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https://en.wikipedia.

org/wiki/Melanesian_socialism
Melanesian socialism
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The concept of Melanesian socialism was first advocated by Father Walter Lini of
the New Hebrides (now Vanuatu), who became the country's first prime minister u
pon its independence from France and the United Kingdom in 1980. Lini's views on
socialism were inspired by Julius Nyerere's experiments in African socialism in
Tanzania.
Lini believed
and customs,
the communal
ceptible; the
African ways

that socialism was inherently compatible with Melanesian societies


including the emphasis on communal welfare over individualism, and
ownership and working of land. In this, Nyerere's influence is per
latter stressed the similarities between socialism and traditional
of life.

Father Lini, an Anglican priest, also believed that socialism held close similar
ities with Christian values, and sought to combine the two as part of a "Melanes
ian way". In this sense, socialism was not to be revolutionary, but instead full
y in line with ni-Vanuatu tradition.
Although he admired Nyerere, and although his government sought rapprochement wi
th countries such as Cuba and Libya, Lini believed that socialism should not nec
essarily entail an alliance with the Soviet Union or the Eastern bloc. Indeed, h
e preferred for Vanuatu to remain non-aligned and to develop closer ties with it
s fellow Melanesian nations (such as Papua New Guinea and the Solomon Islands).
In 1982, he expressed hopes for an eventual Melanesian federal union, and spoke
of the "renaissance of Melanesian values", including "Melanesian socialism".
Lini also noted that, in traditional Melanesian societies, "'Giving' was based o
n one's ability to do so. 'Receiving' was based on one's need".
In New Caledonia, the Kanak Socialist National Liberation Front (FLNKS), an alli
ance of pro-independence parties, advocates the implementation of socialism alon
g with accession to sovereignty. Independent Melanesian nations (most notably Va
nuatu) have expressed support for the FLNKS.
Sources
HUFFER, Elise, Grands Hommes et Petites les: La Politique Extrieure de Fidji,
de Tonga et du Vanuatu, Paris: Orstom, 1993, ISBN 2-7099-1125-6
DENOON, Donald & alii (ed.), The Cambridge History of the Pacific Islanders,
Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1997, ISBN 0-521-00354-7
LINNEKIN, Jocelyn, "The Politics of Culture in the Pacific", in LINNEKIN, Jo
celyn & POYER, Lin (ed.), Cultural Identity and Ethnicity in the Pacific, Honolu
lu: University of Hawai'i Press, 1990, ISBN 0-8248-1891-1
Bibliography
Premadas, Ralph R. Melanesian socialism: Vanuatu's quest for self-definition
(Discussion paper series / Centre for Developing-Area Studies), McGill Universi
ty, 1986.
Lini, Walter. Beyond pandemonium: From the New Hebrides to Vanuatu. Asia Pac
ific Books, 1980.
Howard, Michael C. The Myth of Melanesian Socialism. Labour Capital and Soci
ety 16:2 (November 1983), pp. 176-203.

Tabani, Marc. Walter Lini, la coutume de Vanuatu et le socialisme mlansien, Jo


urnal de la Socit des ocanistes 111, 2000-2. pp. 173-194.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Coconut_War
Coconut War
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Not to be confused with The Coconut Revolution, the 2001 documentary about the s
truggle of the indigenous peoples of Bougainville Island.
The Coconut War was a brief clash between Papua New Guinean soldiers and rebels
in Espiritu Santo shortly before and after the independence of the Republic of V
anuatu was declared on 30 July 1980.
Contents
1
2
3
4

Background
Confrontation
Notes
References
4.1 Contemporary newspaper reports
5 External links
Background
Prior to Vanuatu's
New Hebrides were
n 1980, France and
endence on 30 July

independence, the islands were known as the New Hebrides. The


governed by a condominium of France and the United Kingdom. I
the United Kingdom agreed that Vanuatu would be granted indep
1980.

Beginning in June 1980, Jimmy Stevens, head of the Nagriamel movement, led an up
rising against the colonial officials and the plans for independence.[1][2][3][4
] The uprising lasted about 12 weeks. The rebels blockaded Santo-Pekoa Internati
onal Airport, destroyed two bridges, and declared the independence of Espiritu S
anto island as the "State of Vemerana". Stevens was supported by French-speaking
landowners and by the Phoenix Foundation, an American business foundation that
supported the establishment of a libertarian tax haven in the New Hebrides.[5]
Confrontation
On 8 June 1980, the New Hebrides government asked Britain and France to send tro
ops to put down a rebellion on the island of Espiritu Santo.[6] France refused t
o allow the United Kingdom to deploy troops to defuse the crisis, and French sol
diers stationed on Espiritu Santo took no action. As independence day neared, th
e Prime Minister-elect, Walter Lini,[7] asked Papua New Guinea if it would send
troops to intervene.[1] As Papua New Guinean soldiers began arriving in Espiritu
Santo,[8] the foreign press began referring to the ongoing events as the "Cocon
ut War".
However, the "war" was brief and unconventional. The residents of Espiritu Santo
generally welcomed the Papua New Guineans as fellow Melanesians. Stevens' follo
wers were armed with only bows and arrows, rocks, and slings. There were few cas
ualties, and the war came to a sudden end: when a vehicle carrying Stevens' son
burst through a Papua New Guinean roadblock in late August 1980, the soldiers op
ened fire on the vehicle, killing Stevens' son. Shortly thereafter, Jimmy Steven
s surrendered, stating that he had never intended that anyone be harmed.[9]
At Stevens' trial, the support of the Phoenix Foundation to the Nagriamel moveme
nt was revealed. It was also revealed that the French government had secretly su
pported Stevens in his efforts. Stevens was sentenced[2] to 14 years' imprisonme

nt; he remained in prison until 1991.


Notes
Michael T. Kaufman (February 23, 1999). "Walter Lini, 57, Clergyman Who Led Nati
on of Vanuatu". The New York Times. Retrieved 2009-09-18.
"South Pacific Rebel Seized". The New York Times via Reuters. September 14, 1982
. Retrieved 2009-09-18.
"Pacific Islands in Election Battle". The New York Times. November 1, 1983. Retr
ieved 2009-09-18.
William Borders (June 12, 1980). "British Answering New Hebrides Call; Company o
f Marines Being Sent 'to Provide Stability' French Antiriot Police Arrive Threat
to Independence One Killed on 2d Island 55 French Riot Police Land". The New Yo
rk Times. Retrieved 2009-09-18.
Treaster, Joseph B. (June 7, 1980). "U.S. Land Developer Aids New Hebrides Dissi
dents". The New York Times. Retrieved 2009-09-18.
"New Hebrides Asks for Aid in Revolt; Plea Might Go to U.N.". The New York Times
. June 8, 1980. Retrieved 2009-09-18.
Bernard D. Nossiter (July 9, 1981). "Vanuatu, New Pacific Nation, Moving Toward
Seat at U.N.". The New York Times. Retrieved 2009-09-18.
Graeme Dobell (26 June 2003). "Alexander Downer announces moves toward a new for
eign policy -- Transcript". PM. Retrieved 2009-09-17.
"New Hebrides Rebel Urges Peace; Willing to Fight British and French One Bri
tish Officer Injured". The New York Times. June 9, 1980. Retrieved 2009-09-18.
References
Richard Shears (1980). The Coconut War: The Crisis on Espiritu Santo (Cassel
: North Ryde, NSW ISBN 0-7269-7866-3)
Andrew Stewart (2001). Of Cargoes, Colonies and Kings: Diplomatic and Admini
strative Service from Africa to the Pacific (I. B. Tauris: London ISBN 1-86064-7
13-8) pp. 214 224
"A Memory of the Coconut War: Rebel Leader Jimmy Stevens Freed", The Economi
st, 31 August 1991
Contemporary newspaper reports
"New Hebrides Calling for Help to Put Down Rebellion", New York Times, 31 Ma
y 1980, p. 11
"Separatists Threaten Hebrides Unity", New York Times, 8 June 1980, p. E2
"New Hebrides Asks for Aid in Revolt; Plea Might Go to U.N.", New York Times
, 8 June 1980, p. 12
"Unrest Spreads in New Hebrides", New York Times, 11 June 1980, p. A8
"British Answering New Hebrides Call; Company of Marines Being Sent 'to Prov
ide Stability'", New York Times, 12 June 1980, p. A5
"British-French Control Ends in New Hebrides, Now Named Vanuatu", New York T
imes, 30 July 1980, p. 11
"Rebels Blow Up 2 Bridges On Island of Espiritu Santo", New York Times, 4 Au
gust 1980, p. A5
"40 Are Seized on Espiritu Santu In a Drive Against Secessionists", New York
Times, 4 August 1980, p. B8
"55 French Are Evacuated From Espiritu Santo Island", New York Times, 18 Aug
ust 1980, p. A5
"Leader of Espiritu Santo Rebels Says That He'll Surrender Today", New York
Times, 29 August 1980, p. 3
"Troops Reportedly Crush Rebellion on Espiritu Santo", New York Times, 1 Sep
tember 1980, p. A5