Are you sure?
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?

Lecture 15
IASSNSHEP97/72
X. Supersymmetry and Supergravity
Eric D'Hoker On many occasions during the discussion of superstring theory we have obtained results that are consistent with the presence of spacetime supersymmetry. These include the counting of the number of bosonic versus fermionic states at all mass levels, as well as the study of the spectrum at zero mass. In this section, we shall exhibit supersymmetry on the spectrum and on the scattering amplitudes in an explicit fashion. We begin by completing the study of the RNS formulation of string theory, and use the Ramond (fermion) vertex operator to produce a conserved supercharge that generates spacetime supersymmetry. Next, we introduce and study the GreenSchwarz formulation of superstring theory, in which spacetime supersymmetry is manifestly realized. Finally, we exhibit the low energy eld theory approximations to the various superstring theories we have introduced, and identify them with known supergravity theories, in which we have local or gauged supersymmetry. We show how the GreenSchwarz formulation of superstrings may be used to couple strings to supergravity in a covariant way.
x10.1. Global spacetime supersymmetry in the RNS Formulation
In the previous chapter, we have provided a complete prescription for the vertex operators and for the calculation of transition amplitudes in the RNS formulation of superstrings. The RNS formulation does not exhibit spacetime supersymmetry in a manifest fashion however: the construction of bosonic and fermionic vertex operators is asymmetrical. Nonetheless, it is possible to construct a conserved current j (z) on the worldsheet, whose charge Q , de ned by (10:1)
Q =
I
dz j (z) 2 IX.1
obeys the supersymmetry algebra of 10dimensional spacetime: P ;P ] = P ;Q ] = 0 (10:2) fQ ; Q g = 2 (C 1) P = 2 P Here P is the translation operator, and we use the Dirac algebra de ned in Lecture 9. For N = 2 supersymmetric theories such as Type II A, B, there will be an independent supercharge Q0 arising from the z sector of the theory, whose discussion is analogous to that of Q. The current j (z) is related to the Ramond vertex operator. To see this, we notice that Q should map states of given M 2 into states of the same M 2 , and should transform as a spinor. The R vertex operator, at zero spacetime momentum, precisely has these properties. Thus, we identify j (z) with (10:3) of ghost number 1=2 or (10:4)
j (z ) = e
=2 (z )S (z )
j (z) = e =2 ( ) S 0 (z)@z x
of ghost number 1=2. Both are holomorphic and, with the help of 1 (10:5) e =2 (z)e =2 (w) (z w) 1=4
S (z )S 0
we nd (10:6)
(z w)5=4
j (z )j (w ) ( ) @ z x z 1 w and recover the superalgebra of Q and P upon integration. Under the action of Q , vertex operators in the NS and R sectors are mapped into one another. Considering left moving vertex operators for massless states, for example, WNS (z; "; k) = " @z x eik x (10:7) WR (z; u; k) = e =2 S u eik x where we have considered WNS in the picture with zero ghost number and WR in the picture with ghost number 1=2. We have Q ; WNS (z; "; k)] = WR (z; u; k) (10:8) Q ; WR(z; v; k)] = WNS (z; ; k)
IX.2
with
(10:9)
u =k ( ) =v ( ) Pictorially, we may represent this action by
jα × W NS × WR
=
and similarly for WR insertions. From the action of supersymmetry, we obtain several important relations between transition amplitudes. For the onepoint function, we have
= × × WB WF = × WF = 0
by conservation of the current j (z). The only vertex operator that enters is the dilaton at zero momentum, and the above argument now shows directly that this amplitude must vanish, as we have indeed established to tree and oneloop level, by explicit calculation. For the two point function, we obtain
WB × = × × WF WB × = × WF WB × = × WF WF ×
WB
By chiral symmetry, the WF two point function must vanish for massless fermions, and hence the WB two point function must also vanish, as we have indeed established to tree and oneloop level, by explicit calculation. IX.3
It is hoped that the use of the supersymmetry currents will ultimately allow one to show that superstring theory in the RNS formulation is nite ot all orders, but subtleties with the superghost system have prevented us so far from carrying out this program in full.
x10.2. The GreenSchwarz formulation
The string degrees of freedom in the GreenSchwarz (GS) formulation of superstring theory (in D spacetime dimensions) are (1) the bosonic coordinate x , = 0; 1; : : : ; D 1 (2) the fermionic coordinate I The x coordinates are as before. The I coordinates are spinors under Spin(1; D 1), labeled by the spin index , with I = 1; 2; : : : ; N describing the degree of extension of the supersymmetry algebra of the Poincare group. I are Grassmann valued worldsheet scalars. For simplicity, we shall assume that Spin(1; D 1) admits Majorana spinors, and we shall use Majorana notation. (For D = 10, I are MajoranaWeyl spinors, with N = 1 for Type I and heterotic and N = 2 for Type II.) Poincare supersymmetry acts on the coordinates x and I as follows (we use the conventions of x9): 8 I = "I > > > < I= I (10:10) > > > : x =i I I where "I is a constant set of Majorana spinors, labeled by I = 1; : : : ; N . We seek a worldsheet action in terms of x and I for the various superstring theories, that possesses manifest spacetime supersymmetry as de ned above. As a warmup, we obtain the action for a massless point particle, propagating on a _ worldline L, parametrized by (and _= dd ). To do so, we need a generalization of x that has good supersymmetry transformation properties. The following combination is easily seen to be invariant under supersymmetry (10:11) x i I _I _ IX.4
and the following worldline action is susy invariant as well as Diff (L)invariant: (10:12)
S=
Z
L
d e 1( )(x _
i
I
_I )2
Here, e is the worldline metric. The variational equations are (10:13)
2
= 0; _ = 0;
_I = 0
Interpreting as particle momentum, we nd that the particle propagates with constant momentum, that it is massless, and that because ( )2 = 0, half of the J 's are unconstrained. This last property is due to the fact that S exhibits a further symmetry, called symmetry: (10:14)
8 < :
I I x =i I e = 4e _ I
Ii
I
The presence of symmetry guarantees that only half of the 's are physical degrees of freedom of the particle. We now generalize the above construction to obtain a worldsheet action with spacetime supersymmetry. There is an obvious generalization of momentum, which is spacetime supersymmetric: (10:15)
m
@m x
i
I
@m
I
Thus there is an obvious worldsheet action (with worldsheet metric g, which does not transform under supersymmetry) (10:16)
S1 x; ] = 81
Z
d g gmn
m
n
invariant under Diff ( ), Weyl( ) and spacetime supersymmetry. However, the symmetry of the point particle does not extend to S1. This is a problem, because in D = 10, N = 1 superstrings, e.g. we will now have 8 physical degrees of freedom of x , but 16 for . The symmetry is required to have the correct onshell particle content of the string spectrum. IX.5
When N = 1; 2 or N = 1, the action S1 may be modi ed to S = S1 + S2 in such a way that S is Diff ( ), Weyl( ), spacetime supersymmetric, but also invariant under supersymmetry. The additional part S2 is found to be 1 Z S2 x; ] = 4 i dx ^ ( 1 d 1 2 d 2 ) (10:17) 1 d 1^ 2 d 2 Actually, the spacetime supersymmetry of S2 is not automatic. Restricting to N = 1 only for simplicity, the "transform of S2 yields 1 Z ( d ^ d i dx ^ d ) (10:18) S2 = 4 The second term in S2 is a total derivative and leads to no further requirements. The vanishing of the rst term in S2 requires that a certain matrix identity be satis ed: (10:19)
1( 2 3) + 2( 3 1) + 3( 1 2) = 0
This identity can be realized in the following situations: (i) D = 10; MajoranaWeyl 8 's, 8 x's (ii) D = 6; Weyl 4 's, 4 x's (10:20) (iii) D = 4; Majorana 2 's, 2 x's (iv) D = 3; Majorana 1 ,1x : (Note, for D = 6, certain formulas must be adapted, since the corresponding spinors are not Majorana.) The symmetry may be expressed in terms of a worldsheet vector J , which is also m a spacetime spinor: 8 I = 2i > m Im > > < I (10:21) x = I > > > : gmn = ::: I d m with the following selfduality The worldsheet vector I produces a 1form I m m properties ( 1 = i 1 (10:22) 2=i 2 IX.6
The symmetry closes onto a combination involving a symmetry, a Diff ( ), Weyl( ) transformation, and an additional bosonic symmetry that has no dynamical consequences. On a worldsheet with at metric g, the eld equations for g, x and are (10:23)
@z (@z x 2i 1 z @z =
z2 = z2 = 0
1
@z 1 ) + @z (@z x z @z 2 = 0 :
2i
2
@z 2 ) = 0
These equations of motion are highly nonlinear. As a result, quantization of the GS string in covariant form is fraught with di culties, arising in particular from the fact that 's do not have a standard kinetic term. No satisfactory approach exists to date.
x10.3. Lightcone gauge quantization of the GS Formulation
In the lightcone gauge, the nonlinearities of the GS eld equations disappear, and quantization may be carried out in complete parallel with the lightcone quantization of the RNS string (Problem Set #9). As usual, we impose (10:24)
x+ = q+ + p+(z + z )
and assume that p+ 6= 0. (If p+ = 0, then by positivity of energy, we must have p = 0, and we only have the vacuum state.) Hence (10:25)
+ = + = p+
z
z
Onshell, we have 2 = 2 = 0, so at a given point on the worldsheet, we may rotate so z z that = i = 0, with only p+ remaining as the only nonvanishing component. At that point, the transformation on I becomes (10:26)
I = 2i
p+ (
Iz + I z ) :
Thus, by suitable transformation, all I 's in the image of may be rotated away. Thus, by symmetry, we may impose the additional gauge choice (10:27)
+ I
=0
IX.7
This choice implies that the equations for @z 1 and @z 2 simplify; to see this, multiply each to the left by +, and use f +; g = 2: (10:28)
@z 1 = @z 2 = 0 @z @z x = 0 :
+ i z = 2p z + z i 2 = 2p+ z + z z 2
As a result, the equation for x linearizes as well (10:29)
The only remaining nonlinearity is the massshell constraint, given by (10:30)
i =0 z i =0: z
As always in the lightcone gauge, the Lorentz group is reduced (in D = 10) to SO(8), under which xi transforms as a vector 8v , while I (or more precisely, its eight dimensional restriction S I ) transforms as a spinor of SO(8): 8s or 8c . These representations are permuted into one another under triality of SO(8). The lightcone quantization of the GS string is equivalent to the lightcone quantization of the RNS superstring. Let us exhibit how this works on a cylinder, where the RNS eld + has periodic boundary conditions, suitable to a spacetime spinor state. In complete parallel with the covariant construction of the Ramond vertex operator, we may construct S 1(z) i from + (z) (and S 2(z) out of i (z )). One begins by bosonizing the Cartan generators of SO(8) in the RNS representation: (10:31)
2i 1 2i + (z ) + (z ) =
i@z
i
i = 1; 2; 3; 4
weights
i
i
i Recall that the elds + then have an exponential form in terms of i , with
(10:32)
p1 ( 2
2i 1 +
2 i +i )(z) = e 1 2
and the spin elds are also exponentials with (10:33)
weights:
1; 2 1 2
S 1 (z) = ei (z) 1 1 = 2; 2;
IX.8
The conformal weight of S 1 (z) is now made S 1 (z) into a worldsheet spinor.
1 2 = 1 ! This means that the lightcone gauge has 2 2
x10.4. Flat superspace GS formulation
A more intrinsic formulation of the GS worldsheet action is obtained by expressing it in superspace We concentrate on the D = 10, N = 2 case, for which superspace is of dimension (10j32), with 32 Majorana spinor components. Coordinates are X M = (xm ; I ), where m = 0; 1; : : : ; 9 and = 1; : : : ; 16 while I = 1; 2 labels the two irreducible MajoranaWeyl (MW) multiplets. Flat superspace is characterized by a frame E A = dX M EM A where A = (a; I ) are frame indices, with a = 0; 1; : : : ; 9 labeling the de ning representation of SO(1; 9), labeling the MW spinor of Spin(1; 9) and I = 1; 2. The Spin(1; 9) connection vanishes in at superspace, and the superderivatives are @ (10:34) DA = EAM @M @M @X M and they satisfy (10:35)
fD I ; D J g = 2( a ) (C 1) Da
IJ
with all others commuting. The combination r , encountered previously, has a very natm ural interpretation as a pullback of the superspace frame E A to the worldsheet. Indeed
X (E a) Epad p = (@pxa i I a@p I )d p (10:36) X (E I ) Ep I d p = @p I d p so that p a = Epa. This identi cation readily allows us to write the rst part of the GS superstring action in superspace: 1 Z d gpq E aE b (10:37) S1 X ] = 8 g p q ab The second part of the GS action may be recast in the form of a WessZuminoWitten action. To show that this is indeed the case, we consider the following 3form
(10:38)
H E a ^ (E 1 a ^ E 1 E 2 a ^ E 2)
IX.9
where we have used the notation E I (E I )T 0 and suppressed spinor index contraction. To construct a WessZuminoWitten action, we require as usual that the form H be closed dH = 0. This condition implies 0 = dH = dE a ^ (E 1 a ^ E 1 E 2 a ^ E 2) = i I a d I (E 1 a ^ E 1 E 2 a ^ E 2) = i(E 1 aE 1 + E 2 aE 2)(E 1 a ^ E 1 E 2 aE 2) = i(E 1 aE 1E 1 a E 1 (1 ! 2)) = (
0 a)
(10:39)
(
0
a)
E1 E1 E1
(1 ! 2)
The last line vanishes since the wedge product of the E 1's is symmetry in ( ) in view of the identity (10.19) we used to show that the S2 action is supersymmetric. It is easy to show that H = db, where b is the 2dimensional integrand of S2. Indeed,
(10:40)
H = (dxa i j ad j ) ^ (d 1 ad 1 d 2 ad 2 ) = d(dxa ( 1 a d 1 2 ad 2 )) i( 1 a 1 d 1 a d 1 2 a d 2 d 2 a d 2 ) i 2 ad 2 d 1 ad 1 + 1 ad 1 d 2 ad 2
Now, the second line again vanishes by the identity (10.19), and the last term is a total di erential: (10:41)
H = dfdxa (
1
ad 1
2
a d 2 ) + i 1 ad 1 2 a d 2 g
Identifying with the term in S2, we nd
i Z X (H ) : (10:42) S2 x] = 4 B Finally, it is very instructive to exhibit the action of the symmetry in the superspace formulation. It turns out that the symmetry is most easily expressed in terms of a worldsheet scalar (spacetime spinor)
(10:43)
a i Ep a ( p1 + p2 )
IX.10
In terms of this parameter, one has
X M EM a
(10:44) where the operator is de ned by (10:45) and h is such that
2 = I.
Xa = 0
X M EM 1 = (1 + ) X M EM 2 = (1 )
1 p
pq Ep a Eq b ab
2 h
We have shown in the rst part of this chapter that the RNS and GS formulations of superstring theory exhibit 10dimensional (global) Poincare supersymmetry, in at Minkowski spacetime M = R10. Actually, superstring theory also exhibits Diff (M ) invariance when formulated on a general manifold M . For the bosonic string, we had shown this in xVI by coupling bosonic string theory to background elds, including the metric G , the antisymmetry tensor eld B and the dilaton , in a Diff (M ) covariant fashion. For the superstring, we may again couple superstring theory to G , B and in a Diff (M ) covariant way. The relevant (N = 1 on the worldsheet) supersymmetric nonlinear sigma model for the type II superstrings is given by (10:46)
x10.5. Supergravity and low energy superstrings
S X ; G; B; ] = 41 + 41
Z Z
d E D X D+X (G (X ) + iB (X )) d E R+ (X )
This worldsheet action de nes the RNS superstring in an arbitrary spacetime manifold M , with the elds G , B and . (For the N = 1 theories, this sigma model must be modi ed: for heterotic theories, one replaces D by @z and R+ by R+z , while for Type I theories, the B coupling will not occur here, but will result from the RR sector.) IX.11
Of course, it must be realized that for any of the superstrings, the elds G , B and do not correspond to the full set of massless states discussed in xVII and VIII. First of all, there are additional spacetime fermions: the gravitino and the dilatino. But, there are also additional boson elds: in Type II theories, these are the RR gauge elds; in heterotic and Type I theories these are the Yang{Mills bosons. Following the discussion provided for the study of bosonic strings, on general manifolds, with general background elds, we should include in the nonlinear sigma model all spacetime background elds corresponding to massless string states. The inclusion of fermions or RR bose elds is complicated by the fact that it requires the use of the Ramond vertex operator. Nonetheless, let us imagine that such a formulation were used. (We shall exhibit it explicitly later, with the use of the GS formulation.) Now, since the superstring theory is covariant under Diff (M ) as well as under global Poincare supersymmetry, it is fully expected that it will in fact be invariant under local supersymmetry transformations (also called supergravity transformations). This is expected because the composition of Diff (M ) and Poincare supersymmetry transformations does not close onto these, but does close onto local supersymmetry. (We have already examined in x9 how this happens in D = 2 within the context of superRiemann surfaces.) Field theories that are invariant under local supersymmetry transformations are socalled supergravities. In the low energy approximation, superstring theory can be approximated by the spectrum and dynamics of its massless states only, summarized in terms of a local eld theory. The massless sector of superstring theory will inherit invariance under local supersymmetry, and will then be a supergravity. The dynamics of the NSNS sector of Type II A, B superstrings, in the massless sector, will yield the part of the corresponding supergravity involving only the elds G , B and (with the fermion elds and RR elds set to zero). This dynamics may be deduced directly from the above nonlinear sigma model, and results from demanding that its quantum dynamics be superconformal invariant. It turns out that the conditions of superconformal invariance of S X ; G; B; ] to leading order (i.e. two derivatives or fewer IX.12
on fermion elds) are precisely the same as the condition found for the bosonic string, except that D = 10 now. The eld equations for G, B and could be deduced from an action for those elds on the spacetime manifold M : (10:47) 1 Z d I1(G; B; ) = 2K 2 G RG 4D D M + 1 H2 e 12
2
Here, we have expressed the metric G in the string convention, so that an extra overall factor of the dilaton coupling appears. For the heterotic strings, the elds G, B and result from the NS sector of the leftmovers coupled to the spacetime part of the right movers, and the resulting action is still given by I1 . We begin by discussing the low energy eld theory (at most 2 derivatives on bose elds, at most 1 on fermion elds) associated with Type II Asuperstring theory, i.e. Type II A, N = 2, D = 10 supergravity. The existence of this theory was predicted by Nahm, based on representation theory of supersymmetry algebras and was constructed by Cremmer, Julia and Scherk, by dimensional reduction from the D = 11, N = 1 supergravity. The Type II A eld content is readily identi ed from xVII, 4:
x10.6. Type IIA, D = 10, N = 2 and D = 11, N = 1 supergravities
G B A(1) A(3)
9 = ;
NSNS RR
spacetime metric (equivalently frame em a) antisymmetric NSNS tensor dilaton graviphoton rank 3 antisymmetric tensor
32 component Majorana gravitino RNS and NSR 32 component Majorana dilatino (both contain both chiralities.) The action I1 corresponds to the dynamics in which A(1) = A(3) = = = 0, and we now seek the generalization of I1 that also describes the remaining elds. IX.13
It turns out that the easiest way to do this is to reorganize the eld contents in such a way that it manifestly results from dimensional reduction of an D = 11 supergravity theory with N = 1 supersymmetry. The precise statement is that the low energy limit of the D = 11 supergravity, compacti ed on a circle with small radius, is precisely the Type II Asupergravity. This reorganization of eld variables is advantageous because it will turn out that the N = 1, D = 11 supergravity is described by a relatively simple Lagrangian in terms of relatively few elds. We begin by showing that the eld contents may be organized according to multiplets of Spin(1; 10). We use spacetime indices ; ; : : : = 0; 1; : : : ; 9 and ; = 0; 1; : : : ; 9; 10. We denote the compacti ed coordinate by x10. Upon dimensional reduction on a circle, the only parts that survive to the low energy approximation of the D = 10 theory are the elds that are independent of x10 . Indeed, x10 dependence renders the elds massive, with mass on the order of 1=R. A metric tensor in D = 11 decomposes as follows: (10:48)
G (x ; x10 ) ! G (x )
Under the action of SO(1; 10), this multiplet is irreducible, but under SO(1; 9), we nd ! , so that the objects of Type II Atheory that naturally t into the D = 11 metric multiplet are (10:49) (10:50) (G ; A(1); ) ! G Proceeding analogously for an antisymmetric rank 3 tensor
A (x ; x10 ) ! A (x )
and under SO(1; 10), this tensor is again irreducible, but decomposes under SO(1; 9) as
!
so that (10:51)
;
(A(3) ; B ) ! A IX.14
Thus, all the NSNS and RR bosons t into two elds: G and A . The spinors also t together. The smallest dimensional representation of a spinor of Spin(1; 10) is a Majorana spinor of dimension 32. Under Spin(1; 9), it will reduce into 2 MajoranaWeyl spinors of opposite chirality, and this is precisely what we need for Type II A, where the gravitino as well as the dilatino are nonchiral Majorana spinors. Furthermore, the dilatino may be appended to as its 11th component: (10:52) (
; )!
:
x10.6.1 N = 1, D = 11 supergravity
Based upon general arguments by Nahm, the largest possible dimension D in which supersymmetric multiplets can exist with spin 2 only is D = 11, with a single local supersymmetry. Its eld contents are precisely the ones that we have described above:
G A
(equiv. e a) graviton:
44 states 84 states 128 states:
U (1)gauge eld:
gravitino:
The dimensional reduction is carried out by setting x10 dependence to zero, and by letting G decompose as (10:53)
G ;
G
10
= G10 = A(1)
G10 10 = e
2
which yields the action I1 when A(1) = 0, and A(3) = = = 0. The normalization of the eld strength H = dB of B in I1 provides a normalization of the eld strength F = dA in the D = 11 supergravity theory. The remaining terms are xed by local supersymmetry invariance. The full Lagrangian is obtained by seeking N = 1 local supersymmetry and was established by Cremmer, Julia and Scherk: (10:54)
I (G; A; ) = 2
1
2 M d GL
Z
p
2 Z A^F ^F 3456 M
IX.15
where L is given by
! ! + 12 + 384 In this action, we have used the standard notation
1
(10:55)
1 L = RG + 12 2F 2 + p 3 2
2
D
b (F + F )
:::
1
2
:::
]
where the square brackets stand for complete antisymmetrization of the indices. F = dA was de ned previously, and b F = F + terms
b such that the supersymmetry variation of F does not contain derivatives of  the susy b parameter. D is the covariant derivative with respect to 1 (!M + !M ) where 2 (10:58) ! ab = ! ab + 1 b ab 8 and ! is the spin connection, which is determined by its equation of motion. For completeness, we record the supergravity transformations:
e a= 2 a p A = 82 (10:59) ] p b = 1 D0 + 2 8 F 288 The covariant derivative D0 is here de ned with the connections !. b
The Type II Asupergravity Lagrangian may now be deduced from D = 11 supergravity by the compacti cation and dimensional reduction discussed previously. The reduction of the metric G was already given; the reduction of the A eld proceeds by (10:60)
x10.6.2 Type II Asupergravity
A A
A(3) 1 10 = B
=
1 4
IX.16
The bosonic part of the Type II Asupergravity is then
(10:61)
III A (G; B; ; A(1) ; A(3)) 1 Z d ne = 2 2 G
1 RG 4D D + 12 H 2 M p G2 + p 1 F 2 o + A 12 p Z 288 2 M B ^ F ^ F
2
here GA = dA(1), H = dB, F = dA(3). Notice that the RR part of the action does not occur with the dilaton rescaling factor e 2 ; thus, these contributions are in some sense of order 1 in the string loop expansion.
x10.7. Type II B, D = 10, N = 2 supergravity
G (equiv. e a) B + i A(2) + i A(0) (4) A K
The Type II B eld contents are as follows (see Lecture 7). graviton. complex rank 2 antisymmetric tensor. complex dilatonaxion. real, selfdual F = dA(4):
(chirality+) complex MajoranaWeyl spinor gravitino: (chirality ) complex MajoranaWeyl spinor dilatino: Clearly, the eld contents do not arise from a simple dimensional reduction, since the spinor content is chiral here. In fact, since the theory contains a selfdual eld, F , no o shell Lorentzcovariant formulation is known for this theory. The eld equations may be written covariantly though, either in components or in superspace. The gauge group is Spin(1; 9) U (1)R and the complex dilatonaxion eld + i A(0) lives in SU(1; 1)=U (1)R . Both for the Type I and for the heterotic theories, we have only a single spacetime supersymmetry: N = 1. However, both theories now also have an N = 1 superYang{Mills multiplet, which we shall have to include. IX.17
x10.8. Type I { Heterotic, D = 10, N = 1 supergravities
The eld contents of the N = 1 supergravity multiplet are obtained (say for the heterotic string) by considering the leftmoving part of Type II, tensored with the rightmoving 10dimensional part of the bosonic string. The corresponding elds are G spacetime metric B real rank 2 antisymmetric tensor real dilaton 1 MajoranaWeyl (real) gravitino (+ chirality) 1 MajoranaWeyl (real) dilatino ( chirality) the Lagrangian for this theory exists (since there are no elds with selfdual eld strength) and may be obtained from the Type II Atheory by setting (10:62)
A(1) = A(3) = 0
=
+
=0
where the indicates the chirality. This truncation is consistent with the eld equations of Type II A, since both A(1) and A(3) occur quadratically in the bosonic Lagrangian, and since the fermionic Lagrangian does not mix between chiralities. We limit ourselves to examining only the bosonic action of the supergravity multiplet, and notice immediately that it must be just I1. The fermionic part may be deduced from the D = 11 supergravity Lagrangian by the above dimensional reductions and restrictions. The eld contents of the N = 1 super Yang{Mills multiplet are obtained (again for the heterotic string) by considering the leftmoving part of the Type II string, tensored with the rightmoving internal part of the bosonic string. The corresponding elds are A gauge eld of E8 E8 or Spin(32)=Z2 = G (adjoint rep.) gaugino of E8 E8 or Spin(32)=Z2 = G (adjoint rep.) The dynamics are governed by the action (in at M , with G = ) Z 1 a (D )a 0 = d G 1 Fa Fa (10:63) IY M 4 2 M which is global N = 1 Poincare supersymmetry invariant. Here, we use the notation (a = 1; : : : ; dim G) and 1 (10:64) A = Aa ta dx F = dA + gA ^ A = 2 F a ta dx dx : IX.18
It remains to construct an action with N = 1 local supersymmetry, that combines 0 both the supergravity multiplet and the superYang{Mills multiplet. First, the action IY M is adapted as follows. 1 Fa Fa 1 a D a 1Z d e 2 (10:65) IY M = G 4 2 M For G = U (1) gauge theory, I1 + IY M + the fermionic terms of the supergravity multiplet yield an N = 1 susy action. For nonAbelian G, this is not so, and the form of the B eld strength H in I1 must be modi ed as follows:
e H = dB p !3 (A) 2 Here, !3(A) is the socalled ChernSimons form of degree 3: (10:67) !3(A) tr A ^ dA + 2 gA ^ A ^ A ; 3 with the properties that
(10:66)
(10:68)
d!3(A) = tr F ^ F !3 (A) = tr(d ^ dA)
under A = d + A; ] :
e To render H gauge invariant under nonAbelian transformation in G, B must transform as B = p tr dA 2 The supergravity + super Yang{Mills action is now (for bosons) (10:69) 1 Fa Fa 1 H2 + e 2 1 Z d e I = 2K 2 G e 2 RG + 4D D 12 4
M
where the rst part coincides with I1, except for the fact that H has been replaced with e its Ginvariant version H .
10 in the component formulation. While supersymmetry invariance transformations of IX.19
x10.9. Superspace formulation of supergravities in D = 11 and D = 10 In x10.6, x10.7 and x10.8, we have discussed supergravities in D = 11 and D =
these actions are known, there is the problem that the composition of two supergravity transformations closes onto Diff (M ) only upon the use of the equations of motion. Also, the supergravity invariance is not manifest. The superspace approach provides a formulation in which Diff (M ) and local supersymmetry transformations appear on the same footing and are united into the group of di eomorphisms of superspace. However, the superspace formulation in D = 11 and D = 10 supergravity  and super YangMillstheory  is known only for the equations of motion. No superspace action is known that describes the o shell con gurations as well. To exhibit local supersymmetric covariant coupling of superstrings to supergravity, it is most convenient to make use of the superspace formulation of supergravity, as we shall show in the next section. For this issue, the fact that only the onshell formulation is available causes no problem. In fact, already superstring theory itself, and as we showed previously, Type II Bsupergravity, do not admit an o shell formulation; it is thus perhaps not so surprising that superspace supergravity does not either.
N = 1, D = 11 supergravity in superspace From many points of view, the D = 11 theory is the simplest theory, and we shall begin by giving its formulation. The superspace data are as follows: local supercoordinates X M = (xm ; ), with m = 0; 1; : : : ; 10 and = 1; : : : ; 32 parametrize a real supermanifold M of dimension (11j32). The elds are most conveniently expressed as
(10:70)
E A = dX M EM A A B = dX M MA B 1 X = 3! E C ^ E B ^ E AXABC
Here, A, B, C sum over frame indices: (a; ), (b; ), (c; ) a; b; c = 0; 1; : : : 10; ; ; = 1; : : : ; 32, and transform under the de ning representation and the Majorana spinor representations of Spin(1; 10), respectively. The eld E A is a frame, belonging to 1 (M ); the eld AB is a Spin(1; 10) connection, which admits the following decomposition under IX.20
Spin(1; 10): (10:71)
ab = ba { = 1( ab) 4 b= ab
=0
Finally X is a 3 form in superspace, and a Spin(1; 10) invariant. It contains the rank 3 eld A(3) . Curvature, torsion and X eld strength are de ned by (10:72)
TA RA B H
dE A + E B ^ B A d A B + AC ^ C B dX
1 E c^E B TBC A { 2 1 E D ^E cRCD;AB { 2 1 E D ^E C ^E B ^E A ^HABCD : 4!
These elds satisfy Bianchi identities (a) (b) (c)
(10:73)
DT A = E B ^RB A DRA B = 0 dH = 0:
written in di erential form notation. It is most convenient to write these Bianchi identities out in terms of the Spin(1; 10) tensors TAB C , RAB;C D and HABCD ; (parentheses (ABC : : : ) stand for cyclic, graded summation of indices) (a) (10:74) (b) (c)
P
(ABC ) P
(RABC D DA TBC D TAB E TEC D ) = 0 (DA RBCDE + TAB F RFCD E ) = 0 (DA HBCDE + TAB F HFCDE ) ( )BC+BD+CE TAD F HFBEC = 0
(ABC ) P
(ABCDE ) P
(ADBEC )
This geometry is too general, and contains many more elds than are necessary for the D = 11 supergravity theory that we constructed in components. We must impose suitable \constraint equations". (We already encountered this problem in D = 2, N = 1 supergravity, where certain constraints were also to be imposed, see x9.1.) The choice of constraints is IX.21
dictated by the structure of the component elds that one expects to remain after the constraints have been imposed, by dimensional analysis, and of course by Lorentz invariance. We shall limit ourselves here to quoting the results from Brink and Howe (1980):
T = T bc = Tabc = 0; T c = i( c ) (10:75) H = H c = H bcd = 0; H cd = i( cd ) It can be shown that all the torsion constraints can be solved in terms of a single super eld Habcd. We shall not list out the various components here, but limit ourselves to providing the two eld equations that result. We introduce
(10:76)
Rab =
cd Racbd
R=
abRab
and have the equations of motion 1 1 1 Rab = 2 abR = 12 HacdeHbcde + 96 abHcdef H cdef (10:77) 1 Da Habcd = 1728 bcde1:::e4 f1:::f4 HJ e1:::e4 H f1 :::f4 Retaining only the = 0 part of these equations, we readily observe that they are the bosonic eld equations that would also have been obtained from the component formulation. We conclude by remarking that the D = 10, N = 2 Type II Asupergravity may be obtained again by dimensional reduction. The resulting formulation is rather involved. There also exist a superspace formulation for Type II Bsupergravity.
N = 1, D = 10 supergravity in superspace The superspace data are as follows: local supercoordinates X M = (xm ; ), with m = 0; 1; : : : ; 9 and = 1; : : : 16, parametrize a real supermanifold of dimension (10j16). The fundamental elds are
(10:78)
E A = dX M EM A A B = dX M MA B
where A,B run over frame indices: (a; ), (b; ), a; b = 0; 1; : : : ; 9 and ; = 1; : : : ; 16. The spinors here transform under a single MajoranaWeyl representation of Spin(1; 9). Notice IX.22
that there is no further antisymmetric tensor as there was in D = 11. The B eld that occurs in D = 10, N = 1 supergravity is contained in the elds E A and A B . The eld A B is again a spin connection, but now for Spin(1; 9), acting on the direct sum of the de ning representation and the MajoranaWeyl representation: ab = ba b= a =0 (10:79) = 1 ( ab) ab 4 Torsion and curvature are de ned by 1 E C ^E B T A T A dE A + E B ^ B A BC 2 (10:80) 1 D C B : RAB d AB + AC ^ C B 2 E ^E RCDA As in the case of D = 11, N = 1, these quantities satisfy Bianchi identities (10:81)
DT A = E B ^ RB A
DRA B = 0 :
(A component decomposition for these equations is given in (10.74).) Again, this geometry is too general, and torsion constraints should be imposed. The choice of constraints is not unique, and depends upon the choice of connection, among others. The constraints here were rst derived by Nilsson, and reformulated by Witten: T = T bc = 0 T c=2 c (10:82) T = ( a) for some One may show that the resulting elds, after elimination of all auxiliary elds, are precisely those of the N = 1 supergravity multiplet in D = 10, with the same equations of motion as those that we obtained from the component formulation. It is now very easy to produce a GS worldsheet action, formulated in superspace, that couples in a manifestly locally supersymmetric way to the superspace elds of supergravity in D = 10. For simplicity, we consider the case with N = 1 supersymmetry only. Recall that the at superspace action was i Z X (H ) 1 Z d gpq E aE b S X] = 8 g p a ab 4 B IX.23
x10.10. Local supersymmetric coupling of superstrings to supergravity
where Epad p X (E a) is the pullback to X of E a, and where @B = , and H was a closed 3form on M . The form of H was dictated by the condition that we had to have symmetry in order to obtain the correct spectrum. In general curved superspace backgrounds, we may again propose S X ] as a suitable action, provided the superspace geometry admits a closed 3form H , and upon inserting a factor of a scalar super eld k:
S X ] = 81
Z
d
g g pq Ep a Eq b abe4k
i 4
Z
B
X (H )
where Epad p = X (E a), just as in the at superspace case. The super eld k cannot be arbitrary, of course. It can be shown that when the torsion constraints for N = 1, D = 10 supergravity are satis ed, then there exists a natural closed 3form H , such that S X ] is invariant under symmetry. In other words, if we assume (locally) that H = dB, then the requirement of invariance demands that certain torsion constraints are satis ed. Up to equivalences, these constraints are precisely the torsion constraints.
IX.24
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?