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Ludwig Faddeev 21 October 1996

We rst describe how to rewrite the expression for the S -matrix (equation (43) from Lecture 2)

G(x y) (x) (y)dxdy : (1) Here, the argument of S 0 is the solution of the free Klein-Gordon equation k 1 Z a (~ )eik x + a(~ )e ik x pd~ ; (2) k k '0(x) = (2 )3=2 2k0 for k0 = !(~ ). We shall rewrite (1) as a path integral of the form k

0 ) = exp

V V V

S 0 ('

(

i

Z

V ( (x) )dx exp i

)

Z

iZ (x)'(x)dx + 2

S 0 ('

0) =

Z

'

exp i L(x)dx

n Z

oY

x

d'(x);

(3)

where we integrate over elds ' tending asymptotically to certain asymptotic values 'in (resp. 'out) as t ! 1 (resp. t ! +1). Starting from the formula (3) one may derive the Feynman rules for an expansion of the S-matrix in terms of Feynman diagrams, where we expand the Lagrangian L about its stationary point 'cl. Our exposition closely follows Section 2.4 of 1], which is appended. We now pass to several examples which illustrate the notion of renormalization. First we shall consider an instructive example which shows that the mass renormalization is not necessarily associated with in nities. Rather it is connected with the proper de nition of the one particle states. As an example let us consider a Hamiltonian

H = H0 +

Here H0 is the free scalar eld Hamiltonian

Z

X

n;m 0

vn;m:

(4) (5)

H0 = !(~ )a (~ )a(~ )d~ ; k k k k

1

is a coupling constant and vn;m are polynomials in the creation and annihilation operators:

k k k0 k0 k k k0 k0 k k vn;m = V (~ )n; (~ 0)m a (~ 1) : : : a (~ n )a(~ 1) : : : a(~ m) (~ 1+: : :+~ n ~ 1 : : : ~ m )(d~ )n(d~ 0)m : k k (6) The delta function in (6) implies that the Hamiltonian commutes with the momentum operators: ~ H; P ] = 0; (7) where Z ~ k k k k P = ~ a (~ )a(~ )d~ :

We shall make frequent use of the commutation relations a(~ ); a (~ 0)] = (~ ~ 0); k k k k (8)

Z

a(~ ); a(~ 0)] = a (~ ); a (~ 0)] = 0: k k k k (9) We can consider that the v11 term is absent in (4); otherwise it is to be included into H0 from the beginning. Now if terms vn;0 are present then the Fock vacuum for which a(~ ) = 0 k

is not an eigenvector of H . So the physical vacuum is distinct from . Furthermore terms vn;1, even in the absence of terms vn;0, preclude the one particle states k k 1(~ ) = a (~ ) from being eigenvectors of H . On the other hand a Hamiltonian of the form (4) but summing only over n and m such that n 2 and m 2 has the same vacuum and one particle states as H0. One can apply to it the usual formalism of scattering theory. We shall show (in the framework of formal series expansions) that it is possible to nd a unitary transformation R = eiQ, where Q is given by an expression

Q = Q1 + Q1 + Q2 + Q2

and

Q1 = Q2 =

X

n X n

Qn;0; Qn;1;

Q1 = Q2 =

X

m X m

Q0;m Q1;m

with terms of the type (n; 0), (0; m), (n; 1) and (1; m), and corresponding coe cient functions q(~ )n ), q((~ 0)m); q((~ )n ; ~ 0), and q(~ ; (~ 0)m); such that after the conjugation k k k k k k ~ H = RHR 1 2

all unwanted terms can be cancelled. Of course, each Q is a power series in :

Q=

X j j Q

Alternatively we can say that in a new representation of canonical variables

b# = Ra# R 1

~ the Hamiltonian H has the same vacuum and one particle states as a free hamiltonian H0, which however is di erent from H0. ~ ~ We shall de ne H (j) = RHR 1 + O( j+1 ); solving in such a way that all the H (j) only include terms with n 2 and m 2. We see that

eiQHe

iQ

= H0 + (i Q1; H0] +

X

n;m

X vn;m) + 2 ( Q2; H0] + i Q1; vn;m]) + : : :

n;m

(10)

We shall decompose this equation into its components at every order in , successively cancelling the terms vn;0; v0;m, vn;1 and v1;m. To leading order in , we need to solve

i Q1; H0] +

XX

n 0m 0

vn;m =

1 1 X X (1) vn;m ; n=2 m=2

(11)

(1) with some vn;m (in other words we arrange to cancel the terms vn;m with n 1 or m 1). We shall show how to choose Q1 to satisfy (11); then to second order in the equation (10) implies X X (2) XX vn;m (12) vn;m] = Q2; H0] + i Q1; (2) for some vn;m with n 2 and m 2. It will then be necessary to solve (12) for Q2, and so on; this process enables us successively to cancel all the terms vn;1; v1;m; vn;0; v0;m. We now describe how to solve equation (11) for Q1: exactly the same procedure will then su ce to solve (12) for Q2, and so on. Since (11) expresses Q1 as a linear function of P n;m vn;m , it su ces to solve the equations

n 0m 0 n 2m 2

Q1; H0] = ivn;0; 1

(Q1) ; H0] = iv0;m; 1 Q1; H0] = ivn;1; 2 1) ; H0 ] = iv1;m (Q2

(13) (14) (15) (16)

for individual values of n and m. Notice that for any operator rn;m of type n; m,

rn;m; H0] =

XZ

n;m

d~ 1 : : :d~ n d~ 1 : : : d~ m (~ 1 + : : : + ~ n ~ 1 : : : ~ m ) k k k0 k0 k k k0 k0

3

X k rn;m ((~ )n ; (~ 0)m )a (~ 1) : : : a (~ n )a(~ 1) : : :a(~ m )( !(~ j ) k k k k k0 k0

X

so that the equationsP - 16) areP (13 solved simply by dividing the coe cient functions vn;0, v0;m, k k0 k Pj !(~ j0 ) respectively. k0 P k k vn;1, v1;m by factors j !(~ j ); j (! (~ j ), j ! (~ j ) ! (~ 1 ); ! (~ 1 ) Assuming that the one-particle energy is convex, in other words that !(~ 1 ) + !(~ 2) !(~ 1 + ~ 2) k k k k (which means that a particle cannot decay into two or more particles while conserving momentum) we see that the factors above are nonvanishing and there is no di culty in dividing by them. However this method cannot be generalized to cancel terms vn;m where both n 2 and m 2, for then the factor appearing in the integral for Q1; H0] involves Pn=1 !(~ j ) k j Pm 0 ) which will in general become zero for some values of ~ j and ~ 0, so it is no longer k k kl l=1 ! (~ l possible to divide through by this factor in order to solve the equation. The equations of higher order are solved analogously. As a result we achieve our goal of cancelling the unwanted terms. In the course of this procedure a nonvanishing vacuum energy (constant terms in the expansion) appears, and the one particle energy !(~ ) changes. In particular, in the relak ~ tivistic case this amounts to the renormalization of mass: in the new Hamiltonian H , the q k k function !(~ ) q ~ 2 + m2 which multiplies a(~ )a (~ ) in the Hamiltonian H is replaced k = k by !ren (~ ) = ~ 2 + M 2 for an appropriate value of M . What we have done may thus be k k described as mass renormalization. Our second example of renormalization is \charge renormalization". Its origin can be illustrated by a simple example. We begin with a Hamiltonian 1 H = 2 4 + 3(x); where 3(x) is the Dirac delta distribution. After Fourier transforming the equation H ^(x) = E ^(x) (in position space) becomes

j

j

!(~ j0 )); k

p p ~2 (~) +

(~) = 3 (~ ~ ) p p k

Z

(~)d3p = ~ 2 (~) p ~ k p

Z

(17)

where the eigenvalue of the energy is E = ~ 2. One may rewrite this as k Putting t = R

**p0 p0 ~ 2 i0 (~ )d~ : k (~0)d~0 ; we obtain integrating both sides over ~ p p p Z d~ t = 1 t 2 ~p : p ~ k 2 i0 p ~2
**

4

(18)

(19)

The integral diverges; to regularize it we introduce a cuto L and integrate only over jpj L. We nd ZL Z d~ p jpj2djpj : (20) =4 jpj L jpj2 j~ j2 i0 0 jpj2 jk j2 i0 k This leads to Z d~ p (21) t=1 t 2 k 2 i0 jpj =1 This may be rewritten as where

Z p t 4 L + k2 jpj2 djk2j i0 :

jpj L

t=

; 1 + (4 L + f (~ )) k

Z1

**dj~j p = 2 2ij~ j: k 0 j~j2 j~ j2 i0 p k We may rewrite this equation in terms of a \renormalized" parameter f (~ ) = 4 (j~ j2) k k t=
**

where or

ren

ren ,

by writing

1+

ren k ren f (~ )

We shall now choose ren (depending on L and ) in such a way that ren may remain nite as L tends to in nity. It is clear from (22) that this is only possible if is negative (in other words it describes an attracting force, not a repelling one): then one may allow to depend on L in such a way that 1 tends to 1 as L tends to 1, while the value of the renormalized constant ren remains nite. Renormalization is discussed further in E. Witten's lectures (October 24 and October 31).

ren

= 1+4 L 1 = 1 + 4 L:

(22)

References

1] L.D. Faddeev, A.A. Slavnov, Gauge Fields: An Introduction to Quantum Theory, Addison-Wesley (Frontiers in Physics vol. 83), (second edition), 1991.

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