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Lecture 8
Eric D'Hoker
IASSNSHEP97/72
V. Moduli Dependence of Determinants and Green Functions
In xIII and xIV, we have reduced the calculation of string transition amplitudes to integrals of combinations involving certain determinants and Green functions over the nitedimensional moduli spaces Mh . In this section, we complete the analysis by producing explicit formulas for these determinants and Green functions. We shall begin by collecting results on surfaces with constant curvature metrics. Then, we proceed and exploit the complex structure of Mh to obtain explicit expressions in terms of Jacobi theta functions. (Derivations of the results stated in this section will not be given here; they may be found in E. D'Hoker, D. H. Phong, Rev. Mod. Phys. Vol. 60 (1988), p. 917{1065, and references therein.) A) Let be a compact surface of genus h 2. By the uniformization theorem, the simply connected cover of is the upper half plane H , and = H= , where = 1 ( ) is the fundamental group of . For any metric g on , there is a unique Weyl transformation such that g = e2 g with g of constant curvature Rg = 1. The metric g lifts to the ^ ^ ^ ^ Poincare metric on H and is a discrete subgroup of SL(2; R) acting on H , with compact quotient = H= . Moduli space may now be identi ed as follows:
Worldsheets with constant curvature metric (h 2)
Mh = fg; Rg = 1g =Di ( ) : ^ ^
(5:1)
We now have the following results for determinants and for the measure on Mh arising in string amplitudes: Det (n) = S (n + 1) ; Det0 (0) = S 0(1) Y dmj dmj j det( j ; k )j2 det( j ; k ) 1 = d(Weil Peterson) :
+
j
(5:2) (5:3)
V.1
Here S (s) is the Selberg zeta function, de ned by
S (s)
1 Y Y
primitive k=1
(1 e (s+k)` )
(5:4)
for ` the lengths of the simple closed (i.e. primitive) geodesics on = H= . The most powerful results on Green functions and determinants are obtained by exploiting the fact that Mh is a complex orbifold, and that Green functions and determinants primarily involve complex analytic dependence on Mh . To examine this complex dependence, we rst work locally on Mh, in a neighborhood of a point m0 2 Mh , represented by a metric g0. We now parametrize the neighborhood U of m0 and thus of g0 by Beltrami di erentials = z , which provide complex coordinates z on Mh , as established in xIII. We have a general metric g in the neighborhood of g0: B)
Holomorphicity in Moduli
g = 2gzz jdz + dzj2
where
g0 = 2gzz jdzj2 :
(5:6)
We retain the Weyl factor gzz for now, since we shall also study the interplay of Weyl dependence and moduli dependence.
Σ Σ
g0
g
× m0
×m Uα Mh
U
The dependence of the functional determinant combinations Z(n)(g) on the complex coordinates of Mh is simple, and may be evaluated explicitly. This result is the content of V.2
the socalled BelavinKnizhnik theorem; or holomorphic anomaly theorem:
c(n) Z ln Z(n)(g) = 12 d g (rz rz
Rg
)
(5:7)
where the coe cients c(n) = 6n2 6n +1 are the same as those entering the Weyl anomaly. It follows immediately from the BelavinKnizhnik theorem that Weyl invariant combinations of Z(n)(g)'s are also especially simple in their dependence on moduli. Indeed, the variation of any Weyl invariant combination vanishes, so that such a combination is a sum of a holomorphic and an antiholomorphic part. We have, e.g.
Z(n)(g) Z(0)(g) c n = jZ(n)(mj )j2 :
( )
(5:8)
where Z(n)(mj ) is holomorphic inside Mh . In particular, the combination entering the integrand of the bosonic string amplitudes is precisely of this form, for superscript and n = 1: Z( 1)(g) Z(0)(g) 13 = jZ( 1)(mj )j2 : (5:9) We shall make use of this powerful result in string theory in xC. The BK Theorem may be understood geometrically in the language of determinant line bundles over Mh , where the right hand side of BK  the holomorphic anomaly  arises as a nonzero curvature of the determinant line bundles Det(rzn)) and Det(r(n)) z ( with certain hermitian metrics, the socalled Quillen metrics. The vanishing of the BK anomaly Z(n) then indicates that the corresponding line bundles Detrzn) (Detrz ) c n ; ( (1)
( )
5:10
are at. In string theory, the case is n = 2, and this case is related to the atness of 13 , where K is the canonical bundle of Mh and is the Hodge bundle. K We shall not prove the BK Theorem here (it can be proven using heatkernel methods, just as in the derivation of the Weyl anomaly), but only indicate the origin of the holomorphic anomaly. The key observation is that the covariant derivatives rzn) depend only ( V.3
on , but not on order.
to rst order in
( rz = rz + n(rz (n) (n)
rzn) = 0 : (
and
; thus rzn) is holomorphic in ( )
to rst (5:11)
Functional determinants of Laplace operators would then naively be expected to be products of a holomorphic times antiholomorphic factor:
( Det (n) ? Detrzn 1)Detrzn) ; (
(5:12)
( with Detrzn) holomorphic on Mh and Detrzn 1) antiholomorphic. Actually, determinants ( must be properly de ned (e.g. using function techniques, as in xIII.), in a fashion that preserves their Di ( ) invariance. When this analysis is carried out, anomalies, such as the Weyl anomaly, may appear. Here, the above holomorphic factorization of determinants is also beset by an anomaly. In fact, these anomalies are intimately related, as can be seen from the argument below. As was explained in xIII, the variations of , and Weyl rescalings are independent. Hence, using the Weyl anomaly of Z(n)(g):
ln Z(n)(g) =
c( = 6n)
ln Z(n)(g)
Z
d g Rg :
(5:13)
But, the variation of the Gaussian curvature is easily computed (d g Rg ) = (rz rz )d g 6= 0 : Thus, clearly, the holomorphic anomaly anomaly cancels. C) (5:14)
ln Z(n)(g) cannot cancel unless also the Weyl
In critical string theory, we also have strong results on the holomorphicity properties of the correlation functions for vertex operators of physical onshell states, given by the Chiral Splitting Theorem. We begin by assembling the data we need to formulate this theorem. V.4
The Chiral Splitting Theorem
Let Vi = d2zi Wi (zi ; zi ) be vertex operators of physical onshell states whose polarization tensors are factorized in left and right movers. Let AI , BI , I = 1; : : : ; h be a canonical basis of homology 1cycles on , with #(AI ; AJ ) = #(BI ; BJ ) = 0 #(AI ; BJ ) = IJ : (5:15)
R
We de ne internal loop momenta pI 2 R26 associated with each AI cycle. Because the AI cycles have trivial interaction numbers, these internal loop momenta are independent.
Σ
. . .
P P2
1
Ph
A2 A1
Ah
The correlation function of unintegrated vertex operators Wi(zi ; zi) at xed internal loop momenta pI are de ned by
hW1 : : : WN ig (pI )
Z
Map( ;M )
Dx W1 (z1; z1 ) : : : WN (zN ; zN )
h Y I =1
Z dz pI 2 i @z x e
AI
S x;g]
(5:16)
The Chiral Splitting Theorem states that
e hW1 : : : WN ig (pI ) = (k)Z0 (g) 13 FF
(5:17)
e where F(zi; mj ; pI ; ki) is a complex analytic function of zi and mj , and F is its complex conjugate e F(zi ; mj ; pI ; ki ) = F(zi; mj ; pI ; ki) : (5:18)
Here, we have suppressed the dependence of W and F on polarization tensors occurring in the construction of W . Also, the function F depends upon the choice of curves representing V.5
the AI boundary cycles, and this dependence has been subsumed in the de nition of the internal momenta pI . An outline of the proof of this Theorem will be given in xE. Let us simply remark here that the proper conformal eld theory interpretation of the integration over loop momenta is the following. At xed values of the internal loop momenta, pI through all AI cycles, only a single conformal family traverses each AI cycle. The contributions from left and right movers are factorized, so that the entire amplitude  at xed momenta pI  is factorized. Mathematically, we have gained considerably through the BelavinKnizhnik and Chiral Splitting Theorems, since we may now apply techniques of complex function theory, thetafunctions and algebraic geometry to study amplitudes. Physically, we have uncovered a method for separating the contributions of left and right movers in the integrand of transition amplitudes, via the holomorphic versus antiholomorphic dependence on Mh and . (This will be crucial in the study of superstrings.) An immediate result from the combination of the BelavinKnizhnik and Chiral Splitting Theorems is that the full transition amplitude at genus h is an integral over a product of a holomorphic times antiholomorphic function.
Ah = ( k )
where
Z
Y
I
R 26h
d p26
I
Z Y
Mh
j
d mj mj
Z
d2z1 : : :
Z
e d2zN C C ;
(5:19)
C (zi; mj ; pI ; ki ) = det( j ; k )Z( 1)(mj )F(zi; mj ; p; k)
and
(5:20) (5:21)
e C (zi ; mj ; pI ; ki ) = C (zi; mj ; pI ; ki ) :
(Of course, for h 1, these expressions are only formal, since the integration ultimately diverges. The generalization to the case of the superstring on the other hand will be wellde ned.) V.6
We begin by recalling some basic tools of complex fucntion theory on Riemann surfaces. The space of holomorphic line bundles of degree d is the Picard variety Picd( ) = fholomorphic line bundles L on ; c1(L) = dg : The subspace of line bundles L of degree 0 is the Jacobian variety: J ( ) = Pic0( ), which may also be viewed as J ( ) = H 1 ( ; R)=H 1( ; Z) : (5:22) Choosing a reference L0 2 Picd( ), any other L 2 Picd( ) may be obtained as a tensor product L = L0 `, ` 2 J ( ). A completely explicit realization is obtained by making a choice of homology basis (AI ; BI ), I = 1; : : : ; h, with canonial intersection matrix: #(AI ; AJ ) = #(BI ; BJ ) = 0 #(AI ; BJ ) = #(BJ ; AI ) = IJ :
Σ
B B1 B2
h
D)
Holomorphic and Meromorphic Di erentials (a brief review of basics)
(5:23)
. . .
A1
A2
Ah
To this choice corresponds a unique basis of holomorphic Abelian di erentials (holomorphic sections of K ), (!1 ; : : : ; !h ) = ! or denoted simply ! by ~
I
AI
!J = IJ ;
I; J = 1; : : : ; h :
(5:24)
The period matrix is then de ned by
I
BI
!J = IJ
h Z)
(5:25)
and the Jacobian is a complex torus of dimension h:
J ( ) = C h =(Zh +
V.7
:
(5:26)
The intersection from #( ; ) is left invariant under the action of the modular group on the homology cycles 0 b B B ! B0 = a d (5:27) c A I A I A J IJ
 {z }
2 Sp(2h; Z )
under which
! 0 = (a + b)(c + d) 1 :
(5:28)
The Riemann bilinear relations guarantee that lies in the Siegel upper half space: 2 Hh, where Hh = fh h complex ; IJ = JI ; Im > 0g : (5:29) In fact, Torelli's theorem guarantees that to each Riemann surface in Mh there corresponds a unique point in the fundamental domain of the modular group
Ah Hh=Sp(2h; Z) ;
(the converse holds for the torus, but not for h 2.) Hh carries a Sp(2h; Z)invariant metric
(5:30)
ds2 = Tr ((Im ) 1 d (Im ) 1 d ) :
(5:31)
Since !I depends holomorphically on Mh , so does IJ ; in fact, we have an explicit formula for the variation of IJ with holomorphic Beltrami di erentials z associated with z a Riemann surface deformation:
IJ =
i
Z
d2 z z !Iz !Jz z
(5:32)
The induced complex structure on Mh is the one associated with the metric ds2 of (5.31). The Jacobi #function, with characteristics = ( 0 ; 00 ) 2 0; 1]2h , is de ned as a function on C h Hh:
# ]( ; )
X
n2Z h + 0
e inT n+2 i nT ( + 00 ) :
(5:33)
V.8
It obeys, for any M; N 2 Zh:
# ]( + M + N; ) = # ]( ; )e i N T N
2 iN T ( + 00 )+2 i 0 M
;
(5:34)
and this property may be used to de ne # as the unique (up to constant factor) holomorphic section of a holomorphic line bundle on J ( ), with the above transition functions. One also often uses #( ; ) # 0]( ; ). Using the Jacobi #functions, and the Riemann vanishing theorem (which yields the zeros of # as a function of , but which we shall not discuss here), one may uniquely (up to constant factor) reconstruct a meromorphic function on from its divisor D = z1 + + zd w1 wd:
fD (z) =
d Y
Here is such that #( ; ) = 0, but so that the above # functions do not vanish identically; fD (z) is then independent of . Spin bundles on belong to Pich 1 ( ), and may be described in terms of their spin structure, of which there are 22h. A choice of homology basis singles out a particular spin bundle S0, and all other spin structures may be labeled by points in the Jacobian, as indicated earlier:
i=1
#
+
Zz
zi
!;
#
+
Zz
wi
!;
1
:
(5:35)
S = S0
0 00
00 +
0 2 J( ) ;
(5:36)
1 0 00 where 0 and 00 are halfpoints, i.e. I ; I 2 0; 2 . Spin structures are partitioned into even or odd spin structures, according to the parity of the #function
# ]( ; ) = ( )4 0 00 # ]( ; ) :
(5:37)
Thus, there are 2h 1 (2h 1) even/odd spin structure with 4 0 00 even/odd, and the number of holomorphic sections is then even/odd as well, in fact generally 0=1. The generic holomorphic section h (z) for an odd spin structure is obtained from the square root of an Abelian di erential with exactly h 1 double zeros, (this h (z) is a Dirac zero mode)
h (z )
X
I
@I # ](0; ) !I (z)
V.9
1=2
:
(5:38)
Finally, we de ne one of the fundamental objects that enter Green functions and determinants in string theory. The prime form is a function on the universal cover of and Hh, given by Rz # ] w !; E (z; w) h (z) h (w) (5:39)
1 where is any odd half characteristic. E (z; w) is a holomorphic 2 ; 0 di erential form in both z and w, with a single zero at z = w. As such, E (z; w) generalizes the function z w on C to higher genus surfaces. On the torus, we have the wellknown expression
( E (z; w) = #1#z (0;w;) ) : 0
1
(5:40)
The monodromies of E (z; w) around AI homology cycles are simple: E (z; w) picks up a sign; the monodromy as z moves around BI once is:
E (z; w) ! exp
i II 2 i
Zw
z
!I E (z; w) :
(5:41)
Under modular transformations (represented by their action on the homology cycles as in (5.27)), we have
E (z; w) ! exp i
Zw
z
!T (c + d) 1c
Zw
z
! E (z; w) :
(5:42)
Meromorphic Abelian di erentials (meromorphic sections of K ) are readily obtained ) !xy (z) = @z ln E (z; x) dz E (z; y !w (z) = @z @w ln E (z; w)dz :
1 Meromorphic 2 di erentials (meromorphic sections of S ) are
(5:43)
even odd
R # ] zw !; 1 S (z; w) = E (z; w) # ](0; )
1 S (z; w) = E (z; w) V.10
R @I # ] zw !; !I (y)
@I # ](0; )!I (y)
(5:44)
For even, S is the Szego kernel, while for odd, x is not singlevalued on as de ned.
The Green function of scalar elds on is simply expressed in terms of the prime form and Abelian di erentials
E)
Green Functions, Determinants and Chiral Splitting
G(z; w) =
ln jE (z; w)j2 + 2
Im
Zz
w
!I (Im )IJ
1 Im
Zz
w
!J
(5:45)
The second term on the right hand side is required to render G(z; w) singlevalued on , as well as to render it modular invariant. This expression is readily seen to generalize the 1loop result (and of course the 0loop result as well.) We use this result to prove the Chiral Splitting theorem for the case of vertex operators for tachyon states. (Higher mass states and their vertex operators may be obtained by factorization or equivalently by using the OPE for exponential operators.) To restrict the loop momenta and bring out an integration over them, we can insert the identity (as we did in xIII for one loop amplitudes) 1=
YZ
I
R 26
0 dpI @pI
1 1 dz @ x A z 2 i A Z
I
(5:46)
into the correlation function hW1(z1 ; z1 ) : : : WN (zN ; zN )ig . In fact, here, we may use a shortcut, yielding the same result, carried out as follows. If Wi (zi ; zi ) = exp iki x(zi ; zi ) then we have
N DY i=1
eiki x(zi;zi)
E
Det0 = (k) R d (0) g g = (k)Z(0)(g)
13
13
Y
i<j
13 Y
e ki kj G(zi;zj )
i<j
w
jE (zi ; zj )j2ki kj X
) 1 Im
(5:47)
where
X = det(!I ; !J )
Y
i<j
e
2 ki kj Im
R z ! (Im
Rz!
w
:
(5:48)
Using the Riemann bilinear relations, we have det(!I ; !J ) = det(2Im IJ ) V.11 (5:49)
and we may now represent X by a single Gaussian integral over real parameters pI , which are just the internal loop momenta:
X=
YZ
I
d26pI ei pI
IJ pJ +2
ipI ki
R zi !I 2
P
:
(5:50)
R 26
It is now straightforward to read o the function F that enters the Chiral Splitting Theorem:
F(zi; mj ; pI ; ki ) =
Y
i<j
E (zi ; zj )ki kj exp
!I i pI IJ pj + 2 ipI ki P
Z zi
(5:51)
The point P is arbitrary in view of the momentum conservation (k)function factor. F above is determined only up to phases. In particular, F is multiplevalued, with monodromies that may be easily computed from the monodromies of E (z; w), as given in (5.41). F also has branch cuts along the homology cycles: the e ect of letting vertex insertion point zi cross a cycle AI is to add the external momentum ki to the loop momentum pI . Modular transformation properties of F are also nontrivial, and may be read o from (5.42) and (5.28). It remains to express the functional determinant combinations Z(n)(mj ) in terms of #functions and di erentials. This may be achieved by a variety of techniques, inducing bosonization and integration over Mh of the stress tensor. We shall not develop these techniques here but limit ourselves to stating the result for Z( 1):
h #(3 ) @w Z( 1)(mj ) = det @ i w j (w) det#(I !w j(w)) @w J w j
9
:
Here, w is an arbitrary point on , @w stands for the derivative of order in w and w is the Riemann vector I Zz I = 1 1 II + X !J (z) !I : w 2 2 w AJ J 6=I
V.12
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