, a
wholesale perennial grower in Landenberg, PA
and co-author of a new book ‘Planting in a
Post-Wild World’. Claudia will be presenting
“Creating Stunning Plant Communities that Stand
the Test of Time”. Please see the book review on
page 17.

• Visit with vendors from all over New England
(space is still available).
• Green Works Business Meeting/Presentation of
Awards.
• 2015 Industry Award Winners - Project
Presentations.
• Bruce Fraedrich, Ph.D, Bartlett Tree Experts - two
presentations entitled “Planning for Sustainable

In the meantime, mark your calendars for our next
show and think about how you can get involved!

Management” and “Challenges with Organic
Plant Management and Sustainable Alternatives” ;

earns pesticide credits.
• “Getting Down to Business – A Roundtable
Discussion”. Join Ashley Robinson and David

Burton, Green Works Board Members and
roundtable facilitators for a “real” conversation
about running a business. .

• “Designing Plant Community-Based Meadows in
VT” w/Rebecca Lindenmeyr. This presentation
applies Claudia West’s ideas to a real
landscape in Vermont
• Annual ID Contest - brush up on your Latin!
• Catch up with colleagues and friends - most
important of all!

Check out this video which highlights
the advantages of a career in commercial horticulture
and arboriculture.

Finding Your Place in the
Green Industry

Register on-line: www.greenworksvermont.org or
contact the office. Help us spread the Green Works
word and bring a prospective new member to the
meeting. We will waive their registration
fee (lunch is not included).

on YouTube
https://www.youtube.com/watch?
v=5HLJz62Bulo
6

2016 Perennial of the Year
Anemone x hybrida ‘Honorine Jobert”
The Perennial Plant Association has selected
Anemone x hybrida ‘Honorine Jobert’ as the
2016 Perennial of the Year!
Common Name: Windflower
Type: Herbaceous perennial
Family: Ranunculaceae
Zone: 4 to 8
Height: 3.00 to 4.00 feet
Spread: 1.50 to 2.00 feet
Bloom Time: August to September
Bloom Description: White with yellow stamens
Sun: Full sun to part shade
Water: Medium
Maintenance: Low
Suggested Use: Naturalize
Flower: Showy, Good Cut
Tolerate: Deer

Culture
Best grown in organically rich, humusy, evenly moist,
well-drained soils in full sun to part shade. Soils must
not be allowed to dry out. Plants are best sited in part
shade locations with protection from wind. Foliage
tends to burn in hot, dry, sunny summer conditions.
Plants do not perform well in the deep South (south of
USDA Zone 7). Avoid wet, poorly drained soils,
particularly in winter. Plants appreciate a winter mulch
in cold winter climates. Plants may be slow to
establish, but, once established, will aggressively
naturalize in the garden by spreading rhizomes to
form large colonies. Propagate by root cuttings in
winter (perhaps most effective) or by division in spring.

'Honorine Jobert' is a vigorous, fibrous-rooted,
mounding, compact Japanese anemone hybrid
cultivar which typically grows to 3-4' tall and spreads
by creeping rhizomes. Single flowers (2-3" diameter)
with 6-9 overlapping white petaloid sepals and yellow
center stamens appear on long, wiry-but-graceful,
branching stems over an attractive foliage mound of
trifoliate dark green leaves. Lengthy August to
September bloom period. Japanese Anemone
cultivars are commonly sold as Anemone x hybrida or
Anemone japonica. 'Honorine Jobert' is an old garden
hybrid discovered in Verdun, France in 1858.
Synonymous with A. x hybrida 'Alba'.

Noteworthy Characteristics

Problems

Anemone x hybrida, commonly called windflower or
Japanese anemone, is a hybrid category which
includes a large number of hybrid pink or white
flowered cultivars that bloom from late summer into
fall (August - October). These cultivars vary somewhat
in character but generally are erect, clump-forming,
fibrous-rooted, woody-based perennials which
typically grow to 2-3' (infrequently to 4') tall on stems
clad with oval palmate toothed leaves.
From Greek, anemone means windflower.

No serious insect or disease problems. Taller plants
may need some support.
Garden Uses
Perennial borders, cottage gardens, open woodland
gardens.
Courtesy and reprinted with permission from
Missouri Botanical Garden Plant Finder

7

The Career Corner: job opportunities
Below are listings of job opportunities available at
member businesses. We are happy to post member
listings on our website and in The Dirt.
Distinctive Landscaping, Inc:
Landscape Architect: Distinctive Landscaping, a fastpaced, award-winning, design-build landscape firm
located at Horsford Gardens and Nursery is seeking an
entry to mid-level landscape architect to join its team.
Visit www.distinctiveland.com for a detailed job
description. This position will be full-time during peak
season with part-time opportunities available during the
off season. To apply, please send your resume and
cover letter to charlie@horsfordnursery.com.
Contact Charlie Proutt, Phone: (802) 425-2811

Gardener’s Supply Co.:
Gardener’s Supply Co. is an award winning nationally
recognized socially responsible business, voted one of
Vermont’s “Best places to work”. They are 100%
employee owned and offer competitive wages and
outstanding benefits. The positions listed below are fulltime, salaried and employed year round.
Garden Center Supervisor: Gardener's Supply Company
is seeking a garden center supervisor for the Burlington
garden center. As the Garden Center Supervisor, you
will be responsible for ensuring an exceptional and
unique experience for our customers with quality service,
merchandising, inventory and ambiance. This person will
assist the General Manager in setting a strategic
direction for the store while ensuring the day to day
experience appropriately reflects the GSC brand. Our
ideal candidate will have a minimum of 2 years and
proven record of management success in a multidepartment team; 4 years direct customer service
experience; experience building teams, achieving
financial goals, strong problem-solving, organizational,
and project management skills. A passion for gardening,
knowledge of horticultural terminology, plant disease &
insects also required. Please send your cover letter &
resume to Gardener's Supply Company, 128 Intervale
Rd., Burlington, VT 05401 or to jobs@gardeners.com.
Assistant Green Goods Buyer: Gardener's Supply
Company is seeking an assistant green goods buyer for
our two retail garden centers. As the assistant green
goods buyer you will be responsible for maintaining a
strong in-stock position of all green good product
categories, ensuring accurate on hand inventory, data
integrity and managing ongoing vendor relationships for
our Burlington and Williston garden centers. Our ideal
candidate will have two years buying experience in the

garden center industry, plus inventory and systems
management and direct customer service experience;
strong Microsoft office and system knowledge .
Advanced nursery horticultural knowledge preferred,
previous buying experience in green goods strongly
preferred. Interested? Please send your cover letter &
resume to Gardener's Supply Company, 128 Intervale
Rd., Burlington, VT 05401 or to jobs@gardeners.com.

Delivery & Installation Lead: Gardener’s Supply
Company is seeking a Delivery & Installation lead in
our Williston garden center. As the D & I Lead, you will
be responsible for our retail and wholesale delivery
program, design consultation program and all plant
installations for both garden center locations. The D &
I lead is responsible for ensuring exceptional service
and follow up for our customers including outbound
sales calls, efficiently scheduling all deliveries and
installations as well as overseeing the gardens &
grounds at the Williston garden center and ongoing
maintenance contracts. Our ideal candidate will
have two years of direct customer service experience,
landscape design experience as well as experience
leading a team. Strong organizational and computer
skills are required, horticultural degree preferred.
Please send your cover letter & resume to Gardener’s
Supply Company, 128 Intervale Rd., Burlington, VT
05401 or to jobs@gardeners.com.
Horsford Gardens & Nursery:
Garden Center Assistant Manager: Horsford Gardens
and Nursery, based in Charlotte, is seeking an energetic
candidate who will enjoy guiding our customers through
an extensive inventory of trees, shrubs, perennials and
annuals. Working with the Garden Center Manager and
fellow teammates, the Assistant Manager will be in
charge of daily operations in retail sales and much more.
Visit www.horsfordnursery.com/jobs for a detailed job
description. This is a full-time, seasonal position from midMarch through mid-December. To apply, please send
your resume and cover letter to
charlie@horsfordnursery.com or call Charlie Proutt,
Phone: (802) 425-2811.
Full-time positions (seasonal, long-term) –2016
Detailed job descriptions available at
www.horsfordnursery.com.




8

Field Crew Member
Garden Center Assistant Manager
Horticultural Professional
Perennial Grower Assistant
Wholesale-Shrub Grower
continued on page 10

Recapping A Panel Discussion From NE Grows:
The Maintenance Quandary
by Ashley Robinson

How can we, as landscape designers, work with
maintenance professionals to ensure our projects
continue to perform aesthetically AND meet the
needs of the client?

Cost. Unanimously, cost was thought to be most
challenging issue.
“We as an industry (as designers) are not as
equipped with or comfortable with estimating or
discussing maintenance costs. We need to talk
early and more often about what that cost is and
how it affects the overall look of the site.”

We all know continued landscape care and
maintenance is essential for long-term health and
quality. This very topic was discussed among a panel
of professionals ranging from maintenance crew to
landscape architects, gardeners and designers.
“It’s the therefore after the design” says one panelist.

Getting Back to Basics. We tend to complicate things.
Getting back to basics, relying on our intuitive senses
can be our most forgotten power. Smell, sight, touch
and sound are tools we can learn to enlist more. We
spend more time devising methods, contracts, &
systems to do the work we really can only do with our
senses and our intuitions.

I attended NE Grows specifically with this panel
discussion in mind. Eager to gain other perspectives
and helpful tips, I left rather disappointed. My take,
was this discussion didn’t go far enough. Granted we
only had an hour to discuss a massive topic, but
overall the focus missed the boat. It barely scratched
the surface of what is really at the heart of the issue;
that is, there’s a disturbing trend of separation
between design and maintenance. It was discussed
that rarely do designers involve the maintenance
crew in discussions about design. If / when
maintenance is discussed, it’s more in a matter of
design (right plant for right place). This is inherent with
successful design choices, and all with good intent.
My hope, however, is to see us go a step beyond and
have us, as designers, play more of an active role in
understanding a site’s resource needs and continued
maintenance requirements to ensure the property
exhibits the results we set out to achieve.

“Irrigation is no silver bullet”
“You have to go out and scratch and sniff, look
below the surface”
So, how do we work together, understand together
and learn together about best practices for the
continued health of our gardens and landscapes? It’s
a tricky thing, striking that right balance of smart
design & thoughtful choices that define beauty,
success & ensure a lasting future for our landscapes.
Beauty can be subjective. Inherent in design is
interpretation, and while every site has it’s own unique
set of challenges and assets, it’s important to
remember the one reality they all share: maintenance.
I still believe the conversation must start with reading
the site and knowing the fundamentals. Thoughtful
choices about limiting the resources necessary to
design, build and maintain leads to lasting success.
Let’s prioritize the aspect of minimal impact on land,
body and machine by understanding the hard facts
about the footprints we leave and those that come
after.

The designer needs to be instructive, committed to the
intent to maintain the property successfully and
responsibly. A successful landscape design is
understanding how a landscape evolves, how it can
be trained to evolve the way it is intended, and how
to select the appropriate use of materials (plant,
stone, wood, etc.) to maximize the effect of the
design. This can only be achieved with the help of
maintenance professionals whom are just as
committed to the health and prosperity of the
landscape.

By understanding the involvement and level of
resources used to realize our landscape plans, we
have a better understanding of what it takes, how to
inform clients and persons we shepherd as stewards of
the land. Without this cooperation / coordination/
partnership and knowledge we are limited.

Key Topics Discussed: Communication, Cost, Back to
Basics.
Communication. Respectful, effective,
communication techniques are key whether dealing
with other professionals on site or property owners.

So what’s the take away? We, as landscape design
professionals, need to be on the property early and
often ALONG SIDE maintenance crew, arborists,
master gardeners, to understand, learn and grow
professionally for both our clients and ourselves.
Success will follow only in the wake of honesty,
integrity, and respect toward each other and the
land. Go forth and prosper!

“Have the owner involved, to make sure they know
you are their advocate” advises one panelist.
“Develop a Maintenance Manual” says another.
9

Third Time’s a Charm? or Neonicotinoid Legislation 2016
by Shannon Lee

As the state legislature convenes for the second half
of the 2015-2016 legislative session, another bill has
been introduced which aims to ban the use, sale, and
application of neonicotinoid pesticides. The pesticide
imidacloprid, the most widely used pesticide in the
world, as well as clothianiden, thiamethoxam,
donotafuran, and other members of the nitro group of
neonicotinoid pesticides have been shown to have
adverse ecological effects, including contributing to
honey-bee colony collapse disorder (CCD) and loss of
birds due to a reduction in insect populations. Other
pollinators are also affected. Three species of
bumblebees are now extinct in Vermont, including the
rusty-patched bumblebee, the Ashton cuckoo
bumblebee, and the American bumblebee. The
yellow banded bumblebee is seriously imperiled in
Vermont. Bumblebees, native bees, and honey bees
pollinate native plants and crops in Vermont and,
therefore, are vital to Vermont’s ecology and
agriculture.
Those in support of continued use of these pesticides
appreciate the efficacy of neonicotinoids for helping
get their crops to market. However, the EPA in
January, 2016 released a long awaited assessment of
imidacloprid and how it affects bees. The results were
so dire the EPA may make efforts to restrict or limit use
by years end. Once again, a tough choice lies ahead
for those charged with the task of creating sound
public policy.

S.200, introduced by Senators Pollina and Zuckerman,
will soon be given its first reading and introduction to
the General Assembly of the State of Vermont. The bill
proposes regulation of this class of pesticides. In 2014,
S.232 was introduced by Senator Galbraith. It
contained similar language to S.200 and found its way
to the Senate Committee on Agriculture, and the
Agency of Agriculture reported on the uses and
impacts of neonicotinoids in January 2015. Further
study was conducted in the summer of 2015. Findings
are available online or by requesting the report from
the Agency. 2015 also saw the introduction of H.236
by Representatives Pearson of Burlington, Martin of
Wolcott, and McCullough of Williston. This bill landed
with the House Committee on Agriculture and Forest
Products. It remains in their hands awaiting further
action.
Will S.200 have a similar fate? Or might it be enacted
and made law? As Legislative Committee chair for
the VNLA and liaison to the state legislature, I
welcome member feedback on the issue. Green
Works would like to present our organization's position
on this legislation to our lawmakers. Please contact
me by email at msl@pshift.com. Your input is greatly
appreciated. Thanks in advance for sharing your
knowledge and thoughts.

Best College Reviews Names
Top 50 College Arboretums

continued from page 8

Join the team at Horsford Gardens and Nursery.
Applicants must be able to work in a fast-paced,
outdoor environment, and possess great customer
service and people skills. Horticultural education and
knowledge of basic botanical concepts is essential.
College education in plant and soil science and/or
professional experience in the horticultural field
preferred. Experience operating machinery is also a plus.
If you are interested in applying, please send your
resume and cover letter to charlie@horsfordnursery.com
or contact Charlie Proutt, Phone: (802) 425-2811.

Best College Reviews is a ranking
service for American colleges and
universities. They just released their list
of the 50 Most Beautiful College
Arboretums. Two institutions in
Connecticut made the cut. For more
information and to see spectacular
photos please visit: http://
www.bestcollegereviews.org/features/
most-beautiful-arboretums/.

10

Winter. Bring it On.

!"#$%&'()&*$+",()&*$-()&,./$0&12
+34(".)("$!),56"$-()&,$!78."89
:478$.4781"$;48222

<8""./$=387>./$?"8&./$?(4#"85&'$-"8"&&5)(./$)&*$@8)..".
A4).,)($)&*$0&()&*$+",()&*$-()&,.
=B"15)(,9$=""*$C5D".
A458$E4'./$=,8)#$+),,("./$F()&G",.$)&*$C),.

OESCO has everything you need to handle the season.
Snowplows • Snowblowers • Shovels • Insulated Gloves
Ventrac and other brands you know and trust, including:

Call for a catalog or demo

CALL or STOP BY

800-634-5557
www.oescoinc.com

7a.m.–5p.m. Monday - Friday
7a.m.–12 noon Saturday
You will always talk to a
person who can help

8 Ashfield Road / Rt. 116, Conway, MA 01341

Use our QR code to order anytime!

HIJ$+".,$=,8"",/$KL3"8.,/$CK$JMJJI
-34&"N$OPMQR$SPHTHJJJ$?)DN$OPMQR$SPUTPJJJ
%L)5(N$5&;4V&"#B214L$+">N$###2&"#B214L

since 1954

YEARS

THE VERMONT MULCH COMPANY
The Vermont Mulch Company is located on the banks of the majestic Connecticut River,
in the far southeast corner of Vermont. This strategic location allows us to effectively
service Vermont, New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Connecticut, Eastern New York and New Jersey markets.

Premium Bark Mulch
* Available Bulk or Bagged

Hemlock Mulch
Aged Hemlock Mulch
Fragrant Forest
Dark Bark
Cedar Mulch
Hardwood Mulch
Colorlast
Playground Chips

Don Patenaude
802-323-3687

DPATENAUDE@THEVERMONTMULCH.COM

David O’Sullivan
802-490-4932

DOSULLIVAN@THEVERMONTMULCH.COM

WWW.THEVERMONTMULCH.COM
EMAIL: INFO@THEVERMONTMULCH.COM

11

New England GROWS Conference Wraps Up
Sets 2016 Dates
New England GROWS, the Northeast's largest
educational conference and green industry
exposition, wrapped up on December 4 after three
days of seminars and hands-on learning, combined
with an exhibition showcasing the latest innovations
from hundreds of leading industry exhibitors.
 
Opening day saw record-breaking attendance and
overall the event attracted nearly 9000 green industry
professionals to Boston. Renowned authors, respected
educators, influential environmentalists and successful
entrepreneurs were among the many experts at the
conference who addressed nearly every aspect of
the green industry including sustainable landscape
design, pest management, safe chain saw handling,
hardscaping techniques, worker safety, diverse
workforce management, giant tree propagation,
proper plant selection, organic turf care, nursery
management, successful marketing and more.
 
Previously scheduled in mid-February, this is the first
New England GROWS conference held the week
following Thanksgiving. For attendees it was an
opportunity to absorb new ideas and prepare to
implement them well in advance of spring operations.
In his session on "Proven Strategies for Achieving
Business Success," speaker Dan Foley of DHCC
Management Corporation addressed the
advantages of the new dates:
 
"I feel that New England GROWS has provided a
real gift to each of you... It is the gift of leverage
and time, as you now have 109 days until your
spring operations launch to implement the ideas
that you take away from GROWS. That's 55-60 full
business days to act and make a real difference in
your business!"
 
The new dates for GROWS received positive
comments from participants across the Northeast, like:
 
"I see everybody I know at GROWS!"
- Karen R Longeteig * Going Native Gardens &
COGdesign * Lexington, MA
 
"This was the first time I was able to attend in quite
a few years. It was well worth the [time] to meet
and learn about products and suppliers in one
concentrated place."
- Bruce Wildes * LMC Group * Cumberland, ME
 
"All the speakers were great, and I had the
chance to talk to new vendors. So lovely to see all
the plants, too."
- Susie Talbot * Forget-Me-Not Gardens * Essex, MA

 "I never cease to be amazed at New England
GROWS' ability to stay fresh and up-to-date. The
new dates... are a VERY bold move that seems to
have paid off!"
- Jon Ciffolillo * Greenscape, Inc. East Taunton, MA

 
Top regional and national vendors showed off the
latest products and technology for the green industry.
Many vendors offered substantial discounts to
attendees and the show floor was buzzing with
commerce.
 
Exhibitor Kate French of OESCO in Conway, MA
summed up feedback that was shared by many
vendors at the show,
"This was a kick-it-in-the-pants over February's
GROWS show!  We were surprised how many new
people became customers and how many of the
ones who had not been attending for years
returned. On the first day of the show we raced
past our [sales] goal numbers and never looked
back! It was a wonderful show and we'll be back
next year."

 
When commenting on the success of the show,
GROWS Executive Director Virginia Wood said, "From
the outset, it was clear that the new dates might be a
challenge for a portion of our stakeholders and we
are grateful to those who enthusiastically supported
the 'new' New England GROWS. Some veteran
exhibitors, however, were not able to participate
because two shows in one year were not feasible for
them budget-wise. Others decided to sit this
December out and see how the show performed.
Right now, our renewal rate is great and early reports
indicate the expo hall will be jam-packed in 2016," she
concluded.
 
During the show New England GROWS debuted a
new video - now available to everyone in the green
industry - which highlights the advantages of a career
in commercial horticulture and arboriculture. Finding
Your Place in the Green Industry is available on
YouTube (https://www.youtube.com/watch?
v=5HLJz62Bulo)and already has had more than 1100
views since its launch in early December. 
 
The next New England GROWS will be held November
30 - December 2, 2016 at the Boston Convention and
Exhibition Center. For the latest information, follow
New England GROWS on Facebook, Twitter, and
Pinterest, visit NewEnglandGrows.org, or call (508)
653-3009.
12

organic apple production (the reason many of the crabapey Richards and I think we have some great
ples were cut down in order to reduce scab and other
put together, with a focus on about 20
diseases) with full details online
unias (near the boathouse), several new coleus
(http://www.uvm.edu/~organica/), and the third year of
new sweet potato vines. One of my favorites
by Dr.
Leonard
- UVM
Extension Horticulturist
trials
on hardy
grapePerry
varieties
(http://pss.uvm.edu/grape/).
most unusual is the new Pretty Much Picasso
et purple with a lime green rim. Another
Submitted by Leonard Perry
you're reading
thisis(ifthe
soon
after it appears), another In a study published
new andAsunusual
selection
mealycup
semester is underway at UVM. Taking a look again at
November 6 in the
allyfun Blue Emotion, tall, blue florets with

news from the U

this semester's course offerings, and enrollments, will
Journal of
give you a flavor of the department. On-campus
Environmental Quality,
courses this spring 2016 semester (and instructor and
Don Ross in his
AS garden features about 50% plants from
student numbers/course maximums, as of this writing)
research found that
w Gardens
(Proven Winners and Selections
include: A Bug's Life (Lewins, 88/175), Drawing and
streambank erosion
bout 40%
from DS
Cole Growers,
and about
Painting
Botanicals
(Neroni, 15/15),
Commercial Plant
often may not be the
d (All-America
Selections
and
others).
I hope (Morris,
Propagation
(Starrett,
35/48),
Permaculture
culprit as believed in
e these gardens
if in
Burlington
the foot
of Farm
23/44), Soil
Fertility
(Gorres,(at
25/40),
Organic
phosphorus lake
Planning
(Schattman,
24/20), Biological
Control (Izzo,
pollution and
y the ECHO
center
and boathouse),
not only for
Ecological
Landscape
Designnext
(Hurley, 20/20),
subsequent algae
ut as the11/25),
beds are
planned
to be different
Bioremediation
(staff,
28/40),
Professional
growth. Graduate
planned construction and road reconfiguration
Development (Neher, 26/30). (The Greenhouse
student Lily
Operations
course
was
cancelled
for
Spring
due
to
not
other researchers
published
an
FoundationCalderwood
Acct ED99,and
79 Upper
College Road,
Kingston,
page 9)
being able to find an instructor.) In addition, there are assessment of hops pests and how to manage them in
RI, 02881.
my online courses in Home Vegetable Growing
the Journal of Integrated Pest Management.
al in the(62/60),
development
of
the
Learning
Landscape
Indoor Plants (25/25), Garden Flowers (32/25),
ScottI Pfister,
VT State
Pathologist
andhas
Green
RI. In 2008,
heand
wasFoliage
recognized
for This
his past
many
Flowers
(22/25).
winter break
It wasformer
announced
in October
that UVM
begun its
Works
supporter
has
left
his
position
in
June
at
the
s to theoffered
green industry
and
received
the
online courses in Home Hops Growing (18/18), most ambitious fundraising campaign ever, $500
Vermont Forest
Department.
hasMove
taken a
honor ofand
being
one one
of the
to be inducted
into (13/15).
a new
on first
Pollinators
and Perennials
million.Protection
From the UVM
release onScott
this "The
This coming
summer
I'll once again
Mountains
Campaign”,
it will also make
position with
USDA-APHIS
in Washington,
DC strategic
and will be
Hall of Fame.
He was
also inducted
into offer
the an online
course on
Perennial
Garden Design, and a new
one
investments
to advance
UVM’s
strongest
-d Agricultural
Hall
of Fame.
coordinating
the USDA’s
programs
for the
Asian programs
longhorned
on Home Herb Growing.
in
human
health,
the
environment,
the
humanities,
beetle, emerald ash borer, and firewood pest mitigation. We
and STEM, among others. Significant upgrades to
will miss him
and wish him and his family well.
n Ken's memory may be made to The Kenneth
Each semester we have two faculty meetings a
selected facilities on campus are planned as well,
RINLAmonth,
Horticultural
Scholarship,
URI
every other week, and this past fall a key
such as the STEM Complex now under construction,
emphasis and day retreat were spent on the
the Alumni House on Summit Street and the UVM
Ecological Agriculture major, and the courses that
Medical Center’s new Inpatient Building." A major
relate to it, and how. In other PSS news, including that current focus of UVM was summed up by UVM
of alums, Alison Ellis '01 is owner of Floral Artistry in
President Tom Sullivan, “The time has come for UVM to
Jericho, and Henry Cammack '13 is dairy herd
move forward, to pursue excellence with even greater
manager at Shelburne Farms. (If you're an alum and
confidence and to assert our position among the
have news, do send it along. You can see what other nation’s finest public research universities.’’
alums are doing on the link at the PSS homepage
http://www.uvm.edu/~pss/).
In the last issue of The Dirt I updated you on Little
Bluestems' Vermont performance and ratings
Michael Murphy, a Business major and Sustainable
(Schizachyrium) in the final year of our trials as part of
Landscape Horticulture minor, was awarded the
the National Ornamental Grass Trials (grasstrials.com).
Rachel Butterworth Dietz Scholarship from the Boston
Our best over the 4 years, with great fall color, was
Flower Exchange. This award comes with a check for
‘Minnesota Blue Heaven’. With the severe winter and
$5,000. http://www.thebostonflowerexchange.com/.
last winter’s severe temperatures, it is amazing that as
Mike is the 2015-16 Vice President of the UVM
many of the warm-season switchgrasses (Panicum)
Horticulture Club and last summer worked at Horsford
survived as did. Several of the switchgrass cultivars in
Nursery and Gardens in Charlotte, VT.
which new plants had been replaced in the fall of
2014 had several die. Of those living, overall results
A new volume of Agroecology, in the works for 3
were similar to the previous year, only with slightly more
years, of Ernesto Mendez and others was published.
growth (a bit higher and wider), and a bit better floral
Just recently Ernesto won the CALS Vogelman
display on several cultivars. Most cultivars that had
Research award.
several plants were quite variable in growth, as in the
past, among the plants. Most uniform among all
PSS Graduate student Kristin Workman was one of the
plants of a cultivar were ‘Dewey Blue’ and ‘Prairie
hosts during the "Meet and Taste Your Farmland Event" Sky’. Overall best, similar to 2014, were ‘Northwind’,
on Nov 17.
‘Prairie Sky’, and ‘Shenandoah’. Also good this year
overall was ‘Rotstrahlbusch’. One plant each were
continued on page 17

13

New Invasive Pest Found in Vermont: Red Pine
Scale confirmed in Rutland and Orange Counties
by Jim Esden, Forester with Vermont Department of Forests,
Parks, and Recreation
For some time there
They deposit small,
have been reports of
yellow eggs in a
“hot spots” of red
white, woolly ovisac. 
pine mortality across
Males are smaller,
our region.  An effort
have wings and
funded by the US
mature in a loosely
Forest Service and led
woven, white
by a graduate
cocoon.  A
student from UNH is
secondary pest,
looking into the
sometimes
situation and
associated with RPS
beginning to find
is the turpentine
some clues.  While the
beetle, recognized
team continues to
by the pitch tubes
look at a variety of
created as the tree
possible causal
exudes sap in an
agents, one result of
effort to push insects
Red Pine Scale
this research is that
out of the tree.
red pine scale (RPS)
The red pine scale is
has been confirmed in both Rutland and Orange
not very mobile.  Crawlers are spread by wind, small
Counties.  The scale was found at very low population animals and the movement of infested materials by
levels and the research is ongoing, so authorities are
humans. There are two generations per year.  RPS
not yet willing to label RPS as the primary cause of
sucks sap through the thin inner bark on small twigs –
tree mortality.  Other tree health issues may be
leading to flagging and desiccation; decline is swift.
involved.
Mortality occurs in 3-5 years after infestation, but often
the infestation may not be detected for 2-3 years.
Scale insects are generally small, covered with a waxy
“shell” and usually suck sap from plants. Red pine
Control of red pine scale is difficult.  RPS is susceptible
scale is an invasive from Asia that is thought to have
to temperatures below -10 F and multiple exposures of
come to North America on trees planted at the 1939
long durations increase mortality rates. Since we do
New York Worlds Trade Fair. Since then, it has been
not yet know how widespread Red Pine Scale is within
found in southern New England, New Jersey and
the state, best management practices would be to
eastern Pennsylvania.  More recently, RPS was
take precautions to slow any potential spread. The
detected in NH in 2012 and ME in 2014.  Red pine,
State of New Hampshire recommends harvesting
Pinus resinosa, is the only native pine tree that is
stands in winter when the insect is not capable of
susceptible.
moving on its own, to chip tops so twigs and branches
dry out more quickly, and to ensure equipment is free
Red pine scale is difficult to notice and identify.  The
of plant material before leaving the site.
first sign of infestation is often stand-wide “flagging” at
the base of the live crowns.  Branches change from
green to yellow and then brown from the bottom of
the crown to top.  Inspection of the fine branches
Article reprinted with permission
VT Dept. Forest, Parks & recreation.
may reveal “flocculence”, a woolly, cocoon-like
structure that protects the developing insects.  To
Photo courtesy of Bugwood.org
confirm an identification, lab inspection with a
microscope will show larvae or adults under thin bark
flakes. Adult females are brownish-red and wingless. 
14

Type to enter text

15

News from the Agency of Agriculture
by Tim Schmalz, Plant Pathologist
Regulatory and Legislative Update From Montpelier
The freshly revised nursery rule has been in effect for a
year now, with no major hiccups to report. Of course,
the changes were not very substantial from a nursery
or landscaping community perspective (they
included separation of the ginseng portions from the
nursery rule, and added language reflecting statutory
changes made in 2010), but it is always nice to be
able to report smooth sailing on the regulatory scene,
so I am taking advantage of the opportunity up front.
The 2016 legislative session is fast approaching as I
write this (December 22), and as always, we expect
to see the usual variety of proposals, some new and
some familiar, from across the street. Aside from the
obvious issues facing the legislature when they return
for business on January 5 (budget deficits, worker and
child protections, school funding/consolidation and
property taxes), a number of other topics are on the
minds of our Senators and Representatives, as
evidenced by the bills already appearing on the
legislative website (http://legislature.vermont.gov/bill/
released/2016). I encourage everyone to check
these out from time to time, and that website provides
links tracking the progress and changes to these
proposals as they wend their way through the
process.
As usual, there are a number of bills of importance to
VNLA membership, as well as to the agricultural
community generally. Introductions thus far include a
bill that would (in addition to general forestry
management housekeeping) address theft of plants,
seeds, roots, and other plant products from private
forestlands (S.237), a bill regarding the cultivation and
use of cannabis for recreational purposes (S.241), a
bill limiting liability associated with agritourism (S.231),
a bill proposing increased regulation of neonicitinoid
(Merit/Imidicloprid) pesticides (S.200), increased
support for Farm-to-School programs (S.169), several
bills relating to siting of solar and other renewable
energy projects on agricultural soils, a bill creating a
regenerative agricultural certification program (S.159),
bills to retroactively exempt bark mulch and mulch
inputs from sales and use taxes (S.146 and S.147 –
introduced last April, but no movement as yet), and,
of course, revisions to the Required Agricultural
Practices Rules, which is currently ongoing.

Although the Required Ag Practices rule has primarily
been focused on mitigating nutrient discharges to
waters from animal housing operations, they apply to
crop and other farms as well. There may be
important impacts to some nurseries and landscaping
operations. I encourage everyone to review them at
the Agency webpage (a link is available on the front
page – Agriculture.vermont.gov/water-quality), and
provide comments if they have any.
Obviously, there will be more legislation proposed as
the session gets underway, and I will do my best to
keep track of those bills that may impact the nursery
and landscaping community. Expect a lot of interest
in cannabis and hemp during this session, pesticide
regulation and endangered species protections, as
well as water quality subjects, all of which may be
sources of headaches and/or opportunities for
nursery, landscaping and greenhouse operators.
If anyone has specific questions about any of these
topics or the associated bills/regulations, please send
me an email or feel free to call, and I will do my best
to help sort out the details and provide whatever
background or insight I can. At the very least, I should
be able to point you in the right direction for answers
or assistance.
Fir-Blueberry Rust
I had a couple of inquiries this summer regarding
strange, coppery colored, swollen twigs with
misshapen leaves on highbush blueberries. The twigs
were on newer growth, showed no sign of producing
fruit or flowers, and tended to be bunched up in a
broomlike structure. The growers were
understandably concerned there was something
dreadfully wrong, and what was the likely fate of their
plantings. I have seen this problem in Vermont
previously, and it is admittedly strange to behold. The
culprit is fir-blueberry rust (Pucciniastrum
goeppertianum), which attacks members of
Vaccinium and Abies genera across North America
as far south as Mexico.
Because this fungus attacks both Vaccinium
(blueberries, huckleberries, cranberries, etc.) as well as
Abies (true firs) species, it poses a double threat to
nursery and landscaping professionals and farmers, as
both of these genera contain numerous popular
ornamental and crop plants. (Imagine the dismay of
an industrious Christmas tree grower who has planted
continued on page 19

16

Book Review

continued from page 13

outstanding, two of ‘Rehbraun’, ‘Thundercloud’,
and ‘Trailblazer’ (not officially in trials, and only
one plant).

The Green Works Winter Meeting & Trade Show’s
featured keynote speaker is Claudia West. Below is a
description of her new book, co-authored with Thomas
Rainer. Claudia’s book will be on sale at the meeting.
Autographs are free! Below is a book description with
reviews.

In other research, grad student Annie White has
analyzed her masses of data on pollinators and
perennials, collected over 3 years, and is the
process of summarizing this and finishing up this
spring. So watch future issues here for her results,
and presentations including at our fall
greenhouse conference. Even after my June
official retirement, I'll continue coordinating the
Northeast Greenhouse Conference to be held
this fall, November 8-10, but at a new location-the Holiday Inn in Boxborough MA. If you've
been around a while, you may remember our
NEGC meetings there in the 1980s when it was
the Sheraton. Sarah Salatino of your Association
is the new Vermont representative to the Board
and our planning committee. We are well
underway with the planning, so watch for the
program which should be out this summer. Also
watch for upcoming garden tours I'll be leading
again this year, sponsored by VNLA.

Planting in a Post-Wild World: Designing Plant
Communities for Resilient Landscapes - By Thomas
Rainer and Claudia West.
This book is a real-world guide for creating beautiful,
ecologically connected landscapes.
“There is not a designer or property owner that would not
benefit from their approach”.
Larry Weaner, APLD, founder of New Directions in the
American Landscape

This groundbreaking guide presents a powerful
alternative to traditional horticulture: designed
plantings that function like naturally occurring plant
communities.
Thomas Rainer and Claudia West, two leading voices
in ecological landscape design, reveal how plants fit
together in nature and how to use this knowledge to
create landscapes that are resilient, beautiful, and
diverse. As practical as it is inspiring, Planting in a PostWild World is an optimistic manifesto pointing the way
to the future of planting design.

What Are You
Planting Today?

Media Reviews:
"This lavishly illustrated manifesto…applies broadly to
everything from water features to rooftops and vast
acreages to urban backyards. Using detailed
examples and simple graphics, Rainer and West make
a convincing case for rethinking our relationship to
plant design."
—Architectural Digest Online

H)E3#F<,,#I&%B,3#J)%/3C2#K.<%#2.<%B3#A.%#
L&'.%.<20#(3),;(K#M3%3CC&),2
N3#()L3#)#(<'3#23,3B;&.C#.A#L)%&3;&32
O2E#A.%#.<%#=(.,32),3#)L)&,)>&,&;K#,&2;
P3,&L3%K#)L)&,)>,3

"Inspires us to design plantings that function like
naturally occurring plant communities. It also instructs
how to manage them, not doing painstaking and
often impractical garden maintenance, plant by
plant, as in traditional horticulture."
—Margaret Roach, A Way to Garden

!"##$%&'(#)$*+',)-.
!"#$%&'()*#+&,,#-.)/0#12234
"56 "78 9898
/)+.0-+#$10"'.
!"#$ $%&'#
!()*"#$ $+&)*"#$, -

"A beautifully written and illustrated guide to how we
should be designing our landscapes from now on out.
…Thank heavens someone has finally written this
book."
—Root Simple

.&/&01$ $2"3'#$4(567863
96*)60*"#$ $+&)*"#$, :1;63$;(&30$8#$<;")<6$(3$8#$"==(>)176)1

"Offers strategies for more resilient, self-sustaining
landscapes, especially welcome after our droughtplagued summer.…The gardens in the book are

:&2&;#.<%#=3>2&;3?#===@A<,,B&%B,3')%/3C2@B.*
#D&E3#<2#.C#F)B3>..EG
17

continued to page 21

Recap - First Winter Workshop
December 9, 2015
Green Works hosted its
first Winter Workshop on
December 9, 2015 at
the Charlotte Park and
& Wildlife Refuge.
Approximately 15
people were able to
take the “Invasive
Species Management
Tour” on a sunny and
unseasonably warm
afternoon.

areas, description of the
areas, how the areas
are used, and details on
how to manage invasive
species. This plan has
enabled the Committee
to prioritize their invasive
control projects
together with a method
of keeping track of the
290 acres.
This was a great first
“winter workshop” of the
season. Look for a full

The tour, led by Sue
Smith, is a culmination
of a team of volunteers
who have been working
to manage an impossibly
dense infestation of
buckthorn, honeysuckle and
poison parsnip, for the benefit
of the local human and
animal community. The tour
offered tips and techniques
on the control of invasive
species and they discussed
specifics on how they are able
to manage this 290 acre
property.
Take aways were tips and
techniques for the control of
invasive species and
specifically how they are
being managed on this
property.
The Charlotte Park and
Wildlife Refuge is 290 acres
of open meadows, active
agricultural fields, forests,
wetlands, and trails with
views of Lake Champlain,
the Green Mountains, and
the Adirondacks. Native
plants and animals make
this scenic part of
Charlotte their home.
The Refuge is managed by the Charlotte Park and
Wildlife Refuge Oversight Committee. They have a
Park Management Plan and in 2009 the LANDS
Program at UVM and the Nature Conservancy drew
up an Invasive Species Management Plan (ISMP). The
ISMP Plan includes a map of the various ecological

schedule in the
coming weeks for
more workshop
opportunities in
February through
April.

18

continued from page 16

a block of blueberries adjacent to their trees as a
means of providing some additional summer income,
only to discover their plants aren’t getting along.)
Typical of most rust fungi, this one requires two hosts to
complete its life cycle. From a plant pathologist’s
standpoint, the cycle begins on the fir host.
Symptoms of infection on firs include yellowish
swellings or pustules appearing on both sides of fir
needles in spring, which develop into elongate
tubular structures throughout the summer. These
tubular (or ‘aecial’) structures produce the spores that
infect the Vaccinium alternate hosts in late summer
and fall, or the following spring. In the west, aecia
have been observed emerging on second-year fir
needles, suggesting the fungus is capable of
overwintering in the affected needles. Infection of
the alternate host, blueberries and huckleberries,
occurs when the spores produced in the aecia land
on susceptible tissues in late summer or fall. Infection
results in swollen, red-orange, deformed twigs on the
blueberry plant, typically clustered together in a
characteristic witches-broom growth.
Fortunately, unlike other familiar rusts (e.g. white pine
blister rust) there is no ‘repeating’ stage of this
pathogen. In other rusts, the alternate host repeating
stage (or uredinial stage) produces spores that will
spread to other parts of the same plant or to other
members of the species in the area and start new
infections, which results in exponential growth of
potential inoculum throughout the growing season.
Fir-blueberry rust has no uredinial stage, so this
opportunity for increased infection on the Vaccinium
host is not available, and these initial infections on the
Vaccinium hosts cannot spread from plant to plant.
For those of you who are interested, the stage
observed on vaccinium hosts is called the telial stage.
As the Vaccinium host infection progresses, it
becomes perennial in the plant, which does pose an
ongoing management problem for fir growers
attempting to deal with the problem on their
ornamental, Christmas trees, or timber stock firs when
nearby Vaccinium hosts cannot be eradicated.
Reinfection of the fir hosts occurs when the Vaccinium
infection produces spores (basidiospores) in the
spring, which are released during periods of cool wet
weather. Fir needles are most susceptible to infection
during the first two weeks or so of shoot elongation,
which is the best time for managers to apply
protectant fungicides to these hosts for a variety of
needle diseases, not just fir-blueberry rust
(rhizosphaera needle cast, fir-fern rust, for example).

Approaches to management of fir-blueberry rust
depends on the host you wish to protect. Most
management guidelines start with recommendations
to remove the host you do not value within about
1,000 feet of the valued host. Obviously, this may be
impractical for many growers. As mentioned above,
fungicide sprays will provide protection for the fir
needles if applied at the appropriate time during bud
break and shoot elongation in the spring. Because
the disease is systemic in the Vaccinium hosts,
management of the disease in these plants is harder.
As there are no listed remedial treatments, infected
plants should be destroyed, and prevention of
infection becomes the best remedy. So, scouting and
prompt removal of unwanted firs, fungicide treatment
of those firs you wish to keep, and continued vigilance
and eradication in the berry patch are the best
medicine for the berry growers.
Ticks and Human Disease
A long warm fall provides ample opportunity for ticks
to mature and feed on a variety of animal hosts,
including us. As part of the Plant Industry Section’s
ongoing disease vector survey and management
activities, we have been doing surveys for ticks and
tick-borne diseases across Vermont this fall. Alan
Graham, our State Entomologist, and Patti Casey,
Vector Management Coordinator, along with several
summer field technicians, surveyed for and collected
710 deer ticks (AKA blacklegged ticks, the vector of
Lyme disease) from Bennington, Windsor, Grand Isle,
Franklin, and Chittenden counties. The ticks they
collected are being identified and tested in the
Agency lab for three human diseases– Lyme,
anaplasmosis, and babesiosis. Lyme disease is
considered established and widespread across
Vermont (and the rest of New England), but there has
been little work done on the presence and extent of
the other two.
We will be conducting laboratory analysis of the ticks
over the winter and hope to have results sometime
this upcoming spring. Hopefully, the results will
provide basic information on the extent of disease in
the tick population in Vermont, and will help inform
decision making in the public health community.
As a reminder to everyone, cold winter temperatures
do not kill ticks, so expect to see active adult ticks any
day during the winter when temperatures rise above
45 or so and when the ground is not snow covered or
frozen. Adult deer ticks become active after the first
winter frost, but immature ticks (nymphs) are present
and can bite humans and pets during the summer
months (especially July and August, which is when
19

continued to page 21

Your Landscaping Resource

We are
now a
distributor for locally
owned North Country
Organics.

We are Vermont’s
distributor for
A.M. Leonard, the
landscaper’s choice
for professional tools.

We are a
distributor for ARS,
manufacturer of the
industry’s best quality
professional pruning
tools.

Affordable
rates.
Delivery to your job
site when you need it.
Chris, Sandy, Ray, Marie, Brian,Tom & Zoe

Landscape Distribution Center
472 Marshall Avenue, Williston, Vermont
Winter Wholesale Hours:

Weekdays 9:00am–6:00pm, Sat. 9:00am–6:00pm, Sun. 10:00am–5:00pm
Phone: 802-658-2433 • Fax: 802-860-2936 • E-mail: wholesale@gardeners.com

1177_Dirt_Jan16.indd 1

20

12/8/15 11:37 AM

continued from page 19

continued from page 17

most of the confirmed human Lyme cases occurred
in Vermont last year). On the bright side, it takes 24
hours for a feeding/attached tick to transmit most
diseases, including Lyme disease, so just having a
tick on your body does not automatically indicate
infection. Check yourself every evening when you
have been working outside, especially when along
edges and in high grasses, and if you find an
embedded tick, carefully remove the tick by lifting
from under the head and mouthparts – don’t grab
and squeeze the body of the tick, and don’t twist
the tick around which might leave mouthparts
embedded in your skin. Don’t panic, take your
time, and make certain to get the whole tick out.

compelling in a more naturalistic, wilder way than
typical beds and borders…the advice on creating
harmonious communities of plants suited to the
conditions where you live transcends style."
—Seattle Times
"A useful and thorough guide to ecologically
oriented designers."
—Metropolis

About the Authors:
Thomas Rainer is a landscape architect, teacher, and
writer who lives in Arlington, Virginia. He has designed
landscapes for the United States Capitol grounds, the
Martin Luther King, Jr. Memorial, and the New York
Botanical Garden. He has been featured in a range of
publications including the New York Times, Landscape
Architecture Magazine, and Home & Design.

Also, be aware of the symptoms of Lyme and other
tick-borne diseases. Details are available on the
Vermont Department of Health (http://
healthvermont.gov/prevent/zoonotic/tickborne/
ticks.aspx), and the Centers for Disease Control and
Prevention (http://www.cdc.gov/ticks/) websites.

Claudia West has an extensive background in
horticulture, ecology, and environmental
restoration. She is a consultant for North Creek
Nurseries and has also worked for landscape
architects Wolfgang Oehme and Carol
Oppenheimer and for Sylva Native Nursery.

So, with that, best wishes for a healthy and happy
holiday season and new year. I am looking forward
to the 2016 winter meeting and the 2016 growing
season. As always, if you have any questions or

Don’t miss Claudia on February 12, 2016 at
Green Works Winter Meeting & Trade Show!

21

Industry Calendar
February 12, 2016
Green Works/VNLA Annual Winter
Meeting & Trade Show
Sheraton Burlington Hotel &
Conference Center
S. Burlington, VT 05403
www.greenworksvermont.org

February 27, 2016
Perennial Inspired: Mid-Atlantic
Regional Symposium
Baltimore, MD
www.perennialplant.org
March 9-10, 2016
Ecological Landscape Alliance
Annual Conference &
Eco-Marketplace
UMASS Amherst Campus
www.ela.org

February 13-15, 2016
NOFA/VT Winter Conference
UVM Davis Center
www.nofavt.org/annual-events/
winter-conference
February 23, 2016
Webinar:  Principles of Ecological
Landscape Design-Getting it Right!
12:00-1:00pm
www.ecolandscaping.org/event/
principles-of-ecological-landscapedesign-getting-it-right/

April 7, 2016
Vermont Organics Recycling Summit
- 10th Annual
Vermont Technical College
Randolph, VT
www.compostingvermont.org
August 1-5, 2016
34th Perennial Plant Symposium
Minneapolis, MN
www.perennialplant.org

September 23, 2016
Perennial Inspirations & Concepts
Northeastern Regional Symposium
Mass Hort Center
Wellesley, MA
www.perennialplant.org
November 9-10, 2016
Northeast Greenhouse Conference &
Expo
Holiday Inn
Boxborough, MA
hwww.negreenhouse.org
November 30 - December 2, 2016
New England Grows
Boston Convention & Exhibition
Center
Boston, MA
www.newenglandgrows.org
March 3-5, 2017
Vermont Flower Show
CVE
Essex Junction, VT

!"#$%"&'()$)**#"+'!"$,'
-./+)0"+)'()$)**#"+'1$/2)$0'
'
'
'
'

3'4+"567)$$8'9#++':/";'<'!"#$%"&='>?'@ABAB'
C@DECBFED33A'
G)$)**#"+%"$,H0I$%J+/7"+K*)L'
22

THANK YOU TO ALL OUR VERMONT FLOWER SHOW SPONSORS!

Sponsors
50th Anniversary Supporters

Presenting Sponsors for 2015

Karl & Diane Neuse, Middlebury, VT

Bag Sponsors
Cooking Display Sponsors

Media Sponsors

Contributing Sponsors
Deborah Healey, Shelburne, VT

Daily Seminar Sponsor

CW
LLC.

Lighting

In-Kind Sponsors:
Agway, Essex
Agway, Middlebury
Aquarius Landscape Sprinklers, Inc.
Ash ley Robinson, Landscape
Designer
Bristol Electronics
Center for Technology, Essex
Charley MacMartin, Queen City
Soil & Stone
Church Hill Landscapes, Inc
Claussen’s Florist & Greenhouse
Cobble Creek Nursery
Craig Scribner Trucking
CW Stageworks
Denice Carpentry
Dixondale Farms
Eben Markowski & Heidi
Mahoney
Emily Leopold
Evergreen Gardens
Fairfax Perennial Farm
Full Circle Gardens
Gardener’s Supply Company
Ginkgo Design, LLC
Green Feet Gardening
Greenhaven Gardens & Nursery
Green Mountain Compost
Green Mountain Florist Supply

Homer Wells
Horsford Gardens & Nursery
Iron Arts
Jeffersonville Quarry
Kate Brook Nursery
Katie Raycroft-Meyer
Landshapes
Long Leaf Landscaping, LLC
Longacres Nursery
Marie P. Limoge, Designer for
diStefano Landscaping
Marijke’s Perennials Plus
Masefield Dry Stone Masonry
Matt Atkins Property Services, LLC
Melita J. Bass, VCH
Millican Nursery
Milton CAT
Mur phy Landscape Design &
Sitework
NES Rentals
Nortrax
No Waste Tape
Nor th Branch Farm and Gardens
Northern Nurseries
Northland Job Corp
Nourse Farms
Pete’s Pines and Needles Tree
Farm

23

|

Audio

|

Staging

Prescott Galleries
Price Chopper
Prides Corner Farm
River’s Bend Design,
Garden LLC
Design
Rocky Dale Gardens
R.R. Charlebois, Inc.
Shaw Hill Nursery
Shelburne Farms
SJC Garden Services
Sisters of Nature
South Forty Nursery
Starflower Studio
Swift Greenhouses, Inc.
Techo-Bloc
Trowel Trades Supply, Inc.
University of Vermont Extension
UV M Extension Master Gardeners
UVM Horticulture Club
Van Berkum Nursery
Vermont Department of
Forest, Parks & Recreation
Vermont Garden Railway Society
Vermont H’Art
Vermont Mulch Company
Vermont Natural Ag Products
Vermont Technical College
Wright Family Farm, LLC

55

PO Box 92
North Ferrisburgh, VT 05473

visit us at www.greenworksvermont.org

24