Appendix: Even rules

P. Deligne

Let A be a commutative super ring and M , N be A-modules. A morphism f : M ! N is a parity respecting map f such that f (am) = af (m). The \even rules" point of view is that (a) one should think to M in terms of the functor which to any extension of scalars A ! A0 attach the even part (M 0 )+ of M 0 := A0 A M ; (b) it amounts to the same to give a morphism of modules f : M ! N or to give for each commutative super A-algebra A0 a (A0 )+ -linear morphism F A0 ] from (M 0 )+ to (N 0 )+, functorial in A0 . More precisely, the map f 7! F :

F A0 ] = f 0 jM 0 + ;
with f 0 deduced from f by extension of scalars, is bijective. follows. On M + , f := F A]. Take now A0 = A ] with odd. An element n of N 0 + can be written uniquely in the form n0 + n1 with n0 2 N + and n1 2 N . De ne '0 and '1 on M by F A0 ]( m) = '0(m) + 1 (m); and de ne f on M to be '1. Apply functoriality to A0 ! A: 7! 0. The corresponding map from (M 0 )+ to M + maps m (m 2 M ) to zero, and it follows that '0 = 0: for A0 = A ], we have

Proof. To a functorial F A0 ]: (M 0 )+ ! (N 0 )+ one attaches a morphism f : M ! N as

F (A0 )(m0 + m1 ) = f (m0 ) + f (m1 )

for m0 in M + and m1 in M . We now check that f is A-linear. The A+-linearity is clear. If a is inA and m in M + ,

f (am) = F (A0 )( am) = aF (A0 )(m) = af (m) :
For m in M , applying functoriality to A0 ! A: ! a, we get f (am) = af (m) as well. If F is obtained from a morphism f , one has for A0 = A ]

f 0 (m0 + m1 ) = f (m0 ) + f (m1 )
and it follows that this construction gives back f . Conversely, the f deduced from F gives back F by extensions of scalars: for a0 2 A0 and m 2 M even, F (a0 m) = a0 F (m) = a0 f (m) by A ! A0 functoriality. For a0 and m odd, functoriality for A ] ! A0 : 7! a0 gives

F (a0 m) = a0 f (m)
as well. A similar, more complicated argument, gives the

Theorem. Let Mi be a nite family of A-modules. The data of a morphism
f : Mi ! N
amounts to the data of a A0 +-multilinear map, functorial in A0 , of the (Mi0 )+ to (N 0 )+ .

The proof is left to the reader.
on (B0 )+ a structure of (A0 )+ algebra, functorially in A0 . The algebra B will be associative (resp. commutative, resp. Lie, : : : ) if and only if the algebras (B0 )+ are.

Corollary. Let B be an A-module. To give on B a structure of A algebra amounts to give

Note that the (B0 )+ are purely even objects: at the cost of having to think functorially, which one wants to do anyway, this removes signs from the de nitions.

L is stationary is the subspace S of X (a sub-supermanifold in good cases) de ned by the vanishing of the section dL of the cotangent bundle of X . When thinking functorially, one thinks to X as determined by the functor which to any supermanifold B attaches the set B-points of X , where a B-point is a morphism x: B ! X . Intuitively: a family of points of X parametrized by B. In this language, describing S means describing which B-points x: B ! X map to S , i.e. factors through S ,! X . Such B-points will be called stationary. By de nition, a B-point x is stationary if for any even or odd section s on B of x TX (the \ ber of TX at x"), hdL; si = 0 on B. If s is odd, let B0 = B R0;1: we add an odd parameter . Then, s is even and hdL; si = 0 on B if and only if hdL; si = 0 on B0 . We see that a B-point x is stationary if and only if after any change of basis B0 ! B, the B0 -point B0 ! B ! X , still noted x, is such that for any even section s of x TM , hdL; si = 0 on B0 . This can be rephrased as follows: after any change of basis B0 ! B, one wants that for any family of points x(t) ( " < t < "): B0 ] "; " ! X , one has
or, more cumbersomely written: the pull back of L to B0 ] "; " is such that @L = 0 at @t t = 0. This formulation is convenient when X is \in nite dimensional", and when what makes good sense is not the space X and the function L, but the notion of map x: B ! X and of the pull back by x of L.
d dt L(x) = 0 at

Example. Let X be a supermanifold and L be an (even) function on X . The locus where


Minority report: Odd rules.

The notion of super Lie algebra can be expressed nicely as follows: Data: after any extension of scalars A ! A0 , a quadratic map x2 from L to L+, functorial in A0 . Applying the theorem to the associated bilinear form, from ( L)+ ( L)+ to L+, we see that x 7! x2 de nes a bracket x; y]: L L ! L such that for x and y in L , x; y] = (x + y)2 x2 y2 . In particular, for x in L , x; x] = 2x2 .

Axiom: after any extension of scalars A ! A0 , for any x in L , one has

x; x2 ] = 0 :
Provided 6 is invertible in A, this de nition is equivalent to the one in term of the Jacobi identity (which is a polarized version of the axiom).