# Lecture 2: The Harmonic Oscillator and Free Fields

The treatment given here closely follows Sections 2.2 and 2.3 of 1]. We revisit the functional integral formalism in holomorphic quantization used to describe ^ the harmonic oscillator. We make use of operators a and a satisfying a; a ] = 1. States are ^ ^ ^ represented by analytic functions (a ) of one complex variable a ; operators are represented ^ by integral kernels A(a 00; a0) depending on two independent complex variables a 00 and a0. The operator whose integral kernel is A may equivalently be represented by its normal symbol K (a 00; a0) = e a 00a0 A(a 00; a0): (1) We compose operators by writing the integral kernel of the composition of the operators with integral kernels A and B as Z (2) AB (a 00; a0) = 2 A(a 00; a)e a aB (a ; a0) da da : 2 i R The operator corresponding to the normal symbol is written as K = K (a^ ; ^) a (3) where the ordering of the variables has been changed in such a way that all starred variables appear to the left of all unstarred variables. The evolution operator U4 = e iH 4 was written U4 (a 00; a0) = exp( a 00a0 ih(a 00; a0)4): We pause to point out that we have been regarding (a ) (which represents a state) as an analytic function of one complex variable. In geometric quantization it is actually a section of a line bundle L over the phase space R2. We denote the section of the line bundle as 1 ~(a ; a) = e 2 a a (a ); (4) the object ~ (the \dressed" analytic function) is a section of a line bundle L over the phase ~ space R2. The dressed kernel A(a 00; a0) is a section of the pullback of two copies of L over 2 R2 : R ~ 2 2 (5) A(a 00; a0) = e 1 a 00a00 A(a 00; a0)e 1 a 0a0 : 1

The time evolution operator becomes Z 00; a0) = ea 00 aN U (a

Dressed kernels are composed by integrating over R2. One may also recover the ordinary kernel from the dressed kernel by integration: Z 1 1 00; a0) = ea 00 a 2 a a A(a ; ajb ; b)e 2 b b eb a0 da da db db : ~ (6) A( a 2 i 2 i
1 2

aN aN eaN aN N Y

1

aN 1 aN +::: a1 a1 +a1 a0

(7)

1 e 2 a0 a0+a0 a0 da2k dak i k=0 Z n 00 Z t00 a a a a 1 = exp a a(t00) 2 a (t00)a(t00) + i 0 _ 2i _ h(a ; a) dt t o Y da (t)da(t) 1 a (t0)a(t0) + a (t0)a0 (8) 2 2 i : t0 t t00 This formula is better than (41) in Lecture I. All integrations here are done over a real plane R2, in which a (+) and a(+) are complex coordinates. If one takes the explicit Hamiltonian h(a ; a) = !a a; this integral is Gaussian: we may compute it by \completing the square", or equivalently observing that the integrand is an inhomogeneous quadratic and so the integral may be obtained by replacing the value of the integrand by its value at the (complex) critical point of the integrand. Explicitly, if A is a matrix with determinant 1 we have Z 1 (9) expf 1 (Az; z) + (b; z)gdz = e 2 (A 1 b;b): 2 The critical points of the integrand (8) are the solutions of the equation of motion a i!a = 0; a (t00) = a 00 _ a + i!a = 0; a(t0) = a0: _ We obtain as in Lecture 1 U0(a 00; a0; t00 t0) = exp(a 00a0ei!(t00 t0 )); (10) which implies U0(t00) (a ) = (e i!t0 a ): Now let us consider a more complicated example: we perturb the Hamiltonian by adding a term involving an external force (t) (which should be thought of as a real valued function), which depends on the time t. If we introduce q = p1 (a + a); 2! the new hamiltonian takes the form H = !a a + (t)q(t)

e

i h(aN ;aN 1)+:::h(a1 ;a0)]4

2

and is explicitly time dependent. The equations of motion for a and a acquire corrections:

a _

i!a

i (t) = 0;

(11)

a + i!a + i (t) = 0: _ (12) The time evolution operator now depends on t00 and t0 and not only on their di erence: we obtain Z t00 Z t00 n U (a ; a; t00; t0) = exp a ae i!(t00 t0) ia e i!t00 0 ei!s p(s) ds iaei!t0 0 e i!s p(s) ds t t 2! 2! Z t00 (t) Z t00 o p s=t e i!tei!s p(s) dtds ; (13) t=t0 2! 2! (where from now on the primes on the variables a and a will be suppressed). We note that the expression for U contains both terms linear in and terms quadratic in . Suppose = 0 for t outside some interval 1; 2] (in other words the external force is turned on at time 1 and turned o at time 2). We would like to study how the motion of the system deviates from its motion in the absence of an external force: this is described by the normal symbol for the transition operator T , de ned as follows. T (a ; a) = t00!1lim! ; t0 U (t00) 1U (t00; t0)U0(t0): 1 0
(14) Recalling the expression for U0 given in (10), the transition 00operator is obtained from the expression (13) for U by removing the initial term a ae 0i!(t t0 ) from the argument of the exponential, and also removing the factors e i!t00 and ei!t from the second and third terms in the argument of the exponential in (13). Notice that the integration variable s in (13) is subject to the constraint s < t; this enables us to rewrite the formula for the normal symbol of T in the form ) ( Z1 i Z 1 Z 1 e i!jt sj (t) (s)dtds : (15) T (a ; a)symb = exp i q(t) (t)dt + 2 1 1 2i! 1 To obtain this formula we have symmetrized over t and s. Here, q(t) = p1 (a ei!t + ae i!t) (16) 2! is a solution of the free equation of motion

q + ! 2 q = 0;
or The operator D is de ned by

Dq = 0: d2 + !2: D = dt2
3

e i!jt sj G(t; s) = G(t s) = 2i! is the Green's function for the operator D, or the fundamental solution to the equation d2 ( dt2 + !2)G(t; s) = (t s): (17) Since G depends only on the di erence t s, we shall from now on regard G as a function of one variable t. We may describe it in terms of its Fourier transform as Z1 eikt G(t) = "lim 21 dk; (18) !0+ 1 k2 + !2 i which is often denoted as eikt 1 Z1 G(t) = 2 1 k2 + !2 i0 dk: The integral over k should be completed to a contour integral and ` i0' tells us how we have moved the poles in the integrand (which were on the real axis). The concrete choice of Green's function corresponds to the domain of de nition O of the operator D: O consists of functions f (t) which are asymptotic to aei!t as t ! 1 and to be i!t as t ! 1 (where a and b are constants). We now pass from quantum mechanics to quantum eld theory, replacing R by Minkowski space V of dimension d + 1 with signature (+; ; : : :; ) (in other words d space dimensions and one time dimension; sometimes this will be denoted as V = V 0 R, where we have denoted d-dimensional space by V 0.) We shall usually index the coordinates of V by = 0; : : : ; d while the coordinates of space V 0 are indexed by j = 1; : : : ; d. Thus a point x in V is denoted x = (x0;~ ); its coordinates are x = (x0; x1; : : :; xd). x Let us list the formulas from quantum mechanics which we shall generalize: 1 (19) h = 1 p2 + 2 !2q2 = !a a 2 q + ! 2 q = 0: (20) a; a ] = 1 ^ ^ (21) (a ) = p1 (a )n ; H = n! (22) n! q = ap+ a (23) 2! Z iZ (24) T (a ; a) = exp i q(t) (t)dt + 2 G(t s) (t) (s)dtds :
The analogue of the coordinate q(t) is a scalar eld (denoted by ') which depends on x 2 V . The eld ' satis es the classical equation of motion, which is the Klein-Gordon
equation

The kernel

' + m2' = 0;
4

(25)

2 = @ @ = @0 4: To see the analogy with (20) we introduce the operator 2 = 4 +m2, so that (25) becomes

where we have introduced

' + 2 ' = 0:
A free eld ' should be thought of as a collection of oscillators with di erent frequencies, which are eigenvalues of the operator : 2 can be diagonalized by Fourier transforms and we get for the eigenfrequencies !2 = ~ 2 + m2; k (26) or q ~ ) = ~ 2 + m2: ! (k k The space coordinate (or equivalently its Fourier transform, the momentum coordinate ~ ) k labels the oscillators. Quantization now is evident. In the holomorphic quantization the basis elements, denoted by n(a ), are given by n Y k k (27) (a ) = a (~ 1) : : : a (~ n ); n
j =1

at times we shall use the notation (~ )n to denote the n-tuple of unordered points (~ 1; : : :; ~ n ) k k k 0 ) . The Hilbert space corresponding to n particles is the space of symmetric functions in (V of n momentum variables. Proper states are given by Z f ((~ )n )a (~ 1) : : : a (~ n )d~ 1 : : :d~ n : k k k k k (28) The Hamiltonian becomes

Z H = !(~ )a (~ )^(~ )d~ : k ^ kak k

(29) (30)

The state ((~ )n) is a generalized eigenstate for the Hamiltonian k 1 0n X ~ A ~ H ((~ )n ) = @ !(kj ) ((k)n ): k
j =1

~ and the momentum operator P :

0n 1 X ~ k P ((~ )n) = @ ~ j A ((~ )n ): k k
j =1

(31)

Thus we obtain a description of the spectrum in terms of particles. In a one particle subspace, the components of the momentum operator form a complete set of commuting operators, and the Hamiltonian is a function !(~ ) of them. k In eld theory one requires multiparticle states in order to obtain scattering, and one must also allow the possibility of creating and annihilating particles. A Hilbert space accommodating all possible numbers of particles and on which the creation and annihilation 5

operators may act is the Fock space HFock, which should be thought of as a linear combination of all the n-particle states, or as the result of tensoring together a collection of Hilbert spaces representing one particle systems and symmetrizing over the action of the permutation group. If we introduce the variable (~ ) which is canonically conjugate to the eld operator x '(~ ), the free eld Hamiltonian becomes (compare with (19) x 1 Z 2(~ ) + (r'; r') + m2'2(~ ) d~ : H0 = 2 0 x x x (32) V The initial data analogous to (23) is 1 Z a (~ )e i(~ ;~) + a(~ )ei(~ ;~) p ~ : k kx k k x dk (~ ) = (2 )d=2 x (33) 2! We may perturb the Hamiltonian H0 by adding a term: Z H = H0 + (~ ; t)'(~ ; t)d~ : x x x The normal symbol of the corresponding transition operator is then (by analogy with (24)) Z i Z G(x y) (x) (y)dxdy ; T (a (~ ); a(~ )) = exp i (x)'(x)dx + 2 k k (34) V V V where the Green's function satis es ( + m2)G(x; y) =
d+1(x

y);

(35) (36)

it is given in terms of its Fourier transform by i(k;x) 1 Z G(x) = (2 )d+1 k2 e m2 + i0 dk: V The eld operator ' generalizing (16) is 1 Z na (~ )e i(~ ;~)ei!t + a(~ )ei(~;~)e '(~ ; t) = (2 )d=2 x k kx k kx
i!t

o d~ pk : 2!

(37)

Let us now consider what happens when we perturb the Hamiltonian by adding, not a term corresponding to an external force, but a term corresponding to an interaction between particles. We suppose for example that Z H = H0 + 0 V ('(~ ))d~ ; x x (38) where V (') is a polynomial in ' in which all terms are higher than quadratic; we could for example take 3 V ( ') = ' : (39) 3! 6
V

We shall expand in terms of powers of the coupling constant , which is assumed small. The term V is independent of the time; it should be regarded as analogous to a potential. We shall compute the scattering operator or S-matrix S 0 = t00!1lim! 1 eiH0t00 e iH (t00 t0 )e iH0 t0 : (40) ; t0 Repeating the previous formalism we obtain a functional integral for the time evolution operator where the integrand contains a factor Z exp i V ('(x))dx : (41) This factor is contained in the integrand for the time evolution operator U in the path integral which is the generalization to d + 1 dimensions of the integral given in (8). We now use the identity ( Z ) Z Z 1( exp i V ('(x))dx = exp i V ( i (x) )dx exp i '(x) (x)dx j =0 (42) to enable us to use our formula (34) for the transition operator to extract a formula for the S -matrix. We replace integration of functions involving V ('(x)) by di erentiation with respect to of the formula (15) for the transition operator. The purpose of this device is to replace integration (which involves the elds ' in a nonlinear manner) by di erentiation with respect to the parameter (x), which pairs linearly with '(x) The formula (34) for T may be thought of as a generating functional for the S-matrix when one perturbs the Hamiltonian by adding a potential term involving terms of higher than quadratic order in '. We obtain ( Z ) Z i Z G(x y) (x) (y)dxdy : 0 (a ; a) = exp i S V ( (x) )dx exp i V (x)'(x)dx + 2 V V (43) We are applying = (x) to the exponential of an expression which contains one term linear in and another term quadratic in . One application of = (x) produces terms of the form '(x) or of the form RV G(x y) (y)dy: Di erentiating twice with respect to produces factors of G(x y). We may represent the combinatorics of the resulting expression for the S-matrix diagrammatically: this is the formalism of Feynman diagrams. To obtain the term of order N in the formula for the S-matrix one should proceed as follows. We restrict for the moment to the potential V (') = '3=3! The factor V (') is represented by a vertex with three edges emanating from it (trivalent vertex) , which represent the three derivatives = (x) applied to the expression (34). Each vertex carries a factor of the coupling constant , and the j -th vertex is labelled by a coordinate xj 2 V . The combination ( = )2 yields a term G(xj xk ); diagrammatically this is represented by a line connecting the j -th and k-th vertices. (Here, j need not be distinct from k, so the line could start and end at the same vertex.) Diagrammatically the term of order N in the asymptotic expansion of S 0 is obtained by the following procedure: 7

1. Draw all diagrams with N trivalent vertices. Label the j -th vertex by the coordinate xj 2 V . 2. A line connecting the j -th and k-th vertices (internal line) carries a factor G(xj xk ) (the propagator). 3. A line emanating from the j -th vertex but not connected to any other vertex carries a factor '(xj ). 4. The expression thus obtained must be multiplied by ( i )N =N !(3!)N and integrated over the x1; : : :; xN . We note that many of the diagrams thus obtained will di er from each other only by permutations of the integration variables x1; : : : ; xN or of the edges leaving any given vertex; these permutations are compensated by the factor 1=(3!)N N ! One obtains the same answer by summing only over one representative of each equivalence class under such diagrams and omitting the factor 1=(3!)N N !, provided one divides by the automorphism group of the diagram (the group of relabellings of the variables x1; : : :; xN and permutations of the lines leaving each vertex which leaves the diagram invariant). Of course if the potential '3=3! were replaced by a di erent order polynomial in ', for example '4=4!, one would obtain an analogous formula involving vertices with a larger number of edges (in this case four) emanating from them. We note that one must include contributions from disconnected diagrams, and also from diagrams where an edge starts and ends at the same vertex.

References
1] L.D. Faddeev, A.A. Slavnov, Gauge Fields: An Introduction to Quantum Theory, Addison-Wesley (Frontiers in Physics vol. 83), (second edition), 1991.

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