Quantum Field Theory and Strings for Mathematicians

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Free QFT

David Kazhdan

3.1 Some examples of free classical eld theories. As was explained in Bernstein's

lectures, for any classical eld theory the space Sol of stationary points of Lagrangian

carries a canonical symplectic form, or at least a closed 2-form.

The theory is called free if Sol is isomorphic to a linear space with a constant 2-form

and linear action of the Poincare group. Let us consider some examples.

Example 1. A scalar boson eld in dimension (1; d 1).

A classical eld is a real-valued function on R1;d 1. The Langrangian is given by:

The space of stationary points is: Sol = f'j' + m2' = 0g. It is linear, the symplectic

R

form is constant. It is given by: ['1; '2] = ('1 d'2 '2d'1) for '1; '2 2 Sol, where

is a space-type hypersurface in V . By a space-like hypersurface we mean a complete

smooth oriented hypersurface such that the normal vector at each point lies in V+ (for

example the hyperplane ft = constg is space-like). Since ('1d'2 '2d'1) is closed and

suciently rapidly decaying the integral does not depend on the choice of a hypersurface.

(The condition of Schwartz decay in space directions is tacitly imposed on the classical

solutions under consideration throughout the lecture).

Example 2. Spinors. Let V be 10-dimensional, or of any dimension n = 8k +2. Then the

spinor representation S decomposes as S = S + S , and S +, S are real. There exists a

unique symmetric pairing : S +S + ! V (see x3.16 in Deligne's \Notes on spinors" on this

site). We also have a pairing ( ; ): S + S ! R and the action map s : S

V ! S .

The space of classical elds is dened to be the space of maps: Map(V; R0;1

S +) =

Sol where Sol = Map(V; S +). We dene Lagrangian by: L( ) = (@ ; ). Here d 2

1(V; R0;1

S +) = (V; R0;1

S +

V ), and @ def= sd 2 (V; R0;1

S ). We have:

1

Sol = f j@ = 0g, it is a purely odd vector space. Giving a symplectic form on Sol is

equivalent to giving a symmetric form on Sol. The symmetric form is constant and is

R

given by: ( 1 ; 2 ) = ( 1 ; 2 ) where is a space-type hypersurface, and we use the

isomorphism V ' d 1(V ) provided by the volume form on V to interpret ( 1 ; 2 ) as

a (d 1)-form on V .

Example 3. Free electro-dynamics in any dimension.

Let M be the space of 1-forms on V modulo the exact forms. The Lagrangian L: M !

d(V ) is as follows:

L() = (d d):

We have: Sol = fjd d = 0g=fexact 1-formsg. We will write down the symplectic form

using Fourier transform. The Fourier transform of the exact sequence

d

1 (V ) d!

0 !

0 (V )=R ! d

1 (V )

looks as follows:

S( V )

V !

0 ! S( V ) ! S( V )

V

where S(V ) is the Schwartz space, and:

(G)(p) = (G(p); p)p (p; p)G(p):

Let O0 = fpjp2 = 0; p 6= 0g. Let N denote a vector bundle over O0 , such that Np = p?=Rp.

Lemma. a) For any G 2 Ker we have G(p) 2 p? for all p 2 O0 .

b) The map Ker ! (O0 ; N) given by G ! G(p)=Rp is an isomorphism between Sol

and f 2 (O0 ; N)j ( p) = (p)g. The symplectic form [ ; ] on Sol is constant

R

and is given by [ 1; 2] = Im 1 2.

O+0

terms of Fourier transform in examples 1,2 also.

2

3.2 Cliord module. Quantization of a free classical eld theory is based on the following

linear algebra construction.

Let H be a real superspace, equipped with an even super-symplectic form [ ; ] :

H H ! R. Let ClH be the corresponding Cliord (=Heisenberg) algebra.

A complex polarization of H is an automorphism I : H ! H , preserving [ ; ] and

such that I 2 = id.

Dene the maps i : H ! HC by: i(v) = v i 1 Iv. Let H = Im i . Then H is a

complex isotropic subspace. We also have an antilinear isomorphism { : H+ ! H . Dene

( ; ): H+ H+ ! C by (h1; h2 ) = 2i [h1; h 2].

Claim. a) ( ; ) is a super-hermitian form on H+ .

b) ( ; ) is positive i: [h; h] > 0 for h 2 H odd f0g and [Ih; h] > 0 for h 2

H even f0g.

Proposition. Let (H; [ ; ]; I ) be as before such that ( ; ) is positive. Then

a) there exists a unique up to unique isomorphism triple (jI ; D;

) where: jI is a

complex representation of ClH on D and

2 D f0g such that:

jI (ClH )(

) = D

jI (H )(

) = 0.

b) There exists a unique positive Hermitian form ( ; )D on D such that (

;

) = 1

and jI (h) is an antiHermitian operator on D for h 2 H .

Remark. We have an embedding Sym(H+ ) ,! ClH , which induces an isomorphism:

jH+ : Sym(H+)! D, where j (h) = j (h)(

). The algebra ClH acts on D = Sym(H ) by

H+ I +

dierential operators.

Remark. If H is innite-dimensional, then the representation depends essentially on the

complex polarization I . For nite dimensional H the L2-completions of representations

constructed via dierent polarizations are isomorphic.

Remark. The above construction for the nite dimensional case is discussed in Deligne's

notes on quantization x3{7.

3

3.3 Examples of free QFT's.

Scalars. Let H be the space of real solutions of: ' + m2' = 0 and [ ; ] be the form

R

on H given by ['1; '2] = ('1d'2 '2d'1) (Example 1 above).

To f 2 S(V ) there corresponds a classical observable, i.e. a function on H , given by

h ! hh; f iL2 (V ). So in quantum theory an operator (f ) should be dened for f 2 S(V ).

Let us construct a positive complex polarization I on (H; [ ; ]). We describe I in

terms of Fourier transform. The Fourier transform gives an isomorphism H = ff 2

SC (Om )jf ( p) = f (p)g, where Om = fp 2 V f0gjp2 = m2g. We have: Om =

O+m t Om (union of 2 connected components). Restriction to O+m denes an isomorphism

H! S (O+ ). Since S (O+ ) has natural complex structure and S (O+ ) S (O ) = H is

C m C m C m C m C

ical" representation jI : ClH ! End D described above. Let H = D be the Hilbert space

completion with respect to the invariant Hermitian form (see Proposition). Since the action

of P on H commutes with I , we get an action of P on H.

We dene the eld operators : S(V ) ! End(D) as the composition

S(V ) 3 f ! F(f ) ! F(f )jOm j!I EndD

where we consider the restriction F(f )jOm as an element of H .

Let us nally analyze the support of the spectral measure of H considered as a V -

module. We obviously have: Spec V = O+m , where denotes the action of P on H+.

Recall that jH+ : Sym H+! D is an isomorphism.

Hence Spec U V is the closure of the set f0g [ O+m [ O+m + O+m [ : : : where we use the

notation A + B = fa + b j a 2 A; b 2 Bg, and U stands for the representation of P on H.

It is easy to see that Spec U V = f0g t O+m t fp 2 V+jp2 2mg.

Spinors. We keep the notations of Example 2 above. Let H = (f j@ = 0g). (Recall

that denotes change of parity of a superspace).

R

A classical observable is associated with f 2 SS (V ), and is given by h ! V (f (v); h(v)) dv.

In Fourier coordinates the classical eld equation becomes: s(p; F( )(p)) = 0. Since

D2 = we see that for any 2 H : supp(F( )) O0.

4

Let A be a subbundle of the trivial bundle over O0 with ber S +, such that Ap S + =

Ker s(p).

Then H = ff 2 SC (O0 ; A)jf ( p) = f (p)g. The symplectic form on Sol is the same

R

as symmetric pairing on H , and it is given by: (f1 ; f2 ) = (f1 (p)p;f2( p)) 0 , where we

O+0

use linear dependence of the vectors (f1 (p); f2 ( p)) , p, and denote by (f1 (p)p;f2( p)) the

coecient of proportionality. (This formula is equivalent to the one given in Example 2).

Using the decomposition O0 = O+0 t O0 , we obtain a polarization and the canonical

representation jI : ClH ! End D. If U is, as usually, the action of P on D, then Spec U V =

V +.

The eld operators are also dened similarly to the above. Namely, for f 2 S(V; S ) the

section {(f ) such that {(f )(p) = s(p; F(f ) O0 (p)) lies in H because s(p)2 = 0 for p 2 O0.

We dene (f ) = jI ({(f )) 2 End D.

Photones (Free quantum electro-dynamics = free abelian gauge theory). Here Sol =

ff 2 S(O0 ; N)jf ( p) = f (p)g. Polarization comes again from the decomposition: O0 =

O+ t O . Thus we obtain the canonical representation jI : ClH ! End D.

Recall that in classical situation (Example 3) the space Sol is a subspace in

1(V )=

d

0(V ). So to any 2-form ! 2

2 (V ) there corresponds a classical gauge-invariant observ-

able: Z

=d

3 ! d ^ !

1 0

V

Consider the map {:

2(V ) = S2 V ! H = SC (O0 ; N) given by {(!)(p) = ipF(!)(p) 2

p?. Now we dene the eld map: (!) = jI ({(!)).

3.4 Free QFT of arbitrary spin. A QFT is called free of mass m if the eld operator

(f ) depends only on F(f )jOm . (In other words, the classical eld equation + m2 = 0 is

satised on quantum level).

All examples considered in the previous section are of this kind.

In this section we give a construction of a free QFT of mass m which generalizes these

examples.

5

To describe it we need some preliminaries.

Recall that G = Spin(d 1; 1), and 2 G is the spin-element.

We x the mass of theory m 0. Let St denote the stabilizer of a point p 2 O+m .

If m > 0 then St = Spin(p?) = Spin(d 1). If m = 0 then St has nontrivial unipotent

radical N and St=N = Spin(p?=Rp) = Spin(d 2). Let G0 denote a maximal semisimple

subgroup of St. (So G0 = St if m > 0, and G0 = St=N if m = 0).

We x a real representation R of G, and of G0 . We will view R; as representations

of real algebraic groups dened over R.

can be also viewed as representation of the group St. We x a nonzero morphism

i : RjSt ! .

We do not have to assume that R; are irreducible, but it is convenient to require that

acts on R and by constant, i.e. R and are sums of irreducible representations of equal

spin. This constant will be denoted by ( 1)spin(R), ( 1)spin() respectively. Obviously

( 1)spin(R) = ( 1)spin().

St denote the subgroup fg 2 Gjg(p) = pg; let G

Let f f0 denote a maximal semisimple

St if m > 0, and G f0 = fSt=N if m = 0). Clearly G0 is a subgroup

of Gf0 of index 2.

= (Spin(d 2)

Z4)=(; 1).

f0 carries the structure of algebraic group over R. Note that the nontrivial connected

G

component of G f0 has no real points.

d is even).

Let K be the normalizer in G f0 (R) = G0 (R). Then K

f0 (C ) of the subgroup of real points G

is a compact Lie subgroup in the Lie group G f0 (C ); moreover, K has 2 connected components

We have: K = fg 2 G f0 (C )j (g ) 2 SO(d 1; 1)(R)g where : Spin ! SO is the

projection.

6

Note that K is not the set of real points of Gf0 . More precisely, for g 2 K G0 (R) we

have g = g .

Since K is compact, the space of C carries a K -invariant Hermitian form h ; i. It

also yields a quadratic form ( ; ), where (x; y) = hx; y i. The quadratic form restricted

to the subspace of real vectors (the space of ) is real and positive denite.

Now let us return to QFT.

To there corresponds a G-equivariant real vector bundle A on O+m ; its complexication

will be denoted by AC . Let H be the space of Schwartz sections of AC viewed as a real

vector space.

As usual we get the structure of a super-space on H by declaring the parity of H to be

( 1)spin().

The bundle AC carries a G-equivariant Euclidean and Hermitian metrics, obtained from

metrics ( ; ), h ; i on the space of C in the standard way. We will abuse notations by

denoting the metrics on the vector bundle by ( ; ), h ; i also. Of course ( ; )jA

is real and positive.

R

A super-symplectic form on H is given by: [h1; h2 ] = Im h1; h2 if H is even, and

R

O+m

[h1; h2] = Re h1; h2 if H is odd. The obvious complex structure on H yields the

O+m

positive polarization to be denoted I . Thus we get the canonical representation D 3

To provide the eld map : SR ! End(D) we rst construct a map { : SR ! H and

then take = jI {.

To the morphism i : RjSt ! there corresponds a map : R ! (A ), where (A ) is

the space of sections.

Now we can dene {. For f

r 2 SR = S

R we put {(f

r) = F(f )jO+m (r) where

F stands for Fourier transform as usual.

The data of QFT is constructed.

Remark. In fact the maps {, are dened on a larger function space then the space of

Schwartz section SR . Indeed, let F be a Schwartz function on Rd 1. Let f be a generalized

7

function on V = R Rd 1 of the form: f = t=t0 F where t is the coordinate on R.

Then it is easy to see that F(f )jO+m is a Schwartz function on the hyperboloid O+m . Thus

{ and are dened on the generalized sections of R of the form f r for f as above and

r 2 R.

Let us now check the axiom ) of Wightman QFT (the space-locality property).

We need the following

Key lemma. For any r1 ; r2 2 R the real-valued function on O+m dened by Pr1 ;r2 (p) =

((r1 ); (r2 ))jp extends to a polynomial function on Om . This polynomial function is even

if R and have trivial spin, and odd otherwise.

Proof of the Lemma. We can view A as an algebraic vector bundle on the real algebraic

variety m , and (r) for r 2 R { as an algebraic section of this vector bundle.

Since the metric on A is algebraic as well, the rst part of the claim is clear.

For any g 2 G(C ) such that g(p) = p we have by the denition

((r1 ); (r2 )) p = ((g(r1 )); (g(r2 )))p = (i(g(r1 )); i(g(r2 )))

In particular the last equality holds for any g 2 K G0 (R).

As was mentioned above for g 2 K G0 (R) we have g 1 g = . So for such g:

(i(g(r1 )); i(g(r2 ))) = hi(g(r1 )); i(g(r2 ))i = h(i(r1 )); g(i(r2 ))i = hi(r1 ); g 1 g(i(r2 ))i

= hi(r1 ); (i(r2 ))i = ( 1)spin()hi(r1 ); i(r2 )i = ( 1)spin()((r1 ); (r2 ))p

So for r1 ; r2 2 R we proved that ((r1 ); (r2 )) p = ( 1)spin() ((r1 ); (r2 ))p. Since the

map (r1 ; r2 ) ! Pr1;r2 is G-equivariant it follows that the same holds for any p0 2 m+ , and

the Lemma is proven.

Proof of space-locality. It is enough to check that if '1; '2 2 SR are space-like separated

then the scalar product [{('1); {('2 )] vanishes.

Let us take F1; F2 2 S(Rd 1) such that supp(F1) \ supp(F2 ) = ;. Let fj = t=0 Fj

for j = 1; 2. For r1 ; r2 2 R the expression fj rj is a generalized section of R. As was

mentioned above { is actually dened on such sections.

8

Since { and [ ; ] are P -equivariant it sucies to check that [{(f1 r1 ); {(f2 r2)] = 0

for fj ; rj as above.

Put gj = F(fj ). Then the functions gj satisfy gj (p + (t; ~0)) = gj (p), so we can write

gj (t; q) = gj (q) where t 2 R, q 2 Rd 1. We also have gj ( p) = gj (p) since fj is a real

function. So:

Z

[{(f1 r1 ); {(f2 r2 )] = const g1g2 ( 1)spin()g2g1 ((r1); (r2 )) d

+

m

Z

= const g1(q)g2 (q) ( 1)spin()g2(q)g1 (q) Pr1 ;r2 (jqj; q) jqj 1dq

Rd 1

(notations of the Key Lemma). It can be rewritten as:

Z

g1(q)g2 (q) ( 1)spin()g1( q)g2( q) Pr1 ;r2 (jqj; q) jqj 1dq

Rd 1

Z

= (g1(q)g2 (q)) Pr1 ;r2 (jqj; q) ( 1)spin()Pr1 ;r2 (jqj; q) jqj 1dq

Rd 1

By the Key Lemma

Pr1 ;r2 (jqj; q) ( 1)spin()Pr1 ;r2 (jqj; q) = Pr1 ;r2 (jqj; q) Pr1 ;r2 ( jqj; q)

and Pr1 ;r2 (jqj; q) is a polynomial function.

But then it follows that the function Q(q) = jqj 1(Pr1 ;r2 (jqj; q) Pr1 ;r2 ( jqj; q)) is again

polynomial.

Fourier transform of multiplication by a polynomial function is a dierential operator,

in particular is local. Thus we have:

Z

[{(f1 r1 ); {(f2 r2 )] = (g1 (q)g2 (q))Q(q)dq = (Q(q) g1; g2)L2 (R d 1)

Rd 1

= (Q^ (F1 ); F2 )L2 (R d 1) =0

where Q^ is the dierential operator with constant coecients corresponding to Q and the

last equality is obvious because F1 ; F2 have separated supports.

Space-locality is proved.

9

3.5 Wightman functions of a free eld theory; truncated Wightman func-

tions. The next statement characterizes free theories in terms of Wightman functions.

Claim. Let Wn be the Wightman functions of the free scalar QFT of mass m. Then we

have W2(v1 ; v2 ) = F(O+m ) (v1 v2 ); Wn = 0 if n is odd, and

X

W2k (v1 ; : : : ; v2k ) = W2 (vi1 ; vj1 )W2 (vi2 ; vj2 ) : : : W2 (vik ; vjk );

where the sum is taken over all partitions of f1; : : : ; ng in pairs (i1 ; j1); : : : ; (ik ; jk ), and

ir < j r .

Proof is straightforward.

This statement can be easily generalized to other free QFT's.

It also can be reformulated using the so-called truncated Wightman functions.

Since these objects will be used in the next lecture, let us give their denition. We set:

X k

Wtrn def

= ( 1)k 1 (k 1)! ` W (v ; vi ; : : : ; vij` j )

=1 j` j i1 2

=(1 ;:::;k )

Here the sum is over all decompositions of f1; ::; ng into the union of disjoint nonempty

subsets 1; ::; k , (the order of 1; ::; k does not matter), and i1 < i2 : : : < ij`j are the

elements of ` .

An equivalent equality is

X k

Y

Wn = Wtrj` j(vi1 ; : : : ; vij` j )

=(1 ;:::;k ) `=1

3.6 Gaussian measures. One can also easily describe free eld theory in Euclidean

formulation.

For a free QFT one can make sense of the measure on the space of tempered distri-

butions discussed in lecture 2 (x2.3); the corresponding measure is Gaussian. Here is the

formal denition for the case of the scalar theory.

10

Claim. Let S (e1 ; : : : ; en ) be the Schwinger functions of the free Euclidean scalar QFT

of mass m. Then S (e1 ; : : : ; en ) is the moment of a Gaussian measure m on the space

of tempered distributions S0 (E ) with covariance ( E + m2 ) 1. [So for f 2 S we have

F(m)(f ) = e(( E +m2 ) 1 f;f )

].

Remark. Gaussian measure on a nite dimensional real vector space H corresponding to

a quadratic form h ; i is characterized by the equalities

@ P

(1) = 1; @h = h_ (P )

vector eld, and h_ = hh; i is a linear functional on H .)

In our setting of kernel spaces (H = S0 , H 0 = S and hf; f i = ( + m2)f; f ) this is

still so, if one requires that the equality holds for all h for which it makes sense, namely

for all h 2 S S0 .

Reconstruction of the Hilbert space of a free QFT in terms of the Gaussian measure is

based on the next Lemma.

Let I be a positive polarization of H , [ ; ] and let hh1; h2i = [Ih1; h2 ]. Then we have

an imbedding D = Sym(H+ ) ,! AH dened by the decomposition HC = H+ H .

Lemma. For F1; F2 2 D we have (F1 ; F2)D = (F1 F 2)

We nish the lecture with discussion of

3.7 Normal ordering. In general in QFT one is interested in behavior of correlation

functions near diagonals. Naively speaking, we would like to consider along with operator-

valued generalized function (v) also an operator-valued generalized function n(v). As

usual such operator-valued functions should be encoded in correlation functions on Vk

whose \value at (v1 ; : : : ; vk )" equals to (

; n1 (v1 ) : : : nk (vk )

). If the naive denition

would work, these correlators would obviously be the restrictions of the original Wightman

function to the corresponding diagonal. Of course this is not possible, since Wightman

functions are singular along diagonals. Techniques to overcome this diculty are discussed

11

in Witten's lecture 3; here we only present a simple device, which leads to an answer in

the free theory case (see also xx3.2, 3.5 in Witten's lecture 3).

Let (H; ; D;

) be the free scalar QFT. (The assumption that the theory is scalar is

not essential, and made for notational convenience).

For any function f 2 S let us write f = f+ + f where f 2 SC and F(f)jOm = 0.

Then dene normally ordered power of the eld operator by

: (f )n : def

=

X n (f )i (f )n i :

+

i

Claim.

a) For any v 2 V , x; y 2 D and f 2 S the limit flim

!

(: (f )n : (x); y) exists; we will

v

write (: n(v) : (x); y) def

= flim

!v

(: ( f )n : x; y ). Thus the correlator ((v1 ); ::; : n (vi ) :; ::; (vn ))

is a well-dened distribution.

b) If d = 2, then for f 2 S there exists a well-dened endomorphism : n(f ) :2

R

End(H) such that (: n(f ) : (x); y) = f (v) (: n(v) : (x); y) dv.

In fact Claim b) is valid for much wider class of 2-dimensional theories than free ones;

see x8.6 of [Glimm-Jae].

One can dene normal ordering more algebraically as follows.

R

Recall that we have H = f'j' + m2n' = 0g, ['1; '2]o= ('1d'2 '2d'1). Consider

a Lagrangian subspace L H , L = ': @t@ ' t=0 = 0 . Since L is isotropic we have

an embedding: Sym(L) ,! ClH . Then the map F ! jI (F )

induces an isomorphism

jL: Sym(L)! D (because H = L H ). Also, the projection along H induces an

C

isomorphism u: H+!L.

Now consider the endomorphism of Sym L given by the composition of the arrows:

u!

Sym L Sym H+

jL 1- .jH+

D

We denote this endomorphism by F ! :F : .

12

Lemma.

a) For ` 2 L we have : n(`) := jI (: `n :). (The LHS is dened by Remark in x3.4).

n 1

b) F :F : 2 Symk (L) for F 2 SymnL.

k=0

c) (jL (:F :) ; jL (G))D = 0 for F 2 SymnL, G 2 Symk (L) k < n.

Lemma. For any F1; F2 2 Sym(L) we have:

(jL(F1 ); jL (F2))D = h ; i (F1 F 2)

L

Let { 2 End(Sym L) be the second order dierential operator corresponding to the form

h ; i. (So we have: {(ak ) = k(k 1) ha; ai ak 2 for a 2 L.)

Lemma. :F : = exp {2 F .

Corollary. : exp(` ) := exp

_ (`;`) exp(`_), for ` 2 L.

2

References

B. Simon, The P ()2 Euclidean (quantum) eld theory; xII.5, Princeton University Press,

1974.

For a discussion of the Gaussian measure approach to free QFT see Chapter 3 of loc.

cit. or

J. Glimm, A. Jae, Quantum Physics. (A functional integral point of view), x6.2, Springer-

Verlag, 1987.

13

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