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**Ludwig Faddeev 7 November 1996
**

In other lectures, considerable attention has been focused on how to construct the symplectic structure on the space of classical solutions, starting from the Lagrangian. In this lecture we will instead focus on the xed time Hamiltonian formalism, and we will see that the transformation which maps the Lagrangian into the Hamiltonian is simply a change of variables. The lecture will chie y treat the case of singular Lagrangians. Our aim is to present the rst order formalism, in which the Lagrangian depends linearly on time derivatives of the dynamical variables. In the usual Lagrangian formalism, we begin with the con guration space M : coordinates on M will be denoted q. Coordinates on the tangent bundle TM are then given by q and q_, and the Lagrangian is a function L(q; q_). The action is then de ned by

A = L(q(t); q_(t)) dt:

Applying the standard variational principle we see that the extrema of the action are given by the Euler-Lagrange equation d @ L @ L = 0: (1) dt @ q_ @q

2 2

Z

This is ordinarily a system of equations of second order since the Euler-Lagrange equation involves the term q@ L=@ q@ q. The Lagrangian is said to be nondegenerate if the Hessian _ _ @ L=@ q@ q_ is invertible. _ In the Hamiltonian formalism, on the other hand, we work with T M R (where T M is the cotangent bundle of con guration space, or the phase space). On this there is a natural 1-form pdq H (p; q)dt; (2) where we have introduced (q; p) as natural coordinates on T M . The corresponding Lagrangian is written as l = pq_ H (p; q); (3) and the action is Z A = (pq_ H (p; q))dt: 1

The Euler-Lagrange equation applied to A then gives Hamilton's equations: Note that the Lagrangian l is linear in time derivatives, and the Hessian of l is identically zero. Thus our system is of rst order. In the standard fashion, we have converted a system of second order di erential equations into a system of rst order di erential equations, at the expense of increasing the number of variables. To explicitly see how the Hamiltonian formalism is derived from the Lagrangian formalism, we introduce v = q_ and treat q and v as independent variables. The Lagrangian then depends on q, v, q_ and v, and has the following _ form: (5) l = @ L (q_ v) + L(q; v): @v Comparing with (3) one nds that the Hamiltonian is given by and we obtain the Hamiltonian formalism by performing the Legendre transformation (q; v) 7! (q; p) where we have de ned

p_ = @H ; q_ = @H : @q @p

(4)

H = v @ L L; @v

On a general manifold with coordinates , we would write the Lagrangian as X l = fa( ) _a ( ): The one-form on

p = @L : @v

**R corresponding to (2) would be written as
**

X

a

(6)

a

fa ( )d

a

dt = !

dt;

and it gives rise to a two-form = d!. (Here d denotes the de Rham di erential on , rather than on R.) The equation of motion becomes _= @ : @ The condition that the Lagrangian is nonsingular is equivalent to the condition that the twoform is invertible: for this to hold, it is necessary that be even dimensional. For important Lagrangians in physics (for instance the Yang-Mills Lagrangian and the Lagrangian for electrodynamics) the two-form is in fact not invertible. Let us investigate this situation in more detail. Invoking the Darboux theorem, on we write the coordinates as (p; q; z) in such a way that the one-form ! becomes ! = pdq + d : 2

The total derivative d may be discarded, and after this the one-form corresponding to the Lagrangian becomes l = pdq (p; q; z)dt; where @ = 0: The variables z may be divided into \excludable" variables (which will ul@z timately be discarded) and others which enter linearly. After eliminating the excludable variables, the Lagrangian becomes

l = pdq

(p; q)dt

X

' (p; q):

(7)

Here, the play the role of Lagrange multipliers while the ' (p; q) are constraints. Among the equations of motion we now obtain the constraints

' (p; q) = 0;

so we may substitute p = p( ); q = q( ) where are coordinates on the manifold

l

= f(p; q) : ' (p; q) = 0g:

We thus obtain a new phase space l on which the excludable variables and the Lagrange multipliers have been eliminated, so that the variables z no longer appear and we are left with a subspace parametrized by the variables (p; q) where the constraints ' (p; q) = 0 have been imposed. The new phase space l may have a nondegenerate symplectic form, and then our Hamiltonian reduction is done. If not, we repeat the above process until Lagrange multipliers no longer appear, in which case we have reduced to a phase space with a nondegenerate symplectic form. Explicit solution of the constraints could be complicated, so it is instructive to understand what properties of the singular Lagrangian (7) guarantee that it will become nonsingular after the constraints are imposed. There are two important instances of this. We can distinguish two di erent types of constraints. A collection of constraints f'ag are called rst class if the Poisson brackets of all constraints vanish on the zero locus of the constraints: in other words, if f'a; 'bgj' = 0: (8) We claim that if f ; 'agj' = 0 for all a, then in the next step of the procedure one obtains a proper nondegenerate Lagrangian. More precisely, the submanifold j' may be bered so that the base is symplectic and the bers are isotropic with respect to the Poisson bracket f ; g. One may summarize the procedure by saying that \ rst class constraints kill twice": when one restricts to the zero locus of the constraints 'a, one must also set to zero the variables which are canonically conjugate to the 'a, in other words one must set to zero all Poisson brackets with the 'a. If there are N constraint equations 'a; a = 1; : : : ; N , then imposing the constraints reduces the dimension of the phase space by 2N . The second type of constraints 'a are those for which detf'a; 'bg 6= 0: a system of constraints for which this condition holds is called a system of second class constraints. If a Lagrangian gives rise to a system of second class constraints, the next step of reduction leads to a nondegenerate Lagrangian. The number of a must be 2N and the dimension of

=0 =0 =0

3

the phase space is then reduced by N through imposition of the constraints. Constrained quantization was originally considered by Dirac 1]. Given a eld '(t;~ ), and the free eld Lagrangian x 1 L = 2 ( @ ') ; (9) canonical quantization normally speci es that one should introduce the canonically conjugate momentum (t;~ ) = @ '(t;~ ), where x = t and (x ; x ; x ) = ~ . The points ~ in space x x x x should be thought of as labelling the eld. Notice that the momentum is not Lorentz invariant. We may alternatively replace the Lagrangian (9) (which is second order in time derivatives) by a rst order Lagrangian: we do this by introducing a vector eld ' (in other words a collection of four elds (' ; ' ; ' ; ' ) which transform according to the standard action of the Lorentz group on R ) and write l = ( @ ') ' 1 ( ' ) : (10) 2 Of course under the substitution ' = @'=@x the Lagrangian in (10) reduces to that in (9): however if we regard ' as independent of ', (10) is rst order in time derivatives. (We have introduced the Einstein summation convention, summing over pairs of repeated indices , where = f0; kg and k = 1; 2; 3 correspond to space coordinates while = 0 corresponds to the time coordinate.) We may rewrite (10) as 1 (11) l = (@ ')' (@k ')'k 1 ' + 2 'k : 2 Under the substitution = ' , and solving for 'k ; 'k = @k ', we obtain 1 L = (@ ') 2 ( + (@k ') ); (12) which indeed shows that and ' are canonically conjugate and that the Hamiltonian H has the usual form 1 H = 2 ( + (@k ') :) The variables 'k can be eliminated because they enter (10) quadratically and without time derivatives.

2 0 0 1 2 3 4 0 1 2 3 2 0 0 2 0 2 0 0 2 2 2 2

Example 1: the free scalar eld

Example 2: electromagnetism

In this example it is important that spacetime has dimension 4. We start with a vector eld A (x) (the photon eld), which should be thought of as a 1-form or a connection: X A = A dx :

The associated curvature is

F = dA;

4

or as a two-form F dx ^ dx ; where

F =@ A

The Lagrangian is

Z

@A:

2

(13)

(14) which is second order in time derivatives. A trick due to J. Schwinger enables us to replace it with a Lagrangian which is rst order in time derivatives: this is to regard A and F as independent variables. By analogy with our procedure in Example 1, we write (15) L = (@ A @ A )F 1 F : 2 Of course (15) reduces to (14) by restoring the functional dependence (13) of F on A. However the Lagrangian in (15) is linear in time derivatives of the elds, and also introduces some constraints. We rewrite (15) as 1 1 L = (@ Ak)F k + A (@k F k) F ik (@iAk @k Ai) 2 (F k) + 2 (F ik ) : (16) ~ Here, F k = E k are the components of the electric eld E , while Ak are the components of the vector potential. Up to the Hodge star operator which converts two-forms on R into ~ one-forms, the quantity F ik is the magnetic eld H : we substitute

2 0 0 0 0 0 2 2 0 3

L = jF j ;

~ ~ H = r A;

3

(17)

or Hi = ijk rj Ak in terms of the totally antisymmetric tensor in three indices which represents the Hodge star operator in R . Thus the Lagrangian becomes ~ ~ (18) L = (@ Ak)E k 1 (E H ) + A @k E k ; 2 ~ ~ where we already excluded the independent variables H , so that H in (18) is given by (17). k are canonically conjugate variables (appearing in a term On the other hand, Ak and E which is rst order in time derivatives), and A is a Lagrange multiplier multiplying the constraint G = r E = @k E k : (19) The constraint G = 0 is called Gauss's law: it tells us that the divergence of the electric eld is zero. This is a rst class constraint, fG(~ ); G(~ )g = 0, and we have also x y

0 2 2 0 0

~ ~ fG; E g = fG; H g = 0:

For any function on R we have

3

(20)

fAk ; G(~ ) (~ )d~ g = @k (~ ); x x x x

5

Z

equivalently G is a generator of U (1) gauge transformations: the gauge group G is the group of maps from R to U (1), and its Lie algebra is the group of maps from R to R. An element 2 Lie(G ) sends Ak to Ak + @k . The imposition of Gauss's law may be viewed as symplectic reduction with respect to the action of the U (1) gauge group G. Since the constraint G is of rst class, it reduces the degrees of freedom from three functions Ak (~ ) to two. Thus (in physical language) light has two polarizations. x The above treats the situation of the electromagnetic eld in the absence of sources. If on the other hand the electric eld interacts with a charged eld J , Gauss's law becomes G = r E + J (~ ) x (21) where J is the charge density. If we de ne

3 3 0 0

**if we express Q as a ux of the electromagnetic eld via a surface in R (for instance a sphere S (R) of radius R) we obtain
**

3 2

Q = R3 J dx

0

Z

Q = Rlim !1

Z

S 2 ( R)

ikj E

k dS

2

ij :

In this example we introduce a metric g with the associated a ne connection k and ij the scalar curvature (we omit indices for clarity) R=@ + : To write a Lagrangian that is rst order in time derivatives, we take g and as independent variables: more precisely we write h = pgg ; and write the Lagrangian as L = h(@ + ): (22) The connection contains rst order time derivatives of h, so @ contains second order time derivatives of h. This may be altered by integrating by parts, so that we obtain L = @h + h : (23) This Lagrangian is not manifestly covariant, however it is this form which is to be used in the so called asymptotically at case. The de nition of asymptotic atness can be given on di erent levels of sophistication; we shall use the most na ve but practical way of introducing the admissible coordinates. In such coordinates we have in the vicinity of space in nity g = g + O ( 1 );

2 2 2 0

Example 4: Gravitation

Thus the equation (21) leads to Coulomb's law, according to which the electromagnetic force from a point charge at distance r is proportional to 1=r .

r

6

= O( r1 ) where g is the Minkowski metric. An admissible change of variables is of the form X ! v Xr + a + b (x); where v is a Lorentz rotation, a de nes a translation and b (X ) = O 1 ; @b = O 1 :

2 0

@g = O( r1 )

2

(24)

In these coordinates the density (23) is of order O

r

A = L dx

is invariant with respect to the change of coordinates (24). Inspection of the density (23) cubic in the variables (h; ), shows that out of 10+40 = 50 variables, the enter linearly and 26 other components enter quadratically without time derivatives. So the Lagrangian (23) takes the form (7), however the constraints do not commute with the corresponding . So we must solve them explicitly. Fortunately this is possible and altogether solving the constraints and eliminating the excludable variables allows one to express 30 components of via the metric h and 6 components ik . Let qik = h hik hin hnk ik ik =

00 0 00 0

Z

r4

1

and the action

r

2

be a (density of weight +2) of the rst quadratic form and (a density of weight 1) of the second quadratic form of the surface x = 0 embedded into space-time. After solving for , mentioned above, the Lagrangian (23) reduces to the form k @ qik + 1 C ( ; q) + h C ( ; q) + @ @ qik

0 0

h

00

ik

0

where C and Ck are some functionals of , q and derivatives. The term @i@k qik cannot be discarded in spite of the fact that it is a pure divergence as its ux through in nity does not vanish. Indeed this ux Z M = Rlim k`m@ik qik dS `n !1

0

h

00

0

h

00

k

i k

de nes the full energy M of the gravitational eld and a very nontrivial theorem states that M is positive unless the metric is not at. Four constraints C , Ck are of the rst class; let k (x), (x) be the vector eld and the function on the space slice. We put

0 0

SR

C( ) = C( ) =

0 0

Z

Z

C ( (x); q(x)) (x)d x Ck ( (x); q(x)) k(x)d x

0 0 3 3

7

to get the brackets

where ; ] is the commutator of vector elds. This means that C ( ) are generators of di eomorphisms of our space slice. Furthermore

fC ( 00); C ( 0)g = C ( n; 0]) fC ( ); C ( )g = C ( )

0 0 0 0

where

n

**is the result of the action of the vector eld on the function . Finally
**

0

fC ( 00); C ( 0 )g = C (^);

0 0 0 0

**where the vector eld ^ is given by ^n = qin(@i
**

1 0

00 0

0

0

00

@i 0 )

0

What about the Hamiltonian? Taking into account the asymptotic condition, it is more natural to consider h0n + 1 rather than 1=hnm to be a lagrangian multiplier; thus, the Hamiltonian H = C + @i@nqin di ers from the constraint C only by a term which is a total divergence. The explicit expression for C shows that H is quadratic in and rst derivatives of q, like all other Hamiltonians in previous examples. The 4 constraints kill 4 degrees of freedom from the 6 in qik , so gravitons (like photons above) have two polarizations. The reduction above is associated with the names of Dirac and Arnowitt-Deser-Misner ADM]. The explicit forms of all expressions above in the coordinates qik , ik can be found in my survey 2].

0 0 0

In this lecture, lack of time prevents us from treating the case of the Dirac equation, in which the eld is a spin 1=2 fermion, and the Lagrangian is rst order in time derivatives from the beginning and is nondegenerate.

Example 4: the Dirac equation

References

1] P.A.M. Dirac, Proc. Roy. Soc. A 246, 326, 1958; P.A.M. Dirac, Lectures on Quantum Mechanics, New York (Yeshiva University), 1964. 2] L.D. Faddeev, Sov. Phys. Uspekhi 25 (1982) 130. 3] L.D. Faddeev, A.A. Slavnov, Gauge Fields: An Introduction to Quantum Theory, Addison-Wesley (Frontiers in Physics vol. 83), (second edition), 1991.

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