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Index

Note: f. indicates figure; t. indicates table.


Pages 11046 are found in Volume 1; pages 10471840 are found in Volume 2.

AA1000, 1795
AAPG Computer Applications in Geology,
No.4, 158
ABAQUS (finite element analysis) software,
609
Abrasion test, 1474
Acid rock drainage (ARD), 1721, 1722f., 1734
acid generation and neutralization,
17231724, 1723f.
chemical characterization, 676
and ferrous iron, 1723
formation of, 17211724
long-term, 1721, 1722f.
and metal leaching (ARD/ML), 1724
pyrite oxidation, 1722, 1722f.
and stormwater management, 676677
and sustainability, 33
and waste piles and dumps, 676677
Acid rock drainage management, 1721, 1732
characterization, 17241725, 1725f., 1726f.
communication and consultation, 1732
framework, 17241732, 1724f.
Global Acid Rock Drainage Guide (GARD
Guide), 1721, 1734
management and performance assessment,
17311732, 1731f.
monitoring, 17301731, 1731f.
prediction, 17261727, 1728f.
prevention and mitigation, 1727, 1729f.
treatment, 17271730, 1730f.
Acid sulfate, 1088
Acidbase accounting (ABA) of tailings,
655656
Acidic chloride, 1088
ADDCAR system, 1030
Advance rate prediction (rock breakage)
based on cutterhead design, 432
based on specific energy, 430432, 430f.,
431t.
AFCs. See Armored face conveyors
Africa
mining history, 4
publications and associations (Web sites),
1831
AG/SAG. See Autogenous grinding/
semiautogenous grinding
Aggregates
in shotcrete, 580, 580t.
See also Quarrying

Agricola, Georgius (Georg Bauer), 3, 127, 227,


627
on detriments and advantages of mining,
1767
on heap leaching, 1073
Air conditioning, 1611
Aker Wirth continuous mining machine, 428,
429f.
Alaska, University of, frozen placer research,
1062
Alcoa bauxite mines (Australia), and IPCC, 941
Algoma BIF deposits, 97
Alimak raise mining, 1193, 1283, 1284f., 1362,
1362f.
Alkaline ammonia-based lixiviant, 1088
Alternative Investment Market (AIM), 65
Amax Gold, 299
AME Mineral Economics, 62
American Bureau of Metal Statistics, 62
American Concrete Institute, 589
American Conference of Governmental
Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH)
and noise regulations, 1633, 1634
on whole-body vibration, 1638
American Iron and Steel Institute, 744
American Society of Heating, Refrigerating,
and Air-Conditioning Engineers
(ASHRAE), 1613
psychrometric chart, 1612f.
Ammonium nitrate-fuel oil (ANFO), 866,
455456, 458459
in quarrying, 1035
Amperes law, 1534
Anaconda mine (Montana)
and air conditioning, 1611
geologic mapping system, 157
Analysis of Retreat Mining Pillar Stability
(ARMPS) method, 389
Anglo American, 78
Annual Conference on Ground Control in
Mining, 597
Annual value, 302
ARD. See Acid rock drainage
Argentina
Meridian Gold, Inc., and failed social
license approach in Esquel gold
deposit, 17871788
mining history, 4

I-1

Argyle diamond mine (Australia)


drill-and-blast tunneling, 1198
and interaction with indigenous culture,
1801
Armored face conveyors (AFCs)
in longwall mining, 1399
in soft-rock underground mining,
11591160, 1161f., 1162f.
Artificial intelligence, 842
Assaying, 187
digestion techniques, 190
fire, 108, 190
geochemical, 189
instrumental measurement, 190
methods, 135, 189191
neutron activation analysis (NAA), 190191
nondestructive analysis, 190191
quantitative, 189
wet chemistry, 190
X-ray, 190
Asset management, 781, 803804
ARP base case and uncertainties, 796797,
797f.
ARP contents, 794795, 795f.
ARP development process, 796, 796f.
asset, defined, 783
asset hierarchy, 782, 782f.
asset information management system,
defined, 784
asset life cycle, defined, 783
asset management, defined, 783
asset management information system,
defined, 783784
asset management objectives, defined, 784
asset management plan, defined, 784
asset management plan implementation, 791
asset management policy, 788
asset management policy, defined, 784
asset management strategy, defined, 784
asset management strategy and plans, 788789
asset management system, defined, 783
asset management system structure,
784786, 785f.
asset manager, 793
asset reference plan (ARP), 793794, 794f.
asset system, defined, 784
auditing, 792
benefits of whole life-cycle approach, 782
business model, 792797

I-2

concept and terminology, 781782, 783784


connections between organization goals and
plan, 787, 788f.
cost/risk/performance decision making and
optimization, 801802, 802f., 803f.
defining mining assets, 792793
Deming cycle (plan-do-check-act), 787,
787f.
emerging standards of, 782783
enablers, 785, 789791
failure modes and effects analysis (FMEA),
798, 799
human factors, 791
identification of appropriate solutions or
improvement actions, 792
identification of failures and improvement
opportunities, 792
implementation of corrective or preventive
action, 792
information management, 789790
key attributes, 785786, 786f.
life-cycle costing, 797798, 799f.
life-cycle planning, 797, 798f.
management review, 792
managing aging assets, 802803, 803f., 804f.
methodologies and techniques, 797803
monitoring and improvement, 791792
optimization, defined, 784, 785
overall equipment effectiveness (OEE), 800
PAS 55, 781782, 783784, 787, 802f.
performance and condition monitoring, 792
processes, 785, 786f.
questions for ARP to answer, 794
record-keeping and documentation updates,
792
reliability centered maintenance (RCM),
798, 799, 800f., 825, 826, 826f., 827,
828f., 835
requirements, 787792, 787f.
risk and reliability engineering, 798799,
799f.
risk management, 789, 790f., 791f.
risk-based inspection (RBI), 800
root cause analysis, 801
shamrock diagram, 789, 791f.
Six Sigma, 800801
strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, threats
(SWOT), 793
team, 793
terminology, 783784
total productive maintenance (TPM), 800
total quality management (TQM), 800801
Association of Exploration Geochemists, 128
Associations, U.S. (Web sites), 18271828
ASTM Standard Methods for coal and coke
sample preparation, 191
Atlas Copco, 707, 709, 711
Atomic absorption, 108
Atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS),
133, 135, 190
Atterberg limits, 654
Auction pricing, 13
The Australasian Code for Reporting of
Exploration Results, Mineral Resources
and Ore Reserves, 464
Australasian Institute of Mining and Metallurgy
Joint Ore Reserves Committee (JORC) and
Code, 14, 193, 203, 231, 298299, 882
VALMIN code, 219220
Australia
aboriginal people, 1797
Central Queensland Mining Rehabilitation
Group, 1823

SME Mining Engineering Handbook

and community involvement, 1768, 1769,


1770
Cooperative Research Centre (CRC), 433
Cooperative Research Centre for Mining
(CRCMining), 813
Department of Industry, Tourism and
Resources, 646
Geochemistry Research Centre of Australia,
108
leadership in safety risk management, 303
lost-time injury frequency rate (20002007),
1558, 1558f.
mining history, 4
mining industry fatalities (20002007),
1558, 1558f.
Ministerial Council on Mineral and
Petroleum Resources, 1768
Muswellbrook Mine Managers forum, 1823
Native Title Act (1993), 1768, 1770
New South Wales Coal Mine Health and
Safety Regulation 2006, 466, 468469
Occupational Health and Safety Act (New
South Wales, 1983, 2000), 1560
publications and associations (Web sites),
1831
relative performance of Australian dollar vs.
CRB Index, 77, 79f.
underground mine fatality rates 20042006,
303, 304t.
use of R&P in coal mining, 1339
Workplace Health and Safety Act
(Tasmania, 1995), 1560
See also Alcoa bauxite mines; Boundary
Hill pit; Goonyella Riverside mine;
Groote Eylandt mine; Moura coal
mine; Mt. Arthur North mine;
Northparkes mine; Norwich Park
mine; Rio Tinto; Tarong coal mine;
Wagerup alumina refinery; West
Angelas iron ore mine
Australia/China Coal Mine Safety
Demonstration Project, 465
Australian Bureau of Agricultural and Resource
Economics (ABARE), 63
Australian Coal Association Research Program
(ACARP), 813
Australian Minerals Industry Code for
Environmental Management, 1769
Autogenous grinding (AG), ball charges,
14661467
Autogenous grinding/semiautogenous grinding
(AG/SAG), 1461, 1466
ball charges, 14661467
feed hardness, 14681469
feed sizes, 1469
gearless drives, 1466
high- and low-aspect-ratio mills, 1466
mill liner designs, 1469
pebble crushing, 14671468
single-stage, 1466
unit power, 14761477
See also Semiautogenous grinding
Automatic control systems, 728729
and relevancy of process inputs, 729
and sensor accuracy, 729
and validity of assumptions, 729
Automation, 56, 26, 805
and accurate mine and machine model, 819
advanced sensing technologies, 817
automated blasthole drilling (case study),
820822, 820t., 821t., 822f.
automated blasthole drills (ABDs), 809810
automated digging, 811813, 812f.

automated dozers, 809


automated drill sensors, 820, 820t.
automated drilling compared with manual,
821t., 822f.
automated dump trucks (ADTs), 808
automated horizon control, 814815, 185f.
automated underground loading and
haulage, 808809
automatic, defined, 805
automatic face alignment and creep control,
813814
autonomous, defined, 806
autonomous haulage systems, 806808
autonomous mining, 806
and avoidance of mixed fleets, 820
benefits of, 26, 805
challenges, 806
and computing power, 27
data fusion, 27
defined, 806
dragline automation, 816817
driverless trains, 27
duty meters, 817
and efficiency, 818819
efficiency gains through process control,
819
face alignment control system (example),
814
and fatigue elimination, 818
future challenges, 817
future possibilities, 26
and improved information system
maintenance, 820
and information system improvement, 819
integrated site awareness, 818
intelligent, defined, 806
islands of (mine sites), 2627
longwall, 813816
and machine health and maintenance, 820
machine-level haulage automation, 807808
mechanized, defined, 805
mine-wide information systems, 817
and minimization of operator error, 818
onboard sensors, 817
of operations centers, 27
and planning and scheduling, 2526
and predictable working environment, 820
and remote locations, 818
remote operations centers (ROCs), 810811
required operational changes, 820
requirements for full implementation,
819820
safety advantages, 817818
and scarcity of skilled operators, 818
semiautomatic, defined, 805
site-level haulage automation, 806807
state-based shearer automation, 815
terminology and definitions, 805806
turnkey full-mine systems, 27
vision of future, 817818
and workers, 2728
See also Robotics
Autonomous operation, 15
and planning and scheduling, 2526
Average grade, 196
evaluating differences in, 207, 207t.
Avoca method, 366, 367t., 395, 395f.
Backfill mining, 1375
automated systems, 1383
backfill types, 13761383
cemented hydraulic backfill and backfill
plant requirements, 1380

cemented hydraulic backfill and cement


content vs. strength and deformation
properties, 1379, 1379f.
cemented hydraulic backfill and cement
content vs. use, 1379, 1380t.
cemented hydraulic backfill and
freestanding height, 13791380
cemented hydraulic backfill and pump
requirements, 1380
cemented hydraulic backfill system design,
13791380
cemented rock fill and binder placement,
1380
cemented rock fill and rock fill size
considerations, 1380
cemented rock fill system design, 1380
and dry sand and rock fill, 13761377
effect of cemented fill in mill feed on
processing plant recovery, 1383
feeder and blower considerations,
13811382
flowable fill equipment requirements, 1383
flowable fill system design, 13821383,
1383t.
heat generation of sulfide backfills, 1383
history, 13751376
hydraulic backfill, 1375
information sources, 1383
particle size distribution, 13811382
paste fill and backfill plant requirements,
1381
paste fill and paste particle size
requirements, 13801381
paste fill and pipe wear, 1381
paste fill and pump requirements, 1381
paste fill system design, 13801381
pipe wear, 1382
pneumatic stowing, 1376, 1381
pneumatic stowing transport considerations,
1381
power requirements, 1382
remote placement of backfills, 1383
solids loading and system pressure drop,
1382
thickened tailings, 1376
transport of slurry solids content,
13771378
uncemented hydraulic backfill and backfill
plant requirements, 13781379
uncemented hydraulic backfill and pipe
material selection, 1378
uncemented hydraulic backfill and wear in
pipes and line fittings, 1378, 1378t.
uncemented hydraulic backfill drainage
requirements, 1377
uncemented hydraulic backfill pipe friction
losses and pump requirements,
13771378
uncemented hydraulic backfill system
design, 13771379
uncemented hydraulic backfill transport
pipe size requirements, 1377, 1378t.
Backwardation, 58
Bad Grund mine (Germany), and paste fill,
1376
Balance sheets, 80
Ball mills, 14701471
Banded iron formation (BIF) deposits, 97
Bandura, Albert, 328
Bauxite deposits, 100
Baxter, George, 297
Beam stage loader, crusher, and boot end (in
longwall mining), 11601161

Index

Behavior modeling, 328, 329t.


Benefitcost ratio, 302
Bernoulli equation, 753, 1578
BHP Billiton
dragline automation trials, 816
Fatal Risk Control Protocols, 465
Bickford, William, and safety fuse, 3
Bingham Canyon copper mine (U.S.), 15, 721
planning process, 2930
Bishops method, 499
Black lung disease. See Coal workers
pneumoconiosis
Blasthole drilling, 435
automated blasthole drills (ABDs),
809810, 820822, 820t., 821t., 822f.
cluster drills, 436, 436f., 437f.
coil tubing, 440
computer-controlled systems, 440
contractors, 459
directional, 440
down-the-hole (DTH) hammer, 435, 436f.
drag-type bits, 439
drill jumbos, 436, 437438, 437f.
face drilling rigs, 436
future trends, 24
and Global Positioning Systems, 459
in-the-hole (ITH) hammer, 435, 437, 438
jackleg drills, 436
new developments, 440
penetration rate (percussive drilling), 438,
439t.
percussion bits, 435436, 436f.
percussive, 435438
percussive drilling equipment, 436438
percussive drilling equipment for surface
use, 438
polycrystalline diamond compact (PDC)
bits, 439
production (long-hole) drilling rigs, 436
rate of advance (rotary drilling), 439440,
440t.
ring-drilling drills, 436437, 437f.
rotary, 435, 438440, 439f.
stoper drills, 436
tricone bits, 438439
in wet conditions, 748
See also Drilling and blasting
Blasthole stoping (end slicing), 391, 391f.
Blasting, 443
and air blast, 458
alternatives to, 24
with ANFO, 455456, 458459
bench blast design nomenclature, 447, 448f.
bench blasting, 447
blast design, 447454
burden and spacing, 448, 449f.
burn cut, 451452, 452f.
controlled, and slope design, 515516, 516f.
costs, 455456, 456t., 457f.
decking, 450, 458
delays, 450451, 451f., 452f.
design for underground mining, 451454
detonators in holes, 454
and dust control, 1604
with dynamite, 458459
effects on environment, 874
face-height-to-burden ratio, 454455, 455f.
fan cut (slashing), 451, 452, 452f., 453f.
and flyrock, 457458
and free faces, 447, 447f.
future trends, 24
gas fumes from, 458
and ground vibration, 458

I-3

headings, 451452, 452f.


high-gas (higher-than-average-gas), 454
hole diameter and burden vs. face height,
447448, 448f., 449f.
holes and double-priming, 454, 455f.
improper stemming, 458
improper timing, 458
long-hole stope blasts, 452453
mass blasts, 453, 453f., 454f.
number of rows, 450
and overbreak, 458
patterns, 450, 450f.
pillar recovery, 453454
powder column length, 449
powder factors, 446, 447, 447f., 450
repump emulsion systems, 454, 454f.
restrictions in surface mining, 406
shot service contractors, 458, 459
specialized techniques in strip mining,
10221024, 1023f.
stemming, 449
subdrilling, 448449
surface blast design, 447451
underground blast design, 451454
V-cut, 451, 452, 452f.
See also Drilling and blasting; Explosives
Blasting impacts and control, 1689
blast-induced air overpressures, 1691,
16941695, 1695f.
character of blast excitation and structural
response, 16911695
comparison of blast and environmental
effects, 1700, 1701f.
control of blast effects, 16991702
digital-age improvements in blast control,
17021703
distinction between blast-induced and
natural cracking, 16901691
and electronic detonators, 17021703
and engineered structures, 17001701
estimation of dominant frequency, 1693,
1693f.
estimation of dynamic response properties,
16971698, 1698t.
evaluation of measurements, 16971699
fatigue or repeated events, 1701
frequency-based control with dominant
frequency, 1702, 1702f.
ground motion, 16911692, 1692f.
human response, 1691
instrument calibration, 1696, 1696f.
instrument deployment during test blasts,
16961697
kinemetric relationships of ground motion,
16921693
measurement of particle velocity, 1695
number of measurement instruments, 1696
permanent degradation of adjacent rock,
16891690
permanent displacement of adjacent rock,
1690
propagation effects, 16931694, 1694f.
range of blast effects, 16891691
regulatory compliance for air overpressure,
1702, 1702t.
response of structures to everyday activities,
1691, 1691t.
response spectra, 16981699, 1698f.
response spectra in surface mine blast,
1699, 1699f.
response spectra in urban construction blast,
16981699, 1699f.
restrained structures and rock masses, 1699

I-4

rock mass displacement and cracking,


17011702
Shock and Vibration Handbook, 1695
and signature-hole analysis, 1703
single-degree-of-freedom (SDF) model,
1697, 1697f.
sinusoidal approximations, 1692, 1692f.
statistical analysis of data by pre- and
postblast inspection, 1700, 1701f.
structural response and frequency effects,
16971698
structural strains vs. particle velocity, 1695
and transducers, 16951696
transient nature of blast motions, 1693
transient structural response, 1690
use of measurement instruments,
16951696
Block caving, 28, 1437
advance undercutting, 14421443, 1442f.
air blasts, 1449
automation, 1446
capital cost considerations, 1448, 1448t.
capital development, 1448
cavability, 1438, 1450
cave management, 14471448
cave progress tracking, 1447
cave shape and risk, 1450
caving rate and risk, 1450
conceptual development, 28
concrete/shotcrete delivery systems, 1447
current and planned mines, 1437, 1438f.
design, 28
draw control, 14471448
drawpoint hang-ups, 1445, 1445f.
drawpoint opening rates, 1445
drawpoint opening sequences, 1445
El Teniente (straight-through) extraction
level layout, 14391440, 1440f.
environmental impacts and permitting, 1450
excavation stability and risk, 1450
extraction level, 14391440
fixed facilities design and risk, 1450
forecasts, 1447
fragmentation characteristics, 14381439
full-gravity (grizzly) system, 1441, 1443f.
general mining systems, 1441
geotechnical characteristics, 14381439
in hard-rock mining, 364365, 365f.
haulage level, 14401441
herringbone extraction level layout, 1439,
1440f.
high hang-ups, 1446
hydraulic radius, 1438
inrushes, 14491450
in-situ fragmentation, 1439
in-situ stress and risk, 1450
labor, 14481449
labor and risk, 1450
labor distribution by category, 1449, 449f.
as least expensive underground mining
method, 1437
LHD (rubber-tired) system, 1441
and LHDs, 14391440, 1446
locomotives, 1447
long-hole drills, 14461447
low hang-ups, 1445
major operational hazards, 14491450
major risk categories, 1450
medium-height hang-ups, 14451446
mine development, 1213
mine layout, 14391441
mining methods, 14411443
and modeling, 30

SME Mining Engineering Handbook

monitoring, 1439
movement of workers, materials, and
utilities, 1447
mud rushes, 14491450
operating cost considerations, 1448, 1449t.
and operations, 30
ore-body characteristics, 14371438
orepasses, 14431444
output rates, 29
planning, 2930
post- or conventional undercutting, 1442,
1442f.
preproduction development and
construction, 14431444, 1443f., 144f.
pre-undercutting, 1442, 1442f.
primary fragmentation, 1439
procurement and risk, 1450
production haulage (trucks and trains), 1446
production issues, 14451446
qualitative and quantitative risk
assessments, 1449
reliability in constructability and
construction, 2829
reporting, 1447
reserves, 1447
risk considerations, 14491450
rock bursts, 1450
rock mass characterization, 1438
safety and risk, 1450
secondary drills and rock breakers, 1447
secondary fragmentation, 1439
and sensing technologies, 30
service/ventilation level, 1440
stope development for gravity systems,
1213, 1214f.
stope development for LHD systems, 1213,
1213f.
stope development for slusher systems,
1213, 1214f.
stress-induced collapse, 1450
super caves, 1437
sustaining capital, 1448
typical equipment, 14461447
undercut level, 1439
undercut sequence design and risk, 1450
undercutting methods and issues,
14411443
and underground infrastructure, 29
underground stability issues, 1450
water inrushes, 1450
See also Cave mining
Block Caving Geomechanics, 1449
The Blue Book, 468
Boards of directors, 18
Bobcats, 1173
Boliden raise cage, 1209
Bond abrasion test, 1474
Bond equation, 1470, 1476
Borates, 1110
in-situ solution mining of, 1110
principal minerals, 1110t.
processing of, 11101111
Bord-and-pillar mining. See Room-and-pillar
mining
Borer miners, 381382, 425, 425f.
Boshkov and Wright classification system, 369,
370t.
Bougainville Copper Ltd., and community
conflicts, 1767
Boundary Hill pit (Australia), automated
dragline trial, 816
BoxCox transformation, 843844, 844t.
Boyle, R.W., 127

Brazil, mining history, 4


Breaking New Ground, 16491650, 1666, 1769
Breathe and Live, 1578
Brewery Creek (Alaska) heap leach installation,
1079, 1079f.
Bre-X project (Indonesia), 299
BRIC countries (Brazil, Russia, India, China),
11
Bridge conveyors and carriers, 381
British Coal Corporation, 606
British Columbia Securities Commission, 225
British Medical Research Council (BMRC)/
Johannesburg, respirable size-selective
curves, 1601
Bronze Age, 3
Brundtland, Gro Harlem, and Brundtland
Commission, 32, 1665, 1769
Bucket fill factor, 866867
Bucket-wheel excavator systems, 911912,
911f., 912f.
Bucyrus, 937
Bullion markets, 59
The Burrowers, 1199
Cable electric shuttle cars (in R&P mining),
1167, 1168f.
Canada
and community issues, 1770
Innu, Inuit, and Dene people, 1797, 1798
internal responsibility system (IRS) for
health and safety, 1560
National Instruments 43101, 203, 231
publications and associations (Web sites),
18311832
and tar sands, 6
Whitehorse Mining Initiative, 1666, 1769
Canada Cement Lafarge Ltd., 1376
Canada Centre for Mineral and Energy
Technology (CANMET), 433, 720721
Canadian Institute of Mining, Metallurgy and
Petroleum (CIM), 146
CIMVAL code, 219220
Canadian Rockburst Support Handbook, 620
Carbonatite Cu, rare earth element, Nd, Fe, P
deposits, 9192
Carnegie Mellon University (CMU), 806
Casapalca mine (Peru), and shrinkage stoping,
1351
Cash flow
defined, 80
discount rates applied to projections, 70
external factors affecting, 68
internal factors affecting, 6970
See also Discounted cash-flow; and under
Market capitalization
Cassiterite, and placer mining, 1057
Caterpillar, 806, 917, 920, 925, 937
Caterpillar Performance Handbook, 285, 938,
1019
Cave mining, 1385, 13951397
anomalies in quoted performance of caving
operations, 1385, 1385t.
and cavability, 13861388
cost models for block-cave mining, 275,
275f., 275t.277t.
daily production from (2008), 1385, 1385t.
dilution, 1392, 1393f., 1394f., 1395f.
draw control, 1391, 1392f., 1392t., 1393f.,
1394f.
drawpoint productivity, 13891390, 1390f.
drawzone spacing, 13901391, 1390f.
flow lines and stresses around drawzones,
1390, 1391f.

geomechanics classification, 1388, 1388f.


in-situ rock mass ratings (IRMRs), 1386
lateral extension, 13861388
layouts, 13921393, 1395f.
maximum/minimum spacing of drawzones,
1390, 1391f.
modified rock mass ratings (MRMRs),
1386, 1386f.
parameters to be considered before
implementation, 1386, 1387t.
and particle size distribution, 13881390
primary fragmentation, 1388, 1389f.
rate of caving, 1388
rate of damage, 1388
rate of undercutting, 1388
role of, 1385
sand model tests, 1390, 1390f.
secondary fragmentation, 13881389, 1389f.
size distribution of cave fragmentation,
1389, 1389f.
stability diagram, 1388, 1388t.
support requirements, 13941395, 1396f.,
1397t.
undercutting, 13931394, 1395f., 1396f.
vertical extension, 1386
See also Block caving; Longwall top coal
caving; Panel caving; Sublevel caving
Caving, 364365, 387, 387f. See also Stoping
Cayuga mine (New York), 721
Centre for Mining Technology and Equipment
(CMTE), 433
CES. See U.S. Bureau of Mines Cost
Estimating System
Chemical sediment deposits, 100
ChezyDarcy law for frictional pressure drop in
a pipe, 1578
Chicago Board of Trade, 58
China
as leading coal producer, 1339
as number one consumer of mined
commodities, 77, 78f.
projected increase in ore consumption, 21,
22f., 22t.
Christian Brothers Investment Services Inc.,
1775
Christmas-tree method (coal), 389, 389f.
Chuquicamata copper mine (Chile), 15
Chuquicamata IPCC plant (Chile), 954
CIF. See Cost, insurance, and freight
CIMVAL code, 219220
Civil engineers, and dewatering, 744
Classification, 1481. See also Hydrocyclones;
Screens and screening
Clastic sediment-hosted copper deposits, 9697
Climatic change, 6, 1718
and energy usage, 3334
CLIMSIM software, 1611, 16211623, 1623f.
Closure
analysis of options (Faro mine), 1668
design-for-postclosure, 16831684
environmental issues, 346
of heap leaching facilities, 10831084
and mining method selection, 346
open-pit mining, 875, 893, 893t.
security, 1660
site environmental considerations, 1643
strip mining, 997998
and supply, 44
and sustainability, 16831684
and waste disposal and contamination
management, 1745
waste piles and dumps, 677
See also Environmental issues

Index

Closure planning, 1753


accurate estimates of cost, 1755
action plan for improvement, 1756
and asset life cycle, 1754
changes as project moves through life cycle,
1762t.1764t., 1764
community and stakeholder involvement,
17531754
components of integrated plan, 1756,
1757t.1760t.
cost estimates, 1756
documentation and record management, 1756
establishing strategy, 1756
evaluating options, 1756
information sources, 1753
integrating into life-of-asset planning,
17541755
management framework, 1755, 1755t.
management of business risk, 1755
objectives, 17531754
process, 17551756
regular review and updates, 1755
rehabilitation, 1754
risk assessment, 17561764, 1760t.1761t.
selecting a plan from option analysis, 1756
setting the context, 1756
steps in, 1756
workshop approach, 1756
Cluster drills, 436, 436f., 437f.
Coal Information, 6263
Coal, 377
alternative uses of, 6
bottom-dump coal haulers, 925, 925f.
Christmas-tree method (room-and-pillar
mining), 389, 389f.
clean, 35
clearance equipment, 11701171, 1175t.
combination methods (room-and-pillar
mining), 389, 389f.
continuous room-and-pillar mining
operation, 388
conventional room-and-pillar mining
operation, 388
data collection on geology of, 158
dust control, 16031605
gasification, 35, 366
geological data collection, 148, 158
mine gas chart, 18331834
outside-lift method (room-and-pillar
mining), 389390, 389f., 390f.
percentage mined using R&P among leading
coal producers, 1339
pillar-extraction methods, 389, 389f.
pricing of steam coal, 6061
productivity of surface vs. underground
mines (U.S.), 343, 345t.
reclamation requirements for surface mining
of (U.S.), 1654, 1655t.1656t., 1657t.
room-and-pillar mining, 387390
room-and-pillar mining methods, 388
room-and-pillar retreat methods, 388390
sample preparation, 191
split-and-fender method (room-and-pillar
mining), 389, 389f., 390, 390f.
strip mining, 996
subsidence contours above longwall panels,
629, 630f.
top coal caving, 11611162, 1162f., 1163f.
underground coal gasification, 1130f., 1131
U.S. DOE underground coal gasification
experiments, 1131
U.S. EPA and underground coal gasification,
1131

I-5

See also Longwall mining; Methane (coalbed production); Room-and-pillar


mining in coal; and under Gas control;
Room-and-pillar mining; Soft-rock
equipment selection (underground
mining)
Coal Mine Roof Rating (CMRR) system,
157158
Coal seam gasification, 366
Coal seam methane drainage, 366, 1345
Coal workers pneumoconiosis (CWP; aka
black lung disease), 1414, 1600, 1601,
1601f., 1602f.
Coalition for Environmentally Responsible
Economies, 1650
Cobalt, Ontario, 705
CODELCO (Corporacin Nacional del Cobre
de Chile), 1643
environmental risk assessment, 16461648
environmental risk assessment worksheet,
1648, 1649f.
evaluation criteria for consequences of
environmental impact occurrence,
1648, 1648t.
evaluation criteria for probability of
environmental impact occurrence,
1648, 1648t.
significance criteria for environmental
aspects, 1648, 1648t.
values for environmental risk magnitude,
1648, 1648t.
Coefficient of variation, analyzing, 207, 207t.
Coil sensors, 109t., 110
Coke, sample preparation of, 191
Collahuasi IPCC plant (Chile), 954
Colorimetric method, 108109
Comminution, 1461
application of power, 14751477
beneficiation during, 1473
and Bond equation, 1470, 1476
and choice of mining method, 1461
circuit design, 14741477
circuit selection, 1477
effects of mining methods on, 14611464
and energy usage, 30, 31f., 3435
future, 1479
grindability, 1474
and knowledge of deposit and mining
method, 1473
liners, 1478
media sizes for various mill types,
14771478, 1478t.
ore characterization tests, 1474, 1475t.
Pennsylvania (Bond) abrasion test, 1474
pre-comminution blending of samples,
14731474
selected circuit configurations, 1461, 1463t.
simulation-based design, 1476
single-particle breakage, 1474
size range of common comminution
machines, 1461, 1462f.
standard materials, 1474
unit operations for stages of, 1461, 1462t.
wear rates, 1474
See also Crushing; Grinding; Milling
Commodity stewardship, 8
Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial
Research Organisation (CSIRO), 433
digital terrain map, 816, 817f.
dragline automation research, 816817
hollow inclusion cell, 511
Communication systems. See Mine
communication systems

I-6

Community issues, 17671768, 1776


addressing, 17751776
affected community, 1768
community, defined, 17681769
community development, 17741775
community engagement, 1774
community involvement in closure
planning, 17531754
context, 17701774
economic development, 1772
health, 17721773
local or host community, 1768
and nature and scale of mining operation,
1771
and nature, size, and reputation of company,
1771
and physical landscape, 1770
and political and legal frameworks,
17701771
resettlement and in-migration, 1773
rights holders, defined, 17681769
scope of, and examples, 17711772, 1773f.
security and human rights, 17731774
and stage of mining life cycle, 1771
stakeholder, defined, 17681769
and sustainable development, 17691770
water and mining, 1772
See also Indigenous cultural considerations;
Social impact assessment and
management; Social license to operate;
Sustainability
Compensation pressure, 566567
Compressed air
aftercoolers, 714
in air flushing, 707708
applications, 706
blockage prevention, 713
boosters, 709710
compressor rental, 711, 712f.
compressor types, 708710
and contaminant concentration, 713, 713f.
contaminants and treatment, 712
in COPROD system, 707
corrosion from moisture, 713714, 714f.
design criteria for air purity, 712
determining air pressure and flows, 708
dewpoint as function of ambient
temperature, relative humidity, and
working pressure, 714, 715f.
in down-the-hole (DTH) drilling, 706707
in drilling, 706707
dynamic (centrifugal) type, 708
economies of drilling, 710711
emission regulations, 716
and energy savings, 706, 710
filters, 712713
flushing velocity, 707, 707f.
free air, defined, 706
free air delivery (FAD), 706, 710
and hammer drills, 706
heavy-duty systems, 709
history of, 705706
humidity reduction, 714
and increased drilling efficiency, 707
leakage, 713714, 714t.
life-cycle costs, 710, 711f.
medium pressure, 706
moisture reduction, 713714
network distribution, 714716
noise directives, 716
oil-lubricated vs. oil-free compressors, 709
portable systems, 708, 709
positive displacement type, 708

SME Mining Engineering Handbook

prefilters, 713
preventive maintenance of equipment, 711
and processing, 706
refrigerant drying, 714
relative costs over time of different
production activities, 708, 708f.
remote monitoring and control, 716
rotary screw type, 708
safety of, 706
stationary systems, 708709
and Swedish method, 706
theory of, 705
in top hammer drilling, 706
variable-speed drive (VSD) systems, 709,
710
in ventilation, 709
VSDs in energy efficiency and cost savings,
710711
Computational fluid dynamics (CFD), 743
and hydrocyclones, 1505
Computing organizations (Web sites), 1829
Contango, 58
Continuous haulage systems, 381
Continuous miners, 381, 381f., 417, 426427
Aker Wirth continuous mining machine,
428, 429f.
full-face, 425, 425f.
in in-pit crushing and conveying (IPCC),
942943
place-change (cut-and-flit), 1166, 1167f.
in R&P coal mining, 13411342, 1341f.,
1345
in R&P mining, 1166
sequential cut-and-bolt, 1166
simultaneous cut-and-bolt, 1166, 1167f.
in soft-rock underground mining, 1158f.
Continuous room-and-pillar mining (coal), 388
Control systems. See Automatic control systems
Conventional room-and-pillar mining (coal), 388
Conversion chart (English to SI units),
18351840
Conveyor Equipment Manufacturers
Association (CEMA), 982
Conveyors, 1288, 1288f.
armored face conveyors (AFCs),
11591160, 1161f., 1162f.
bridge type, 381
conveyor stacking in heap leaching, 1082,
1083f., 1084f.
costs, 1289
and electric power distribution and
utilization, 692693, 693f.
flexible conveyor trains (FCTs) in R&P coal
mining, 1345
future designs, 1289
integration aspects, 1289
limits of application, 1289
mobile conveyors and loaders in ship
loading, 980
noise attenuation, 1637
in ore emplacement (solution mining), 1095
safety considerations, 1288
selection criteria, 12881289
technology, 1289
underground, 1178
See also Hauling and conveying; In-pit
crushing and conveying
Cooling, 1618, 1623
airflow increase, 1618
airflow requirements, 16221623, 1623f.
airway, ventilation, and heat flow
parameters, 1622, 1622t.
bulk cool air underground, 1619

bulk cool intake air on surface, 1619


cabs, 1620
chillers (aka district cooling), 1619
chilling service water, 16181619
and CLIMSIM software, 16211623, 1623f.
controlled recirculation, 1621
and costs, 1621
energy recovery, 16201621
and governmental regulation, 1621
and heat sources, 1621
ice cooling, 1620
integrated refrigeration systems, 1620
large spray coolers, 1620
maintenance, 1621
and mining methods, 1621
and mining rate, 1621
and ore-body, 1621
planning, 16211623
and seasonal surface ambient conditions,
1621
and size and condition of major airways,
1621
small spray chambers, 1620
spot coolers, 1619
system selection, 1621
thermal storage systems, 1621
towers, 16191620
and ventilation schematic, 1622, 1622f.
vests, 1620
See also Heat; Mine ventilation
Cooney, Jim, 1779
Cooperative Research Centre (CRC; Australia),
433
Cooperative Research Centre for Mining
(CRCMining; Australia), 813
Coos Bay mine (Oregon), placer mining, 1060,
1061f.
Copper
cutoff grade (solution mining), 1092
heap leaching and chemistry of deposits,
10761077
heap leaching and geology of deposits,
10751076
lixiviants, 10881089
oxide ores and heap leaching, 1076
price trend, 11, 12f.
recovery (solution mining), 1099
sulfide ores and heap leaching, 1076
Coriolis force, 1316
Cornish pump, 3
Corporate social responsibility, 16841685,
1684f.
Cost estimating, 263, 281282
capital costs in feasibility studies, 301t.
operating costs in feasibility studies, 301t.
Cost estimating (surface mines)
ancillary systems, 287
broad-brush methods, 281
capital costs, 287
comparative approach, 281
cost models, 281, 288289, 290t.293t.
dangers of averaging parameters or
combining cost components, 282
drilling and blasting, 283284
engineering-based and itemized, 281282
equipment component, 287, 288
excavating and hauling, 284286
factored approach, 281
labor component, 287288, 289, 289t.
mine producing 1,000 metric tons per day,
290t.291t.
mine producing 10,000 metric tons per day,
291t.292t.

mine producing 80,000 metric tons per day,


292t.293t.
operating costs, 287
ore and waste haul profiles, 282
parametric method, 281
powder factor, 282
professional salaries, 289, 289t.
scaling factors, 281
stripping ratio, 282
supply component, 287, 288, 288t.
target production rate, 282
Cost estimating (underground mines), 263264
amount of rock to be removed for openings,
266
capital costs, 270
contingency fund, 270
continuous-flow calculatons, 267268
cost models for block-cave mining, 275,
275f., 275t.277t.
cost models for mechanized cut-and-fill
mining, 277, 277f., 277t.279t.
cost models for room-and-pillar mining,
273, 273f., 273t.274t.
cost parameters, 265269
critical access distances, 264
cycle-time calculations, 266267
drilling requirements, 269
economic evaluation, 270271
engineering, management, and
administrative costs, 270, 271t.
equipment, 265
equipment operating costs, 269
estimation process, 269270
labor, 265
labor costs (including benefits), 269, 270t.,
271t., 272
model construction, 271272
models, 271
operating costs, 270271
ore haul distances, 266
powder factor, 266, 269
power and pressure equations (pumping),
268
and preliminary mine design, 264265
production rate, 265266
project life, 265
resource size, 265
rock characteristics, 272, 272t.
size of hauling equipment, 266
size of openings, 266
stope design parameters, 264265
supply, 265
supply consumption, 268269
supply costs, 269270, 271t.
underground development openings, 264
unit costs, 272
ventilation calculations, 268
Cost, insurance, and freight (CIF), 50, 60
Cost Reference Guide, 268269
Costs
average and marginal cost curves, 311, 312f.
and change in, as reserves are depleted, 310
externalities, 311
fixed, 310, 311
marginal, 311313, 312f.
operating, 311
opportunity, 311
real, 310
recoverable, 310
sunk, 310
variable, 311
Council for Scientific and Industrial Research
(CSIR; South Africa), 433

Index

Cove prospect (Nevada), 299


Crandall Canyon mine (Utah) disaster, 717
Creighton mine (Canada), and air conditioning,
1611
Cross, Hardy, 15871588
Crosscuts, 12091210
CRU, 62
Crushers, 1285, 1286f., 1287f.
Allis design, 1465, 1466f.
alternatives to, 14631464
cone type, 188, 10391040
design and construction issues, 12851286
and electric power distribution and
utilization, 695
equipment overview, 12861287
and grizzlies, 1286
gyratory, 1039, 1039f., 1463f.
impact type, 10401041, 1040f.
integration aspects, 1287
jaw type, 188, 1039
and life of mine/expansion plans, 1286
location, 1286
optional equipment for, 1287
and rock breakers, 12861287
roll type, 188, 1041
rooms, 12261227, 1226f., 1240
safety considerations, 1285
in sample preparation, 188
selection, 1286
and soft-rock underground mining,
11601161
and special particle shapes, 1473
Symons design, 1465, 1466f.
technology, 12871288
See also In-pit crushing and conveying
Crushing, 1461
apron feeders, 1463
bins, 1463
feeding considerations, 1463, 1464f.
location of primary crushers, 1462
staged crushing plants for low-tonnage
operations, 1477
See also Comminution; In-pit crushing and
conveying
Cummins, 710
Current trends, 19
alternative uses of coal, 6
automation, 56
climate change, 6, 1718
economic uncertainty, 5
exploration technology, 14
fly-in/fly-out (FIFO) operations, 18
increased governance of mining, 18, 19
larger companies, 19
low-grade ore bodies, 4
marketing, 13
in mine operations, 1516
in mineral exploration, 1314
mining engineering knowledge, 5
ore reserves and valuation, 1415
safety, 18
skilled employee shortage, 18
social and environmental issues, 45, 8,
17, 19
supply and demand, 1113, 12f.
sustainability, 1718
tar sands, 6
vertical integration, 1617
See also Future trends
Customer/supplier engagement, 33
Cut-and-fill mining, 394, 1365
and access, infrastructure, and development
cost, 1366

I-7

and amenability to mechanization, 1366


and availability of fill material, 1367
Avoca method, 395, 395f.
back stoping, 1366
bench-and-fill, 1366, 13711372, 1372f.
blasthole stoping, 1366
blasthole stoping with delayed backfill,
1367
cemented fill, mines using, 13721373
cemented fill stopes, 13671369
cemented rock fill, 1366, 1373
concurrent, 1366
current trends, 1373
delayed, 1366, 1367
and dilution, 13661367
drift-and-fill, 396, 396f., 1366, 13671368
extraction principles, 394395
favorable conditions for, 1365
fill types, 1366
and geotechnical constraints, 1367
limitations, 13651366
longitudinal blasthole stoping with delayed
backfill, 1367, 1368f.
mechanized, cost models for, 277, 277f.,
277t.279t.
method selection criteria, 13661367
and ore-body morphology, 1366
overhand, 365, 367t., 368f., 394, 394f., 395,
396, 1366
overhand drift-and-fill, 1368, 1369f.
overhand stoping, 365, 367t., 368f.
paste fill, 1366, 1373
postpillar, 365366, 396, 397f., 1366, 1370,
1370f.
resuing, 13701371, 1372f.
sand fill, 1366
stope mechanization, 1373
stoping in flat, thick, wide ore bodies, 1212
stoping in steeply dipping, narrow ore
bodies, 1212, 1212f.
transverse blasthole stoping with delayed
backfill, 1367, 1368f.
two-pass, 394395, 394f.
types, 1366
uncemented fill, mines using, 1373
uncemented fill stopes, 13691372
uncemented rock fill, 1366
undercut, 396, 397f.
underhand, 367t., 395, 396, 396f., 397f.,
1366
underhand drift-and-fill, 13581359, 1359f.
uphole, flat-back slicing, 1366
vertical or near-vertical stoping, 1370,
1371f.
Cutoff grade optimization, 846
algorithm for single constraint problem, 850
heuristic algorithms, 846
heuristic techniques, 847849, 847t., 848f.,
848t., 849t.
Lanes approach, 849850, 849t.
and mixed-integer linear programming
(MILP), 850852, 851f.
traditional cutoff grades in open-pit mining,
846847, 846t.
Cyanide leaching, 1088
Cyclones, 1496
air separators, 1497, 1498f.
heavy medium cyclones, 1513
in placer ore sizing, 1068
See also Hydrocyclones
Darcys equation, 654
DarcyWeisbach equation, 1378

I-8

Data fusion, 27
DCF. See Discounted cash-flow
De Re Metallica, 3, 627, 1073
Debt/EBITDA ratio, 78
Declines, 1195, 1197t., 1198t.
Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency
(DARPA) Grand Challenge, 806
Demand, 39
current trends, 1113, 12f.
effect of supply on prices, 40
future trends, 21
and intensity of use, 40
and markets for mineral products, 40
and per capita incomes, 40
and recycling, 4041
and substitutions and prices, 40
Dene, 1797
Denesoline, 1801
Depletion, 45
and rents, 45
and supply, 41, 42
and sustainability, 47
and technological change, 4243
Deposits. See Mineral deposits
Design basis report, 234
need for, 234
Vol. 1: Management summary, 234235,
256257
Vol. 2: Project economics, 235, 257
Vol. 3: Technical narrative, 235, 257259
Vol. 4: Project execution plan, 235, 259260
Vol. 5: Operating plan, 235, 260261
Deutsche Institut fr Normung (DIN) conveyor
standards, 982
Dewatering
as future water source, 8
in open-pit mining, 871, 873874
in quarrying, 1035
wells, 518
Dewatering (liquidsolid separation), 1457,
1547, 1553
centrifuges, 1552
clarifiers, 1550
and closed water circuits, 1547
conventional thickeners, 1550
costs, 15471548
countercurrent decantation (CCD)
thickeners, 15501551, 1551f.
cyclones, 1549
disk filters, 1547
drag coefficient and related functions for
spherical particles, 1548, 1549t.
equipment, 15491553
filters, 15511552
high-density thickeners, 1550, 1550f.
high-rate thickeners, 1550
high-tonnage (continuous) pressure filters,
1552, 1553t.
low-tonnage pressure filters, 15511552,
1552f.
major influences on, 15481549
and particle size and shape, 15481549,
1549t.
and Reynolds number, 1548
screens, 1549
steps in, 1548
and Stokes law, 1548
tailings ponds, 15521553
thermal drying, 1547
thickeners, 15501551
vacuum filters, 1551, 1551f.
and water discharge, 1547, 1548
and water reclamation, 1547

SME Mining Engineering Handbook

Dewatering surface operations, 743, 873874


access safety and maintenance planning,
745746
air locking pipelines (troubleshooting),
759760
anchors, 755
arctic conditions and permafrost, pit
pumping in, 749750
and barges, 746
basin runoff calculation, 744
booster stations, 758759
cavitation (troubleshooting), 760
centrifugal pumps, 751
command and control system, 757
costs, 762
deserts, pit pumping in, 750
diesel-driven pumps, 758
electrical motor-driven pumps, 758
emergency planning, 745
field flow measurements, 755756
floating barges, 759
flow measurement, 755756
and groundwater, 747749
haulage road runoff control, 746747
hauling wet ore (direct cost example), 762
head loss in pipes, 835
high-density polyethylene (HDPE) pipe,
754755
impoundment safety, 745
indirect costs of water in pit, 746
in-pit water control, 746747
insufficient suction head (troubleshooting),
760761, 760f.
locating booster pumps, 753754, 754f.
maintenance, 835837
maintenance strategy, 836837, 836t.
mine development, and groundwater, 747
mine operation, and groundwater, 748
minimum flow (troubleshooting), 761
modeling, 756757, 757t.
open channel design, 750751, 751f.
pipe discharge drop method, 756, 756f.
pipe materials and characteristics, 754755
pipeline material selection, 754
pipelines, 753755
pipelines and confined stress due to
temperature changes, 755
pit pumping (direct cost example), 762
pit pumping problems (special conditions),
749750
planning and managing, 835836
point loading, 755
point precipitation frequency (PPF), 744
precipitation and storm protection
calculations, 744
premining feasibility studies (re
groundwater), 747
pressure bleed through check valves
(troubleshooting), 761
pressure measurement, 755756
priming (troubleshooting), 760
pump affinity laws, 753, 753f.
pump curves, 751752, 752f.
pump selection, 751753, 835
pump station design, 757759
pump system operating point, 752, 752f.
pump throttling, 752753
safety aspects, 744746
sediment, debris, and screens
(troubleshooting), 761
site access to lift equipment, 746
slope failures into impoundments, 745
sumps, 747

surface hydraulic calculations, 744


team, 743744
thrust blocks, 755
trapezoidal channels, 751, 751f.
troubleshooting pumping systems, 759762
Valdez Creek groundwater control (case
study), 748749
water hammer (troubleshooting), 761762
wet drilling and blasting, 748
Dewatering underground operations, 765
air lifts, 777
backfilling, 770
borehole flowmeter surveys, 768
bulkheads and plugs, 778779
cavitation, 774
clarification, 772
clarification and settling systems, 772774
contingency planning, 772
control and collection of water, 769772
control of surface water, 769
dewatering pump stations, 1178
drainage system design, 772
draining underground water, 770771
and drilling management, 769770, 770t.
effect of barrier surrounding a shaft being
deepened, 767, 768f.
effective porosity (coefficient of storage),
767
emergency storage required for 50-year
storm, 767t.
flow rate, 774775
flow to wells in dewatered and saturated
aquifers, 767, 767f.
ground freezing, 772
grouting, 769, 771772
head or pressure relationship, 775
high-speed centrifugal pumps, 774
horizontal multistage centrifugal pumps,
777, 777f.
horizontal sumps, 772, 773f.
hydrological studies and modeling, 766769
impact of water on operations, 765
inrushes, causes of, 779
inrushes, defined, 779
inrushes, frequency and location of,
779780
inrushes, prevention of, 770
lamella plate settlers, 773
mud-handling systems, 773774, 774f.
net positive suction head (NPSH), 774
panel dewatering (R&P mining), 1169
performance testing of pumps, 777778
pipework, 778
positive displacement pumps, 774
predicting precipitation and runoff, 766
predicting water inflows, 766769
pressure tests, 768, 768f.
progressive cavity pumps, 777, 777f.
pump costs, 778
pump selection, 776777
pump station design, 776
pumping system design, 776
pumping systems, 774778
pumping tests, 768
reciprocating positive displacement pumps,
776, 776f.
single-stage horizontally split centrifugal
pumps, 776777
small portable or semiportable pumps, 776
suction and losses for single-stage
centrifugal pumps, 774, 775f.
sumps, 772, 773f.
surface water disposal, 780

and tracers, 769


vee settlers, 773, 773f.
vertical centrifugal pumps, 777
vertical sumps, 772, 773f.
vertical turbine (deep well) pumps, 777
water sources, 765
and water table (piezometric surface), 767
Diagenetic hydrothermal formation processes,
83, 86
Diamonds
core sampling, 106
drill-and-blast tunneling, 1198
and interaction with indigenous culture
(Australia), 1801
magmatic deposits, 85t., 89
pricing of gem diamonds, 49
Diamond-wire saws, 429430
Diavik diamond mine (Canada), 1643
community involvement in mine planning
and permitting, 16591660
Diesel engines, heat from, 1618
Diesel exhaust control, 1605
combusting and collecting generated DPM,
16061607
and diesel equipment maintenance, 1607
diesel particulate matter (DPM), 1605
DPM control, 16061607
DPM dilution, 1607
DPM standards, 1605, 1606t.
monitoring DPM emissions, 1607
reducing DPM generation, 1606, 1606t.
Diesel-driven pumps, 758
Dieselelectric trucks, 869
Disc cutters, 419, 420f.
Discount rate, 302
Discounted cash-flow (DCF), 302
analysis, 314315
in hard-rock mining method selection, 374
Discrete event simulation (DES), 841842
Dispatch software, 1279
Dividend yield, defined, 80
Doe Run lead operations (Missouri), 8
DOZ mine (Indonesia), 1443f., 1445f.
Dragline systems, 903905, 904f.
advance benching, 905, 906f.
allowable load, 910
bank volumes, 910
bucket capacity, 908
bucket rigging, 908, 908f.
buckets, 903
cycle time, 908909
design, 904f.
digging positions, 905, 905f.
dragline selection, 909910
dump radius, 909910, 910f.
effective management of rehandle, 909
extended benching, 906907, 906f., 907f.
fill factor, and buckets, 908
hoist dependent cycles, 908
lateral positions, 905
as loaders, 910911
loading draglines, 939
maximum suspended load, 910
operating efficiency factor, 909, 909t.
operating hours and calendar hours, 909,
909f.
operating methods, 905907
pads, 904
pits, 904, 904f.
prime bank cubic meters or yards (PBCM/
PBCY), 910
prime volumes, 910
production, 907909

Index

production factor, 910


productive digging, 909
quality operation planning and coordination,
909
rated suspended load, 910
selection, 931932
sets (blocks), 904
simple side casting, 905
spoil-side benching, 904f., 907, 907f.
stand-off distance, 909, 910f.
swell factor, and buckets, 908
swing dependent cycles, 908
total bank cubic meters or yards (TBCM/
TBCY), 910
walking draglines, 931932
See also Excavation; Hauling and
conveying
Drag-type bits, 439
Dredgers of the World, 1066
Dredging
in hydraulic mining, 1049
in surface mining, 405t., 407
See also Placer mining and dredging
Drift-and-fill cut-and-fill mining, 396, 396f.,
1366
Drifts, 12091210
Drill jumbos, 436, 437438, 437f.
Drilling and blasting
compared with TBMs, 12601263
cost estimates, 1220, 1220t.
cost estimating for surface mines, 283284
and leaching, 1092
in open-pit mining, 863866, 864f., 865f.
in quarrying, 1035
in R&P coal mining, 1342, 1342f.
in shaft sinking, 11831184, 1183f.
in strip mining, 990991
in sublevel caving, 14281429, 1428f.
in subsurface mine development, 1209,
1220, 1220t.
in tunneling, 11981199, 1199f.
wet, dewatering surface operations for, 748
See also Blasthole drilling; Blasting;
Blasting impacts and control
Drilling for solution mining, 440
Drills, 3
cluster type, 436, 436f., 437f.
and compressed air, 706707
down-the-hole (DTH), 706707, 865, 866
down-the-hole (DTH) hammer, 435, 436f.
drag-type bits, 439
hammer type, 706
handheld drills in hard-rock underground
mining, 1155
in-the-hole (ITH) hammer, 435, 437, 438
jackleg, 436
jumbo drills in hard-rock underground
mining, 11521153, 1152f.
jumbos, 436, 437438, 437f.
laser, 417
percussion bits, 435436, 436f.
percussive equipment, 436438
polycrystalline diamond compact (PDC)
bits, 439
production drills in hard-rock underground
mining, 11541155, 1155f.
raise drilling machines, 423424, 424f.
ring-drilling, 436437, 437f.
rotary, 865
shaft drilling machines, 422, 423f.
stoper, 436
top hammer drills in hard-rock underground
mining, 1154

I-9

top hammer type, 706, 865866


tricone bits, 438439
Drum shearers. See Longwall drum shearers
Ducktown, Tennessee, 705
Dumps. See Waste piles and dumps
Dust control, 1595
air helmets, 1605
alveolar retention of particles of unit
density, 1600, 1600f.
and blasting, 1604
in coal mining (continuous mining
sections), 1603
in coal mining (longwall sections), 1603,
1603t.
in coal mining (surface), 16031604
and coal processing, 1605
and coal workers pneumoconiosis (CWP),
1414, 1600, 1601, 1601f., 1602f.
contain and capture, 1605
and conveyor belts, 1604
on drill rigs, 1603, 1604
dust classification, 1599, 1599t.
dust measuring instruments, 16011602
dust sampling criteria, 1601
dust suppressants, 16041605
engineering control, 16021605
GCA Ram, 1601
and haul roads, 859, 969971, 970t., 971f.,
1604
instantaneous dust monitors, 1602
in metal mining, 1604
and mine ventilation, 1578
and mineral processing, 1605
and minerals in transport, 16041605
MINIRAM (miniature real-time aerosol
monitor), 1602
mobile equipment, 16031604
MRE gravimetric dust sampler, 1601
open-pit mining dust effects, 874875
and ore transport, 980, 987
in orepasses, 1604
permissible exposure limits for mine air
contaminants, 1595, 1596t.
personal exposure measurement, 16001602
personal protection equipment, 1605
prevention of dust generation, 1604
R&P mining in coal and dust displacement,
1345
and radon, 1628
replaceable filter respirators, 1605
respirable dust permissible exposure limits,
1600, 1600t.
and roadheaders, 1604
Simslin, 1601
surfactants, 1604
and tailings impoundments and dams,
663664
TEOMB (tapered-element oscillating
microbalance), 1602, 1602f.
and transfer points, 1604
Tyndallometer, 1601
tyndalloscope, 1601
U.S. personal gravimetric sampler,
16011602
ventilation air in continuous coal mining,
1603
in waste passes, 1604
water infusion, 1603
water scrubbers, 1603
water spray systems, 1603, 1604
Dust Control Handbook for Mineral
Processing, 1605

I-10

SME Mining Engineering Handbook

Duval Corporation copper-molybdenum mine


(Arizona), and IPCC, 942
Dynamite, invention of, 3

and bucket-wheel and bucket-chain


excavators, 695696, 697f., 698f.
cable couplers, 700
cable insulation, 699
cable temperature class, 699
cable voltage ratings, 699, 699t.
cables, 699700, 699t.
converter transformers, 691692, 692f.,
693f.
and conveyor belts, 692693, 693f.
costs, 685
and cutters, 683
and cyclone feed pumps, 693694
demand, 684
demand factor, 684
design criteria, 684685
design for earthquakes, 696698
design for high altitude, 696, 699t.
design for power self-generation, 698699
dewatering pumps, maintenance of, 834
direct current, 683
direct current usage, 685686, 686f.
distribution arrangements, 700703
diversity factor, 684
dragline excavators, 694695, 696f.
drives and motors, 691696
earth continuity protection, 834835
earth leakage protection, 833, 834835
effect of current exposure to human body,
833834, 834f.
equipment solutions, 685690
filter and compensation (F&C) units, 690,
690f.
gas-insulated switchgear (GIS) systems,
687, 689f.
and high-pressure grinding rolls (HPGRs),
692, 693f.
history in mining, 683684
HV and MV technologies, 687688
HV substations, 686687, 687t.
increased voltage in lines, 685, 686f.
load factor, 684
and loaders, 683
and location of equipment, 685
LV technologies, 688690, 690t.
maintenance of infrastructure, 832835
maximum demand, 684
mean time between failures (MTBF), 685
mean time to repair, 685
and mine hoists, 694, 694f., 695f.
motor starters, maintenance of, 834835
and motors, 684
multiple-drive configuration, 684
overhead power transmission, 685686
parallel lines, 685, 686f.
peak load, 684
point of common coupling (PCC), 687
portable cables, 699
power factor, 833
power production directly at plant, 686
power quality support equipment, 690691
power terminology, 684
and primary crushers, 695
protective equipment maintenance, 834
rock drills, maintenance of, 834
and safety, 685
and SAG mill drives, 691692, 692f.
and shovels, 695
and shuttle cars, 683
stages of power distribution, 833
static VAR compensators (SVCs), 690, 691f.
surface mine distribution arrangements,
700702, 701f., 702f.

Eagle River gold mine (Ontario), 1352


shrinkage stoping case study, 13521353
Earthworks, 1658
EBITDA, defined, 80
Eco-efficiency, 33
Economic decision making, 309
average and marginal cost curves, 311, 312f.
and change in costs as reserves are depleted,
310
and competitors knowledge, 310
and conventional economic models, 309
and cost externalities, 311
cost perspective, 309
and customers knowledge, 310
and fixed costs, 310, 311
and high sunk costs, 310
and interconnected global marketplace, 309
and marginal costs, 311313, 312f.
and marginal revenue calculation, 312313,
313t.
and operating costs, 311
and opportunity costs, 311
and real costs, 310
and recoverable costs, 310
and risk/return trade-off, 309310
strategic perspective, 309
and sunk costs, 310
and time value of money, 309, 313315
types of costs, 310313
and variable costs, 311
Economic uncertainty, 5
Economics, 39
boundaries of mining industry, 39
cost estimation, 300301, 301t.
criteria for investment analysis, 302
demand, 3941
Dutch disease, 46
investment analysis, 301302
investors and speculators, 5253
mine management, 302304
mineral property evaluation, 298299
mineral property feasibility studies,
299302
mining law, 304306
overestimated properties, 299
political factors, 4447
rents, 4546
resource and reserve reporting guides,
298299
supply, 4144
value added, 39, 45
See also Costs; Investment analysis; Market
capitalization; Pricing
Efficiency, 22
EGCH. See Exploration geochemistry
EITI. See Extractive Industries Transparency
Initiative
Ejector-tray trucks, 1150
El Teniente (Chile)
block caving production, 1437
extraction level layout, 14391440
Electric power distribution and utilization, 683
active filters, 690691
air-insulated switchgear (AIS) systems, 687,
688f.
alternating current, 683684
ampacity, 699
and ball mill drives, 692, 693f.
basic distribution arrangements, 700

surface overhead-line distribution


arrangements, 700
surge arrestors, 687
switchgear maintenance, 834
switchgear systems, 687, 688f., 689f., 689t.
synchronous condensers, 691, 691f.
and system efficiency, 685
tap changers, 687
total connected load, 684
trailing cables, 699
trailing cables and maintenance, 834
transformer maintenance, 834
typical power distribution configuration for
mine and plant, 687, 688f.
underground cables, 687
underground mine distribution
arrangements, 703
ventilation fans, maintenance of, 834
voltage, 684
voltage level, 686, 686t.
and voltage regulation, 685
Electrical engineers, and dewatering, 744
Electrical resistivity, 109t., 110
Electrical self-potential, 109t., 110
Electricity generation, 67
Electronic cone penetrometer testing (CPT),
652
Electrostatic separation, 1533, 15431544
conductive induction, 1544, 1544f.
industrial roll-type device, 15441545,
1545f.
ion bombardment, 15441545, 1545f.
minerals and their magnetic and
electrostatic responses, 1534, 1535t
operating principle of roll-type device,
1544, 1545f.
of placer ores, 1070
triboelectrification, 1544
work function, 1544, 1544f.
Emma mine (Utah), 297298
Energy
alternative, for trucks, 25
clean coal, 35
and climate change, 3334
coal gasification, 35
conspicuous consumption, 7
emerging innovations, 3435
future usage trends, 32
greenhouse gas emissions for selected
metals mining, 34, 34f.
and HIsmelt process, 35
hydrogen, 35
minerals industry consumption, 34, 35f.
more efficient comminution, 3435
and sustainability, 3335
usage in comminution, 30, 31f.
See also Compressed air; Electric power
distribution and utilization
English units, conversion to SI units (chart),
18351840
Enterprise value (EV), defined, 80
Entries, 1204, 1205f.
decline (slope), 1205
drift (adit), 12041205
vertical shaft, 12051207, 1206f.
Environmental engineers, and dewatering, 744
Environmental issues, 45, 8, 17, 19, 22
blasting effects on environment, 874
and block caving, 1450
environmental and closure requirements,
346
environmental monitoring, 724
and mine subsidence, 636641

and mineral property valuation, 222


mining law and environmental laws, 336
mining law and environmental protection,
304305
and mining method selection, 346
and open-pit mining, 872875
and ore transport and recovery, 986987
and soft-rock mining method selection, 380
and solution mining, 10981099
and surface mining, 406
zero harm, 380
See also Acid rock drainage; Acid rock
drainage management; Community
issues; Indigenous cultural
considerations; International Council
on Metals and the Environment; ISO
14000; ISO 14001; Site environmental
considerations; Social impact
assessment and management; Social
license to operate; Sustainability;
Waste disposal and contamination
management
Epigenetic mineral deposits, 8384
Epithermal gold and silver deposits, 9394
Equator Principles, 1668, 1770
Escondida copper mine (Chile)
as example of large-scale operations, 15,
15t.
and SX-EW, 16
Estimation of Mineral Resources and Mineral
Reserves Best Practice Guidelines, 146
European publications and associations (Web
sites), 1832
European Union
mining equipment safety directive, 607
noise regulations, 1633, 1634
EV. See Enterprise value
EV/EBITDA (enterprise value/earnings
before interest, taxes, depreciation, and
amortization), 65, 75
defined, 80
Evaporite deposits, 100
Excavation. See Open-pit mining; Subsurface
mine development; Tunnel-boring
machines; Underground development
openings and infrastructure
Excavation equipment selection, 931
bucket fill factor, 932, 933f.
bucket-chain excavators, 935
bucket-wheel excavators, 935
bulldozers, 939
continuous excavators, 935
cost estimation, 933, 934t.
final selection, 932933
job operating efficiency, 932
load-and-carry wheel loaders, 938
loading draglines, 939
machine geometry, 932
mechanical availability, 932
size selection, 932, 933t.
stripping shovels, 932
surface miners, 939
theoretical cycle time, 932, 933t.
tractor scrapers, 938939
walking draglines, 931932
Exploration
advances in technology for, 14
and aerial geophysics, 106
and aerial photography, 106
analysis of survey data, 106
competitors in, 14
and computer databases, 106
core sampling, 106

Index

discovery risk vs. political risk, 13


electrical methods, 109t., 110
electromagnetic methods, 109t., 110
fluid inclusion studies, 111112
future trends, 23
geochemical zoning, 111
and geographic information systems (GISs),
106
and geological surveys, 106
geometallurgy, 112
and geophysical exploration, 106
geophysical methods, 109110, 109t.
by global mining companies, 14
gravimetric methods, 109, 109t.
isotopic studies, 112
by junior exploration companies, 14
local geological studies, 106
by local or parastatal companies, 14
magnetic surveys, 109, 109t.
mineralogical zoning, 111
and multispectral data, 106
objectives, 105
ore deposit models and classification, 111
ore deposit zoning, 111, 112f.
and ore deposits, 106
and post-mineralization cover, 106107
and preexisting data, 106
radioactive methods, 109t., 110
remote sensing, 109t., 110
reverse circulation drilling, 106
seismic surveys, 109t., 110
shift to less-developed countries, 1314
sound methods, 105
by state-owned enterprises (SOEs), 14
and statistical analytical methods, 106
and wall-rock alteration, 111
Exploration and Mining Geology, 174
Exploration geochemistry (EGCH), 106, 107,
127
analytical methods, 108109, 133135,
134t.
and animal actions, 108
and anomalous areas, 106, 107
anomalous lows, 136
aqueous fluid dispersions, 107
assay methods, 135
baseline studies, 140
chemical analysis, 139
communication with other professionals,
140
data interpretation, 107, 109
deposit zoning and mine sequencing, 139
digestion methods, 134135, 134f.
dispersion models, 107108
dispersion patterns, 136
duplicate sampling, 135136, 136f.
and element mobility, 108
elements as pathfinders of ore deposits, 107,
107t.
gaseous dispersions, 107
geochemical methods, 135
geochemical provinces, 107
glacial deposit collection, 131
glacier sediments, 108
gold analyses, 135
heavy mineral separations, 133
history of, 127
humus sampling, 132
infrared analyzers, 139
interpretation principles, 136138
lake water and sediment collection, 131
methods, 127128
mine site sampling, 139

I-11

model of formation of geochemical


anomalies, 136, 137f.
and multivariate statistical analysis, 137,
138
orientation surveys, 128130, 129t.
overburden drilling, 131
panning, 138
primary dispersion halos, 108
program planning, 128
quality control and assurance, 135136,
135f., 139
regular fire assay, 108
rock sample preparation, 133
rock sampling, 131132
sample collection and handling, 130132
sample drying, 132133
sample preparation, 132133
secondary dispersion halos, 107108
sequential extractions, 135
sieving and crushing of samples, 132133
and soil analysis, 108
soil collection, 130
soil gas sampling, 132
soil grid showing anomalous gold
population, 138, 139f.
soil profile illustrating anomalies related
to geological and geomorphological
complexities, 136137, 137f.
spectrometric methods, 108
statistical methods, 137138, 138f.
stream sediment collection, 130131
and stream sediments, 108
surface water collection, 131
threshold of background population, 136
and univariate statistics, 137138, 138f.
UV light method, 138
and vegetation, 108
vegetation sample preparation, 133
vegetation sampling, 132
and weathering, 107108
Exploration geology, 145
Explosives, 443
ammonium nitrate, 1035
bulk emulsion, 1035
charge-up machines, 1155
classifications, 443444, 444t.
detonators and initiation systems, 444446
electric detonators, 444446, 445f.
electronic detonators, 445, 446, 459
fracturing, 446
fragmentation, 446447
nitroglycerine explosives, 1035
nonelectric detonators, 445446, 445f.
nonelectric shock tube (nonel), 1035
pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN), 443
in quarrying, 1035
shock-tube initiators, 444, 445
storage areas in subsurface mining, 1218
transportation classifications, 444, 444t.
See also Blasthole drilling; Blasting;
Drilling and blasting
Extractive Industries Review, 1666, 1769
Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative
(EITI), 1684, 1770, 1824
Face drilling rigs, 436
Fair market value (FMV), in mineral property
valuation, 219
Falconbridge Nickel Mines Ltd., 13751376
Falun copper mine (Sweden), 3
Faradays law, 119
Faro mine project (Yukon Territory), analysis of
closure options, 1668

I-12

Federal Highway Administration (U.S.)


culvert-design publication, 1711
visual impact studies, 670
Feeder breakers (in R&P mining), 1168
Felsic magmas, mineral deposits associated
with, 85t., 8991
Finance
institutions, 18
modeling, 7475
See also Cost estimating (surface mines);
Cost estimating (underground
mines); Economic decision making;
Economics; Fair market value;
International Finance Corporation;
Market capitalization; Mineral
property valuation; Net present value;
World Bank; World Bank Group
Firey, Walter, 16671668
FLAC (Fast Lagrangian Analysis of Continua)
software, 609, 609f.
Flame jets, 417
Flat-blade dilatometer test, 475
Flood basalt association deposits, 88
Flotation
development in Australia, 4
and larger particles, 3031
Flushing velocity, 707, 707f.
Fly-in/fly-out (FIFO) operations, 18
FMV. See Fair market value
FOB. See Free on board
Four Cs, 49
Four-wheel-drive vehicles, in hard-rock
underground mining, 1155
Frasch, Herman, 11151116
Frasch sulfur mining, 11151116
basic requirements for, 1116
facilities needed, 1118
field development, 11161118, 1117f.
ore deposit, 1116
well and development sequence, 1117,
1117f., 1118, 1118f.
Fraser Institute indexes of policy and mineral
potential, 305306
Free on board (FOB), 50, 60
Freeport-McMoRan
IPCC plant (Chile), 954
Safford mine (Arizona) permitting and
approval process, 16541658, 1658t.
Froth flotation, 1517
acids in pH control, 1524
activators, 15241525
adsorption of anionic collectors, 1521,
1521f.
alkalis in pH control, 1524
alkyl sulfates, 1522
anionic collectors, 15211522, 1521f.
anionic collectors for oxide minerals, 1522
anionic collectors for sulfide minerals,
15211522
axial mixing, 15271528, 1528f.
bubble generation, 1527
cationic collectors, 15221523, 1523f.
cell selection, 15291530
cell selection calculations, 15291530
chemisorption in collection, 1520
circuit design, 1529
collection in froth layer, 1520
collectors, 15201523, 1521f.
conventional cells, 1526, 1526f.
corrosive and wear properties of ore, 1529
cyanide as depressant, 1525, 1525f.
depressants, 1525
design software, 1530

SME Mining Engineering Handbook

dithiophosphates, 1521
dithiophosphinates, 1521
effect of wash water on entrainment of feed
into froth, 1527, 1527f.
effects of relative bubble and particle sizes,
1527, 1527f.
enrichment ratio, 1518
equipment, 15251528
flotation columns, 15261528, 1526f.
flotation time needed, 1529, 1530t.
frother function, 1523
frothers, 15231524
graderecovery curves, 15181519, 1519f.
hydrophobicity/hydrophilicity, 1519, 1519f.,
1520f.
hydroxamates, 1522, 1522f.
interrelated components of systems, 1517,
1518f.
laboratory and plant flotation kinetics in
screening, 15281529
laboratory reagent screening, 15281529
lime as depressant, 1525
mercaptans, 1522
mercaptobenzothiazole, 1521
mineral applications, 1517
modifiers, 15241525
monothiophosphates, 1522
nonionic collectors, 15201521, 1521f.
nonmineral applications, 1517
oleic acid, 1522, 1522f.
optimum grind size of ore, 1529
optimum pulp density, 1529
organic depressants, 1525
particlebubble contact, 15191520, 1520f.
percent metal loss, 1518
percent metal recovery, 1518
percent weight recovery, 1518
performance calculations, 15171519,
1519f.
performance parameters, 15171518
pH control, 1524, 1524f.
phosphonic acid, 1522, 1523f.
phosphoric acid esters, 1522, 1523f.
physisorption in collection, 1520
ratio of concentration, 15171518
reagent addition, 1529
reagents, 15201525
recovery of gangue particles by entrainment
and hydrophobicity, 1525
release analysis screening method, 1528,
1528f.
sulfonates, 1522
sulfosuccinamates, 1522, 1522f.
synthetic and natural frothers, 1524
thionocarbamates, 1521
trithiocarbonate, 1521
variability of ore, 1529
xanthates, 1521, 1521f.
xanthogen formates, 1522
FTSE 350 Mining Index, 65
FTSE Med 100, 65
Full-face continuous miners, 425, 425f.
Full-face machine cutters, 424425
Future trends, 21
advanced processing, 3032
automation, 2628
climate change, 6, 1718
commodity stewardship, 8
and conspicuous power consumption, 7
demand, 21
electricity generation, 67
environmental and social issues, 8, 22
exploration, 23

geological characterization, 2324


hauling and conveying, 2425
marine mining, 8
mining in space, 8
planning and scheduling, 2526
supply, 2123
surface mining, 2426
underground mining, 2830
value of water, 78
See also Current trends
Future value, 302
Gas control, 1595
coal seam degasification, 15971599
combusting and collecting generated DPM,
16061607
cross-measure boreholes, 1599, 1599f.
and diesel equipment maintenance, 1607
diesel exhaust, 16051607
diesel particulate matter (DPM), 1605
DPM control, 16061607
DPM dilution, 1607
DPM standards, 1605, 1606t.
gas emission reservoir, 15961597, 1597f.
gas fumes from blasting, 458
gassiness of coal seams, 1596, 1596t.
greenhouse gas emissions for selected
metals mining, 34, 34f.
horizontal boreholes drilled from surface,
1598, 1598f.
in-mine horizontal drilling, 1597, 1598f.
methane control in coal mines, 15951599
methane explosions in U.S. coal mines
(19702006), 1596, 1596t.
monitoring DPM emissions, 1607
permissible exposure limits for mine air
contaminants, 1595, 1596t.
postmining coal seam degasification,
15981599
premining coal seam degasification,
15971598, 1598f.
radon gas, 16071608, 1608t.
reducing DPM generation, 1606, 1606t.
strategy, 15951599
vertical gob wells, 1599, 1599f.
vertical hydrofraced well, 15971598
Geochemical prospecting. See Exploration
geochemistry (EGCH)
Geochemistry Research Centre of Australia,
108
Geographic information systems (GISs)
and exploration, 106
Web-based services, 567
Geologic interpretation, 173
Geologic modeling, 173174
and cores, 176
data analysis, review and verification,
175176
empirical, 174
empirical geologic VMS model, 177,
178179, 182f.
empirical porphyry model showing
distribution of alteration,
mineralization zones, and sulfide
occurrences in copper system,
177179, 183f.
genetic (conceptual), 174
gold deposits, 174
information to include, 174
and maps and cross sections, 176177,
178f., 179f.
methodology, 175179
and ongoing data acquisition, 176177

ore-body representation, 174175, 175f.


plan (level, slice) maps, 177, 177f., 180f.,
181f.
porphyry-related deposits, 174
purpose, 179181
and sound geologic interpretation, 180
volcanogenic massive sulfide (VMS)
deposits, 174
Geologic representation, 181184
Geological characterization
future trends, 2324
improved measurement techniques, 23
improved predictive modeling, 23
Geological data collection, 146148
abbreviations, 153, 154t.156t.
acetate overlays on base map or air photo,
157, 159f.
alteration data, 147
Anaconda mapping system, 157
bench mapping, 160, 161f.
bulk density (gamma-gamma density)
logging, 165
caliper log, 166
coal data, 148
coal geology, 158
compass and tape in mapping, 156157
computer-based systems, 146, 157
conventional method, 146, 157
core/cutting logging process, 160163,
163f., 164f., 165f.
culture symbols (surface or underground),
152t.153t.
data on miscellaneous features, 148
database access and restriction, 147
digitization of data, 147
evaluation support, 166169
exploration, project, and mining geology,
distinguished, 145
field note sheets, 157, 158f., 159f., 161f.
geological symbols, 150t.151t.
geophysical logging, 163166
laterolog (electrical conductivity, induction
log), 166
lithologic data, 147
lithological symbols, 149t.
location data, 147
log types, 165166, 167f., 168f.
mapping, 153160
mapping and resource evaluation, 153
mapping process (steps in), 153156
mineralization data, 147148
natural gamma ray logging, 165
neutron density logging, 165
pit mapping, 160
quality assurance and control, 146
quantification, 146
required data, 147
reserves and resources, 145146
resistivity (electrical) logging, 165166
sedimentological symbols, 151t.152t.
software, 158159
sonic (acoustic) velocity logging, 165
spontaneous potential logging, 165
standardization, 146
structural data, 147
surface mapping, 159160
symbols (mapping), 148, 149t.153t.
underground mapping, 160
X-ray analyzers, 157
Geological Survey of Canada, 127
Geological surveys, 106
Geology of Ore Deposits, 174

Index

Geomechanics, 463, 469


and availability of adequate information,
464
and competent persons, 464465
and concept studies, 464
demonstrating geological similarity, 464
feasibility assessment, 464465
and mining feasibility, 463465
and mining operations, 465
prefeasibility assessment, 464
and risk, 465
and safety, 465, 466
and strata management, 465, 468469
and use of appropriate assessment methods,
464
See also Rock mechanics; Soil mechanics
Geophysical exploration, 106
Geophysics prospecting, 113
absolute gravity, 118
active (human-made) transmitting sources,
113, 114t.
active sources in electromagnetic methods
(principle of induction), 119120
active-source methods, 120
airborne electromagnetic methods, 120,
121f.
and airborne gravity systems, 118
best at prefeasibility stage, 113
brownfields exploration, 119
chemical remanent magnetization (CRM),
116
data compilation and interpretation,
117118
defined, 113
depositional or detritus remanent
magnetization (DRM), 116
drill-hole resistivity arrays, 123
electromagnetic fields from natural/passive
sources, 119123
electromagnetic methods, 123, 124t.
EM field functions and units, 120
factors affecting electrolytic conductivity of
rocks, 121
and Faradays law, 119
ferrimagnetic materials, 116
ferromagnetic materials, 114115
galvanic methods, 120121
and galvanic resistivity arrays, 122f.,
121123
and Global Positioning Systems (GPSs),
117
gravity gradiometer response of ore bodies,
118, 119f.
and gravity instruments, 118119
and gravity meters, 118, 118f.
and induced polarization, 123, 123t.
isothermal remanent magnetization (IRM),
116
and Lenzs law, 119120
magnetic field strength (H), 114
magnetic moment per unit volume (M), 114
magnetic survey guidelines for scope of
work, 117
magnetic surveys and survey design,
117118, 117t.
and magnetite, 116
and magnetometers, 116117
magnetotellurics, 119
magnetotellurics and skin depth, 119, 119f.
methods, 113, 114t.
natural source audio-frequency
magnetotellurics (NSAMT), 119

I-13

natural transmitting sources, 113, 114t.


normal remanent magnetization (NRM), 116
potential fields (gravity), 118119
potential fields (magnetics), 113118
potential fields by objective, 113,
115t.116t.
pressure or piezo-remanent magnetization
(PRM), 116
regional mapping arrays, 122, 122f.
relative gravity, 118
remanent magnetization, 116
right-hand rule, 119120, 120f.
seismic methods, 123125, 125t.
seismic reflection survey checklist, 125,
125t.
and Snells law, 123, 125f.
and superconducting quantum interference
devices (SQUIDs), 117
survey costs, 118
survey equipment specifications, 117
survey flying specifications, 117
susceptibility (k), 114
targeting for drill-hole positioning arrays,
122123, 122f.
thermo-remanent magnetization (TRM), 116
and time domain electromagnetic (TDEM)
systems, 120, 121f.
time domain wave shape, 123f.
types of magnetism, 114116
units (Tesla, centimeter-gram-second), 113
wire-line and downhole geophysical
logging, 125126
Geostatistics, 194
and drilling and sampling, 195
and grade estimation, 195
kriging, 194, 195
model validation, 195196
and ore-body modeling, 195196
and resource evaluation, 196
summary statistics, 194
variance, 194
variograms, 194, 194f.
and volumetric modeling (block model),
195, 197197
Geotechnical design, 465466
analytical, 467
based on local experience, 467
based on rules of thumb, 467
empirical, 467468
FoS concept and formula, 467
implementation of, 468469
input data, 468
and legislation, 466467, 469
and non-geotechnical matters, 468
numerical, 467
objectives, 466
requirements of, 466
and risk, 467
and safety, 466
Geotechnical instrumentation, 551
accuracy, 551
borehole displacements, 561564
borehole extensometers, 562, 563f.
borehole geophysics, 553554, 554f.
borehole pressure cells, 566567
borehole televiewers, 553, 553f.
conceptual information sources, 551552
conformance, 551
convergence monitoring systems, 562563
core orientation tools, 552553, 552t., 553f.
crosshole tomography, 554
data acquisition and presentation, 567568

I-14

data immersion and visualization, 568, 568f.


data integration and management, 567
data reliability, 567
digital photogrammetry in investigation,
555, 556f., 557f.
extensometers (in monitoring), 560561,
561f.
fiber optical technology, 560t., 563564
geodetic monitoring, 559560
geophysical logs (wireline tools), 553554,
554t., 555f.
Global Positioning Systems (GPSs), 560
ground characterization (borehole
techniques), 552554
ground characterization (remote sensing),
554556
ground-penetrating radar (GPR), 556
groundwater characterization, 556558
hydraulic fracturing (HF), 558559, 558t.,
559f.
hydraulic testing of preexisting fractures
(HTPFs), 558, 558t., 559
in-place inclinometers, 561562
in-situ stress measurement, 558559, 558t.
integrated pit slope monitoring systems, 561
for investigation, 551, 552559
LiDAR in investigation, 555, 555f.
LiDAR in monitoring, 566
microseismicity, 567
for monitoring, 551, 559567, 559t., 560t.
overcoring, 558, 558t.
photogrammetry in monitoring, 566
piezometers, 556557
pore pressure monitoring, 566567
precision, 551
probe inclinometers, 561, 562f.
range, 551
reliability, 551
remote sensing of ground deformation,
564566
resolution, 551
robustness, 551
satellite InSAR, 564, 565f.
selection, 551
shaped accelerometers, 563, 564f.
stress change monitoring, 566567
surface displacement monitoring, 559561
surface geophysics, 556
surface radar, 564566, 566f.
3-D surveys, 556
tiltmeters, 561
time domain reflectometry (TDR), 563
type of data required, 552
vertical profiling, 554, 554f.
Web GIS services, 567
wireless data transmission, 567568
GFMS, 62
Gibson, Robert, 1667
GISs. See Geographic information systems
Global Acid Rock Drainage Guide (GARD
Guide), 1721, 1734
Global Compact, 1668
Global Mining Initiative (GMI), 4, 1644, 1666,
1769
Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS),
732
Global Positioning Systems (GPSs), 727
bandwidth, 728
in blasthole drilling, 459
challenges with, 727728
and equipment dispatching and monitoring,
871872
in geologic data collection, 146

SME Mining Engineering Handbook

in geophysics prospecting, 117


in geotechnical monitoring, 560
improving accuracy, 728
latency, 728
and mine surveying, 732
in proximity warning systems, 728
satellite availability, 728
vendor- or equipment-specific systems, 728
Global Reporting Initiative (GRI), 1650, 1795,
1824
Global Seismic Hazard Assessment Program, 652
globalCOAL, 6061
Web site, 62
Globalization, 11, 19
Goaf, 387
Gob, 387
Gold
analyses, 135
clay-rich deposits and heap leaching, 1075
geologic modeling of deposits, 174
gravity-recoverable test, 201
heap leaching and chemistry of deposits,
1076
hydrothermal gold and silver deposits, 85t.,
9394
iron oxide copper-gold (with or without
uranium) deposits, 85t., 9293
Kolar Gold Fields (India), 1375
lixiviants, 1088
No Dirty Gold campaign, 1658
and placer mining, 1057
recovery systems (solution mining),
10991100
rushes (western U.S.), 4
shrinkage stoping, 1351, 13521353
silver-rich deposits and heap leaching, 1075
soil grid showing anomalous gold
population, 138, 139f.
survey of gold-silver mineralizations, 128,
130f.
and uranium in conglomerates, 99
See also under Mineral deposits
Golder Paste Technology Ltd., and paste fill,
1376
Good Practice Guidance on HIV/AIDS, TB and
Malaria, 1772
Goonyella Riverside mine (Australia), multipleseam dragline operation with prestrip
(case study), 10051006, 1006f.
Government agencies, and dewatering, 744
GPS. See Global Positioning Systems
Grade estimation, 195
Granite-hosted Sn-W deposits, 9091
Grant, Baron, 297
Grasberg copper mine (Indonesia), 15
Gravity concentration and concentrators, 1507
absolute separation, 1507
air jigs, 1509
BartlesMozley tables, 1511
Batac jig, 1508
Baum jig, 1508, 1509f.
centrifugal (enhanced gravity)
concentrators, 15111512
classification of devices, 1508, 1508f.
Cleveland placer jig, 1508
coal jigs, 1508, 1509f.
concentration criterion (C), 1507
Denver jig, 1508
equipment selection, 1515, 1515t.
Falcon concentrators, 1512, 1512f.
feed size ranges for devices, 1508, 1508t.
flowing film separators, 1507, 15091511,
1510f., 1511f.

and fluid media, 1507


Gemini tables, 1511
Harz jig, 1508
in-line pressure jigs, 1509, 1509f.
jigging devices, 1507, 15081509, 1509f.,
1510f.
Kelsey centrifugal jig, 1509, 1510f.
Knelson concentrators, 15111512, 1512f.
mechanisms of movement, 15071508
mineral jigs, 1508, 1509f.
multi-G devices, 1507
Pan-American placer jig, 1508, 1509f.
performance curves, 15141515, 1514f.,
1515t.
pinched sluices, 1510, 1510f.
Reichert cones, 1510, 1510f.
relative separation, 1507
riffled sluices, 1510
shaking devices, 1507, 1511, 1511f.
slurry feed, 1507
spiral concentrators, 15101511, 1511f.
values of concentration criterion required
for effective separation, 1507, 1507t.
Gravity separation. See Gravity concentration
and concentrators; Heavy medium
separation
GRI. See Global Reporting Initiative
Grinding
dry, 1473
energies required, 1472
fine, 1472
See also Autogenous grinding; Autogenous
grinding/semiautogenous grinding;
Comminution; Semiautogenous
grinding
Groote Eylandt mine (Australia), cast, doze,
excavate strip mining operation (case
study), 1000
Ground control, 611
defined, 595
See also Ground control (cable and rock
bolting); Ground support; Hard-rock
ground control; Shotcrete; Soft-rock
ground control
Ground control (cable and rock bolting), 611
active support or reinforcement, defined,
611
auxiliary fittings, 613
cable bolt support, 618619, 621f.
connectible Super Swellex, 619
continuous frictionally coupled (CFC)
elements, 612, 612f.
continuous mechanically coupled (CMC)
elements, 612, 612f.
deep-seated ground anchors (greater than
15m), 620621
discrete load transfer, 612, 612f.
discrete mechanically and frictionally
coupled (DMFC) elements, 612613,
612f.
dynamic support, 613614
encapsulation techniques, 613
and fault slip bursts, 614
frictional support, 616618
grouted mechanically anchored rock bolts,
615616, 615f.
load transfer concepts for reinforcement,
612613
medium-depth dynamic reinforcement
elements, 619
medium-depth dynamic support design,
620, 621f., 622t.

medium-depth reinforcement design


(315 m), 618620
near-surface dynamic reinforcement
elements, 618, 620f.
near-surface static design guidelines, 618,
619t., 620f.
near-surface static reinforcement (3 m or
less), 614618
passive support or reinforcement, defined,
611
and pillar bursts, 614
postexcavation reinforcement, 613
preexcavation reinforcement, 613
resin-anchored dowels, 616
resin-anchored pre-tensioned bolts, 616,
616f.
and rock bursts, 613614, 614f., 615t.
rock reinforcement, 611614
rock reinforcement, defined, 611
rock reinforcement support elements,
614621
rock support, defined, 611
and seismic events, 613
spiling, 618
Split Set bolts, 616617, 616f., 617t., 618
Stability Graph Method, 619
static support, 613
static support design, 619
and strain bursts, 614
strata control, defined, 611
support posttensioning, 613
support pre-tensioning, 613
Swellex bolts, 617618, 617t.
ungrouted mechanically anchored rock
bolts, 614615
Ground mechanics. See Geomechanics
Ground support, 611
concrete liners, 622
and duty of care, 624
hydraulic props, 624
and mining legislation, 624
rigid steel sets, 623, 623f.
safety, 624
screen or mesh, 621, 622f.
shotcrete, 621622
shotcrete pillars, 623
steel support, 623
straps, 621, 622f.
timber cribs, 623624, 624f.
timber support, 623624
work-force training, 624
yielding steel sets, 623, 623f.
See also Ground control
Groundwater
characterization, 556558
contaminated flow control, 1750
control (Valdez Creek mine case study),
748749
depression in shaft sinking, 11861188
and dewatering surface operations,
747749
hydrology, 1706, 17151718
remediation, 1750
restoration and uranium, 1115, 1116t.
and surface mining, 406
and tailings impoundments and dams, 648
and waste piles and dumps, 673
Grouse Creek mine (Idaho), 299
A Guide to Health and Safety Regulation in
Great Britain, 304
Guide to Shotcrete, 589
Gunpowder, introduction of, 3
Gys sampling formula, 197198

Index

Handbook of Exploration and Environmental


Geochemistry, 128
Handbook of Mining and Tunneling Machinery,
433
Handbook of Noise Measurement, 1635
Handbook on Mine Fill, 1383
Handy & Harman, 59
Hard rock, 595
mines, 595596
Hard-rock equipment selection (underground
mining), 1143
appropriate technology, 1144
articulated rear-dump trucks, 1147, 1147f.
average annual cost estimation, 11461147
bucket load (LHDs), 1151
choice of manufacturer or supplier, 1144
ejector-tray trucks, 1150
equipment matching, 11431144
equipment replacement, 1145
explosive charge-up machines, 1155
financial comparisons, 11451146
fleet description, 1143
four-wheel-drive vehicles, 1155
handheld drills, 1155
information required for financial analysis,
1146
and innovative models, 11441145
integrated tool carriers, 1155
jumbo drills, 11521153, 1152f.
leasing and contracting, 1146
LHD cycle, 1151
load-haul-dump machines (LHDs),
11501152, 1151f.
production drills, 11541155, 1155f.
rail equipment, 1155
remote control and automation of LHDs and
trucks, 1152
rigid-body rear-dump trucks, 1147
road maintenance equipment, 1155
robust scalers, 1155
rock-bolting machines, 11531154
rope scrapers (slushers), 1155
shotcrete machines, 1155
sizing to stope development, 1143
top hammer drills, 1154
tractortrailer truck units, 1147, 1148f.
trolley-wire electric trucks, 1150
truck capacity and operating cost, 1148
and truck clearance to sidewalls, 1148
and truck clearance to ventilation ducts,
11471148
truck cycle times, 1149
truck efficiency factors, 1149
truck load, 1149
truck productivity as function of haul
distance, 1150, 1150f.
truck productivity as function of truck
capacity, 1150, 1150f.
and truck turning radius, 1148
trucks, 11471150
trucks and development openings, 1147,
1148f.
trucks, key consideration for, 11481149
two-boom jumbo drill cycle time, 1153,
1154t.
two-boom jumbo drill development
performance, 1153, 1154t.
two-boom jumbo drill physical development
parameters, 1153, 1153t.
underground road trains, 1147, 1148, 1148f.
Hard-rock ground control, 573, 593
bolt plates, 576, 577f., 577t.
bolting machines, 574575, 574f.

I-15

cable lacing, 578, 579f.


chain-link mesh, 575, 576f., 576t.
load transfer between mesh and
reinforcement, 575576
load vs. displacement for chain-link mesh,
575, 576f.
load vs. displacement for welded-wire
mesh, 575, 575f.
mechanized installation of chain-link mesh,
575, 576f.
mesh aperture, 574, 574f.
mesh straps, 577, 578f.
Osro (Oslo) straps, 577578, 579f.
pressure plates, 574f., 575
reinforcement, 573
and rockfall injuries, 573
steel mesh, 573578
steel straps, 577, 578f.
straps, 576578
surface support, 573
thin spray-on liners (TSLs), 591
typical welded-wire mesh dimensions, 574,
574f.
welded-wire mesh, 574575, 574f.
wire thickness, 574
See also Ground control (cable and rock
bolting); Shotcrete; Soft-rock ground
control
Hard-rock mining method selection, 357
and advanced exploration concept studies,
374375
Avoca method, 366, 367t.
block caving, 364365, 365f.
Boshkov and Wright classification system,
369, 370t.
caving, 364365
coal seam gasification, 366
coal seam methane drainage, 366
and deposit discovery, 374
economic analysis, 374
and final feasibility studies, 375
Hartman selection process, 369, 371f.
Horodiam method, 366
key influences on, 357362
Laubscher selection process, 369, 372f.
longwall mining, 365
modified rock mass rating (MRMR),
360361, 361f.
modified rock quality index (Q), 362
modified stability number (N'), 362
Morrison classification system, 369, 372f.
Nicholas classification system, 371, 372t.,
373t., 374t.
numerical evaluation methodologies,
371374
open-cut mining, 362363, 363f.
overhand cut-and-fill stoping, 365, 367t.,
368f.
postpillar cut-and-fill, 365366
and preliminary feasibility studies, 375
qualitative and quantitative ranking
systems, 369371
risk assessment, 374
rock mass classification of underground
excavations, 358362
rock mass rating (RMR), 360
rock quality designation (RQD), 359360,
360f.
rock structure rating (RSR), 360
rock tunneling quality index (Q), 361362
room-and-pillar mining, 365, 367t.
selection and evaluation methodologies,
367375

I-16

shrink stopes, 365, 367t., 368f.


square-set stoping, 367t.
stability in open-pit slopes, 358, 359f.
stages in application of process, 374375
stoping, 365, 367t.
and strength and character of rock mass,
358362
strip mining, 363364, 363f.
and style of mineralization, 357358
sublevel caving, 365, 366f.
sublevel open stopes, 367t.
sublevel retreat open stopes, 367t.
surface mining methods, 362364
surface to underground transition, 366367
Terzaghis rock mass classification,
358359
underground mining methods, 364366,
364f.
underground retorting, 366
underhand cut-and-fill, 367t.
vertical crater retreat (VCR), 365, 369f.
See also Soft-rock mining method selection
Hartman selection process, 369, 371f.
Haul roads, 858860, 858f., 869, 957, 974
categories, 958, 959f.
combined alignment, 962
cross slope or camber, 961, 963f.
curvature and switchbacks, 960
curve superelevation (banking), 961, 963t.
ditches and drainage, 963964
dust palliation, 969971, 970t., 971f.
functional design component, 957, 958,
958f., 966971
functional design method specification
notes, 968
geometric design component, 957, 958964,
958f., 960f., 961f.
horizontal (longitudinal) alignment,
960962
integrated design components, 957958,
958f.
intersection layout, 962, 963f.
and larger trucks, 957
maintenance cost model, 973, 974f.
maintenance management design
component, 957, 958, 958f., 971974
maintenance management system flow
chart, 972, 974f.
maintenance management systems,
971973, 973f., 973t.
mechanistic structural design procedure,
965966, 966f., 967f.
optimal and maximum sustained grades,
960
in quarrying, 1036
and rolling resistance, 957
rolling resistance, estimating, 968, 969t.
rolling resistance, estimating from road
visual assessments, 973974, 975f.,
975t.
run-out, 961962
safety berms, 963, 964f.
sight distances, 959960, 962f.
stopping distance limits, 959
structural design component, 957, 958,
958f., 964966, 965f.
structural design method specification notes,
966
vehicle operating cost model, 973
vertical alignment, 959960
wearing course material selection, 968,
968f., 969t.
width of road, 960, 962t.

SME Mining Engineering Handbook

Hauling and conveying, 912, 919


alternative energy for trucks, 25
articulated dump trucks (ADTs), 869, 1036
automated underground loading and
haulage, 808809
autonomous haulage systems, 806808
belt conveyors, 982984
belt conveyors in quarrying, 1038, 1038f.,
1038t.
bottom-dump coal haulers, 925, 925f.
bottom-dump trucks, 978
bridge conveyors and carriers, 381
bulk flow simulation techniques, 982
cable belt conveyors, 982983
continuous haulage systems, 381
conveyor belts, and electric power
distribution and utilization, 692693,
693f.
conveyor design guides, 982
conveyor sides and covers, 983984
conveyor systems, future trends in, 25
cost estimating (surface mines), 282,
284286
cost estimating (underground mines), 266
dieselelectric trucks, 869
downhill conveyors, 982
effect of mechanical cutters and new sorting
technologies, 31
electric-drive trucks, 938
end-dump trucks, 978
equipment as cost drivers, 916
frameless trailers, 978
future trends, 2425
haul distances for various haulers, 919, 919t.
haul roads, 858860, 858f., 869
haulage road runoff control, 746747
hauling wet ore, 762
in-pit crushing and conveying (IPCC), 869,
870871, 928929, 928f.
load-out stations, 978, 978f.
long-range, 25
machine-level haulage automation, 807808
mechanical-drive trucks, 869, 938
mobile conveyors, 983, 984f.
off-highway articulated dump trucks, 920,
920f., 920t., 937, 937t.
off-highway rigid-frame trucks, 920923,
921f., 922f., 923f.
on-highway trucks, 919920, 937
in open-pit mining, 869871
open-pit mining loading and hauling needs,
410411, 410t.
overland conveyors, 982, 983f.
pipe conveyors, 983, 983f.
pneumatic trailers, 978
productivity estimation, 938
in quarrying, 1036
rigid-frame haul trucks, 869, 937938,
937t., 1036
road trains (tractors with multiple trailers),
978
sandwich belt conveyors, 983
semitrailer belly-dump trucks, 919
semitrailer rear-dump trucks, 919
shiftable conveyors, 983
side-dump trucks, 978, 978f.
site-level haulage automation, 806807
standard dump trucks, 919
strip mining loading and hauling needs,
410411, 410t.
trolley-assisted haulage, 870
trolley-assisted mining trucks, 925926,
926f., 977, 978f.

truck drive-train type, 923, 923f., 924t.


truck haulage, 977978
truck selection, 937938
truck size selection, 937, 937t.
truck tire management, 870
trucks, 869870
wheel-tractor scraper, 926927, 927f.
See also Conveyors; Dragline systems; Haul
roads; In-pit crushing and conveying;
Loaders; Load-haul-dump vehicles;
Rail haulage systems
Hawkes, H.E., 127
Hayden Hill project (California), 299
Health, 1567, 1575
black lung disease (pneumoconiosis), 1414
community, 15711575
control of exposure to hazards, 1568, 1569t.
fatigue, 1571
as first priority of management, 317318
fitness for work, 1569
heat stress, 15701571
HIV/AIDS, 1572, 1572t., 15731574,
1573f., 1574f.
infectious diseases, 1568
insurance, 1568
malaria, 15721573, 1572t., 1573f.
medical surveillance, 15691570
and mining law, 335336
noise-induced hearing loss, 1570
occupational, 1568
occupational, medical side of, 15691571
occupational diseases, 15701571
personal, 15671568
and personal hygiene, 1568
and remote locations of mining, 1567
risk assessment, 1567, 15681569
silicosis, 1570
and soft-rock mining method selection, 380
and travel, 1567, 1568
tuberculosis, 1572, 1572t., 15741575,
1574f.
and underground ore handling, 1290
wellness, 1571
See also Cooling; Dust control; Gas
control; Heat; Mine Safety and Health
Administration; Mine ventilation;
National Institute for Occupational
Safety and Health; Occupational
Safety and Health Administration;
Noise hazards and controls; Radiation;
Safety
Health and Safety at Work Act (U.K., 1974),
15591560
Heap leaching, 667, 668, 1085
acid production problems, 1085
agglomeration, 1081, 1081f.
capital and operating costs, 1085, 1086t.
and Carlin-type sedimentary gold ores, 1075
and chemistry of copper deposits,
10761077
and chemistry of gold deposits, 1076
and chemistry of nickel deposits, 1077
and chemistry of uranium deposits, 1077
and clay-rich gold deposits, 1075
configurations, 10741075
conveyor stacking, 1082, 1083f., 1084f.
drainage base, 1078
drip irrigation, 1079, 1079f.
dynamic heaps, 1074
efficiency of solution displacement, 1077
1078
and erosion, 676
flow sheet, 1458, 1458f.

future trends, 31
and geology of copper deposits, 10751076
and geology of gold deposits, 1075
and geology of nickel deposits, 1076
and geology of uranium deposits, 1076
geosynthetic raincoats, 675
and granitic uranium deposits, 1076
heap height, 1080
heap permeability and flow efficiency,
10771078
high-rate evaporative sprinklers, 1079
history of, 1073
intermediate liners, 1078
laboratory work, 1077
and laterites, 1075
leach pads, 1080
liner leak problems, 1085
liner systems, 673, 673f., 675, 676t.
list of operations, 1073
and low-sulfide acid volcanics or intrusives,
1075
metallurgical balance, 1083
mining for, 10801081
operations, 1073, 1074f.
and oxide copper ores, 1076
oxidized massive sulfides, 1075
permanent heaps, 1074
permeability problems, 1085
pH problems, 1085
poor recovery troubleshooting, 1085
principle of, 1073
reasons for, 10731074
reciprocating sprinklers, 1079
reclamation and closure, 10831084
recovery delay in multilift heaps, 1078
and saprolites, 1075
and sedimentary uranium deposits, 1076
and silver-rich gold deposits, 1075
solution application, 1079
solution application rate and leach time,
10781079
solution collection, 1083, 1084f.
stability problems, 1085
and sulfide copper ores, 1076
troubleshooting, 10841085
truck stacking, 10811082, 1082f.
valley-fill heaps, 10741075, 1083f.
water balance, 1080
wobbler sprinklers, 1079
See also Solution mining (in-situ
techniques); Solution mining (surface
techniques); Waste piles and dumps
Heat, 1611, 1623
and air conditioning, 1611
autocompression, 1617
autocompression, defined, 1611
and barometers, 1615, 1615f.
from broken rock, 1618
and CLIMSIM software, 1611
critical depth, defined, 1612
defined, 1611
from diesel engines, 1618
from electrical equipment, 16171618
enthalpy, defined, 1612
heat strain, defined, 1612
heat stress, defined, 1611
heat stress indices, 16141615
HotWork software, 16131614
instrumentation, 16151616, 1615f.
latent (hidden) heat, defined, 1612
miscellaneous sources, 1618
and psychrometers, 1615, 1615f., 1616f.

Index

psychrometry, 1612f., 16131614, 1614f.


from rock, 16161617, 1617f., 1617t.
rock temperature measurement (resistance
thermometers, thermocouples), 1616,
1616f.
sensible heat, defined, 1612
sources, 16161618
temperature, defined, 1612
thermal conductivity, 1616, 1617t.
thermal properties of common substances,
16161617, 1617t.
total heat load, 1618
See also Cooling; Mine ventilation
Heavy medium separation, 15121513
barite medium, 1513
Drewboy device, 1513
Dutch State Mines device, 1513
Dyna Whirlpool separators, 1513, 1514f.
equipment selection, 1515, 1515t.
feed preparation, 1513
ferrosilicon medium, 1513
galena medium, 1513
heavy medium cyclones, 1513
heavy medium solids, 1513
magnetite medium, 1513
medium recovery, 1513
Norwalt device, 1513
performance curves, 15141515, 1514f.,
1515t.
separators, 1513, 1513f.
Wemco device, 1513
HEC-HMS software, 1710
HEC-RAS software, 1710
Heinrich Robert mine (Germany), roadheader
usage, 1219
Henderson mine (Colorado)
block caving, 1439, 1440f., 1443f.
panel caving, 341342, 342f.
High-density polyethylene (HDPE) pipe,
754755
High-pressure grinding rolls (HPGRs), 1461,
14691470, 1470f., 1471f., 1471t.
conditions favored for, 1477
unit power, 14761477
Highwall mining, 1020, 1027
advantages and limitations, 1028
auger mining, 1027, 1028
case study (Jim Bridger mine, Wyoming),
10291030
costs per metric ton, 1028, 1029t.
dedicated systems, 1028, 1029, 1029f.
equipment and operation, 10281029
future developments, 1029
and highwall stability, 1027
modeling, 1028
pillar design formula, 10271028
pillar loading formula, 1028
pillar width calculation, 1028, 1028t.
recent developments, 1029
site requirements and conditions, 10271028
Hinsley, F.B., 1587
HIsmelt process, 35
Hitachi, 925, 937
HIV/AIDS, 1572, 1572t., 15731574, 1573f.
Good Practice Guidance on HIV/AIDS, TB
and Malaria, 1772
stages of infection, 1574, 1574f.
workplace programs, 1574
HoekBrown
curvilinear failure envelope, 505, 505f., 506
failure criterion, 533534, 534f.
m values, 531t.

I-17

Hoisting systems, 1295


aerodynamic and buffeting forces, 1316
annual shaft maintenance summary (shaft
with two hoists), 1303, 1303t.
arrestor gears, 13061307
automatic loading, 13071308
bearings, 1297, 1298f.
bending ratio (friction hoists), 1311
bending-of-sheaves fatigue (hoist ropes),
831
bicylindrical conical drum hoists, 1296,
1296f.
brakes, 1298, 1298f., 1299f.
cage compartment size, 1314
cages, 1303, 1306
cappels, 1313
catch-gear rack and catch plate, 1307,
1307f.
clutches, 1299
clutching accuracy, 1322
combined modes fatigue (hoist ropes),
831832
comparison of friction and drum hoists,
1297
compartment arrangement, 13141315
compartment size, 1314
concrete shaft lining, 1317
condition monitoring of guides, 830831
conveyance terminology, 1303
Coriolis force, 1316
counterweight compartment size, 1315
counterweights, 1306
daily hoist examination and testing
requirement (N. America), 1303,
1303t.
deflection sheaves, 1301
deterioration from movement, 830
deterioration from shaft operation, 829830
differential rope loads, 1301
direct loading from orepass, 1307, 1308f.
disc brakes, 1298, 1299f.
divided single-drum hoists, 1296, 1296f.
double-drum hoist duty cycle, 1302f., 1303
double-drum hoists, both drums clutched,
1296, 1296f.
double-drum hoists, one drum clutched,
1296, 1296f.
drive motors and power conversion, 1299
drum brakes, 1298
drum hoist rope changing procedures, 1312
drum hoist ropes, 1308
drum hoist safety devices, 1306
drum hoist selection for production,
12991300
drum hoist selection for service, 1300
drum hoists, 12951296, 1296f.
drum/sheave diameter (drum hoist ropes),
1310
drums, 1297
dumps with mechanical scrolls, 1304,
1305f.
elastic rope stretch for skip, 1322
electromagnetic analysis of hoist ropes, 832
equipment monitoring facilities, 1320
fatigue damage, 830
fixed-body skips, 13041305, 1305f.
flattened strand, Lang lay ropes, 1309,
1310f., 1310t.
fleet angles (drum hoist ropes), 13101311
free bending fatigue (hoist ropes), 831
friction (Koepe) hoists, 1295, 12961297,
1296f.

I-18

friction hoist rope changing procedures,


1312
friction hoist ropes, 13081309
friction hoist safety devices, 13061307
friction hoist selection, 13001302
full locked coil ropes, 1309, 1310f., 1310t.
gearing, 12971298
ground-mounted friction hoists, 1296f.,
1297
guide alignment, 1316
guide and bunton structural design,
13151316
guide rope design, 1316, 1317f.
guide rope location, 13161317, 1318f.
guide rope tensioning, 1317
guide ropes, 1311
headframe construction materials,
13181319
headframe design considerations,
13191322
headframe foundation, 1319
headframe heating and ventilation, 1321
headframe height, 1321
headframe loads, 1319
headframes, 13181323
headframes and conveyance and rope
handling, 13201321, 1321f.
headframes and mine services, 13191320
headframes (temporary or permanent) and
sinking provisions, 1320
hoist components, 12971299
hoist control systems, 1299
hoist duty cycles, 13021303
hoist rope inspection procedures, 832
hoist ropes, 831832, 1309, 1310t.
hoisting distances for different ropes, 1311
hoisting plant, defined, 1295
horizontal ride, 830
hours of use per year, 1303
hydraulic dumps, 1304, 1305f.
inclined (slope) haulage, 13111312
inertial platform, 831
interior members, 13151317
jaw braking system, 1298, 1298f.
Koepe hoist duty cycle, 1302f., 1303
Lang lay ropes and hoisting distance, 1311
laser beams, 830
loading pockets, 13071308
loading via conveyor, 1307, 1308f.
loading via measuring flask, 1307, 1308f.
maintenance, 829832
major components, 829, 829f.
manway compartment size, 1314
mechanical damage, 830
minimum clearance calculations,
13221323
and mining regulations, 1321
moving-beam systems, 831
multiple strand, nonspin ropes, 1309, 1310t.
multiple-rope drum hoists, blair type, 1296,
1296f.
multiple-stage, 1209
number of hoists, 1314
operating allowance, 1321
overturning (Kimberley) skips, 1303, 1304f.
parallel motion braking system, 1298,
1298f.
plumb lines, 830
rail guides, 1315
rope attachments, 13121313
rope construction, 1309, 1309f.
rope cuts, 1312
rope guides, 1315

SME Mining Engineering Handbook

rope harmonics and vibrations, 13211322,


1322f.
rope inspection procedures, 1312
rope installation and handling, 1312
rope lubrication, 1312
rope operating practices, 1312
rope sag, 1311
rope selection for drum hoists, 13091311
rope selection for friction hoists, 1311
rope selection requirements, 1309
rope storage, 1312
rope stretch allowance, 1321
rope tension, calculation of, 1312
rope tension equalization, 1321
rope torque, 1316
rope tread, 1301
ropes, 13081313
ropes and abrasive wear, 1312
round strand, regular lay ropes, 1309,
1310f., 1310t.
rubbing ropes, 1311
safety devices, 13061307
safety dogs, 1306
safety factor (drum hoist ropes), 1310
safety factor (friction hoists), 1311
safety factor for rope attachments, 1313
service compartment size, 1314
shaft and guide systems, 13131318
shaft buntons, 1315
shaft design procedure, 1313
shaft exterior shape, 1315
shaft guides, 1315
shaft inclination, 1314
shaft lining design considerations, 1318
shaft linings, 13171318
shaft location, 1314
shaft structure deterioration mechanisms,
829
shaft structure maintenance, 830, 831t.
shaft structures, 829
shaft systems, 1295
shafts, purpose of, 1313
sheave sizing, 1312, 1312t.
shotcrete shaft lining, 1317
single-drum hoists, 12951296, 1296f.
skip bail design, 1306
skip body design, 1305
skip compartment size, 1314
skip crosshead design, 1306
skip design methods, 1305
skip door design, 13051306
skip feed chute, 1307, 1308f.
skip guide roller design, 1306
skip guide shoe design, 1306
skip loading, 1307
skips, 13031305
South African Bureau of Standards on hoist
ropes, 1311
spacing of Koepe wheel and deflection
sheave, 1321
spill pockets, 1308
split differential diameter drum hoists,
1296, 1296f.
static drives, 1299
steel corrosion, 829830
steel or cast-iron tubbing (shaft lining),
13171318
steel shaft guides, 1315
stopping allowance, 1321
stopping distance, 1323
swing-out-body skips, 1304, 1304f., 1305f.
swivels, 1313
T1/T2 ratio, 13001301

tail rope loop diameter, 1311


tail rope loop dividers, 13011302
tail rope orientation, 1311
tensile fatigue (hoist ropes), 831
thimble cappels, 1313
thimbles, 1313
torsion fatigue (hoist ropes), 831
tower-mounted friction hoists, 12961297,
1296f.
unequal drum and rope diameters, 1322
unequal rope lengths, 1323
ventilation characteristics, 1318
vertical closure and squeezing, 830
vertical strain, 830
Wabi single-tooth dog, 1306
wear, 830
wheels, 1297
wooden shaft guides, 1315
Holland formula, 1340, 1341f.
Homestake gold mine (South Dakota)
and air conditioning, 1611
and shrinkage stoping, 1351
Horodiam method, 366
HotWork software, 16131614
HSE. See Health and Safety Executive under
United Kingdom
Hughes Tool Company, 438
Hunt, Brook, 62
Hydraulic breakers, 428429
Hydraulic haulage systems (in underground
ore handling), 1293
Hydraulic mining, 1049
control hut safety, 1054
design parameters, 1050
dredging, 1049
energy costs, 1049
history of, 1049
mobile plant operation, 1055
monitor actuation (steering), 10521053,
1053f.
monitor and control hut placement, 1054
monitor control hut, 10531054, 1053f.
monitor design, 10511054
monitor operation, 10541055, 1055f.
monitors, 1049, 1050f., 1052f., 1053f.
nozzles, 1052, 1053f.
operation, 10541055
ore stream pumping vs. trucking, 1055
pipelines, 10501051, 1051f.
pumps, and arrangements of, 1050
pumps, and net positive suction head, 1050
and ring mains, 1051
streamformers, 1052, 1053f.
system design, 10501051
water-jet cutting, 1049, 1050, 1051
Hydrocyclones, 1496, 1496f.
apex size correlation, 1502, 1502f.
capacity correlation, 1502, 1502f.
common application classes, 1496, 1496f.
and computational fluid dynamics (CFD),
1505
conceptual model of operation, 1503, 1503f.
correction factors for hydrocyclone feed
solids volumetric concentration, 1501,
1501f.
design enhancement, 1504, 1504f.
effect of cone angle on performance, 1504,
1504f.
experimental data for inefficient
hydrocyclone, 1503, 1503t.
instrumentation, 1505
media choices, 1505
mounting, 1499

new systems, 15041505


overflow, 1498
in parallel, 14961497, 1497f.
particle density, 1499, 1500f.
partition curve for inefficient hydrocyclone,
1503, 1503f.
performance assessment, 15031504
pressure drop correction factor, 1501, 1501f.
principal design elements, 1497, 1498f.
principles of operation, 14971499
in quarrying sand processing, 1043
recent developments, 15041506
ReCyclone, 15041505, 1505f.
regions in, 14981499, 1499f.
roping, 1499, 1499f.
selection, 15001503, 1500f., 1501f.,
1501t., 1502f., 1503f.
specific gravity correction factor, 1501,
1502f.
spray flow, 1499, 1499f.
standard sizing and relative pricing, 1506,
1506f.
and Stokes law, 1498
three-product, 1504
underflow, 14971498
vortex finder correction factor, 1502, 1502f.
water-only (automedium), 1497, 1497f.
Hydrofluoric acid, 134
Hydrogen Energy (company), 35
Hydrologists, 744
Hydrology, 743
Hydrometallurgy, 16
Hydrostatic lift, 743
Hydrothermal formation processes, 83, 84
Hydrothermal gold and silver deposits, 85t.,
9394
Hypogene (primary) processes, 84
ICME. See International Council on Metals
and the Environment
ICMM. See International Council on Mining
and Metals
Idarado mine (Colorado), and shrinkage
stoping, 1351
IISD. See International Institute for Sustainable
Development
Ilmenite, and placer mining, 1057
Impact hammers, 420, 428429
production rates, 432, 433f.
Imperial College of Science and Technology,
Applied Geochemical Research Group,
127
Inclinometers
borehole type in monitoring of tailings
impoundments and dams, 660
borehole type in slope management, 521
in-place type, 561562
probe type, 561, 562f.
INCO Metals, and thickened tailings, 1376
India, and use of R&P in coal mining, 1339
Indicator methods of grade estimation, 195
Indigenous cultural considerations, 1797, 1814
barriers to respectful engagement, 1799
bequest value, 1801
and Cobo definition, 1797
collecting and analyzing right data,
18081810, 1809t., 1810f.
comparing values, 1802, 1802f.
concepts of culture, 17991803
cultural assets, 1801
cultural enhancement strategies, 18121813
cultural impact assessments, 1803, 1803t.
cultural landscapes, 1801

Index

cultural mixing zones, 18021803, 1802f.


culture, defined, 1800
data and methods for determining cultural
impacts, 18071811
determining a projects potential for cultural
impacts, 18061807
domains of culture, 18001802
effective early community engagement,
18031805, 1804t.
existence (wilderness) value, 1801
growing importance of, 17971799
and ILO Convention 169, 1797
impact mitigation, 18111814, 1813t.
impact prediction, 1810
impact significance, 18101811, 1811t.
impacts of mining on indigenous cultures,
18051807, 1805t.
indigenous employee retention rates, 1798
indigenous environmental knowledge, 1799
involving cultural resource experts,
18071808
involving culture holders, 1808
land, importance of, 18001801
scoping, 18031804
tangible and intangible cultural assets,
17991800, 1800f.
and technological shifts, 1799
traditional indigenous knowledge,
17981799
understanding cultural differences,
18021803, 1802f., 1803t.
use value, 1801
See also Community issues; Social license
to operate
Induced polarization, 109t., 110
Inductively coupled plasma (ICP) spectrometry,
133
Inductively coupled plasmaemission
spectrometry (ICP-ES), 190
Inductively coupled plasmamass spectrometry
(ICP-MS), 108
Inductively coupled plasmaoptical emission
spectrometry (ICP-OES), 108, 135
Industrial Minerals, 61, 63
Industrial Minerals and Rocks, 187
InfoMine USA, 269
Infrastructure maintenance. See Maintenance
(of infrastructure)
Innu, 1797
and Voiseys Bay nickel project, 1798
In-pit crushing and conveying (IPCC), 869,
870871, 928929, 928f., 941
advantages of, 942943
capital costs, 944
and continuous mining, 942943
current trends, 954955
design parameters, 943945
development of, 941942
disadvantages of, 943
double-roll crushers, 947, 947f.
fixed crushers, 948, 948f.
fixed rim-mounted crusher operation,
950951
fixed rim-mounted crushing plants, 948, 948f.
fully mobile continuous crushing system
operation, 953954
fully mobile continuous crushing systems,
950, 951f.
fully mobile crusher operation, 953, 953f.
fully mobile crushing plants, 950, 951f.
future trends, 955956
gyratory crusher and low-speed sizer
compared, 956, 956f.

I-19

gyratory crushers, 946947, 946f.


hybrid roll sizers, 947948, 947f.
in-pit crushing system types, 948950
and life-of-mine/expansion plans, 944
low-speed sizers, 947, 947f.
maintenance requirements, 945
in open-pit mining, 869, 870871
operational considerations, 944945
operations, 950954
and ore characteristics, 944
plant layout and design, 945, 945f.
primary crusher selection, 945946, 946t.
primary crusher types (large capacity),
946948
process control, 954
process design requirements and criteria,
944, 944t., 945
production requirements, 944
and project location, 944
semifixed crusher operation, 952
semifixed crushing plants, 948, 949f.
semimobile direct-dump crushing plant
operation, 952953
semimobile direct-dump crushing plants,
949950, 950f.
semimobile indirect feed crushing plants,
948949, 949f.
semimobile indirect feed crushing station
operation, 952
in South Africa, 941
stationary in-ground crushing plants, 948,
948f.
See also Conveyors; Hauling and conveying
In-place mining, 381
In-situ leaching, 31
Institute for Social and Ethical AccountAbility,
1795
Institution of Mining and Metallurgy
(United Kingdom), 298299
Instrumental neutron activation analysis
(INAA), 133
Instrumentation engineers, and dewatering, 744
Interaction, 596597
Internal rate of return (IRR), 302
International Autogenous and Semiautogenous
Grinding Technology Conferences, 1461
International Building Code, 685, 698
International Commission on Large Dams
Bulletin 121, 661
International Council on Metals and the
Environment (ICME), 1644
formation of, 1666
statement on tailings management, 646
tailings management guidelines, 662
International Council on Mining and Metals
(ICMM), 17
closure planning information, 1753
formation of, 1666, 1769
on site environmental considerations, 1644
on sustainability, 1644, 1645t., 1667, 1667f.,
1667t., 1680, 17691770, 1799
tailings management guidelines, 662
Toronto Declaration, 1644
International Covenant on Civil and Political
Rights, 17731774
International Covenant on Economic, Social
and Cultural Rights, 17731774
International Cyanide Management Institute,
1735
International Electrotechnical Commission
(IEC), 825
International Federation of Chemical, Energy,
Mine and General Workers Unions, 318

I-20

International Finance Corporation (IFC)


environmental and social standards, 1770
Good Practice Notes/Handbooks, 1668
Performance Standards on Social and
Environmental Sustainability, 1780,
1795
and social issues, 1769
sustainability framework, 1668
tailings management standards, 662
International Institute for Environment and
Development (IIED), 1644
tailings management standards, 662
International Institute for Sustainable
Development (IISD), 1665
International Journal of Rock Mechanics,
Mining Sciences, 433
International Labour Organization (ILO)
Convention 169, 17801781, 1795, 1797
on mine surveying, 732
on occupational health, 1568
International mining economics (Web sites),
18281829
International Nickel Company (Canada), and
backfilling, 13751376
International Organization for Standardization
(ISO), 303
mining truck design standards, 922
International publications and associations
(Web sites), 18311832
International Rock Excavation Data Exchange
Standard, 721
International Seabed Authority, 1068
International Society for Mine Surveying
(ISM), 731
International Society for Rock Mechanics
(ISRM), 468, 553
International System of Units (SI), 49
units, conversion from English units (chart),
18351840
International Valuation Standards Council, 220
Intrusion-related gold deposits, 91
Inuit, and Voiseys Bay nickel project, 1798
Inverse-distance weighting, 195
Investment analysis, 73, 7980
analysts skills, 76
and assets position on cash cost curve, 76,
77f.
buy-side, 73
castles in the sky theory, 73
client contact, 75
and companys management skills, 7879
earnings momentum and the cycle, 77, 77f.
evaluation metrics, 75, 75t.
financial modeling, 7475
and global commodities trade, 77, 78f.
importance of, 7374
and independent research, 75
intrinsic-value (firm-foundation) theory, 73
investment skills, 7576
and leverage and liquidity, 78
and operational leverage, 76
and optionality, 76
and political/legal environment, 79
and quality of asset, 76
relative market cap performance between
Fortescue Metals and Mount Gibson
(20022008), 73, 74f.
relative performance of Australian dollar vs.
CRB Index, 77, 79f.
relative share performance between Xstrata
and Anglo American (20022008),
73, 74f.
research notes, 75, 76f.

SME Mining Engineering Handbook

sell-side, 73
sell-side analysts skills, 76
tasks, 7475
tools, 7679
IPCC. See In-pit crushing and conveying
Irish-type Pb-Zn (Cu) deposits, 96
Iron
automated blasthole drilling, 820822,
820t., 821t., 822f.
banded iron formation (BIF) deposits, 97
ferrous, and acid rock drainage, 1723
sediment-hosted deposits, 97
Iron oxide copper-gold (with or without
uranium) deposits, 85t., 9293
IRR. See Internal rate of return
ISO. See International Organization for
Standardization
ISO 9000 series, 193, 1817
ISO 14000, 986987, 1817
ISO 14001, 1643, 1646, 1646t.
ISO 17025, 193
Jackleg drills, 436
Janbus method, 499
Jim Bridger mine (Wyoming), highwall mining
case study, 10291030
John Deere, 710, 920
Joint roughness coefficients (JRCs), 530, 530t.
JORC code. See under Australasian Institute of
Mining and Metallurgy
Kador Engineering, 925
Kidd Creek mine (Ontario)
and air conditioning, 1611
and thickened tailings, 1376
Kilburn, Lionel, 225
Kimberley Process Certification Scheme, 1770
Kirchhoff, Gustav R., 1585
Kirchhoffs laws, 756, 15851586, 1587
direct application of, 1587, 15881589,
1588f.
Kirpich equation, 1708
Koepe, Frederick, 1296
Kolar Gold Fields (India), 1375
Komatsu, 917, 920, 925, 937
Kress, 925
La Quinta mine (Peru), tailings management
scheme, 660
LAMODEL (highwall modeling), 1028, 1030
Land professionals, and dewatering, 744
Landriault, Dave, 1376
Laronde mine (Canada), and air conditioning,
1611
Laser drills, 417
Laterite deposits, 100
Laterites, 1075
Lateritic gold deposits, 101
Latin America
mining history, 4
publications and associations (Web sites),
1832
Laubscher rock mass classification system,
1386
Laubscher selection process, 369, 372f.
Law. See Mining law
Law of Conservation, 405
Layered chromite deposits, 87
LBMA. See London Bullion Market
Association
Leaching, 4. See also Heap leaching; In-situ
leaching
Legal professionals, and dewatering, 744

Legge, Thomas, 1568


Leica Automatic Deformation Monitoring
System (GeoMoS), 736
Lenzs law, 119120
LerchsGrossman pit optimization method,
889, 890
Liebherr, 937
Life-cycle assessment, 33
Liquidsolid separation. See Dewatering
(liquidsolid separation)
Lithium, 11111112
chemical composition of lithium brine
lakes, 1112t.
in-situ solution mining of, 1112
processing of, 1112, 1113t.
Lithium metaborate, 134
LME. See London Metal Exchange
Load-haul-dump vehicles (LHDs)
in hard-rock underground mining,
11501152, 1151f.
in soft-rock underground mining, 1173,
1176f.
in underground horizontal and inclined
development, 1198
See also Hauling and conveying
Loaders, 912, 914t., 1276, 1277f.
automation, 1279
bucket fill factor, 935, 936t.
capacity, 913
comparison, 936937, 936t.
costs, 1279
digging profiles, 914
dragline systems as, 910911
drawpoints for, 1277, 1278f.
drive systems, 914
drive-by loading, 915916, 916f.
electric cable shovels, 936t.
and electric power distribution and
utilization, 683
fixed single-point ship loaders, 980
flask train-loading system, 979
flexibility, 913914
flood train-loading system, 979
front-end, 936t.
gradeability/speed/rimpull charts, 1277,
1278f.
hydraulic excavators, 936t.
hydraulic shovels, 912913, 912f., 914t.
job operating efficiency, 935
life, 914
linear ship loaders, 981
load-and-carry wheel loaders, 938
loading silos, 979
luffing, slewing, and telescopic ship loaders,
980981, 981f.
maintenance, 915, 1280
manufacturers and model specs, 917, 918t.
matching to haulers, 916, 916f.
material conditions, 915
mechanical availability, 935936
mine design and construction for,
12771279
mining shovels, 912913, 913f., 914t.
mobile conveyors and loaders in ship
loading, 980
mobility, 913
one-sided loading, 915, 915f.
operating methods, 915916
operational aspects, 1279
in placer mining and dredging, 10601061,
1061f.
as production drivers, 916
and production management systems, 1279

quadrant ship loaders, 981


rubber-tired, 408
safety considerations, 1277
selection, 913915, 935937
ship loading, 980981
size selection, 935
stockpile bays for loaders, 1278
stope mucking, 1279
support requirements, 914915
swing angle, 913, 914t.
theoretical cycle time, 935
tipple accesses for, 1278
track dozer productivity, 918919, 918t.
track dozers, 916919, 917f., 918t.
tramming, 1279
tramming drifts (drives) for, 1277
traveling ship loaders, 980, 981f.
truck load-out stations, 978, 978f.
truck-loading bays, 1279,
two-sided loading, 915, 915f.
wheel loader spotting, 915, 916f.
wheel loaders, 912913, 912f., 914t.,
10351036, 1036t.
See also Dragline systems; Hauling and
conveying; Load-haul-dump vehicles;
Unloaders
Lode (or orogenic) gold deposits, 94
London Bullion Market Association (LBMA),
59
Web site, 62
London Metal Exchange (LME), 50, 5759
copper prices (19502008), 50, 51f.
Web site, 62
London Platinum and Palladium Market
(LPPM), 59
Web site, 62
Longwall drum shearers, 417, 427, 427f.
Longwall mining, 1399, 14141415
abrasivity, 14061407
advantages and disadvantages, 384, 384t.
AFC power demand calculations, 1166
and armored face conveyors, 1399
automation, 1162, 1163f.
balance chambers, 1412, 1413f.
beam stage loader, crusher, and boot end,
11601161
and black lung disease (pneumoconiosis),
1414
bleeder ventilation systems, 1412, 1412f.
bleederless ventilation systems, 1412,
1413f.
and carbon dioxide, 14021403
and carbon monoxide, 1402
and coal, 1399
conceptual loading model for longwall
shield capacity evaluation, 1404,
1405f.
contemporary issues, 1414
conventional layout, 1407, 1408f.
and Cowards triangle, 14111412, 1411f.
cross-measure boreholes, 1414
cumulative probability distribution ofloads
required to stabilize longwall roof,
1404, 1406f.
and deposit depth, 13991400
and deposit dip, 1400
and deposit thickness, 1400
and deposit uniformity, 14001402
districts, 1407
dog bones (dumb bells), 1401
electrical equipment, 1178
electrical systems, 1161
face length, 1409

Index

favorable characteristics, 384t.


float time, 1407
and fracturing or faulting, 1401
gate roads, 14071409, 1409f.
and geomechanics, 464
gob ventilation boreholes (GVBs),
14131414
in hard-rock mining, 365
horizontal boreholes, 1414
and hydrogen sulfide, 1403
major components, 1399, 1400f.
and methane, 1402
mine layouts, 14071409, 1408f.
monorails, 1161
multiseam longwall, 14101411
and nameplate capacity (NPC), 11621163,
1165
panel length, 14091410
periodic weighting behavior of longwall
roof, 1404, 1405f.
place-changing operations, 1408
plow systems, 1410, 1411f.
pump stations, 1161
punch (highwall) layout, 1407
roof and floor strata, 14031405
roof bolting, 1408
roof supports, 11581159, 1160f.
as safe, efficient method, 1414
and sand channels, 14011402, 1042f.
seam topography, 1401, 1401f.
as serially dependent processes, 1399
set load, 1403
shearers, 1159, 1161f., 1399
and shields, 14031405
soft-rock equipment selection, 1157,
11581166, 1158f., 1160f.
in soft-rock mining, 377, 383384, 383f.,
597599, 599f.
specific energy of cutting, 14051406
and spontaneous combustion, 1403
stageloaders, 1399
and strata gases, 14021403
and support density, 1163
and surface subsidence, 1414
and thick seams, 1410
and thin seams, 1410
tube-bundle systems, 14121413
ventilation, 1407, 14111414, 1412f.,
1413f., 1430, 1430f., 1446
and water, 1403
yield load, 1404
Longwall top coal caving (LTCC), 1166, 1410,
1411f.
equipment selection, 11611162, 1162f.,
1163f., 1166
See also Cave mining
LPPM. See London Platinum and Palladium
Market
Lucky Friday mine (Idaho), undercut-and-fill
stoping, 1212, 1212f.
Lundberg, H., 127
Mackenzie Valley Resource Management Act
(Canada), 1797
Mafic and ultramafic intrusive association
deposits, 89
Mafic magmas, mineral deposits in, 85t., 8789
Magma Copper Company San Manuel mine
(Arizona), 1267
and air conditioning, 1611
equipment selection, 12671268, 1268f.,
1268t.
mine geology, 1267

I-21

mining setbacks and TBM modification,


12681269, 1269f., 1269t.
TBM case study, 12671269
TBM use, 1219
tunneling scheme, 1267, 1267f.
Magmatic diamond deposits, 85t., 89
Magmatic hydrothermal formation processes,
83, 8486
Magmatic platinum group metal (PGM)
deposits, 8788
Magnesium, 1108
geologic conditions and in-situ solution
mining of, 11081109
principal magnesium minerals, 1109t.
processing of magnesium chloride, 1109
processing of magnesium hydroxide, 1109
Magnetic separation, 1533
closed-cycle liquefier superconducting
system, 1542
conventional magnets, 15381540
diamagnetic minerals, 1533, 15341538
dry permanent magnetic separators, 1540
eddy current separators, 1542
ferromagnetic minerals, 1533
flux density, 1534
Frantz Isodynamic separators, 1540
high-intensity magnetic separators,
15381540
indirect-cooling superconduction system,
1543
induced-roll magnetic separators,
15381539, 1539f., 15411542, 1542t.
Jones separators, 15391540, 1540f.
lift-type magnetic separators, 1539, 1540f.
low-intensity magnetic separators, 1538
low-loss superconducting system,
15421543
magnetic drum separators, 1538, 1538f.
magnetic field, 1534
magnetic force, 1534
magnetic pulleys, 1538, 1538f.
magnetic theory, 15331538
magnetization, 1534
minerals and their magnetic and
electrostatic responses, 1534,
1535t.1537t.
paramagnetic minerals, 1533, 1534
permanent magnets, 15401542
permeability, 1534
protective magnets, 1538, 1538f.
rare-earth drum (RED) separators,
15401542, 1541f., 1542f., 1542t.
rare-earth roll (RER) separators,
15411542, 1541f., 1542f.
superconducting dry open-gradient
magnetic separators, 1543
superconducting magnets, 15421543
superconducting wet high-gradient magnetic
separators, 1543, 1543f.
susceptibility, 1534
wet magnetic separators, 1538, 1539f.
wet permanent magnetic separators, 1542,
1542f.
Maintenance (of infrastructure), 825, 837
availability of infrastructure, 825826, 826f.
capacity of infrastructure, 826
defined, 825
dependability of infrastructure, 825, 826f.
design-out maintenance, 826827
dewatering systems, 835837
electrical power distribution systems,
832835
hoisting systems, 829832

I-22

infrastructure performance measures,


825826
life-cycle reliability approach, 827, 828f.,
835
maintenance performance indicator (MPI),
829
optimal frequency, 827, 828f.
primary functions of assets, 827
Quality Standard QS-9000 guidelines, 829
reliability of infrastructure, 825, 826, 826f.,
827, 828f.
risk priority number (RPN), 829
roadway compaction, 832
roadway degradation mechanisms, 832
roadway drainage, 832
roadway grading profiles, 832
roadway resurfacing, 832
root-cause analysis, 827
secondary functions of assets, 827
synchronizing maintenance and production
plans, 827829
tactics, 826827, 827f.
underground roadway maintenance, 832
workshop facilities, 837
Malaria, 1572, 1573f.
control programs, 15721573
Good Practice Guidance on HIV/AIDS, TB
and Malaria, 1772
Management, 302
actions during contract negotiations, 320
avoidance of ethnocentrism, 322
basic principles of, 318
and behavior modeling, 328, 329t.
characteristics of effective manager, 319
competencies, 320
contemporary values, 302303
control and cultural differences, 322
and cultural differences, 320321, 321t.
decision making and cultural differences,
322
employee development, 324325
employee recruitment and retention,
323324
employee relations, 317
establishing and maintaining constructive
relationships, 318, 319
focusing on the situation, not the person,
318
and global transfer of knowledge, 325326
good-faith bargaining, 319320
health and safety as first priority, 317318
historic approaches, 302
and individualism vs. collectivism, 321
labor relations, 303
leadership and cultural differences, 321322
leading by example, 318
learning from the outside, 326
and learning organizations, 324325
and long- vs. short-term orientation, 321
maintaining self-esteem of employees, 318
mandatory bargaining issues, 320
and masculinity vs. femininity, 321
and mental models, 324325
motivation and cultural differences, 322
in multinational environment, 317, 320323
nonmandatory bargaining issues, 320
and personal mastery, 324
prohibition against bargaining individually
with union employees, 320
prohibition against threats, interrogations,
promises, and spying (TIPS), 320
safety risk, 303304

SME Mining Engineering Handbook

and sequential vs. synchronous time


concepts, 321
and shared vision, 325
and simulation training, 328329
and skilled work force, 317
and small vs. large power distance, 320321
and systems thinking, 325
taking initiative to make things better, 318
and teams, 325
training evaluation and record keeping, 328
training for work with other cultures,
322323
and uncertainty avoidance, 321
and union contracts, 319
and unions, 318320
See also Asset management; Closure;
Finance; Health; Safety; Social impact
assessment and management; Social
license to operate; Training
Manganese
lixiviants, 1090
ore deposits, 98
sediment-hosted, 97
Mannings equation, 750, 1709, 1710
Mannings factor, 1261
Mannings roughness coefficient, 1708
Marchetti dilatometer test, 475
Marine mining, 8
MarkBieniawski pillar design formula,
10271028
Market capitalization, 65
and commodity prices, 68, 69f., 77
and cost escalation over life of mine, 70
and cost of capital, 70
and cost of extracting and treating ore, 69
and currency trends, 68
defined, 65, 80
differences with juniors, 71
discount rates applied to projected cash
flows, 70
and diversity of companys asset portfolio,
7071
and exploration and development costs, 69
and financing costs, 70
and growth potential, 71
and merger and acquisition activity, 71
multiple on theoretical NPV, 7071
and net asset value, 66
and net present value (NPV), 65
and ore in the ground, 6667
performance of mining indices vs. FTSE
Med 100, 65, 66f.
and point in economic-and-commodity
cycle, 71
and political risk, 70
and probability-weighted NPV, 6768
and production capacity, 68
production cost standard, 69, 69t.
and project development risk, 70
and royalties and taxes, 70
and size and quality of mineral deposit, 69
and smelting and refining costs, 70
and spot vs. long-term prices, 68
valuation drivers through economic cycle,
65, 66f.
valuation of junior miners, 6568
valuation of producing companies (external
factors affecting cash flows), 68
valuation of producing companies (internal
factors affecting cash flows), 6970
value of mining project vs. investment risk,
65, 67f.

Market protection, 33
Material transporters and utility vehicles, 1173
Maximum credible earthquake (MCE), 652
Maxter-Atlas, 925
McCoy property (Nevada), 299
Mechanical engineers, and dewatering, 744
Mechanical rock breakage, 417
advance rate prediction based on cutterhead
design, 432
advance rate prediction based on specific
energy, 430432, 430f., 431t.
advantages, 417
Aker Wirth continuous mining machine,
428, 429f.
bit materials, 419
bit selection, 419420, 421f.
bit types, 419, 420f.
borer miners, 425, 425f.
continuous miners, 417, 426427
diamond-wire saws, 429430
disc cutters, 419, 420f.
drag-type tools, 418, 419
estimation of cutter life, 432433
flame jets, 417
full-face continuous miners, 425, 425f.
full-face machine cutters, 424425
full-face machines, 420, 421425
hydraulic breakers, 428429
impact hammer production rates, 432, 433f.
impact hammers, 420, 428429
information sources, 433
laser drills, 417
longwall drum shearers, 417, 427, 427f.
machine categories, 420
by microwave, 417
partial-face machines, 420, 425428
partial-face machines for hard-rock
applications, 428, 429f.
performance estimates, 430433
plow systems, 427
by projectile impact, 417
raise boring machines, 417, 423, 1283
1284f.
raise drilling machines, 423424, 424f.
road milling machines, 427428, 428f.
roadheader production estimation, 432
roadheaders, 417, 425426, 426f.
Robbins Mobile Miner, 428, 429f.
rock breakers, 420
rock indentation process, 418, 418f., 419f.
rock mechanics tests, 418
rock saws, 429
rock/bit interaction, 418419
roller-type tools, 418, 419
shaft boring machines, 421422
shaft drilling machines, 422, 423f.
and specific energy (SE), 419
and specific penetration (SP), 419
stope boring machines, 424
strawberry cutters, 419, 420f.
TBM advance prediction, 432
trenchers, 429
tunnel boring machines, 417, 421, 422f.
Voest-Alpine surface miner, 429
water jets, 417, 430
water monitors, 430
Mega, 925
Meikle mine (Nevada), and air conditioning,
1611
Mergers and conglomerates, 5
Meridian Gold, Inc., and failed social license
approach in Esquel gold deposit
(Argentina), 17871788

Merriespruit (South Africa) tailings failure, 662


Metal Bulletin, 62
Metal exchanges, 5759
Metallurgical efficiency, 1455
Metallurgical testing, 193
accuracy, 194
acidbase accounting analysis (ABA), 202
advanced media competency test, 200
agitated leach test, 201202
and assay pulps, 197
autogenous and semiautogenous grinding
(AG & SAG) milling tests, 200
autogenous media competency test, 200
average grade, 196
beneficiation tests, 199
bias, 194
Bond abrasion index (Ai) test, 200
Bond ball mill work index test, 200
Bond low-energy crushing work index (Wic)
test, 200
Bond rod mill work index test, 200
bottle rolls test, 201
bulk density, 196
carbon adsorption test, 202
and channel samples, 197
chemical analysis, 199
column leach test, 202
contained metal, 196
density, 196
detailed test program, 198199
diagnostic leach test, 201
environmental testing, 202
evaluation methods, 196197
flotation testing, 201
and geostatistics, 194196
gold ore testing, 201
gradetonnage curves, 196, 197f.
gravity testing, 200201
gravity-recoverable gold test, 201
Gys sampling formula, 197198
heavy media separation test, 200201
humidity cell test, 202
JK Tech drop-weight test, 200
laboratory accreditation and certification,
193
laboratory test programs, 198199
leachate analysis, 202
MacPherson autogenous work index test,
200
mineralogical analysis, 199
objectives, 197
physical testing, 200
pilot-plant tests, 199200
precision, 194
preliminary test program, 198
quality control, 193194
resource classification, 196
resource evaluation, 196
sample preparation, 199
sample selection, 198
sample types, 197
scoping test program, 198
specific gravity, 196197
spiral test, 201
and split cores, 197
stripping ratio, 196
table test, 201
tailings characterization test, 202
test-program stages, 199
and trenching and pitting samples, 197
Metamorphic hydrothermal formation
processes, 83, 86
Meteorologists, 744

Index

Methane (coal-bed production), 6, 1121


carbon dioxide sequestration, 1130
cavitation technique, 1127f.
coal-bed methane reserves, 1121t.
coal-bed reserves, 11211123, 1122f.
coal-bed reservoir properties, 11231124,
1123f.
in deep reservoirs, 1127, 1127f., 1128f.
deep-well injection of produced water,
1129, 1129f.
diffusivity of coal seams, 1124
drainage from coal seams, 366
gas composition, 1129
gas gathering and measurement, 1129
gas processing, 1129, 1129f.
ground stresses around coal seam, 1124
horizontal laterals drilled from the surface,
1128
measurement of coal-bed gas contents,
1123, 1123f.
in medium-depth reservoirs, 11251127,
1126f., 1127f.
molecular gate separation system, 1130,
1130f.
permeability of coal seam, 1123
produced water disposal, 11281129, 1129f.
production technology, 11241127
reservoir characteristics, 1126t.
reservoir pressure of coal seam, 11231124
rock mechanics properties around coal
seam, 1124
in shallow reservoirs, 11241125, 1126f.
surface disposal of produced water,
11281129, 1129f.
underground coal gasification, 1130f., 1131
vertical hydrofraced well, 1128
water content and quality in coal seam, 1124
well servicing and maintenance,
11271128, 1128f.
wire-line logging, 1124, 1125f.
Metso, 1037
Michigan, and compressed air, 705
Micromine PITRAM software, 1279
Microsoft Excel, 302
Microwave mechanical rock breakage, 417
Middle Ages, 3
Millennium Development Goals, 16681669
Milling. See Primary milling; Secondary
milling; Tertiary milling
Mine and Mill Equipment Operating Costs
Estimators Guide, 268269
Mine Backfill, 1383
Mine communication systems, 717, 729
accommodation of information source
mobility, 721722, 722f.
accommodation of information sources and
infrastructure, 721
basics, 717, 718f.
best-of-breed approach, 725
client devices, 720
client mesh networks, 720
communication pathway or network, 717
computer networks, 720
data warehouses, 724, 725f.
desired attributes, 721
ease of maintenance, 723
environmental monitoring, 724
equipment status monitoring, 724
Ethernet networks, 720
expansion capability, 723
fiber-optic systems, 720
high frequency (HF) technologies, 718719,
719t.

I-23

implementation, 724725
information receiver, 717
information source or transmitter, 717
interfaces, 724
low frequency (LF) technologies, 717718,
719t.
medium frequency (MF) technologies, 718,
719t.
monitoring systems, 724725
pagers, 720
pre-installation checklist, 723
production monitoring, 724
proximity warning systems (GPS- or
sensor-based), 728
redundant operation, 722723, 723f., 726
reporting systems, 724
safety monitoring, 724
self-healing, redundant-ring architecture,
722723, 723f.
sensors, 717
strategic vendor approach, 725
TCP (Transmission Control Protocol), 721
TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol/
Internet Protocol), 720
telephones, 720
transmission media, 719721
transmission technologies, 717719, 719t.
ultra high frequency (UHF) band, 718719,
719f., 720
ultra low frequency (ULF) band, 717, 719t.
ultra wideband (UW) technologies, 719,
719t.
very high frequency (VHF) band, 718719,
719f.
very low frequency (VLF) band, 717, 719t.
wired networks, 719720
wireless mesh networks, 720, 721f., 726
wireless networks, 719, 720721
See also Automatic control systems; Global
Positioning Systems; Miner tracking
systems
Mine Improvement and New Emergency
Response (MINER) Act of 2006 (U.S.),
303, 717
and miner tracking systems, 725, 726
Mine infrastructure, defined, 825
Mine infrastructure maintenance. See
Maintenance (of infrastructure)
Mine rehabilitation. See under Closure
planning; Open-pit mining; Open-pit
planning and design; Quarrying; Strip
mine planning and design
Mine Safety and Health Administration
(MSHA)
fatality information, 817, 1560
mine ventilation video, 1578
and miner tracking systems, 725
noise regulations and engineering guidance,
1633, 1634, 1637
Mine subsidence, 627
active, 635
angle of break (angle of fracture), 629
angle of draw, 628, 629f., 629t.
architectural and structural considerations,
642
area of influence, 628629, 629f.
backfilling in control of, 641
and caving, 627628
chimney caving, 627, 628f.
and competence of surrounding materials,
631
and comprehensive planning, 643
compressive, 629

I-24

continuous, 627, 632635


contractile, 629
critical, 628, 629f.
crown holes, 627, 628f.
damage control and prevention, 641643
damage to agricultural resources, 639
damage to airport runways, 637
damage to buildings and structures,
636637, 638f., 638t., 639f.
damage to hydrological resources, 639,
640f.
damage to pipelines, 637638
damage to railways, 637
damage to roads, 637
damage to subsurface structures, 638639,
640f.
defined, 627
and degree of extraction, 631
development of, 627639
discontinuous, 627628, 632, 632f.
and elapsed time, 632
environmental effects, 636641
extensile, 629
and extraction rate, 631
extraction rate in control of, 641
and extraction thickness, 630
factors affecting, 629632
and geological discontinuities, 631, 631f.
graphical methods in prediction of, 635,
635f.
harmonic mining in control of, 641, 642f.
horizontal displacement, 629, 630f., 636
and hydrogeology, 632
and inclination of extraction horizon, 630
influence functions in prediction of,
633634, 634f., 634t.
and in-situ stress state, 631
limit angle, 628, 629f.
limit of, 628
long-term effects, 635636, 636t.
and longwall face, 627, 628f.
and longwall mining, 1414
measurement and monitoring, 632633
and method of working, 631
mine layout changes in control of, 641
and mined area, 631
and mining depth, 630
and near-surface geology and surface
topography, 631
noneffective width, 628
partial mining in control of, 641
phenomenological prediction, 633
pillar collapse, 635636
plug, 627, 628f.
and postmining stabilization, 642
prediction of, 633635
profile functions in prediction of, 634635
pseudo-mining damage, 639641
residual, 635636
roof collapse, 635636
scope of term, 627
structural deformation definitions, 636, 637f.
subcritical, 628, 629f.
and sublevel caving, 14331435, 1435f.
subsidence contours above longwall coal
panels, 629, 630f.
supercritical, 628, 629f.
surface, 627
tensile, 629
and tolerable damage, 636
vertical displacement, 629, 636
vertical displacement measurement,
632633

SME Mining Engineering Handbook

Mine surveying, 731732


aerial and terrestrial photogrammetry
surveys, 734
control benchmarks, 733, 733f.
coplaning or aligning, 739
data processing, 734
defined, 731
detail surveys, 740741
detail surveys of massive deposits, 741
detail surveys of tabular deposits, 741
direction and grade lasers, 742
equipment and techniques, 732
and Global Navigation Satellite Systems
(GNSS), 732, 734
GNSS surveys, 734
grade chains, 742
grade sticks, 741
Hause quadrilateral, 740
horizontal and vertical control, 736737,
738f.
laser-scan surveys, 734, 735f.
laws and regulations, 732
mine-survey control network, 733, 733f.
open-pit mines, 732736
position and direction transfer (surface to
underground), 738740, 740f., 740t.,
741f.
and safety, 731732
setting-out surveys, 741742
slope-stability surveys, 734736
software, 734
strings and grade pegs, 742
support surveys for equipment and machine
control, 736, 737f.
surveyors responsibilities, 732
3-D digital modeling, 734, 735f.
topographic surveys, 733734
total station surveys, 733, 734f.
traversing with total stations in the backs
(classical traversing), 737, 739f.
traversing with total stations in the walls
(wall-station traversing), 737738,
739f., 740f.
underground mines, 736742
Weisbach triangle, 739740
Mine ventilation, 1577
active devices, 15801582
air crossings, 1582
air doors, 1582
air movers, 1584
air quantity surveys, 15841585, 1584f.
airflow,1578
airlocks, 1582
airway resistance (Atkinsons law),
15781579, 1580f.
analytical methods for solving ventilation
networks, 15861587
auxiliary systems, 15831584
and Bernoulli equation, 1578
in block caving, 1440
booster fans, 15811582, 1582f.
and ChezyDarcy law, 1578
in coal and metalliferous mines, 15911593
and compressed air, 709
cost estimating calculations, 268
deviations from square law, 1586
diesel dilution requirements, 1590, 1590t.
dilution of pollutants, 1577, 1578
and dust suppression systems, 1578
equivalent resistances, 15861587, 1587f.
face ventilation (R&P mining), 1169
factors in hazards and methods of control
in, 1577, 1578f.

fan and duct systems, 15831584, 1583f.


fan maintenance, 834
fan pressurequantity characteristics curves
and operating points, 1581, 1581f.
friction factors, 1579, 1579t.
and frictional pressure drop, 15781579,
1587
and heating and cooling systems, 1578
and hoisting systems, 1318, 1321
jet fans, 1584
and Kirchhoffs laws, 15851586, 1587
Kirchhoffs laws, direct application of,
1587, 15881589, 1588f.
line brattices, 1583, 1583f.
in longwall mines, 1407, 14111414,
1412f., 1413f., 1430, 1430f., 1446,
15911592, 1592f.
main fans, 15801581, 1581f.
maximum air velocities (recommended),
1590, 1590t.
and methane drainage,1578
minimum oxygen concentration, 1577
network analysis, 15851589
network simulation programs, 1589
numerical methods for solving ventilation
networks, 15871589, 1588f.
in ore-body deposits, 1593, 1593f.
orepasses, 1283
parallel circuits, 1586
passive devices, 15821583
planning, 15891591, 1589f., 1590t.
pressure surveys, 1585
purpose of, 15771578
and radon, 1627, 1628f.
regulators, 1582
in room-and-pillar mines, 1592, 1592f.,
1593f.
in room-and-pillar mining in hard rock,
1336, 1340f., 1342f., 13441345
seals, 15821583, 1582f.
series circuits, 1586
shock losses, 15791580
square law, 15781579, 1586
and steady-flow energy equation, 1578
stoppings, 1582
in stratified deposits, 15911592
surveys, 15841585
system schematic, 1580, 1580f.
systems, 15801584
TBMs and ventilation openings, 1259,
1260f., 1261
theory of, 15781580
through-flow systems, 1591, 1591f.
truck clearance to ducts, 11471148
U-tube systems, 1591, 1591f.
ventilation drifts, 1232, 1233f.
See also Cooling; Heat
Miner tracking systems, 725, 727
components, 725
fiber infrastructure systems, 726727
integration options, 727
redundancy (survivability) requirements,
726, 727
RFID leaky feeder infrastructure systems,
726
and seam height, 726
serial infrastructure systems, 727
system layout, 727
system selection, 725726
system types, 726727
wired mesh systems, 726
wireless mesh systems, 726
Minera Escondida IPCC plant (Chile), 954

Mineral deposits, 83
Algoma BIF, 97
associated with felsic magmas, 85t., 8991
associated with peralkaline/carbonatite
magmas, 85t., 9192
banded iron formation, 97
bauxite, 100
carbonatite Cu, rare earth element, Nd, Fe,
P, 9192
chemical sediments, 100
classification scheme, 85t., 86
clastic sediment-hosted copper, 9697
concealed (subsurface), 105
defined, 83
diagenetic hydrothermal formation
processes, 83, 86
epigenetic, 8384
epithermal gold and silver, 9394
evaporites, 100
flood basalt, 88
geological processes forming, 83
gold and uranium in conglomerates, 99
granite-hosted Sn-W, 9091
hydrothermal formation processes, 83, 84
hydrothermal gold and silver, 85t., 9394
hypogene (primary), 84
intrusion-related gold, 91
Irish-type Pb-Zn (Cu), 96
iron oxide copper-gold (with or without
uranium), 85t., 9293
laterites, 100
lateritic gold, 101
layered chromite, 87
lode (or orogenic) gold, 94
in mafic magmas, 85t., 8789
magmatic diamond, 85t., 89
magmatic hydrothermal formation
processes, 83, 8486
magmatic platinum group metal (PGM),
8788
manganese ore, 98
metamorphic hydrothermal formation
processes, 83, 86
Mississippi Valley type Pb-Zn, 9596
nickel (cobalt) laterite, 100101
nickel sulfide, 88
ore genesis, 8384
ores related to weathering, 85t., 100102
orthomagmatic formation processes, 83, 84
other mafic and ultramafic intrusive
associations, 89
outcropping (surface), 105
peralkaline Ta-Nb rare earth element, 91
placer deposits, 85t., 102
plate tectonics, 83, 84f.
podiform chromite, 87
porphyry Cu-Mo-Au, 8990
porphyry Mo (W), 90
Rapitan BIF, 98
sandstone-hosted uranium, 99
secondary copper, 101
secondary zinc, 101102
sediment-hosted, 85t., 95100
sediment-hosted gold, 93
sediment-hosted iron and manganese, 97
sediment-hosted sulfide, 95
sedimentary exhalative Pb-Zn (Cu) in
clastic sediments, 95
sedimentary uranium, 98
size and quality of, and market
capitalization, 69
skarn and carbonate replacement, 85t., 92
sudbury, 88

Index

supergene (secondary), 84
supergene weathering, 101
Superior BIF, 9798
surface hydrothermal or seafloor formation
processes, 83, 86
surface upgrade, 86
surficial formation processes, 83
syngenetic, 83
titanomagnetite, 87
ultramafic volcanic association, 8889
unconformity vein-type uranium, 9899
volcanic-hosted or volcanogenic massive
sulfide, 85t., 9495
Mineral potential index, 305306
Mineral PriceWatch, 61, 63
Mineral processing, 1455
abundance of various metals in earths crust,
1456, 1456t.
aqueous dissolution, 1457
comminution and energy usage, 30, 31f.
concentration, 1457
crushing and sizing flow sheet, 1457, 1457f.
dewatering, 1457
economic concerns, 14551456
flotation and larger particles, 3031
flotation flow sheet, 14571458, 1458f.
flow chart, extraction through processing,
1455, 1456f.
froth flotation, 1457
future trends, 3032
goals of, 1455
grade, 1455
gravity concentration, 1457
gravity concentration flow sheet, 1457,
1458f.
grinding and agitated leaching flow sheet,
14581459, 1458f.
heap leaching flow sheet, 1458f., 1459
leaching, 1457
magnetic and electrostatic concentration,
1457
material balance for unit operation, 1455,
1456f.
metallurgical efficiency, 1455
percent recovery, 1455
processing sequences for selected metals,
1455, 1456t.
recovery, 1455
size reduction, 1457
size separation, 1457
technology, 1516
total and recycled supply of selected metals
(U.S., 1996), 14551456, 1456t.
unit operations, 14561457
See also Comminution; Dewatering
(liquidsolid separation); Electrostatic
separation; Froth flotation; Gravity
concentration and concentrators;
Heavy medium separation;
Hydrocyclones; Magnetic separation;
Screens
Mineral property feasibility studies, 227,
299302
additional testing activities, 249250
Classic Stage 1: Conceptual study, 228
Classic Stage 2: Preliminary or
prefeasibility study, 228
Classic Stage 3: Feasibility study, 228
classic three-phased approach, 228229
combining classic and recommended
approaches, 234
complete activity definitions, 237256
considerations, 228

I-25

criteria for, 299300, 300t.


errors in, 300
industry approach, 228229
minimizing risk in, 300
need for test mine, 233
objectives, 228
problems with conceptual study, 228229
problems with final feasibility study, 229
problems with prefeasibility study, 229
project design basis report, 234235,
256261
project team, 236237
recommended (engineered, systematic)
approach, 229231
Recommended Phase 1: Preliminary (or
conceptual) feasibility stage, 230,
231232, 237241
Recommended Phase 2: Intermediate
(prefeasibility) feasibility stage, 230,
232233, 241249
Recommended Phase 3: Final feasibility
stage, 230, 233234, 250256
and stage of the project, 227228
timing and schedule, 235236, 236t.
who should perform them, 227
work breakdown structure and numbering
system, 230231, 230t., 231t.
work breakdown structure of engineered,
systematic approach, 231234
Mineral property valuation, 219
assumptions, 219
capital asset pricing model for discount rate
derivation, 221222
codes, 219220
commodity price selection, 221
for developed or operating properties,
221224
discount rate determination, 221222
distinguished from evaluation, 219
and environmental considerations, 222
for exploration properties, 225
and fair market value (FMV), 219
geoscience matrix approach, 225, 225t.
and highest and best use, 219
income (cash-flow) approach, 220, 220t.,
221223
and infrastructure-related risk, 222
and labor/management issues, 222
market multiples approach, 220, 223224
market-related approach, 220, 220t., 223
market-related transactions and
development or operating properties,
223
market-related transactions and exploration
properties, 223
methods, 220225, 220t.
Monte Carlo simulations, 220221, 220t.,
224
and net present value (NPV), 220
and operating and capital costs, 222
option/real option pricing valuations, 220,
220t., 224
and political and social issues, 222
and prices and markets, 222
and processing-related risk, 222
and project status, 222
property types, 219
qualifications for valuator, 225226
and quality of analytical data, 222
replacement-cost approach, 220, 220t., 224
risk buildup discount rate derivation, 222,
223t.
risk factors, 222

I-26

rule-of-thumb approach, 225, 226t.


for undeveloped properties, 224225
weighted average cost of capital discount
rate derivation, 221
Mineral resource estimation, 203
anisotropies, 212
area-averaging method, 211
average grade, evaluating differences in,
207, 207t.
basic statistics, 207
block size, 212
coefficient of variation, analyzing, 207,
207t.
compositing, 206207
and cost, 214
data collection and verification, 204
and deposit geometry, 215216
dilution and ore losses, 214
exponential variogram model, 210, 210f.
and folding, 205
and geologic features modeled, 205
geologic interpretation, 204206
geometric methods, 211212
grade distribution, 207
grade distribution and geologic parameters,
207208, 208f.
and grade variability, 216
and grade zoning, 205206
inverse-distance estimation, 213
kriging, 213214
linear variogram model, 210, 210f.
methodology, 203204
modeling, 211216
and moderately complex geometry, 215,
216t.
moving-average methods, 212214
and ore boundaries, 214215
ore reserve estimate, 203204
polygonal methods, 211212
reporting, 203
resource model, 203
sample data, 203
sample selection criteria, 212213
selection of method, 214216, 216t.
and simple geometry, 215, 216t.
spherical variogram model, 210, 210f.
variogram modeling, 208210, 209f.
variograms, computing, 209210, 209f.
and very complex geometry, 216, 216t.
wireframe models, 204205, 205f.
Mining, defined, 146
Mining and Metallurgical Society of America,
219220
Mining Association of Canada, on tailings
management, 646, 659, 663
Mining computing organizations (Web sites),
1829
Mining Cost Service, 267, 269, 271, 272, 282
Mining economics (Web sites), 18281829
Mining Economics and Strategy, 314
Mining engineering
and dewatering, 744
knowledge, 5
Mining geology, 145
Mining in space, 8
Mining industry
boundaries of, 39
economics of, 3947
history, 34
increased governance of, 18, 19
management sophistication of,1819
as mature and evolving, 89
trend toward larger companies, 19

SME Mining Engineering Handbook

vertical integration of, 1617


See also Current trends; Future trends
Mining law, 304, 331, 337
abandonment procedures, 336
accelerated depreciation, 336
access to the land, 304, 332
agreements, 335
allowable expenses, 337
amortization, 336337
auditing capacity, 337
cancellation of title, 334
carried interest of state, 335
and common vs. civil law, 331
cultural and social issues, 305
definition of mineral, 333
described, 331332
dividend withholding tax, 337
and employment, 304
and entry issues, 332
and environmental laws, 336
environmental protection, 304305
and global business, 305
and health and safety, 335336
import/export duties, 337
and land issues, 332
land unsuitability for mining (legal
sterilization of lands), 305
leasing fees, 304
licenses and leasing, 332333
loss carryforward, 337
mineral potential index, 305306
and mining code, 331
ownership of minerals (state or individual),
332
participating interest of state, 335
policy potential index, 305306
pollution penalties, 336
powers of officials, 334
reclamation, 337
and reclamation plans, 336
registration of titles, 333334
rentals and fees, 334
right to apply for mineral rights, 333
right to mine, 304
royalties, 304, 337
safety legislation, 15591560
security of tenure, 333
and small-scale mining, 334335
surrender of title, 334
suspension of title, 334
taxation, 304, 336337
termination of title, 334
and work conditions, 304
and worker compensation for injury or
illness, 304
Mining Magazine, 158
Mining method classification system, 349
and company capabilities, 349, 349t.
deposit geometry (underground mining),
352
deposits classified by depth, 350, 350t.
deposits classified by geometry and type,
350, 350t.
deposits related to geometry, genesis, and
strength, 350, 351t.
depth related to excavating technique and
stripping ratio, 351
depth related to inclination (surface
mining), 351
fill (underground mining), 353, 353t.
ground control (underground mining), 352,
352t.
input statement categories, 349, 349t.

main roof (underground mining), 352


and natural conditions, 349, 349t.
pillars (underground mining), 353
and public policy, 349, 349t.
rocks classified by strength, 350, 351t.
secondary factors, 353355, 354t.
spatial description, 349350
and state of the art, 349t.
surface mining, 351352, 351t.
surface pit slopes related to rock strength
and time, 350, 350t.
tabular deposits classified by attitude, bulk
handling, and rock strength, 350t.
underground deposits classified by
thickness, 350, 350t.
underground mining, 352353, 354t.
Mining method selection, 341, 348
capital and operating cost comparisons,
345346, 346f.
decrease in underground mining production
(U.S.), 342, 344t.
development tasks and costs, 344345
environmental and closure requirements,
346
and geology of deposit, 347
and location of deposit, 346347
material produced (surface vs. underground
mining, U.S.), 342, 344t.
and political and social conditions, 347348
and processing requirements, 347
productivity (tons per hour), 343, 345t.
safety (surface vs. underground mines,
U.S.), 343344, 345t.
surface mine size and tonnage, 343, 344t.
surface mining, 341
surface mining followed by underground
mining, 341, 342
underground mine size and tonnage, 343,
344t.
underground mining, 341, 341342
and work force, 348
See also Hard-rock mining method
selection; Soft-rock mining method
selection
Mining, Minerals and Sustainable Development
(MMSD) project, 1644, 1772
Breaking New Ground, 16491650, 1666,
1769
economic, social, environmental, and
governance spheres, 1644
formation of, 1666
and Global Reporting Initiative (GRI),
1650, 1795
initiatives that support gaining and
maintaining social license, 1794
tailings management standards, 662
Mining Research Establishment, 606
Mining Source Book, 267, 269, 283, 284
Mississippi Valley type Pb-Zn deposits, 9596
Mobile bolters (in R&P mining), 1168
Mobile Metal Ion, 108
Mobile miners, 1200
Modeling
artificial intelligence, 842
dewatering networks, 756757, 757t.
discrete element modeling in bulk flow
simulation techniques, 982
discrete event simulation (DES), 841842
financial, 7475
for highwall mining, 1028
improved predictive capabilities, 23
neural networks, 842843
resources, 1016

shotcrete characteristics and properties, 588


soft-rock ground control, 609610, 609f.
statistical process control (SPC), 841, 841f.
in systems engineering, 841843
and underground mining, 30
See also Geologic modeling; and under
Cost estimating (surface mines); Cost
estimating (underground mines);
Geostatistics; Mineral resource
estimation
Modified rock mass rating (MRMR), 360361,
361f.
Modified rock quality index (Q), 362
Modified stability number (N'), 362, 363f.
Modular Mining Dispatch software, 1279
MohrCoulomb
failure criteria, 506, 506f., 533
strength envelope, 655
Monorails (in longwall mining), 1161
Montana, and backfilling, 1375
Monte Carlo simulations
in mineral property valuation, 220221,
220t., 224
in slope stability assessment, 503
Morgan, Hugh, 1769
Morococha mine (Peru), and shrinkage stoping,
1351
Morrison classification system, 369, 372f.
Mount Cenis tunnel (Switzerland), 705
Mount Nansen (Yukon Territory) survey of
gold-silver mineralizations, 128, 130f.
Moura coal mine (Australia), 1994 explosion,
303
Mt. Arthur North mine (Australia), truck and
shovel operation (case study), 10061012,
1007f.
Multipurpose vehicles, 1173
NAA. See Neutron activation analysis
National Coal Board (United Kingdom), 632
National Engineering Handbook, 1708
National Institute for Occupational Safety and
Health (NIOSH; U.S.), 157
MF radio research funding, 723
noise control guidance, 16371638
Reports of Investigations of the Mining
Research Group, 433
National Oceanic and Atmospheric
Administration (NOAA; U.S.)
and dewatering research, 744
National Weather Service rainfall data
sources, 1707
Natural Resources Canada, 63
Naturalis Historiae, 3
Nautilus Minerals, Inc., 1068
Nearest-neighbor (polygonal) weighting, 195
Neptune Minerals, 1068
Net asset value, 66
Net positive suction head (NPSH)
and dewatering underground operations,
774
and hydraulic mining, 1050
Net present value (NPV), 65, 302
deriving, 73
in hard-rock mining method selection, 374
in mineral property valuation, 220
multiple on theoretical, 7071
in open-pit planning, 882, 883, 884, 888
889, 899
probability-weighted, 6768
Neural networks, 842
advanced concepts, 843
data subdivision, 842

Index

design of, 842843


number of inputs, 842
number of neurons, 842
size of hidden layer, 842
training algorithm, 842843
Neutral mine drainage (NMD), 1721, 1722f.
Neutron activation analysis (NAA), 190191
Nevada, and heap leaching, 1073
New York Mercantile Exchange (NYMEX),
5758
Web site, 62
New Zealand
placer mining and dredging, 1068
publications and associations (Web sites),
1831
Newcomen, Thomas, and pumping engine, 3
Newmont Mining Corporation
on community issues, 1775
Waihi Gold mine (New Zealand), and
community issues, 1771, 1772f.
NewtonRittinger equation, 707, 1378
NGOs. See Nongovernmental organizations
Nicholas classification system, 371, 372t.,
373t., 374t.
Nickel
and backfilling, 13751376
heap leaching and chemistry of deposits,
1077
heap leaching and geology of deposits, 1076
lixiviants, 10891090
recovery systems (solution mining), 1100
Voiseys Bay nickel project, 1798
Nickel (cobalt) laterite deposits, 100101
Nickel sulfide deposits, 88
Nitroglycerine explosives, in quarrying, 1035
No Dirty Gold campaign, 1658
Nobel, Alfred, and dynamite, 3
Noise hazards and controls, 1633, 1639
acoustical enclosures, 1637
action level, 1633
action level (MSHA), 1633
administrative controls, 1638
attenuation in conveyor systems, 1637
basic noise-control concepts, 16371638
combined noise levels, 1636, 1637t.
compressed air noise directives, 716
criterion level,1633
dB, 1633
dBA, 1634
dosimeters, 1634, 16351636, 1636f.
exchange rate, 1634
exposure limits, 1634
and flammability of acoustic materials, 1637
Handbook of Noise Measurement, 1635
instrumentation and survey techniques,
16341637
lining ducts, 1637
lower exposure action value (HSE), 1633
modification of noise source, 1637
modification of sound wave, 1637
noise barriers, 1637
noise dose, 1634
noise shields, 1637
noise-induced hearing loss, 1570
noise-level equivalencies at various sound
levels (MSHA and EU reference
standards), 1634, 1635t.
octave band analyzers, 1636, 1636t.
open-pit mining noise effects, 874
partial enclosures, 1637
permissible exposure limit (PEL), 1634
personal noise dosimeters, 16351636,
1636f.

I-27

personal protection, 16381639


regulations, 1633, 1634
sound level meter, defined, 1634
sound level meters (SLMs), 16351636,
1635f.
substitution as noise control, 1637
threshold, 1634
threshold-limit value (ceiling), 1634
threshold-limit value (time-weighted
average) for physical agents, 1634
upper exposure action value (HSE), 1633
vibration minimization,1638
worker enclosures, 1637
Nongovernmental organizations (NGOs), 18
North Antelope Rochelle mine (Wyoming),
341, 341t.
Northparkes mine (Australia), 342, 343f.
Norwich Park mine (Australia), single-seam
dragline operation (case study),
10031004, 1004f.
NPSH. See Net positive suction head
NPV. See Net present value
Nuclear power, 7
Nuclear Regulatory Commission, on posturanium mining groundwater restoration,
1115
Numerical evaluation methodologies, 371374
NYMEX. See New York Mercantile Exchange
ObertDuvall formula, 1340
Ocampo (Mexico) heap leach, 1083f.
Occupational Health and Safety Act (New
South Wales, 1983, 2000), 1560
Occupational Safety and Health Administration
(OSHA; U.S.)
noise regulations, 1633, 1634
OSHA Technical Manual, 1636
Ok Tedi mine (Papua New Guinea), 1769, 1773
Open-cut mining, 362363, 363f.
Open-ending room-and-pillar mining, 390,
390f.
Open-pit mining, 405, 405t., 407408, 857
access, 863
advantages and disadvantages, 413t.
ancillary equipment and mine services, 871
articulated dump trucks (ADTs), 869
benches, 857858, 858f.
blast design, 863865, 864f., 865f.
blasting, 866
blasting effects on environment, 874
bucket fill factor, 866867
and cable shovels, 408, 409
chemical contaminants, 874
communication infrastructure, 871
defined, 857
deposit conditions favorable to, 413t.
dieselelectric trucks, 869
drilling, 865866
drilling and blasting, 863866
drive-by operation, 867, 868f.
drop cuts, 867
dust effects, 874875
dust management (haul roads), 859
end-dumping (top-down), 860, 861f.
environmental considerations, 872875
equipment choice and capital-vs.-operatingcost-analysis, 408409
equipment dispatching and monitoring,
871872
excavation, 866869
excavation equipment, 866867
excavation practices, 867
frontal cuts, 867, 868f.

I-28

geometry (layout), 857863, 858f.


geotechnical design, 872
grade control, 867
haul road maintenance, 859860
haul roads, 858860, 858f., 869
haulage systems, 869871
hydraulic excavators, 866
and hydraulic shovels, 408, 409
in-pit crushing and conveying (IPCC), 869,
870871
in-pit water management (dewatering), 871,
873874
loading and hauling needs, 410411, 410t.
loading equipment, 408
mechanical-drive trucks, 869
mine rehabilitation and closure, 875
noise effects, 874
operating shifts, 411412, 411t., 412t.
overburden disposal, 860861
overburden removal, 863
paddock dumping (bottom-up), 860861,
861f.
phases, 409
and physical change of landform, 874
pit expansion, 861862
power systems, 871
production planning, 872
pushbacks (cutbacks), 861862, 862f.
reconciliation, 868, 869
rehabilitation, 875
rigid-frame haul trucks, 869
road traffic effects, 874, 875
rolling resistance (haul roads), 859860
rope shovel buckets, 866
rope shovels, 866
and rubber-tired loaders, 408
selective mining, 867
slope monitoring, 872873
stop-and-reverse parallel operation, 867,
868f.
topsoil removal, 863
transition to underground mining, 366367,
862863
trolley-assisted haulage, 870
truck tire management, 870
trucks, 869870
typical deposits, 857
unit operations, 863872
used vs. new equipment, 409
wearing course materials (haul roads), 860
Open-pit planning and design, 877
allowing for blending, 889891, 889f.,
890f., 891f.
allowing for mine closure and rehabilitation,
893, 893t.
allowing for mining width, 889, 889f.
allowing for safety berms and ramps,
886887, 888f.
analyzing case for flexibility, 891
assessment, 878t., 881
assumption sets, 880881
best-case plan, 881
blending stockpiles, 896
block models, 894896, 895f., 896f., 896t.
buffer stockpiles, 897
building a model of highly uncertain data,
900901, 900f.
capital costs, defined, 897
cost factor, 883
cost information, 880
cost models for optimization, 897898
current operations information, 878
cutoff and stockpile optimization, 894t.

SME Mining Engineering Handbook

determining open-pit/underground interface,


892893, 892t.
determining optimal production rate, 884,
885f.
determining options for preservation,
891892, 892t.
determining processing cutoffs, 885886,
886f., 887f.
evidence-based decision making, 882
explicit treatment of uncertainty and risk,
882
final plan, 881
fixed costs, defined, 897
framing, 878t., 881, 881t., 899
general preparation, 877878, 878t.
grade stockpiles, 896
influence diagrams, 900, 900f.
LerchsGrossman pit optimization method,
889, 890
life-of-mine plans, 882, 883t.
maximal value, defined, 893
mine planning optimization, 893, 894t.
minimal value, defined, 893
mining costs, described, 897t.
mining direction, 884
models and tools, 893901
optimal value, defined, 893
optimization, defined, 893
optimization model, 893
optimized plan, 881
option preservation actions, 881
pit optimization, 894t.
pit parameterization methods, 882884
plan for final pit, 887888
planning process, 877881, 878t.
planning team and committees roles and
responsibilities, 877878, 878t.
planning techniques, 882893
preparation of inputs, 878881, 878t.
price forecasts, 879880
primary objectives, 882
principles, 881882
project alternatives, 878879
purposes and scopes, 878, 879t.
pushbacks, 888889, 888f., 889f.
regular block models, 894
rehabilitation costs, described, 897t.
resource information, 878
resource models, 894896
revenue factor, 883
risk identification and management, 891
risk management actions, 881
schedule optimization, 894t.
secondary objectives, 882, 883t.
selection, 878t., 881
selling costs, described, 897t.
separation of public reporting from
planning, 882
stakeholder analysis, 877
Steering Committee, 878, 878t., 879t.
stockpile models, 896897
and taxes, 899
terminal costs, defined, 897
theoretical best-case plan, 884
and topographical features, 886, 887f.
variable cost categories, 897t.
variable costs, defined, 897
vertical bounding, 883
Ordinary Method of Slices, 499
Ore bodies
depth of, 15, 16f.
low-grade, 4
low-grade, and mineral processing, 1516

Ore deposits, defined, 83


Ore in the ground, 6667
Ore movement. See Ore transport; Underground
ore handling
Ore recovery, 985
blending, 986
bucket-wheel/stacker reclaimer, 986f.
circular blending stockpile, 986f.
dead capacity, 986
environmental considerations, 986987
live capacity, 986
reclaiming systems, 986
Ore reserves, 145146
reporting, 464
structure and metallurgy, 14
valuation of, 1415
Ore resources, 145146
Ore storage, 985
configurations, 985
covered, 985
sizing, 985
Ore transport, 977
Big Bags (Bulk Bags, Super Sacks), 982
bottom-dump hopper cars, 979
clamshell-type barge unloaders, 980
containerized, 982
continuous barge unloading systems, 980
dust control, 980, 987
environmental considerations, 986987
flask train-loading system, 979
flexible intermediate bulk containers
(FIBCs), 982
flood train-loading system, 979
hydraulic conveying (pipe systems),
984985
loading silos, 979
marine transportation, 980982
multimodal transportation, 982
pipe transport, 984985
pneumatic barge unloaders, 980
pneumatic conveying (pipe systems), 984
rail transportation, 978980
river barges, 980
rotary car dumpers, 979
shifting cars, 979980
ship loading, 980981
ship unloading, 980, 981982
unit trains, 979
See also Haul roads; Hauling and
conveying; In-pit crushing and
conveying (IPCC); Loaders
Orepasses, 12281230, 1229f., 1247, 1282
advantages and disadvantages, 285
clearing of blockages, 1282
construction, 1283, 1284f.
construction and installation, 1248
construction risks, 1282
cost considerations, 1285
design, 12471248
design and construction issues, 12821283
excavation and ground support, 1247,
1249f.
fall prevention, 1282
inclination angle, 1282
length, 1282
lining, 1247
maintenance, 1248
muck flow control, 1229f., 12471248,
1248f.
and mud rushes, 1282
opening size and shape, 1247
operational aspects, 12831285
orientation, 1282

safety considerations, 1282


shape, 12821283
support systems, 1283
ventilation, 1283
width, 1283, 1283t.
Ores related to weathering, deposits of, 85t.,
100102
Organisation for Economic Co-operation
and Development, International Energy
Agency, 6263
Organizations (Web sites)
international, 18311832
mining computing, 1829
U.S., 18271828
Orthomagmatic formation processes, 83, 84
OSHA Technical Manual, 1636
Our Common Future, 1665
Outside-lift method (coal), 389390, 389f.,
390f.
Overhand cut-and-fill mining, 394, 395, 394f.,
396
Overhand cut-and-fill stoping, 365, 367t., 368f.
Pachuca mine (Mexico), and rill shrinkage,
1351
Palabora copper mine (South Africa), 15
Panel caving, 398f., 399
block size, 402
cave management, 402
extraction principles, 399400, 400f.
undercutting and formation of extraction
trough, 400402, 401f.
See also Cave mining
Panguna mine (Papua New Guinea), and
community conflicts, 1767
Papua New Guinea
and community conflicts over Panguna
mine, 1767
placer mining and dredging, 1068
Park, Trenor W., 29
Paste and Thickened Tailings, 1383
Pennsylvania abrasion test, 1474
Peralkaline Ta-Nb rare earth element deposits,
91
Peralkaline/carbonatite magmas, mineral
deposits associated with, 85t., 9192
Percussion bits, 435436, 436f.
Peru, mining history, 4
Philippine Mining Act of 1995, 1770
Photogypsum tailings, 677
Physical asset management. See Asset
management
Piezometers, 556557
in monitoring of tailings impoundments and
dams, 659
Pillaring, 387, 387f.
Piper Alpha disaster, 783
PITRAM software, 1279
Place-change continuous mining, 381
Placer mining and dredging, 1057
alluvial fan placers, 1058
backfill sand, 10601061
beach placers, 1058, 1060, 1061f.
bucket ladders, 10641065, 1065f.
bucket wheels, 1065, 1065f.
bucket-wheel cutterheads, 1066
bulk sampling advantages and
disadvantages, 1059
California (spud) bucket ladders, 1064
conventional equipment for dry
unconsolidated placers, 10601061
debris flow, 1058
deposit type formation, 10581059

Index

desert placers, 1058


by dozer and front-end loaders, 10601061,
1061f.
draglines, 1064
dredge head variations, 10651066, 1067f.
dredge location, 1063
dredge manufacturers, 1066
dredge types, 10641066
dredging costs, 10661067
dredging operations, 10621068
drift mining, 1060
drill sampling advantages and
disadvantages, 10591060
eluvial (colluvial, hillside) placers, 1058
eolian placers, 1058
estimated cost, 1062, 1062t.
exploration and sampling techniques,
10591060
fixed-arm buckets, 1064
frozen placers, 10611062
future of industry, 1068
glacial placers, 10581059
grab buckets, 1064, 1064f.
grade control, 1063
gulch placers, 1058
horizontal auger heads, 1066
hydraulic dredges, 1062, 10651066, 1066f.
hydraulic mining of placers, 1062
hydrothermal alteration and weathering, 1058
manufacturers information sources, 1066
marine placers, 1059
mechanical dredges, 1062, 10641065,
1064f., 1065f.
and natural hazards, 1063
New Zealand bucket ladders, 1064
nondredging methods, 10601062
physical release, 1058
placer, defined, 1057
placer classification, 1057
preparations and planning, 1063
processing, 10681071
pulse placers, 1058
Ramsey scraper bucket, 1060, 1060f.
release mechanism, 1058
residual placers, 1058
rotary-cutterhead dredges, 1066, 1067f.
of seafloor massive suflides (SMS), 1068
and silting, 1064
source material, 1057
straight suction heads, 1065
stream placers, 1058
subgrade hydraulic mining, 1062
suction hopper dredges, 1065, 1066f.
tailings disposal, 10631064, 1070
trailing drag heads, 1065, 1067f.
Placer ores
attribution scrubbers in sizing of, 1068
beneficiation costs, 1071, 1071t.
centrifugal jigs in beneficiation of, 1069
cyclones in sizing of, 1068
dry magnet separators, 1069
electrostatic plates (ESPs) in separation of,
1070
electrostatic separation, 1070
flotation, 1070
flow sheets, 10701071, 1071f.
gravity separation, 1069
high-tension rolls (HTRs) in separation of,
1070
hot acid leaching, 1070
hydraulic classifiers in sizing of, 1069
low-intensity magnetic separators (LIMS),
1069

I-29

magnetic separation, 1069


sizing, 10681069
spirals in beneficiation of, 1069
triboelectric separators, 1069
trommel screens in sizing of, 1068
vibrating screens in sizing of, 1069
wet high-intensity magnetic separators
(WHIMS), 1069
wet magnet separators, 1069
wet shaking tables in beneficiation of, 1069
wet vs. dry beneficiation, 1068
Placers
classification, 1057
defined, 1057
deposits, 85t., 102
Planning and scheduling, future trends in,
2526
Platinum, and placer mining, 1057
Platts Metals Week, 62
Pliny the Elder, 3
Plow systems, 427
Pocket-and-wing room-and-pillar mining, 390,
390f.
Podiform chromite deposits, 87
Poisson distribution, 840
Poissons ratio, 503, 511, 965
Policy potential index, 305306
Political factors, 4445
depletion, 45
depletion and sustainability, 47
economic management, 46
effect of price volatility on developing
countries, 46
and exploration, 45
institutional capacity for fiscal policy, 4647
mineral rents, 45
political risk, 13, 70
taxation, 46
user cost, 45
Polycrystalline diamond compact (PDC) bits,
439
Porphyry Cu-Mo-Au deposits, 8990
Porphyry Mo (W) deposits, 90
Postpillar cut-and-fill mining, 365366, 396,
397f., 1366
Potash, 377, 1106
geologic conditions, 1106
in-situ solution mining of abandoned or
flooded conventional mines, 1107
in-situ solution mining of impermeable
salts, 1107
in-situ solution mining of permeable salts,
11061107
processing of, 11071108
production of, 1108
Power
application in comminution, 14751477
conspicuous consumption of, 7
power and pressure equations (pumping),
268
requirements in backfill mining, 1382
See also Electric power distribution and
utilization; Nuclear power
Present value, 302
Price/earnings (P/E) multiples, 75
Price/earnings (P/E) ratio, defined, 80
Pricing, 49, 68t.
and bullion markets, 59
closing prices, 59
commodity, 68, 69f., 77
cost, insurance, and freight (CIF), 50, 60
and cost of entry, 56, 56f.
determining factors, 5156

I-30

SME Mining Engineering Handbook

and exchange rates, 5051, 52f.


ex-works (EXW), 50
four Cs, 49
free on board (FOB), 50, 60
of gem diamonds, 49
hedging, 58
and homogeneity (degree of
standardization), 56, 57, 57f.
hybrid (terminal market/negotiated), 61
of industrial metals and minerals, 50, 61
and inflation or deflation, 50, 51f.
information sources, 6263
of intermediate metallurgical products, 49
and location, 4950
Loco London, 59
Loco Zurich, 59
long-term, 5354, 54f.
of metal concentrates, 49
and metal exchanges, 5759
of metals, 49
near-term, 5153, 53f.
negotiated, 6061
nominal terms, 50
official prices, 58
by producer, 5960
of raw materials, 49
reference prices, 61
risk analysis, 49
and seaborne commodities, 60
spot vs. long-term, 68
of steam coal, 6061
strike, 58
TC/RCs (treatment and refining charges), 61
and traders (intermediaries), 57
and transportability, 56, 57f.
trends, 5556
and units of measure, 4950
unofficial prices, 59
variability, 62, 63f.
where and how prices are determined,
5662
Primary development, 1179
Primary milling, 1464
AG/SAG circuits, 14661469, 1466f.,
1467f., 1468f.
crusherHPGR circuits, 14691470, 1470f.,
1471f., 1471t.
crushing circuits, 14641465, 1465f.
See also Comminution; Secondary milling;
Tertiary milling
Processing. See Mineral processing
Product disclosure, 33
Product stewardship, 33
Production (long-hole) drilling rigs, 436
Professional societies, U.S. (Web sites),
18271828
Profit-and-loss (P&L) statement, defined, 80
Programmable logic controller (PLC) systems,
in dewatering, 757
Project geology, 145
Projectile impact in mechanical rock breakage,
417
Prospecting, 105
Prospectors and Developers Association
of Canada, e3 Plus Framework for
Responsible Exploration, 1681, 1799
Pumps and pumping, 1717
centrifugal pumps, 1717
characteristic curves, 1717, 1717f.
Cornish, 3
cyclone feed type, 693694
dewatering pump stations in soft-rock
equipment underground mining, 1178

dewatering stations in underground


operations, 1178
dynamic head calculation, 1717
in hydraulic mining, 1050
ore stream pumping vs. trucking in
hydraulic mining, 1055
power and pressure equations, 268
repump emulsion systems, 454, 454f.
in solution mining, 1097
stations in soft-rock underground longwall
mining, 1161
stations in subsurface mine development,
1217
sumps and pump rooms in underground
development openings and
infrastructure, 12231226, 1224f.,
1225f., 1226f.
troubleshooting, 17171718
See also under Dewatering surface
operations; Dewatering underground
operations; Underground development
openings and infrastructure
Quality control and assurance
in exploration geochemistry, 135136,
135f., 139
in geological data collection, 146
in metallurgical testing, 193194
in sample preparation, 191
Quarrying, 405, 405t., 407408, 1031
and archaeological remains, 1033, 1034
backhoe excavators, 1036, 1036f., 1036t.
and belt conveyors, 1038, 1038f., 1038t.
cone crushers, 10391040
crushing, 10381041
dewatering, 1035
dimension stone, 1045
and distance to market, 1032, 10451046
draglines, 1035
drilling and blasting, 1035
dry screening (sand processing), 10431044
elutriators (sand processing), 1043
face loading, 10351036
face shovels, 1036
factors affecting location, 1032, 1032t.
free settling classifiers (sand processing),
1042
geology and location, 10311032
geotechnical design, 10341035
gyratory crushers, 1039, 1039f., 1463f.
haul roads, 1036
haul trucks, 1036
hauling to plant, 10361037
hindered settling classifiers (sand
processing), 1042
horizontal current classifiers (sand
processing), 1042
hydraulic backhoe excavators, 1036
hydrocyclones or hydroclones (sand
processing), 1043
igneous rock, 1031
impact crushers, 10401041, 1040f.
industry, 1046
in-pit processing, 10371038, 1037f.
jaw crushers, 1039
lakes, 1045
lignite removal, 1043
log washers, 1042
management and disposal of silt, 1043
manufactured sand, 1044
marine aggregates, 1044
marketing, 10451046
metamorphic rock, 10311032

multibench granite operation, 1032f.


overburden stripping, 1034
permit to operate, 10321033
post-production landfill sites, 1045
quarry design, 1034
quarry face design, 1034
quarry face inspection, 1034
quarry infrastructure, 10331035
rehabilitation, 1045
reversion to agriculture, 1045
right-sized trucks, 1036
risk assessment, 1034
rock operations, 10311032
roll crushers, 1041
safety, 1034
sand and gravel washing, 10411044, 1042f.
sand processing methods, 10421043
sand/gravel sites, 10311032
screen types and media, 1041
sedimentary rock, 1031
site security, 1033
size of haul truck fleet, 1037
soil stripping, 1034
specialist operations, 10441045
stockpiles, 10341035
super quarries, 1044
trommels, 10411042
typical conditions for permit, 1033
underground quarries, 1044
and vertical integration, 1046
in wet conditions, 1035
water-handling system, 1034
wheel loaders, 10351036, 1036t.
R&P. See Room-and-pillar mining
Radiation, 1625
monitoring, 16281631
occupational exposure limits, 1626
units of, 16251626
Radon, 132, 677678, 1625
activated carbon canisters (in sampling),
1630
alpha track detector systems (in sampling),
1631
alpha track detectors, 1630
coefficients of diffusion (various materials),
1627, 1627t.
continuous monitors, 1631
continuous progeny monitors, 1631
controlling progenies at underground
uranium mines, 16271628
Cote method (sampling), 1630
diffusion-based ionization chamber
(monitoring), 1631
and dust control, 1628
effect of progeny on human health, 1626
electret detector systems (in sampling), 1631
emanation at underground mines, 1627
grab sampling, 16281630
integrated sampling, 16301631
Kusnetz method (sampling), 1629
modified Tsivoglou method (sampling),
1629
progeny sampling, 16291631
rock method (sampling), 1630, 1630t.
Rolle method (sampling), 16291630,
1630t.
sampling with scintillation cells, 16281629
scintillation cell monitor, 1631
thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD) in
sampling, 16301631, 1631f.
and ventilation systems, 1627, 1628f.
and water control, 16271628

RAECOM (Radiation Attenuation Effectiveness


and Cover Optimization with Moisture
Effects) code, 678
Ragan and Duru equation, 1708
Rail haulage systems (in underground ore
handling), 1289, 1291f.
capacity, 1291
capital costs, 1290
design issues, 1291
equipment, 12921293
health and safety considerations, 1290
and material properties and handling, 1292
and mine plan, 1291
operating cost, 1290
and ore-body geometry, 1291
and production growth, 1291
production rate and scale of operations,
12901291
reliability and operability, 1290
selection criteria, 12901293
system layout and geometry, 1292, 1292f.
system life, 1291
See also Hauling and conveying
Railroads
driverless trains, 27
future trends, 25
Raise boring machines, 417, 423, 1283 1284f.
Raise drilling machines, 423424, 424f.
Raises, 1209, 1209f., 1210f.
blind-hole raise drilling with box hole
drill, 1209, 1209f.
Boliden raise cage, 1209
boring by upreaming, 1209, 1209f.
bottom-up drill-and-blast drop raise, 1209
conventional drilling and blasting, 1209
defined, 1210
raise climbers, 1209, 1209f.
Raising, 1192
Alimak method, 1193, 1283, 1284f.
cage or gig, 1193, 1193f.
conventional, 1192
longhole, 1193, 1194f.
raise boring, 11931195, 1195f., 1196t.
Ram cars (in R&P mining), 11671168, 1168f.
Ramps, 1210
Rapid Excavation and Tunneling Conferences,
433
Rapitan BIF deposits, 98
ReCyclone, 15041505, 1505f.
Regulations and regulators, 18
Rehabilitation. See under Closure planning;
Open-pit mining; Open-pit planning and
design; Quarrying; Strip mine planning
and design
Reliability-Centered Maintenance, 827, 828f.
Remote operation, 15
Rents, 45
and depletion, 45
and interest groups, 46
and taxation, 46
Reserves. See Ore reserves
Resource characterization, defined, 173
Resources. See Mineral resource estimation;
Ore resources
Reynolds number, 1548
Rights holders, defined, 17681769
Rimpull, 925
Ring-drilling drills, 436437, 437f.
Rio Tinto
acquisitions, 78
ancient Spanish mine, 3
automated operations center (Australia), 27

Index

Barneys Canyon gold mine integrated waste


management strategy, 1738, 1744f.
and driverless trains (Australia), 27
and heap leaching, 1073
and HIsmelt process, 35
and labor relations, 303
management approach (The Way We Work),
302
Marandoo iron ore mine and failed cultural
protection (Australia), 1805
and product stewardship, 33
Ridgeway gold mine flooded, chemically
reactive mineral waste repository,
1738, 1744f.
and underground mining, 28
Road milling machines, 427428, 428f.
Roadheaders, 417, 425426, 426f.
production estimation, 432
in R&P mining, 11661167
in underground horizontal and inclined
development, 12001201, 1201f.
Robbins Mobile Miner, 428, 429f.
Robens Report (U.K.), 15591560
Robinsky, Professor, 1376
Robotics, 806. See also Automation
Rock breakers, 420
Rock bursts, 613
anticipated damage, 615t.
damage mechanisms and levels, 614, 614f.,
615t.
fault slip bursts, 614
pillar bursts, 614
strain bursts, 614
Rock mass rating (RMR), 360. See also
Modified rock mass rating
Rock mechanics, 527, 548549
(an)isotropic rock masses, 528
basic friction angles, 531t.
behavior model, 529
body stresses, 544, 546f.
brittle criterion, 533, 534, 534f.
CHILE rock mass, 528
compressive strength testing terminology,
532, 532f.
compressive stresses, 542
confined strength, 533534
defined, 527
deformation parameters (uniaxial testing),
532533, 533f.
design pathways for concept formulation
and analysis, 528, 528f.
deviatoric stress, 542543, 543f.
DIANE rock mass, 528
discontinuities, 530
(dis)continuous rock masses, 528
distribution of stresses with circular
excavation, 543, 543f.
distribution of stresses with rectangular
roadways, 543, 543f.
elastic redistributions, 542544, 543f.
elastic stresses around surface excavation,
543544, 545f.
excavation design, 547, 547f., 548f.
failure and collapse modes around
excavations, 547548
failure and collapse modes around floors,
548
failure and collapse modes around roofs,
547548
failure and collapse modes around sides
(pit walls and underground), 548
geological strength index (GSI), 535539,
540f.

I-31

HoekBrown criterion, 533534, 534f.


HoekBrown m values, 531t.
horizontal stress, 542, 543f.
(in)homogeneous rock masses, 528
in-situ stresses, 542
intact rock strength, 532534
intermediate principal stresses, 542
joint roughness coefficients (JRCs), 530,
530t.
large excavations resulting in large changes
in stress regime at adjacent smaller
excavations, 543, 545f.
major principal stresses, 542
mean stress, 542
and mine design, 528529, 546
minor principal stresses, 542
modular ratios, 531t.
MohrCoulomb criterion, 533
multiple pathways in design, 529, 529f.
nature of rock, 527528
nonelastic behavior around excavations, 544
(non)linear elastic rock masses, 528
numerical approaches, 529
orientation, 530
and overall mine design, 546
persistence, 530, 530t.
post-peak (yielding) behavior, 534535,
534f., 535t.
practical implementation of, 544548
Q rock mass classification, 535, 537t.539t.
RMR rock mass classification, 535, 536t.
rock mass classification, 535541
rock properties, 529535
and scale, 527528, 528f.
shear strength, 530532, 531f., 531t.
spacing, 530, 530t.
stress terminology and equations, 541542
stresses, 541544
surface conditions, 530, 530t.
tests, 418
uniaxial compressive strength (UCS), 532,
532t.
variation in stress concentration factors with
K ratio and aspect ratio of rectangular
roadways, 543, 544f.
vertical stress, 542, 543f.
yielding, 544, 546f.
See also Geomechanics
Rock Mechanics and Rock Engineering, 433
Rock quality designation (RQD), 359360,
360f.
Rock reinforcement, defined, 611
Rock saws, 429
Rock structure rating (RSR), 360
Rock support, defined, 611
Rock tunneling quality index (Q), 361362
Rock-bolting machines, in hard-rock
underground mining, 11531154
Rocksoil transitional materials, 471
Room-and-pillar mining, 377, 381383, 381f.,
385, 599600, 601f.
access to R&P mine, 385386
advantages and disadvantages, 382t.
cost models, 273, 273f., 273t.274t.
favorable characteristics, 382t.
layouts, 387f., 388f.
open-ending sequence, 390, 390f.
pocket-and-wing sequence, 390, 390f.
retreat methods using breaker posts or
mechanized chocks, 390391, 390f.
in soft rock, 387390

I-32

Room-and-pillar mining in coal, 387390,


1339, 1346
air horsepower (AHP) formula, 1344
air quantity formula, 1344
cable bolts, 1343
Christmas-tree method, 389, 389f.
coal production operation, 1339
combination methods, 389, 389f.
continuous mining method, 388,
13411342, 1341f., 1345
conventional (drill-and-blast) mining
method, 388, 1342, 1342f.
crib support systems, 1343, 1343f.
dust displacement, 1345
entry development, 13391340
and flexible conveyor trains (FCTs), 1345
functions of pillars, 1339
geotechnical design, 13401341
ground control, 13421344, 1343f.
haulage, 11671168, 1168f., 1345
main entries, 1340, 1340f.
methane drainage, 1345
mining methods, 388
orthogonal layout, 1339, 1340f.
outside-lift method, 389390, 389f., 390f.
panel entries, 1340, 1340f.
pillar design, 13401341, 1341f.
pillar extraction, 389, 389f., 1345, 1346f.
pillar extraction ratio, 1340, 1341f.
pillar strength, 1340, 1341f.
pulverized limestone or rock dust to prevent
explosions, 1345
retreat methods, 388390
roof bolting, 13421343, 1343f.
roof trusses, 1343
scrubbers, 1344, 1344f.
split-and-fender method, 389, 389f., 390,
390f.
steel plate supports, 1343, 1343f.
steel sets, 1343
submain entries, 1340, 1340f.
system rationalization and optimization,
1345
as unsupported, 1339
ventilation, 1340f., 1342f., 13441345
yieldable arches, 1344
Room-and-pillar mining in hard rock, 365,
367t., 1327
barrier pillar design, 1330
capital costs, 13361337, 1337t.
effect of changing market conditions on
mine planning, 1336
equipment and operations planning from
materials-moving simulation program,
1332, 1332f.
mine haulage development, 13311333
mine plan view, 1327, 1327f.
moving ore from stope face to hoisting
conveyance, 1332, 1333f.
multiple-pass stoping, 1333, 13341335,
1334f.
operating costs, 1336, 1337, 1337t.
ore-body characteristics, 1327
pillar extraction methods, 13351336
pillar orientation due to in-situ stress, 1331
pillar strength equations, 13281330, 1329t.
pillar strength rating system, 1330, 1331f.
pillar stress equations, 1328
pillar width, 386
room-and-pillar orientation due to dip, 1331
room width, 386
secondary extraction methods, 386387
single-pass stoping, 13331334, 1334f.

SME Mining Engineering Handbook

stoping, 386387
traditional strength-based pillar design,
13271331
typical room-and-pillar sizes for metal
mines, 13301331
ventilation, 1336
Rope scrapers (slushers), in hard-rock
underground mining, 1155
Ruggie, John, 16841685
Rutile, and placer mining, 1057
Safety, 18, 15571558, 1565
accidents in surface vs. underground mines
(U.S.), 343344, 345t.
and appropriate equipment, 1562
audits for tailings impoundments and dams,
660
and automation, 817818
berms, and haul roads, 963, 964f.
berms and ramps, and open-pit planning and
design, 886887, 888f.
BHP Billiton Fatal Risk Control Protocols,
465
and block caving, 1450
and community acceptance of risk, 1559,
1559t., 1563
and competent people, 1562
and compressed air, 706
and control huts in hydraulic mining, 1054
and controlled work environment,
15621563
and culture of denial, 1563
defenses, 1563
defining, 1558
and dewatering surface operations, 744746
disasters, 717, 783
disasters, avoiding, 15631565
and due diligence, 1562
and effective systems and practices, 1562
and electric power distribution and
utilization, 685
factor for waste piles and dumps, 674
factor in slope stability, 495
fatal injury frequency rate, 15581559,
1558f.
as first priority of management, 317318
and geomechanics, 465, 466
and geotechnical design, 466
ground support, 624
and hoisting systems, 13061307, 1310,
1311, 1313
and human error, 15601562, 1564t.
information sharing, 1560
latent conditions, 1563
legislation, 15591560
longwall mining as safe, efficient method,
1414
lost-time injury frequency rate, 15581559,
1558f.
and management reluctance to withdraw
workers from danger, 1563
measuring, 15581559
and mine surveying, 731732
miner survey on causes of accidents and
incidents, 1561, 1561f.
miner survey on human error and accidents,
1562, 1562f.
miner survey on reasons for human error,
1562, 1563f.
mining equipment safety directive
(European Union), 607
and mining law, 335336
monitoring, communication systems in, 724

and normalizing of evidence, 1563


as part of sustainable mining practices,
1557, 1557f.
and quarrying, 1034
Reasons Swiss cheese model, 1563, 1565f.
risk management, 303304, 15571558,
1559, 1559f.
safe system of work, 15621563, 1565f.
shotcrete and safe reentry times, 583584
and shrinkage stoping, 1352
and soft-rock mining method selection, 380
and strip mine planning, 1025
TBM record, 1261
underground mine fatality rates 20042006
(U.S. & Australia), 303, 304t.
and underground ore handling, 1273, 1275,
1277, 1280, 1282, 1285, 1288, 1290
zero harm, 380, 1557
See also Cooling; Dust control; Gas control;
Health; Heat; Mine Safety and Health
Administration; Mine ventilation;
Miner tracking systems; National
Institute for Occupational Safety and
Health; Noise hazards and controls;
Occupational Safety and Health
Administration; Radiation
Safety fuse, 3
Safford mine (Arizona) permitting and approval
process, 16541658, 1658t
Sago mine (West Virginia) disaster, 717
Sahuarita IPCC (Arizona), 942
Saline drainage (SD), 1721, 1722f.
Salt, 377, 1105
geologic conditions and in-situ solution
mining of, 1106
processing and production of, 1106
Sample preparation, 187
automated systems, 189
blenders, 189
coal and coke, 191
cone crushers, 188
crushers, 188
dryers, 188
equipment, 188189
hammer mills, 188
jaw crushers, 188
plate pulverizers, 188189
procedure selection, 187188
pulp splitters, 189
pulverizers, 188189
quality control, 191
riffle splitters, 188
roll crushers, 188
rotating sectorial splitters, 188
screens, 188
splitters, 188
vibratory ring or swing mills, 189
SAMVAL code, 219220
San Cristobal mine (Bolivia), and social license
to operate, 17911792, 1792f.
San Manuel mine (Arizona). See Magma
Copper Company San Manuel mine
(Arizona)
Sandstone-hosted uranium deposits, 99
Sandvik, 1037
Saprolites, and heap leaching, 1075
Saskatchewan uranium mines, and tailings
management scheme, 660
Savage Zinc Company mine (Tennessee),
development for information, 1216
Savery, Thomas, and fire engine, 3
Saxony, 3
Schenck, Robert C., 297298

Scott, D.R., 1587


Screens and screening, 1481
aperture shapes, 1485, 1486f.
aperture size and throughfall size, 1485,
1486f.
application classes, 1481, 1482f.
banana screen, 1486,1486f.
blinding (bridging), 1485, 1485f.
capacity factor (C) as function of aperture
size, 1488, 1488f.
correction factor (K) as function of percent
half size, 1488, 1488f.
correction factor (M) as function of percent
oversize, 1488, 1488f.
deck, 1485
deck motion, 14861487, 1487f.
defined, 1481
design and operating variables, 1485, 1485t.
discrete element simulation methods, 1492,
1493f.
efficiency, 1490, 1490f.
fine screening, 14931496
fixed types, 1481
G-forces, 1486, 1486t.
grizzly screens, 1481, 1483f.
inclining deck, 14851486
instrumentation,14911492, 1491f.
moving (linear) types, 1481
moving (rotating) types, 1481
open area, 1485, 1485f.
operational types, 1481, 1482t.
orbit motion, 1487
particle motion, 1486, 1487f.
partition curves for 254-mm hydrocyclone
and Derrick Stack Sizer, 14951496,
1495f.
partition curves for Derrick Stack Sizer
with different screen apertures, 1496,
1496f.
partition factors as function of position on
deck, 1490, 1491f.
pegging (plugging), 1485
percent of rated capacity vs. Eu, 14891490,
1490f.
performance assessment, 14881491,
1489f., 1490t.
polyurethane screen media, 1493, 1494f.,
1494t.
population balance simulation methods,
1492, 1492f., 1492t.
principles of operation (vibrating screens),
14811487
process matrix (vibrating screens), 1487,
1487t.
Q factors, 1488, 1489t.
real-time condition monitoring, 1491,
1491f.
real-time deck motion modulation, 1491
recent developments, 14911493
relative mass flows and mean particle sizes
(horizontal vibrating screen), 1484,
1484f.
rubber screen media, 1493, 1494f., 1494t.
screen area, 1485
screen media, 1493, 1493f., 1494f., 1494t.
screen selection, 14871488, 1488f., 1489t.
sieve bends, 1481, 1484f.
speed ranges, 1486
Stack Sizers, 1481, 1484f., 14941495
standard screen sizing and relative pricing,
1493, 1495t.
stroke angle, 1487
strokes, 1486

Index

trommel screens, 1481, 1483f.


vibrating screens, 1481, 1483f.
wet or dry operation, 14811485
wire mesh screen media, 1493, 1493f.,
1494t.
Secondary copper deposits, 101
Secondary development, 1179
Secondary milling, 1470. See also
Comminution; Primary milling; Tertiary
milling
Secondary zinc deposits, 101102
SEDCAD software, 1710
Sediment-hosted deposits, 85t., 95100
gold, 93
iron and manganese, 97
sulfide, 95
Sedimentary exhalative Pb-Zn (Cu) in clastic
sediment deposits, 95
Sedimentary minerals, 377
Sedimentary uranium deposits, 98
Semiautogenous grinding (SAG), 1466, 1467f.
ball charges, 14661467
conditions favored for, 1477
flow sheet, 1466, 1468f.
makeup balls, 1478
See also Autogenous grinding; Autogenous
grinding/semiautogenous grinding
Separation. See Dewatering (liquidsolid
separation); Electrostatic separation;
Gravity concentration and concentrators;
Heavy medium separation; Magnetic
separation
Service facilities, developing, 12161218
Settling velocity, 707
Seven Questions to Sustainability (7QS), 1666,
16701671, 1672f.
Shaft boring machines, 421422
Shaft drilling machines, 422, 423f.
Shafts, 1180
blasthole drilling, 11841185
circular drilling patterns for different rock
types, 1184, 1184f.
collars, 1181, 1182f., 1207
defined, 1180
depression of groundwater level in sinking,
11861188
depth of, 1207
determination of stress coefficient in linings,
1181, 1182f.
drill-and-blast sinking, 11831184, 1183f.
drilling, 11891190, 1193f.
freezing method (sinking), 1189, 1190f.,
1191t.1192t.
ground support, 1207
grouting, 11881189, 1188f.
incline, 1209
insets and sumps, 1181
internal arrangement of services, 1207
jumbos, 1185
lining construction, 1186
linings, 1181, 1207
mucking, 11851186, 1185t.
parallel system (sinking), 1183
series system (sinking), 1183
shaft-sinking equipment, 1207
shape and diameter, 11801181
simultaneous system (sinking), 1183
sinking stages, 1186
sinking technology, 11811183, 1183f.
vs. slopes, 12071209, 1208f.
specialized sinking methods, 11861192,
1187t.
Shanghai Metal Exchange, 58

I-33

Shareholders, 18
Shear strength. See under Soil; Slope stability;
Rock mechanics
Shearers, in soft-rock underground mining
(longwall mining), 1159, 1161f.
Sheoreys equation, 505
Sherpa Cost Estimating Software for Surface
Mines, 289
Shock and Vibration Handbook, 1695
Shotcrete, 578579
admixtures, 580
aggregates in, 580, 580t.
basic components, 580581
basket mechanism, 585, 586f.
cement in, 580
cementitious additions, 580581
in compression after application that
terminates above tunnel floor, 584,
585f.
in compression after applicaton to tunnel
floor or all around tunnel, 584, 585f.
damage classification, 591, 591t.
design of liners, 586588
deterministic design approaches, 588, 589f.,
590f., 590t.
distributed surface loading, 585, 587f.
dry-mix, 579
dynamic testing of surface support, 584
EFNARC test, 582
empirical design approaches, 586588,
588f., 589f.
extended faceplate, 585, 586f.
failure mechanisms, 585586, 587f.
failure modes, 588, 590f.
fiber-reinforced, 581582, 581f., 582f., 582t.
in ground support, 621622
guide, 589
in hard-rock ground control, 578591
machines, 1155
mesh-reinforced, 581
numerical modeling approaches, 588
performance, 588591
pillars, 592, 592f., 623
promotion of block interlock, 584585,
586f.
quality control, 588591, 591f.
rebound factor, 583, 584t.
reinforced, 581582
reinforced arches, 592593, 592f., 592t.
roughness factor, 583, 583t., 584t.
round determinate panel (RDP) test, 582,
583f.
and safe reentry times, 583584
slab enhancement, 585, 586f.
stabilization mechanisms, 584585
steel fiber types, 581, 582f.
stress-induced loading, 585586, 587f.
structural arch, 585, 586f.
support for rock wedges, 588
surface preparation, 582
surface protection, 585
synthetic fiber types, 581, 582f.
thickness, 582583
typical mixes, 582, 582t.
water component, 580
wedge and block loading, 585, 587f.
wet-mix, 579
Shrinkage stoping, 1347, 1353
advantages and disadvantages, 1352
with chutes, 1349f.
costs, 1352
and deposit shape, dip, and size, 1347
development and preparation, 13471348

I-34

development for production, 1211, 1211f.


with drawpoint extraction, 1348f.
drilling, 13491350
Eagle River mine (Ontario) case study, 1352
efficiencies, 1352
and ground control, 1350
in hard-rock mining, 365, 367t., 368f.
host rock characteristics, 1347
inclined shrinkage, 1351
isometric view with LHD drawpoints,
1350f.
Jackpot headpieces, 13501351
long-hole, 1352, 1353f.
ore characteristics for, 1347
and ore grade, 1347
production rates, 1347
raising, 1348
rill shrinkage, 1349f., 1351
safety, 1352
and shafts, winzes, etc. 1352
stope drawdown, 1351
stoping operations, 13481351
stulling, 13501351
in sublevel open-stoping, 393394, 394f.
variations and applications, 13511352
SI. See International System of Units
Sierrita mine (Arizona), tailings management
scheme, 660
Silliman, Professor, 297
Silver
epithermal deposits, 9394
heap leaching and silver-rich gold deposits,
1075
hydrothermal deposits, 85t., 9394
lixiviants, 1088
Mount Nansen (Yukon Territory) survey of
gold-silver mineralizations, 128, 130f.
recovery systems, 10991100
Simulation methods of grade estimation, 195
Site environmental considerations, 1643, 1663
and aquatic or marine mining, 16621663
in closure, 1643
closure security, 1660
CODELCO compliance with ISO 14001
(case study), 16461648
community involvement in mine planning
and permitting (Diavik diamond mine,
Canada), 16591660
in development, 1643
environmental audit checklist, 1650,
1652t.1653t.
environmental disclosure and reporting,
16491650
environmental impact statement, 1651,
16541657
environmental planning and permitting,
16511654
environmental risk assessment worksheet
(CODELCO), 1648, 1649f.
evaluation criteria for consequences of
environmental impact occurrence
(CODELCO), 1648, 1648t.
evaluation criteria for probability of
environmental impact occurrence
(CODELCO), 1648, 1648t.
in exploration, 1643
and extraction, 1643, 16601663
Freeport-McMoRan Safford mine
permitting and approval process,
16541658, 1658t.
and Global Mining Initiative, 1644
and Global Reporting Initiative (GRI),
1650, 1795

SME Mining Engineering Handbook

government agency review of permit


applications, 1654
and historic mining practices, 16431644
infrastructure and surface facilities design
and construction, 16501651
and International Council on Mining and
Metals (ICMM), 1644
ISO 14001, environmental management
systems (EMS), 1646, 1646t.
mine development practices, 1650
and Mining, Minerals and Sustainable
Development (MMSD) project, 1644
planning of mine workings, 1660
progressive reclamation, 1660
public participation in review of permits,
16581659
in reclamation, 1643
reclamation requirements for surface coal
mining per Surface Mining Control
and Reclamation Act of 1877 (U.S.),
1654, 1655t.1656t., 1657t.
significance criteria for environmental
aspects (CODELCO), 1648, 1648t.
sound environmental practices, 16501663
and surface mining, 16601661
sustainable development research, 1660
sustainable practices, 1644
and underground mining, 16611662
values for environmental risk magnitude
(CODELCO), 1648, 1648t.
water quality management, 1660
wildlife management, 16591660
See also Environmental issues;
Sustainability
Six Sigma, 800801, 839, 845, 845f.
Skarn and carbonate replacement deposits,
85t., 92
Skillings Mining Review, 62
Skinner, B.F., 328
Slope design, 511512
back break, 514, 514f.
catch bench (berm) design, 512514, 513f.
catch bench width vs. design bench width,
512, 512f.
controlled blasting, 515516
cost of slope failure, 515
design sectors, 512
dewatering wells, 518
drain holes, 518
drainage galleries or adits, 518519
failure volume estimation, 515
geotextiles, 516517
grading, 515
interramp design, 514515
interramp slope angle, 514, 514f.
line drilling, 516
major structures, 515
mechanical stabilization, 516517
modified production blasts, 516
operational considerations, 512
overall slope, 515
pit plan with slope design sectors, 511512,
512f.
presplit blasting, 516, 516f.
protective blankets, 516
shotcrete, 517
slope support and stabilization, 515519
steel reinforcement members, 517, 518f.
steps in, 511
structural domain, 512
structural stabilization, 517
trim (cushion) blasting, 516
vegetative stabilization, 517518

wall orientation, 512


water control, 518519
wire net or mesh, 517, 517f.
Slope management, 520
borehole extensometers, 521
borehole inclinometers, 521
contingency planning, 523524
data reduction and reporting, 522
detection and monitoring of instability, 520
detection and monitoring tips, 521522
initial response to slope creation, 522523
instruments for measuring components of
rock deformation, 519, 520t.
monitoring schedule, 522
progressive condition, 523, 523f.
regressive condition, 523, 523f.
regressive/progressive condition, 523, 523f.
slide management, 523
slope-stability radar, 521, 521f.
subsurface displacement detection, 521
surface displacement detection, 519521
survey monitoring, 520521
tension crack mapping, 519
time-dependent slope movement
characteristics, 522523
wireline extensometers, 519520
Slope stability, 495
assessment techniques, 500504
and bench angles, 496, 497f.
block flow failure, 499500
cell mapping, 510
contoured pole density plots, 510, 510f.
Coulomb wedge analysis applied to
problems of, 486, 486f.
and creep, 496
criteria, 495496
data collection, 508510
defined, 495
detail line method, 509f., 510
detailed study, 496497
discontinuity survey data sheet, 509f., 510
and discontinuities, 497498, 498f., 499f.
factors contributing to changes in stress and
rock strength, 507508
field work, 496497
fracture set mapping, 510
general failure modes in rock mass,
497504
general surface failure, 499
geologic data presentation, 510
HoekBrown curvilinear failure envelope,
505, 505f., 506
hydrology data, 511
in-situ stress, 504505
instability without failure, 495
and intact rock, 497, 498f.
and interramp angle, 496, 497f.
limit equilibrium assessment technique,
500502, 501f., 503f.
and major rock structures, 497
and minor rock structures, 497
MohrCoulomb failure criteria, 506, 506f.
monitoring, 496, 872873
nonplanar failure surfaces, 499500
numerical models (continuum and
discontinuum), 503
office and laboratory work, 497
in open-pit mining, 358, 359f., 496
oriented core method, 510511
and overall slope angle, 496, 497f.
planar failure geometry, 498, 500f.
plane shear failure geometries, 498499,
500f.

and pole plots, 498


primary failure modes, 497
probabilistic assessment method, 502504,
504f., 505f.
raveling, 499, 500
reliability method, 495
rock components of slope, 497
rock fabric data mapping, 510511
and rock mass, 497, 498f.
and rock mechanics, 495
rock strength property data, 511
rockfalls, 499, 500
rotational shear, 499
safety factor, 495
shear strength of discontinuities, 505506
shear strength of rough discontinuities, 506,
507f.
shear strength of smooth discontinuities,
505f., 506, 506f.
slab failure geometry, 499
slope failure, 495496
slope geometry and terminology, 496, 497f.
step path failure geometry, 498499
step wedge failure geometry, 499
stress measurements, 511
stresses and strength, 504508
and strip mine planning, 1025
and surface mining, 406
surveys, 734736
and tension cracks, 495, 496f.
toppling, 499, 500, 501f.
two-block failure geometry, 499
wedge failure geometry, 499, 500f.
Slopes vs. shafts, 12071209, 1208f.
The SME Guide for Reporting Exploration
Results, Mineral Resources, and Mineral
Reserves (2007), 145146, 299, 464
Snells law, 123, 125f.
Social impact assessment and management,
1817, 18241825
baseline studies, 18201821
community development and social
investments, 1823
community engagement and reference
groups, 18221823, 1824
and community relations practitioners, 1817
complaint and grievance handling
mechanisms, 1823
evaluation and review, 1824, 1825
formulation of alternatives, 18191820
integration throughout operation, 1817, 1824
key lessons, 18241825
management, defined, 1817
management strategies, 18221823
monitoring, 18231825
multistakeholder working groups, 1823,
1824
networking, 1823
phases of, 1817, 18181824
predictive assessment, 18211822
reporting, 1823, 1824
and risk assessment and management,
18211822
scenario planning, 1822
scoping phase, 18191820
social impact assessment (SIA), described,
18181819, 1820t., 1824
social impacts, 18171818, 1819t.
social management plans, 1822
social profiling, 18201821
social risks, 1818
stakeholder analysis, 1821
throughout mine life cycle, 1825

Index

See also Indigenous cultural considerations


Social issues, 45, 8, 17, 19, 22
International Finance Corporation on, 1769
and mineral property valuation, 222
and mining law, 305
See also Indigenous cultural considerations;
ISO 9000
Social license to operate, 5, 304, 1666
acceptance level, 1784f., 1785
acceptance vs. approval, 1779
approval level, 1784f., 1786
building social capital, 1782f., 1783
business case for investing in, 17811784
character of, 1779
communities not qualified to issue,
17921793, 1793f.
and community, 1781
community readiness to issue, 1793, 1793f.
components of, 1781
continuous building of social capital, 1789
co-ownership level, 1784f., 1786
credibility boundary criterion, 1784f.,
17851786
and cultural and social issues, 305
defined, 1779
dependence on resources controlled by
stakeholders, 17811782, 1782f.
developing cognitive source of social
capital, 1790
developing relational source of social
capital, 17891790
developing structural source of social
capital, 1789, 1790f.
different cultures, different expectations,
1787
different starting point in every community,
1787, 1788f.
different strategies at different stages of
mine life cycle, 17821783
dynamics of stakeholder influence in
networks, 1783
dynamism in process, 17911792, 1792f.
earning higher levels of, 1783
examples, 17791780
and exploration practices, 1794
fiction of community as entity, 1792
formal and informal understandings of, 1780
and free, prior, and informed consent/
consultaton (FPIC), 1780, 1781
full-trust boundary criterion, 1784f., 1786
general guidelines for all businesses,
17941795
grantors and grantees, 1781
identifying stakeholders based on strategy,
1782f., 1783
IFC Performance Standards on Social and
Environmental Sustainability, 1780
and legal sterilization of lands, 305
legitimacy, defined, 17841785
legitimacy boundary criterion, 17841785,
1784f.
linking social capital, 1794
low-profile fallacy, 17871788
maintaining, 17891792
mine life cycle and first impressions, 1786,
1787f.
and mine operation through postclosure,
1794
and mineral property valuation, 222
origin of term, 1779
and other forms of consultation and consent,
17801781
phases of earning, 17841786, 1784f.

I-35

and poverty reduction, 17931794


probabilities of success, 1782f., 1783,
1784f.
and reciprocity, 17891790
relational source with cognitive, 1791
relationship building, 17921794
resource access restriction at corporate
level, 17831784
resource dependence, 1782, 1782f.
and shared identity, 1790
social capital, defined, 1789
social capital sources, 1789
and stakeholders, 1781
strategy, 17821783, 1782f.
structural source with cognitive, 1790
structural source with relational, 1790
and sustainability, 3233, 1794
to operate, defined, 1780
tools and guidelines, 17941795
and trust, 1790
ways to approach identified problems, 1793,
1793f.
withholding/withdrawal level, 1784, 1784f.
See also Indigenous cultural considerations
Societe Grenobloise dEtudes et dApplication
Hydrauliques (France), 1375
Society for Mining, Metallurgy, and
Exploration (SME), 145146
Working Party No. 79, Ore Reserve
Definition, 298
Society of Automotive Engineers, (SAE), 922
Soda ash, 1109
geologic conditions, 1109
in-situ solution mining of, 11091110
processing of, 1110
Sodium sulfate, 1111
geologic deposits and in-situ solution
mining of, 1111
principal minerals, 1111t.
processing of, 1111
Soft rock, 595
classifications and ores, 377
index properties, 472
longwall mining, 597599, 599f., 600f.
mines, 595596
rocksoil transitional materials, 471
room-and-pillar mining, 599600, 601f.
Soft-rock equipment selection (underground
mining), 1157
actual advance rate (AAR; R&P mining),
1170
actual productivity, 1165
AFC power demand calculations (longwall
mining), 1166
ancillary equipment, 11711174
ancillary equipment (R&P mining), 1169
armored face conveyors (AFCs),
11591160, 1161f., 1162f.
beam stage loader, crusher, and boot end
(longwall mining), 11601161
bobcats, 1173
cable electric shuttle cars (R&P mining),
1167, 1168f.
coal clearance equipment, 11701171
coal haulage (R&P mining), 11671168,
1168f.
commercial prequalification, 1163
continuous miners, 1158f.
continuous miners (R&P mining), 1166
development process options flow chart
(R&P mining), 1166, 1167f.
development system arrangement (R&P
mining), 1169, 1170t.

I-36

dewatering pump stations, 1178


electrical equipment and distribution,
11741178, 1176t.
electrical equipment for development
panels, 11771178, 1178t.
electrical equipment for longwall panels,
1178
electrical load flow study (longwall mining),
1166
electrical power (R&P mining), 11681169
electrical systems (longwall mining), 1161
equipment sizing (R&P mining),
11691170, 1171f., 1172t.1173t.,
1174t.
expression of interest, 1163
and face length (longwall mining), 1162
face ventilation (R&P mining), 1169
feeder breakers (R&P mining), 1168
hydraulic flow simulations (longwall
mining), 1166
load-haul-dump vehicles (LHDs), 1173,
1176f.
longwall automation, 1162, 1163f.
longwall equipment sizing, 11651166
longwall equipment specifications, 1163,
1164t.
longwall equipment variations, 11611162
and longwall mining, 1157, 1158, 1158f.,
1160f.
longwall mining equipment, 11581166
longwall ploughs, 1162, 1163f.
longwall top coal caving (LTCC), 1166
material transporters and utility vehicles,
1173
mobile bolters (R&P mining), 1168
mobile equipment, 1173
mobile roof supports (R&P mining), 1169
monorails (longwall mining), 1161
multipurpose vehicles, 1173
nameplate advance rate (NAR; R&P
mining), 1169
nameplate capacity (NPC; longwall
mining), 11621163, 1165
nameplate capacity (NPC; R&P mining),
1169
operational availability, 1165
operational availability (R&P mining), 1170
panel dewatering (R&P mining), 1169
personnel carriers, 1173
place-change (cut-and-flit) continuous
miners (R&P mining), 1166, 1167f.
process advance rate (PAR; R&P mining),
1170
process cycle capacity (PCC), 1165, 1166
process reduction factor (PRF; R&P
mining), 1170
productivity reduction factor (PRF), 1165
pump stations (longwall mining), 1161
ram cars (R&P mining), 1167, 1168, 1168f.
roadheaders (R&P mining), 11661167
roof supports (longwall mining),
11581159, 1160f.
and room-and-pillar mining, 11571158,
1158f.
room-and-pillar mining equipment,
11661170
sequential cut-and-bolt continuous miners
(R&P mining), 1166
shearers (longwall mining), 1159, 1161f.
short listing, 1163
simultaneous cut-and-bolt continuous
miners (R&P mining), 1166, 1167f.

SME Mining Engineering Handbook

special-purpose vehicles, 11731174,


1176f., 1176t.
specification (coal clearance), 1171, 1175t.
specification aspects and longwall
equipment selection, 11621163
specifications (R&P mining), 1169, 1170t.
standard longwall equipment, 11581161
standard room-and-pillar mining equipment,
11661169
and support density (longwall mining), 1163
technical prequalification, 1163
and top coal caving, 11611162, 1162f.,
1163f.
underground conveyors, 1178
underground lighting, 1178
underground reticulation systems,
11761177, 1177t.
and web depth (longwall mining), 1162
and Wongawilli extraction, 1158, 1159f.
Soft-rock ground control, 595
arch joints, 603, 604f.
British colliery arch, 602603
cambered-top steel arches, 620, 603f.
concrete or cast steel segments, 601
design methodologies, 607610
experience, 608
face support, 604607
four-leg chock shields, 605, 605f.
H-section steel arches, 602, 603f.
inclined-leg shields, 605
injection of resins and grouts into fracture
planes, 600
interaction, 596597
lemniscate linkage, 605
and mean load density (MLD), 606
measurement, 608609
numerical modeling, 609610, 609f.
packs, 601
physical modeling, 609
published work on, 597
roadway support system strength, 604
rock bolts, 600, 601602
roof support, 605, 605f.
setting load, 606
shotcrete, 601
standardization, 607
steel standing supports, 600601, 602604
stilts for arch legs, 603604
stress and displacement around an
excavation, 596, 596f.
stress contours below remnant pillar, 597,
598f.
struts for arch supports, 603
support requirements, 606607
support selection, 600601, 608
T-H yielding arches, 602, 603f., 604
theoretical background, 596597
two-leg shields, 605606, 606f.
yield load, 606
See also Ground control; Ground control
(cable and rock bolting); Ground
support; Hard-rock ground control
Soft-rock mining method selection, 377, 384
and capital cost, 380
definition stage, 381
and deposit depth, 379
and deposit dip, 378, 378t.
and deposit grade, 379, 379t.
and deposit shape, 378, 378t.
and deposit size, 379
and deposit thickness, 379, 379t.
and development timing, 380
and environmental effects, 380

and flexibility, 380


and health and safety, 380
and host rock strength, 378
identification stage, 381
longwall mining, 377, 383384, 383f., 384t.
and mechanization, 377, 380
mine planning, 381
and operating cost, 379380
and ore deposit characteristics, 377379
and ore strength, 378, 378t.
and ore uniformity, 379
and production rate, 380
room-and-pillar mining, 377, 381383,
381f., 382t.
selection, 381
and selectivity, 380
small-scale methods, 384
stope-and-pillar mining, 377
See also Hard-rock mining method selection
SoftRock Solutions, 736
Soil
Atterberg limits, 472
characteristics, 471472
coarse grained, 472
coefficient of permeability, 475476, 475t.
compressibility, 471, 476477
cone penetration test (CPT), 474475
consolidation, 472
creep, 481482, 496
defined, 471
deterioration, 482483
dilatometer test, 475
drainage conditions and shear strength
parameters in the field, 481
effective stress, 471472
equilibrium relative humidity (ERH), 483
expansibility, 476477
field exploration, 472475
field vane test, 475
fine grained, 472
fully softened shear strength, 479, 479f.,
480f.
grain size, 472
index properties, 472
initial deformation, 477
liners, 667
modulus of deformation, 477
peak shear strength, 479
permeability, 475476, 475t., 476f.
pore water pressure, 471, 472
pressuremeter test (PMT), 475
primary consolidation or swelling, 477478,
477f.
properties, 471481
residual shear strength, 479f., 479480, 480f.
rocksoil transitional materials, 471
secondary consolidation or swelling, 478,
478t.
shale slake durability, 482, 483t.
shear strength, 471, 478481
shear strength of fine-grained soils, 478
shear strength of sand, 478
shrinkage limit, 472
soil plasticity, 472
squeezing ground, 481, 490491
standard penetration test (SPT), 472474,
474t.
strength, 471
swelling, 472
unconfined compressive strength, 480
undrained condition, 477
undrained shear strength, 480481, 481f.
Unified Soil Classification System, 472, 473t.

Soil mechanics, 471


active and passive earth pressures, 484486,
484f.
bearing capacity of mine pillars on
underclays, 488, 488f.
circular failure surface for stability of
cohesive material, 486487, 486f.
controlling ground movements in tunneling,
491492
Coulomb wedge analysis applied to slopestability problems, 486, 486f.
Coulomb wedge analysis of limiting
conditions, 485486, 485f.
curved failure surfaces for passive earth
pressure, 487, 487f.
defined, 471
estimating ground movements around
shallow tunnels, 491, 491f.
general bearing-capacity relationship,
487488, 487f.
limit equilibrium, 484488
limiting stress conditions, 483
Rankine analysis of active and passive earth
pressures, 484485, 484f., 485f.
settlement of foundations in sands, 488, 489
settlement of foundations in soft clay,
488489
settlement of foundations in weak rock and
stiff soils, 488, 489
stress-deformation conditions, 483484
and tunneling, 489492
tunneling and squeezing ground, 490491,
491t.
and tunneling conditions, 489490
Tunnelmans Ground Classification System,
490, 490t.
See also Geomechanics
Solution mining (in-situ techniques), 1103
in abandoned or flooded conventional
mines, 1105
and alkali evaporite deposits, 1103
of borates, 11101111, 1110t.
deposit characteristics, 11031104
drilling for, 440
Frasch sulfur mining, 11151118, 1117f.,
1118f.
in hydraulic fracturing, 1105
in impermeable salt deposits, 11041105,
1104f.
of lithium, 11111112, 1112t.
of magnesium, 11081109, 1109t.
and marine evaporite deposits, 1103
and metal deposits, 1104
metals exploited, 11121115
methods, 11041105
and natural brine deposits, 1103
in permeable metal deposits, 1105
in permeable salt deposits, 1105
of potash, 11061108
of salt, 11051106
salts exploited, 11051112
of soda ash, 11091110, 1109t.
of sodium sulfate, 1111, 1111t.
of uranium, 11121115, 1113t., 1114f.,
1115f., 1116f., 1116t.
See also Heap leaching; Solution mining
(surface techniques)
Solution mining (surface techniques), 1087
acid sulfate, 1088
acidic chloride, 1088
agglomeration, 10931094
alkaline ammonia-based lixiviant, 1088

Index

alternate and variant leach systems, 1093


ancillary and infrastructure requirements,
1100
application rate, 10951096, 1096t., 1097
bioleaching, 1090
and blockage, 1098
commodity recovery systems, 10991100
conveyor systems in ore emplacement, 1095
copper cutoff grade, 1092
copper lixiviants, 10881089
copper recovery, 1099
and coverage, 1098
cyanide leaching, 1088
and drilling and blasting, 1092
and droplet impact, 1098
environmental aspects, 10981099
and evaporation rate, 1098
expanding pads, 1099
fluid flow phenomena, 10951097
geotechnical design, 10981099
gold lixiviants, 1088
gold recovery systems, 10991100
irrigation rate, 10971098
labor requirements, 1100
leach systems, 10921093
leach/rest cycles, 10961097
manganese lixiviants, 1090
materials handling, 10921095
metallurgical testing, 10901092, 1092f.
nickel lixiviants, 10891090
nickel recovery systems, 1100
on/off single-lift leach systems, 1093
and open-pit mining, 1092
optimum application rate, 1096
ore emplacement, 10941095
ore preparation, 10931095
ore-lixiviant systems, 10871090
permanent multilift leach systems,
10921093
pipeline requirements, 1097
plug dumping in ore emplacement, 1095
polymetallic system leaching, 1090
power requirements, 1100
pressure emitters, 1098
production aspects, 10971098
pulsed leaching, 1097
pumping systems, 1097
reusable pads, 1099
sand-slime separation, 1093, 1094
silver lixiviants, 1088
silver recovery systems, 10991100
site requirements, 1100
solution application systems, 10971098
solution conditioning, 1100
solution containment, 1099
solution management, 10951099
solution retention and capillary rise, 1095,
1096f.
sphalerite lixiviant, 1090
sprinklers, 1098
stability, 1099
sulfuric acid, 1088
surface acceptance rate, 1097
truck dumping and dozing in ore
emplacement, 10941095
typical leach curve for a heap leach, 1092f.
uranium lixiviants, 1089
uranium recovery systems, 1100
valley dumping, 1099
water requirements, 1100
and wind, 1098
and winter weather, 1098

I-37

zinc heap leaching, 1090


See also Heap leaching; Solution mining
(in-situ techniques)
South Africa
and black economic empowerment, 1770
Bureau of Standards on hoist ropes, 1311
flask train-loading system, 979
in-pit crushing and conveying (IPCC), 941
mining history, 4
R&P use in coal mining, 1339
SAMREC Code, 203
SAMVAL code, 219220
Soviet Union, and development of exploration
geochemistry, 127
Special-purpose vehicles, 11731174, 1176f.,
1176t.
Specific energy (SE), 419
Specific penetration (SP), 419
Sphalerite lixiviant, 1090
Split-and-fender method (coal), 389, 389f., 390,
390f.
Square-set stoping, 367t.
Stakeholders
analysis of, in open-pit planning and design,
877
defined, 17681769
involvement in closure planning,
17531754
Strategic Management: A Stakeholder
Approach, 1768
See also Community issues; ISO 9000;
Social impact assessment and
management; Social license to operate
Standards of Disclosure for Mineral Projects,
146
State-owned enterprises (SOEs), 14
Statistical process control (SPC), 841, 841f.
Stava dam (Italy), tailings dam failure, 661662
Steady-flow energy equation, 1578
Steel, intensity per capita, 11, 12f.
Stewardship. See Commodity stewardship;
Product stewardship
Stewart, William Morris, 297
Stillwater Mining Company
and long-hole shrinkage, 1352
TBM use at Montana platinum mine, 1267
TBMs in driving of long lateral drifts, 1219
3200 Haulage System Trade-Off Study,
12181219
Stirred mills, 1472
Stokes law, 1378, 1498, 1548
Stoper drills, 436
Stopes and stoping, 365, 367t.
blasthole stoping (end slicing), 391, 391f.
block caving (panel caving), 1213
boring machines, 424
cut-and-fill stoping in flat, thick, wide ore
bodies, 1212
cut-and-fill stoping in steeply dipping,
narrow ore bodies, 1212, 1212f.
in hard-rock mining, 365, 367t., 386387
hard-rock room-and-pillar development,
12101211
in hard rock room-and-pillar mining,
386387
long-hole stope blasts, 452453
overhand cut-and-fill stoping, 365, 367t.,
368f.
sizing equipment to match stope
development, 1143
square-set stoping, 367t.
stope design parameters, 264265

I-38

SME Mining Engineering Handbook

stope development for gravity block caving


systems, 1213, 1214f.
stope development for LHD block caving
systems, 1213, 1213f.
stope development for slusher block caving,
1213, 1214f.
stope-and-pillar mining in soft rock, 377
stoper drills, 436
sublevel caving, 12121213
sublevel open stopes, 367t.
sublevel open-stope development,
12111212
sublevel open-stoping method, 391394,
391f., 392f., 393f., 394f.
sublevel retreat open stopes, 367t.
in subsurface mine development,
12101213
vertical crater retreat stoping, 392393,
393f.
See also Shrinkage stoping; Sublevel
stoping; Sublevel open stoping method
Strata control, defined, 611
Strategic Management: A Stakeholder
Approach, 1768
Strawberry cutters, 419, 420f.
Strike price, 58
Striking a Better Balance, 1666
Strip mine planning and design, 1013
ancillary resources (oil, gas, etc.), 1017
area mining, 1019
base-case plan, 1014
blasting with parallel tie-up, 1023, 1023f.
box cut, 1021, 1021f.
brownfield expansion, 1013
contour mining, 1019
conventional blasting profile, 1023, 1023f.
depth-width ratio, 1023
dragline sequence, 10211022, 1021f.
drill-hole coverage, 10151016
environmental baseline, 1017
equipment selection, 1025
existing infrastructure, 1019
feasibility studies, 1013, 1014t.
geological model, 1016
greenfield development, 1013
ground control, 1025
haul access, 1020
highwall ramps, 1020
impact analysis and monitoring, 10171018
infrastructure mapping, 1019
land and mineral ownership, 1017
land rehabilitation, 10251026
long-term (life-of-mine) planning,
10131014
mine infrastructure, 1019
mining methods, 10191020
mining sequence, 10201022
mitigation plans, 1017
orientation of pit to strike and dip of seam,
1020
outlining reserves, 10141017
permit preparation time span, 10181019
permitting, 10171019, 1018t.
pit design, 10191025
pit geometry, 1020
pit slope stability, 1025
pit-end ramps, 1020
planning process, 1013, 1015t.
presplit blasting profile, 1023, 1023f.
project mapping, 10141015
rehandle, 1020
reserve evaluation, 1016

resource control, 1017


risk and reward, 1014
safety, 1025
short-term planning, 1013
single-seam, cross-pit, chop-down
operation, 1024, 1024f.
specialized blasting techniques, 10221024,
1023f.
strip ratio, 10161017, 1027
stripping previously worked deposits, 1025
topographical map, 1016
two-seam method, 1024
Strip mining, 363364, 363f., 405, 405t.,
407408, 989
advantages and disadvantages, 413t.
box cut, 1021, 1021f.
bucket-wheel excavators, 1019
and cable shovels, 408, 409
cast blasting, 1019, 10221024, 1022f.,
1023f.
cast, doze, excavate operation, 1000,
1008t.1010t.
castdoze excavating, 991
chop cut with in-pit bench method,
10011002, 1002f.
clearing and topsoil removal, 990, 990f.
coal mining, 996
continuous system stripping, 994
contract stripping, 409
deposit conditions favorable to, 413t.
dilution, 996
double in-pit bench method, 1002, 1002f.
dozer ripping, 990
dozer-assisted dragline stripping, 992
dragline sequence, 10211022, 1021f.
dragline stripping, 990f., 991992, 991f.,
992f., 1008t.1010t.
draglines, 1019
drilling and blasting, 990991
electric shovels, 1019
equipment choice and capital-vs.-operatingcost analysis, 408409
equipment, 408
extended key with in-pit bench method,
1001, 1002f., 1003
fragmentation, 990991, 990f.
future trends, 1011t., 1012
and highwall mining, 1020
and hydraulic shovels, 408, 409
interburden operation, 993
key bridge method, 1001, 1002f., 1103
landform strategy, 996
loading and hauling needs, 410411, 410t.
loading equipment, 408
loss, 996
mine closure, 997998
multiple-seam dragline operation with
prestrip, 10041006, 1006f.
offset configuration, 10041005
operating shifts, 411412, 411t., 412t.
parting operation, 993
phases, 409
prestrip operation, 993
processes, 989999, 990f.
pullback technique, 1002, 1002f.
rejects and tailings storage or disposal, 999
relative economics by process and depth
changes, 998, 998f.
river and creek diversions, 999
and rubber-tired loaders, 408
side cast method, 1001, 1002f.

single-seam, cross-pit, chop-down


operation, 1024, 1024f.
single-seam dragline operation with
prestrip, 10001004, 1001f., 1002f.,
1004f.
spreader dumps, 996, 996f.
stacked configuration, 1004
strategies, 9991000
strategies compared by selection driver,
1008t.1010t., 1012
truck and shovel operation, 990f., 993,
993f., 1003, 10061007, 1007f.,
1008t.1010t.
two-seam method, 1024
used vs. new equipment, 409
waste management, 999
waste placement, 994996, 995f., 996f.
waste removal, 991994
See also Highwall mining
Structural engineers, and dewatering, 744
Sublevel caving, 365, 366f., 396397,
14171418
and abutment stresses, 14301431, 1432f.
air gap, 1433
and aquifers, streams, and dams, 1431
back break, 14221423, 1424f., 1425f.
cavability, 1433
cave monitoring, 1433
cave-front layouts, 1431, 1433f.
chaotic and variable flow, 14231425,
1425f., 1426f., 1427f.
communications systems, 1430
and compressed air, 1430
dead zones, 1429
depth of draw, 1422, 1423f.
draw strategy, 14311432
extraction, 1432
as factory method, 1417
and fines migration, 1432
geomechanical factors, 14301431
geometry at Kiruna mine, 1419, 1420f.
Grngesberg marker trials, 1419, 1420f.
and gravity flow, 14181425, 1419f.
hang-ups, 1429
independent draw, 1431
interactive draw, 1431
Kiruna marker trials, 14191420, 1420f.
layout, 397399, 398f.
layout dimensions, 14261428
layout orientation, 14251426, 1427f.
leadlag rules, 14311432
and LHDs, 14271428, 1428f.
method, 14171418
mine design, 14251431
mine development, 12121213
and minor structures, 1431
and natural caving, 1430
ore recovery over multiple levels, 1422,
1424f.
ore-body characteristics, 1418
overdraw, 1432
Perseverance mine marker trials, 1421,
1422f.
precharging, 1429
preloading, 1429
primary recovery, 1421
production draw control, 14311432
production drift shape, 14271428, 1428f.
production drift spacing, 1427, 1428f.
production drill-and-blast, 14281429,
1428f.
production management, 1432
recovery, 1432

recovery and dilution, 399


Ridgeway marker trials, 14201421, 1421f.
rings, 14171418, 1418f.
schematic, 1417f.
secondary recovery, 1421
services, 1430
smart markers, 1421
stages of cave propagation, 1433, 1434f.
stoping, 12121213
and stress field orientation, 1430
sublevel height, 1426
subsidence, 14331435, 1435f.
tertiary recovery, 1421
void monitoring, 1433
and water, 1430
width of draw, 14211422, 1421f.
See also Cave mining
Sublevel open stopes, 367t.
Sublevel open-stoping method, 391
blasthole stoping (end slicing), 391, 391f.
extraction principles, 391
shrinkage stoping, 393394, 394f.
sublevel stoping, 391392, 392f.
vein mining, 393, 393f.
vertical crater retreat stoping, 392393,
393f.
Sublevel retreat open stopes, 367t.
Sublevel stoping, 391392, 392f., 1355, 1356f.,
1363
Alimak raise mining, 1362, 1362f.
composite plan section for design blast
layout, 1358, 1358f.
definitions, 1355, 1355f.
design considerations, 13581362, 1357f.
development considerations, 1359
dilution, 1355, 1356f.
dip, 1356
drilling, 1355
external (unplanned) dilution, defined, 1355
geometric constraints, 1357f., 1358
geotechnical variables, 1356
height, defined, 1355, 1355f.
intermediate levels, 13551356, 1356f.
internal dilution, defined, 1355
layout, 1356, 1357f.
long-hole stoping, 13601361, 1360f.,
1361f.
longitudinal mining, 1363, 1363f.
longitudinal pillar, defined, 1355, 1355f.
longitudinal section of blasthole layout,
1358, 1358f.
ore handling considerations, 1359
piggyback stope, 1361, 1361f.
pillar size, 1358
rib pillar, defined, 1355, 1355f.
ring section, 1358f., 1359
selectivity, 1358
shape, 1356
sill pillar, defined, 1355
size, 1356, 1357f.
slot raise, 1358f., 1359
span, defined, 1355, 1355f.
stope spans, 13561358
sublevel stoping, 13591360, 1359f.
transverse open stoping, 1357f., 13621363
variables, 13561358
variations, 1356, 13621363
vein mining, 1362, 1362f.
vertical crater retreat, 1356, 1357f.,
13611362, 1361f.
width, defined, 1355, 1355f.
Subsidence. See Mine subsidence
Subsidence Engineers Handbook, 635

Index

Subsurface mine development, 1203


blind-hole raise drilling with box hole
drill, 1209, 1209f.
for block caving (panel caving), 1213
Boliden raise cage, 1209
bottom-up drill-and-blast drop raise, 1209
conventional raise drilling and blasting,
1209
crosscuts, 12091210
cut-and-fill stoping in flat, thick, wide ore
bodies, 1212
cut-and-fill stoping in steeply dipping,
narrow ore bodies, 1212, 1212f.
decision making, 12181219
decline (slope) entry, 1205
depth of shafts, 1207
developing service facilities, 12161218
developments driven for obtaining
information, 12151216
drift entry (adit), 12041205
drifts, 12091210
drill-and-blast cost estimates, 1220, 1220t.
entries, 12041209, 1205f.
excavation planning, 12131218
exploration developments, 1215
explosive storage area, 1218
flat and vertical development spacing,
12031204
fuel storage area, 1218
ground support (shafts), 1207
hard-rock room-and-pillar development,
12101211
incline shafts, 1209
influence of geology, 1204
influence of stress condition, 1204
internal arrangement of services (shafts),
1207
lunch area, 1218
mechanical excavation methods, 12191220
multiple-stage hoisting, 1209
office space, 1218
orientation of adjacent excavation
developments, 1204
production accessways, 12041213
pump station, 1217
raise boring by upreaming, 1209, 1209f.
raise climber, 1209, 1209f.
raise developments, 1209, 1209f., 1210f.
raises, defined, 1210
ramps, 1210
rapid-development incentives, 12131215
rapid-development necessities, 12141215
rapid-excavation payoff, 1215
shaft collars, 1207
shaft linings, 1207
shaft-sinking equipment, 1207
shop and storehouse developments,
12161217
shrinkage stoping development for
production, 1211, 1211f.
size and configuration of shafts, 1207
slopes vs. shafts, 12071209, 1208f.
spacing and alignment of excavations,
12031204
stope development, 12101213
stope development for gravity block caving
systems, 1213, 1214f.
stope development for LHD block caving
systems, 1213, 1213f.
stope development for slusher block caving,
1213, 1214f.
storage pocket (skip pocket) size,
12171218

I-39

sublevel caving, 12121213


sublevel open-stope development,
12111212
successive turnouts (breakaways), 1204
sump area, 1217
TBM design recommendations for, 1219
TBMs in hard-rock applications, 1219
vertical shaft entry, 12051207, 1206f.
winzes, 1210
Sudbury deposits, 88
Sulfur. See Frasch sulfur mining
Sulfuric acid, 1088
Sullivan mine (British Columbia), and
pneumatic stowing, 1376
Sunshine mine (Idaho), and air conditioning,
1611
Superconductive quantum interference device
(SQUID) sensors, 109t., 110, 117
Supercycles, 1113, 19, 65
Supergene (secondary) processes, 84
Supergene weathering deposits, 101
Superior BIF deposits, 9798
Supply, 41
and barriers to entry, 44
and capital expenditure requirements, 43
and closures and cutbacks, 44
current trends, 1113, 12f.
and depletion, 41, 42
and economies of scale, 43
effect of ore depletion and technological
change, 4243
effect on prices, 40
and exploration, 42
future trends, 2123
and geographical location, 41
and influences on costs, 42
and ore grade, 42
and pricing, 44
ratio of ore to waste, 41
and transport, 4142
Surface mining, 405, 412413
advantages and disadvantages of methods,
413t.
aqueous, 405t., 407
auger mining, 405t., 407
and benches, 407
and blasting restrictions, 406
deposit conditions favorable to, 413t.
depth related to inclination, 351
dredging, 405t., 407
environmental and social considerations,
406
and equipment selection, 407
evaporite processing, 405t.
future trends, 2426
and groundwater conditions, 406
in hard-rock mining, 362364
hydraulic mining, 405t., 407
in-situ leaching, 405t., 407
and labor costs, 406
mechanical, 405t.
method selection, 341, 351352, 351t.
methods, 405t.
open-pit mining, 405, 405t., 407408
pit limits, 405406
placer mining, 405t.
quarrying, 405, 405t., 407408
and remote operations, 406
and risk of investment, 406
seam deposit mining, 405
and seasonality, 406
and size of operation, 407
and slope stability, 406

I-40

solution mining, 405t., 407


strip mining, 405, 405t., 407408
subdivisions, 407
surface to underground transition, 366367,
862863
and topography, 406
and waste disposal, 406407
See also Cost estimating (surface mines);
Hard-rock mining method selection;
Mining method classification system;
Mining method selection
Surface Mining, 1013
Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of
1877 (U.S.), 1654, 1655t.1656t.
Surface or seafloor hydrothermal formation
processes, 83, 86
Surficial formation processes, 83
Surveying. See Mine surveying
Sustainability Reporting Guidelines and Mining
and Metals Sector Supplement, 1772
Sustainability, 32, 1644, 16651666
and acid rock drainage, 33
and artisanal and small-scale mining, 1685
assessing effectiveness of institutional
arrangements and governance, 1681,
1682f., 1682t.
and attribution problem, 1685
boundary conditions for application to
mining, 16691670
and capacity building, 1685
and change management, 1686
and climate change, 1685
and closure, 16831684
and communities of interest, 1669, 1670
and community issues, 17691770
and contributing to ecosystem well-being,
16741676, 1676f., 1677f.,
1677t.1678t.
and contributing to human well-being,
16731674, 1674f., 1675t.
and corporate social responsibility,
16841685, 1684f.
and decision making and trade-offs, 1685
and depletion, 47
and design and construction, 16811682
design-for-postclosure, 16831684
and economic viability of project,
community, and nation, 16761678,
1679f., 1679t.
and effective engagement, 16711673,
1672f., 1673t.
and effective human resource management,
1685
and energy, 3335
Equator Principles, 1668, 1770
ethical lens for mining, 1685, 1685f.
and ethics, 1684
e3 Plus Framework for Responsible
Exploration, 1681, 1799
and exploration phase, 1681
Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative
(EITI), 1684, 1770, 1824
and fair distribution, 1685
Faro mine project analysis of closure
options, 1668
Fireys groupings of knowledge in natural
resource use, 16671668
future, 16851686
Global Compact, 1668
and GRI MMSS, 1680
and human rights, 16841685
ICMM principles, 1644, 1645t.

SME Mining Engineering Handbook

and ICMM reporting and assurance system,


1667f., 1680
ICMM 7 position statements, 1667, 1667t.
ICMM 10 principles, 1667, 1667t.
important international agreements, 1680
and institutional arrangements and
governance, 16781681
and internal management systems, 1679
International Finance Corporation
framework, 1668
MAC TSM initiative, 1680
Millennium Development Goals,
16681669
and mine project life cycle, 1669, 1670,
1669f.
and mineral life cycle, 1669, 1670, 1670f.,
1671f.
mining industry contribution to sustainable
development, 16661667
mining industry response to sustainable
development, 1666
and nation-based mining law, 1680
and need and alternatives, 1685
new perspectives, 16851686
and nonrenewable nature of mining,
minerals, and metals, 1669
and operations, 1682
and Our Common Future, 1665
and performance standards, 1685
perspectives by project life-cycle phases,
16811684
and product stewardship, 33
and reporting and assurance, 16791680
and resource curse, 16731674
revenue transparency, 1684
and safety, 1557, 1557f.
Seven Questions to Sustainability (7QS),
1666, 16701671, 1672f.
and social license to operate, 3233
Sustainability Reporting Guidelines (Global
Reporting Initiative), 1650, 1795
and sustainable development, 1665
synthesis and continuous learning, 1681,
1683f., 1683t.
and time horizon, 1669, 1670, 1670t.
and traditional and nonmarket activities,
1678, 1680f., 1680t., 1681t.
and uncertainty, precaution, and adaptive
management, 1685
and values, 1684
and voluntary codes of conduct, 1685
and waste disposal, 33
and whole system perspective, 1685
World Bank Group capitals model, 1668,
1668f.
See also Community issues; Environmental
issues; Indigenous cultural
considerations; Site environmental
considerations; Social impact
assessment and management; Social
license to operate
SveBeFo (Sweden), 433
Swedish method, 706
SX-EW (solvent extraction electrowinning), 16
Syngenetic mineral deposits, 83
Systems engineering, 839
algorithm for determining optimum cutoff
grades for single constraint problem,
850
analysis techniques, 843845
analyzing non-normal data, 843844, 844t.
artificial intelligence, 842

BoxCox transformation, 843844, 844t.


cutoff grade and scheduling optimizaton,
846852
cutoff grade optimization by Lanes
approach, 849850, 849t.
data collection, 839841
determining sample size, 839
discrete event simulation (DES), 841842
heuristic cutoff grade optimization
algorithms, 846
heuristic cutoff grade optimization
techniques, 847849, 847t., 848f.,
848t., 849t.
minimum number of samples to estimate
within certain error range, 839
modeling techniques, 841843
neural networks, 842843
optimization, 845852
Poisson distribution, 840
sampling proportions, 840
scheduling and cutoff grade optimization
using mixed-integer linear
programming (MILP), 850852, 851f.
Six Sigma, 839, 845, 845f.
smaller samples, 840
standard deviation, 839
standard optimization techniques, 845846
statistical process control (SPC), 841, 841f.
suggested data descriptors for common
distributions, 843, 843t.
time studies, 840841
traditional cutoff grades in open-pit mining,
846847, 846t.
Tailings
acidbase accounting (ABA), 655656
and acid-generating potential, 655
Atterberg limits, 654
bulk and dry density relationship (formula),
654
bulk density (formula), 653
characteristics, 653656
and contaminant/metal release, 655
continuum, 650651
degree of saturation (formula), 654
delivery and deposition, 658
dry density (formula), 653
earthquakes and liquefaction, 655
effective stress, 655
and effluent guidelines, 656
geochemistry, 655656
hydraulic gradient, 654
kinetic testing, 656
liquefaction, 655
liquid limit (LL), 654
loading cases, 654655
management principles, 646
and metal-leaching characteristics, 655
moisture content (formula), 653
nonplastic, 654
paste consistency (nonsegregating), 650
permeability coefficient, 654
phases, 653
plastic, 654
plastic limit (PL), 654
plasticity index (PI), 654
quasi-static pore pressure (aka dynamic
pore pressure), 655
saturated, 653
semisolid, 654
shear strength, 654655
slurry density, 650

solid, 654
specific gravity (formula), 654
static loading and liquefaction, 655
static testing, 656
terminology, 653, 653t.
thickening, 650651
total stress, 655
total volume, 653
total weight or mass, 653
viscous fluid, 654
void ratio (formula), 654
yield stress, 650
See also Uranium tailings; Waste disposal
and contamination management
Tailings impoundments and dams, 645646
algae introduction into tailings stream, 660
alternatives analysis and selection, 653
basin liner systems, 648649
borehole inclinometers in monitoring, 660
centerline embankment, 649
and climate, 651
composite liners, 649
construction considerations, 658659
construction materials, 647648
current and future trends, 662664
decant barges, 658
decant tower systems, 657658
design components, 645646
design objective confirmation, 659
disposal of tailings within other mining
facilities, 660
downstream embankment, 649
drains (subaerial deposition), 657
and dust control, 663664
embankment types, 649650
and geology, 651
geomembrane liners, 649
geotechnical site investigation, 652
and groundwater, 648
guidance documents, 662
historical sketch of, 660661
and hydrology, 651
improved consistency of management
practices in industry, 663
incidents and lessons, 660662
increased application of dewatered tailings,
663
integrating facilities with other mining and
mine waste facilities, 664
international standards and guidelines,
662663
leakage collection and recovery systems, 649
liquidsolid separation, 650
low-permeability soil liners, 649
management technologies, 662
Merriespruit tailings failure, 662
metallurgical improvements, 662
modified centerline embankment, 650
monitoring, 659660
mud farming, 660
natural materials in construction of, 648
operation, maintenance, and surveillance
(OMS), 659
and piezometers, 659
pit disposal, 660
recognition of facilities as permanent
features, 663
recognition of uniqueness of each facility,
663
role of design engineer, 658659
safety audits, 660
site characterization, 651653
site seismicity, 652653

Index

slope movement measurement, 659660


staged development, 648
Stava dam incident, 661662
survey methods in monitoring, 659660
tailings delivery and deposition, 658
terrain analysis, 651652
types and selection of facilities, 646651,
647f.
unique management schemes, 660
upstream embankment, 649
waste materials in construction of, 647648
water balance (incl. equation), 656657
water management, 656658
water removal systems, 657658
water storage, 657
Tar sands, 6
Tarong coal mine (Australia), automated
dragline demonstration, 816
Taylors rule, 265, 282283
Tayoltita mine (Mexico), and shrinkage stoping,
1351
TC/RCs (treatment and refining charges), 61
Teck Cominco recycling plant (British
Columbia), and community acceptance,
17791780
Terex, 920
Tertiary milling, 14711473
defined, 1471
and particle size analysis, 14721473
See also Comminution; Primary milling;
Secondary milling
Terzaghis rock mass classification, 358359
The Tex Report, 62
Theis solution, 767
Thiobacillus ferrooxidans, 1090
Thiobacillus thiooxidans, 1090
Threats, interrogations, promises, and spying
(TIPS), 320
Time value of money, 309, 313
discounted cash-flow analysis, 314315
valuation at constant point in time, 313314
Tin mining (Cornwall), 3
TIPS. See Threats, interrogations, promises,
and spying
Titanomagnetite deposits, 87
Tlicho, 1809, 1810f.
Tokyo Commodity Exchange, 58
Toronto Stock Exchange, 65
Tractortrailer truck units, in hard-rock
underground mining, 1147, 1148f.
Training
annual refresher, 327328
behavior modeling, 328, 329t.
methods, 328
needs assessment, 324
for new miners, 326327
for newly hired experienced miners, 327
scope, 326328
for trainers, 328
for work with other cultures, 322323
Transport of ore. See Ore transport
Trenchers, 429
Trends. See Current trends; Future trends
Tricone bits, 438439
Trolley-wire electric trucks, in hard-rock
underground mining, 1150
Trona, 377
Trucks
alternative energy for, 25
articulated dump trucks (ADTs), 869, 1036,
1280, 1280f.
articulated rear-dump trucks, 1147, 1147f.
automated dump trucks (ADTs), 808

I-41

bottom-dump trucks, 978


capacity and operating cost, 1148
chute-loading systems for, 1281
clearance to sidewalls, 1148
clearance to ventilation ducts, 11471148
comparison of shaft, conveyor, and truck
options in underground ore handling,
12751276
costs, 1281
cycle times, 1149
decline haulage access for, 1280f., 1281,
1281f.
and development openings, 1147, 1148f.
design and construction issues for, 1281
dieselelectric, 869
dumping and dozing in ore emplacement,
10941095
efficiency factors, 1149
ejector-tray trucks, 1150
electric-drive, 938
end-dump trucks, 978
and haul roads, 957
haul trucks, 1036
haulage, 977978
key consideration for, 11481149
load, 1149
loading bays, 1279,
load-out stations, 978, 978f.
mechanical-drive, 869, 938
mine design and construction for, in
underground ore handling, 12771279
mining truck design standards, 922
off-highway articulated dump trucks, 920,
920f., 920t., 937, 937t.
off-highway rigid-frame trucks, 920923,
921f., 922f., 923f.
on-highway, 919920, 937
in open-pit mining, 869870
vs. ore stream pumping, 1055
orepass dump points (tipples) for, 1291
productivity as function of capacity, 1150,
1150f.
productivity as function of haul distance,
1150, 1150f.
remote control and automation of, 1152
right-sized trucks, 1036
rigid dump trucks, 1280
rigid-body rear-dump trucks, 1147
rigid-frame haul trucks, 869, 937938,
937t., 1036
safety considerations, 1280
selection, 937938
selection (hard-rock underground mining),
11471150
selection criteria, 12801281
semitrailer belly-dump trucks, 919
semitrailer rear-dump trucks, 919
side-dump trucks, 978, 978f.
side-loading bays, 1281
size of haul truck fleet, 1037
size selection, 937, 937t.
stacking, 10811082, 1082f.
standard dump trucks, 919
in strip mining (truck and shovel operation),
990f., 993, 993f., 1003, 10061012,
1007f., 1008t.1010t.
tire management, 870
tractortrailer units, 1147, 1148f.
trolley-assisted, 925926, 926f., 977, 978f.
trolley-wire electric trucks, 1150
truck drive-train type, 923, 923f., 924t.
turning radius, 1148
in underground ore handling, 12801281

I-42

Tuberculosis, 1572, 1572t., 15741575, 1574f.


Good Practice Guidance on HIV/AIDS, TB
and Malaria, 1772
Tungsten, and placer mining, 1057
Tunnel-boring machines (TBMs), 417, 421,
422f., 1255
advance prediction, 432
advantages compared with drill-and-blast,
12601262
circular cross section, 1261
classifications, 1255
consumable costs in hard, abrasive rock,
1262
and declines, 1260
design and operating problems and
solutions, 12631264, 1264t.
design recommendations for subsurface
mine development, 1219
and development access openings, 1259,
1260f.
disadvantages compared with drill-andblast, 12621263
double-shield, 12581259, 1258f.
and exploration openings,1259, 1259f.
good safety record, 1261
in hard-rock applications, 1219
and haulage openings, 1259, 1259f., 1260f.
high capital cost, 1262
high mechanical and electrical skill levels
required, 1263
high rate of advance, 1260
improved ventilation characteristics, 1261
and inclines, 1260
Kelly-drive, 1257, 1257f.
large components that are difficult to
transport, 1262
large power supply required, 1263
large value of spares and cutter inventory,
1262
less concrete when lining is required, 1262
limited range of application in varying
ground conditions, 1262
limited to circular cross section, 12621263
limited turning radius, 1263
list of mining projects and machine
manufacturers, 1265t.1266t.
long lead time for delivery, 1262
lower Mannings factor, 1261
main-beam, 12561257, 1256f., 1257f.
mining applications, 12551256, 1256f.,
12591260
and muck removal, 12591260
and multiple-use openings, 1259, 1261f.
no blast fumes or vibration, 1260
open-gripper, 1257, 1257f.
open-type, 1255
operational and management problems and
solutions, 12641267
reduced ground disturbance and support,
1260
reduced labor costs, 1261
reduced lining costs, 1260
shielded-type, 1255
single-shield, 12571258, 1258f.
soft-ground type, 1255
and Stillwater Mining Company, 1267
substantial crew training required, 1263
substantial preparation at work site, 1263,
1263f.
suitability for automation, 12601261
types and design features, 421, 423f.,
12561259

SME Mining Engineering Handbook

in underground horizontal and inclined


development, 11991200, 1200f.
uniform muck size, 1260
use by Magma Copper Company San
Manuel mine (case study), 12671269,
1267f., 1268f., 1269f., 1269t.
and varying excavation diameter, 1263
and ventilation openings, 1259, 1260f.
and water drainage openings, 1259, 1261f.
Tunneling
drill-and-blast, 11981199, 1199f.
full-face tunnel boring systems (TBMs),
11991200, 1200f.
and load-haul-dump units (LHDs), 1198
mechanized, 11991201
rock tunneling quality index (Q), 361362
and soil mechanics, 489492, 491t.
in underground horizontal and inclined
development, 11951197
Turnouts (breakaways), 1204
Two-pass cut-and-fill mining, 394395, 394f.
Tylor, Edward, 1800
UDEC (highwall modeling), 1028, 1030
Ultramafic volcanic association deposits, 8889
Unconformity vein-type uranium deposits,
9899
Undercut cut-and-fill mining, 396, 397f.
Underground development openings and
infrastructure, 1223
access drifts, 12311232, 1233f.
closeout and commissioning, 1237
construction, 12341237
construction procurement, 1235
construction schedule, 1237
conveyor drifts, 1231, 1232f.
crusher room closeout and commissioning,
1242
crusher room construction and installation,
12401242, 1241f., 1242f., 1243f.
crusher room design, 1240, 1240f., 1241t.
crusher room maintenance, 12421243
crusher room preplanning, 1240
crusher rooms, 12261227, 1226f., 1240
design, 12321234
emergency access, 1230, 1230f., 1248
emergency access construction and
installation, 1230f., 1249
emergency access design, 12481249
emergency access evacuation method, 1249
emergency access location and layout,
12481249
emergency access maintenance, 12491250
emergency access size and cross section,
1248
excavation methods, 12351236, 1236t.
excavation sequence, 1236
fit-out and installation of permanent
equipment, 1236t.
loading pocket construction and installation,
1251
loading pocket design, 12501251
loading pocket loading and materialshandling systems, 1250
loading pocket maintenance, 1251
loading pocket O&M costs, 1250
loading pocket operating criteria, 1250
loading pocket spill control, 12501251
loading pockets, 12301231, 1231f., 1250
maintenance, 1237
major construction equipment, 12361237
ore bin commissioning and closeout, 1246

ore bin construction and installation,


12451246
ore bin design, 12441245
ore bin excavation and ground support
design 12441245
ore bin infrastructure, 1228f., 1229f., 1231f.,
1245,
ore bin location and access, 1244
ore bin maintenance, 12461247
ore bin preplanning, 12451246
ore bin procurement, 1246
ore bin shape, size, and capacity, 1244
ore bins, 12271228, 1228f., 1229f., 1244
orepass construction and installation, 1248
orepass design, 12471248
orepass excavation and ground support,
1247, 1249f.
orepass lining, 1247
orepass maintenance, 1248
orepass muck flow control, 1229f.,
12471248, 1248f.
orepass opening size and shape, 1247
orepasses, 12281230, 1229f., 1247
project preplanning, 1235
pump room arrangement, 1238, 1239f.
special purpose drift construction and
installation, 12521253, 1252f., 1253f.
special purpose drift design, 1251
special purpose drift excavation and ground
support, 1252
special purpose drift layout, 1251, 1252f.
special purpose drift location, 1251
special purpose drift maintenance, 1253
special purpose drift preplanning, 1252
special purpose drift procurement, 1252
special purpose drift purpose, 1251
special purpose drifts, 12311232, 1232f.,
1233f., 1251
sump and pump room closeout and
commissioning, 1239
sump and pump room construction and
installation, 12371239, 1239f.
sump and pump room design, 1237, 1238t.
sump and pump room maintenance,
12391240
sump and pump room preplanning,
12371238
sump and pump room procurement, 1238
sumps and pump rooms, 12231226, 1224f.,
1225f., 1226f.
underground maintenance shop closeout and
commissioning, 1243
underground maintenance shop construction
and installation, 1243, 1245f.
underground maintenance shop design,
1243, 1244t.
underground maintenance shop
maintenance, 1243
underground maintenance shops, 1227,
1227f., 1243
ventilation drifts, 1232, 1233f.
waste pass construction and installation,
1248
waste pass excavation and ground support,
1247
waste pass lining, 1247
waste pass maintenance, 1248
waste pass muck flow control, 1229f.,
12471248, 1248f.
waste pass opening size and shape, 1247
waste passes, 1228, 1247

Underground horizontal and inclined


development methods, 1179
circular shaft drilling patterns for different
rock types, 1184, 1184f.
declines, 1195, 1197t., 1198t.
depression of groundwater level in shaft
sinking, 11861188
determination of stress coefficient in shaft
linings, 1181, 1182f.
drill-and-blast shaft sinking, 11831184,
1183f.
freezing method (shaft sinking), 1189,
1190f., 1191t.1192t.
mobile miners, 1200
parallel system (shaft sinking), 1183
raise boring, 11931195, 1195f., 1196t.
raising, 1192
raising, Alimak method of, 1193, 1283,
1284f.
raising, cage or gig, 1193, 1193f.
raising, conventional, 1192
raising, longhole, 1193, 1194f.
roadheaders, 12001201, 1201f.
series system (shaft sinking), 1183
shaft blasthole drilling, 11841185
shaft collars, 1181, 1182f.
shaft drilling, 11891190, 1193f.
shaft grouting, 11881189, 1188f.
shaft insets and sumps, 1181
shaft jumbos, 1185
shaft lining construction, 1186
shaft linings, 1181
shaft mucking, 11851186, 1185t.
shaft shape and diameter, 11801181
shaft sinking stages, 1186
shaft sinking technology, 11811183, 1183f.
shafts, 1180
shafts, defined, 1180
simultaneous system (shaft sinking), 1183
specialized shaft sinking methods,
11861192, 1187t.
tunnel boring machines, 11991200, 1200f.
tunneling, 11951197
tunneling, drill-and-blast, 11981199,
1199f.
tunneling, mechanized, 11991201
underground mine infrastructure, 1180f.
winzing, 1192
Underground mine planning, 1135
application flexibility of equipment, 1140
characteristics of extracted material, 1139
equipment acceptance, selection, and
versatility, 1140
field-tested equipment, 1140
geologic and mineralogic information
needed, 11351136
government considerations affecting mine
size, 11381139
land and water considerations, 1137
microlevel geologic data, 1139
organizational planning, 11391140
and rock properties, 1136
sizing the mine production, 11371138
structural information needed, 1136
technical information needed, 1135
test mine, 1136
and time allotted for development, 1138
work force and production design,
11391140
Underground mining, 352353, 354t., 385
automated underground loading and
haulage, 808809
basic infrastructures, 1180f.

Index

blast design, 451454


block caving, 2830
cut-and-fill method, 394396, 394f., 395f.,
396f.
deposit geometry, 352
electric power distribution and utilization.,
703
failure and collapse modes around sides,
548
fatality rates 20042006 (U.S. & Australia),
303, 304t.
fill, 353, 353t.
future trends, 2830
ground control, 352, 352t.
in hard-rock mining, 364366, 364f.
hauling and conveying cost estimating, 266
main roof, 352
mapping, 160
methods, 364366, 364f.
mine surveying, 736742
modeling, 30
panel caving mining method, 398f.,
399402, 400f., 401f.
pillars, 353
room-and-pillar method, 385391, 387f.,
388f., 389f., 390f.
sublevel caving mining method, 396399,
398f.
sublevel open-stoping method, 391394,
391f., 392f., 393f., 394f.
surface to underground transition, 366367
transition from open-pit mining, 366367,
862863
underground coal gasification, 1130f., 1131
underground roadway maintenance, 832
See also Cost estimating (underground
mines); Dewatering underground
operations; Hard-rock equipment
selection (underground mining); Hardrock mining method selection; Mining
method classification system; Mining
method selection; Soft-rock equipment
selection (underground mining);
Subsurface mine development;
Underground development openings
and infrastructure; Underground
horizontal and inclined development
methods; Underground ore handling
Underground ore handling, 1271
articulated dump trucks, 1280, 1280f.
and availability and reliability, 1273
bottlenecks, 12711272
buffers, 12721273, 1272f.
and change in mining method, 1274
and change in ore-handling system, 1274
chute-loading systems for trucks, 1281
comparison of shaft, conveyor, and truck
options, 12751276
contingency plans, 1273, 1274t.
and continuous improvement, 1274
conveyor costs, 1289
conveyor integration aspects, 1289
conveyor safety considerations, 1288
conveyor selection criteria, 12881289
conveyor technology, 1289
conveyors, 12881289, 1288f.
conveyors, and limits of application, 1289
cost comparisons, 1275, 1276f.
crusher design and construction issues,
12851286
crusher equipment overview, 12861287
crusher integration aspects, 1287
crusher location, 1286

I-43

crusher safety considerations, 1285


crusher selection, 1286
crusher technology, 12871288
crushers, 12851288, 1286f., 1287f.
crushers, and life of mine/expansion plans,
1286
decline haulage access for trucks, 1280f.,
1281, 1281f.
defined, 1271
design and construction for loaders and
trucks, 12771279
design and construction issues for trucks,
1281
drawpoints for loaders, 1277, 1278f.
future designs of conveyors, 1289
and geographic footprint, 1273
gradeability/speed/rimpull charts, 1277,
1278f.
grizzlies for crushers, 1286
and ground conditions, 1273
hydraulic haulage systems, 1293
and license to operate, 1273
loader automation, 1279
loader costs, 1279
loader maintenance, 1280
loader safety considerations, 1277
loaders, 12761279, 1277f.
maintenance plans, 1273, 1274t.
and maintenance support, 1273
miscellaneous haulage sysems, 1293
and new technologies, 1274
operational aspects of loaders, 1279
optional equipment for crushers, 1287
optionality comparisons, 12751276
optionality plans, 1273, 1274t.
orepass advantages and disadvantages, 285
orepass construction, 1283, 1284f.
orepass construction risks, 1282
orepass cost considerations, 1285
orepass design and construction issues,
12821283
orepass dump points (tipples) for trucks,
1291
orepass inclination angle, 1282
orepass length, 1282
orepass operational aspects, 12831285
orepass orientation, 1282
orepass safety considerations, 1282
orepass shape, 12821283
orepass support systems, 1283
orepass ventilation, 1283
orepass width, 1283, 1283t.
orepasses, 12821285
orepasses and clearing of blockages, 1282
orepasses and fall prevention, 1282
orepasses and mud rushes, 1282
production management systems, 1279
rail haulage and material properties and
handling, 1292
rail haulage and mine plan, 1291
rail haulage and ore-body geometry, 1291
rail haulage and production growth, 1291
rail haulage capacity, 1291
rail haulage capital costs, 1290
rail haulage design issues, 1291
rail haulage equipment, 12921293
rail haulage health and safety
considerations, 1290
rail haulage operating cost, 1290
rail haulage production rate and scale of
operations, 12901291
rail haulage reliability and operability, 1290
rail haulage selection criteria, 12901293

I-44

rail haulage system layout and geometry,


1292, 1292f.
rail haulage system life, 1291
rail haulage systems, 12891293, 1291f.
and replacement or major maintenance,
1273
and revenue, 1273
rigid dump trucks, 1280
road trains, 1280, 1280f.
rock breakers for crushers, 12861287
and safety, 1273
safety comparisons, 1275
selection process, 12731275, 1275t.
and short-term operational variability, 1275
shuttle cars, 1280, 1281, 1281f.
side-loading bays for trucks, 1281
stockpile bays for loaders, 1278
stope mucking (loaders), 1279
strategy, 12711273, 1272f.
and system robustness, 1274
and throughput options, 1273
timing comparisons, 1275
tipple accesses for loaders, 1278
tramming (loaders), 1279
tramming drifts (drives) for loaders, 1277
truck safety considerations, 1280
truck selection criteria, 12801281
trucking costs, 1281
truck-loading bays, 1279,
trucks, 12801281
use of contractors to manage buffers, 1272,
1273f.
Underground retorting, 366
Underground road trains, in hard-rock
underground mining, 1147, 1148, 1148f.
Underhand cut-and-fill mining, 367t., 395, 396,
396f., 397f.
Uniaxial compressive strength (UCS), 532,
532t.
Unions, 18
contracts, 319
membership as UN universal right, 318
and strikes, 319
transnational strategies, 318
United Kingdom
Health and Safety Executive (HSE) noise
regulations and solutions, 1633, 1634,
1638
mining safety legislation, 15591560
publications and associations (Web sites),
1832
United Mine Workers of America, 303
United Nations
Brundtland Commission, 32, 1665, 1769
Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous
Peoples (UNDRIP), 17801781, 1795,
1797
Environment Programme, 662
Global Compact, 1668
and indigenous cultural considerations,
1797
International Labour Organization (ILO)
on mine surveying, 732
Millennium Development Goals,
16681669
Rio Earth Summit (1992), 1769
Universal Declaration of Human Rights,
1773, 1795
United States
federal government agencies (Web sites),
1829
professional societies, associations, and
organizations (Web sites), 18271828

SME Mining Engineering Handbook

references, information, and publications


(Web sites), 1828
state mining agencies and associations
(Web sites), 18291831
use of R&P in coal mining, 1339
See also entries beginning with U.S.
Unloaders
bottom-dump ore cars, 979
bucket-chain continuous unloaders for
ships, 980, 981
bucket-wheel unloaders for ships, 980
clamshell-type barge unloaders, 980
clamshell-type ship unloaders, 980, 981
continuous unloading systems for ships,
980, 981
and fine materials, 979
and frozen materials, 979
pneumatic barge unloaders, 980
pneumatic unloaders for ships, 981
rotary train car dumpers, 979
self-unloading ships, 982
shifting locomotives, 979
for ships, 980, 981982
for trains, 979980
trestle system for trains, 979
See also Loaders; Load-haul-dump vehicles
Unwedge software, 588
Uranium, 11121114
decay series, 1625, 1626f.
with gold in conglomerates, 99
granitic deposits and heap leaching, 1076
and groundwater restoration, 1115, 1116t.
and heap leaching, 10761077
heap leaching and chemistry of deposits,
1077
heap leaching and geology of deposits, 1076
in-situ solution mining of, 1114
iron oxide copper-gold (with or without
uranium) deposits, 85t., 9293
ISR facility, 1114, 1116f.
lixiviants, 1089
processing of, 11141115
production of, 1115
and radiation, 1625
recovery systems, 1100
sandstone-hosted, 99
sedimentary, 98
sedimentary deposits and heap leaching,
1076
solution mining (in-situ techniques),
11121115, 1113t., 1114f., 1115f.,
1116f., 1116t.
species conversion factors, 1113, 1113t.
unconformity vein-type, 9899
wells and well patterns, 1114, 1114f., 1115f.
See also Radon; and under Heap leaching;
Mineral deposits; Solution mining
(in-situ techniques)
Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of
1978, 677
Uranium tailings, 677
cover calculator, 677678
cover for, 677, 677f.
management scheme, 660
See also Tailings; Tailings impoundments
and dams
U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, 1654
Hydraulic Engineering Center, 744
U.S. Atomic Energy Commission, dust sizeselection device, 1601
U.S. Bureau of Indian Affairs, 16541656
U.S. Bureau of Land Management (BLM),
16541658

U.S. Bureau of Mines


Cost Estimating System (CES), 281
and heap leaching, 1073
highwall mining research, 1029
on in-pit crushing and conveying (IPCC),
942
Minerals Health and Safety Technology
Division on haul road maintenance,
971
and pneumatic stowing, 1376
U.S. Clean Water Act, 1654
U.S. Department of Energy, underground coal
gasification experiments, 1131
U.S. Department of the Interior, Office
of Surface Mining Reclamation and
Enforcement, and flowable fill, 1376
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA),
1654
toxicity characteristic leaching procedure,
676
and underground coal gasification, 1131
U.S. Geological Survey, 63, 127
and dewatering research, 744
seismic hazard maps, 652
U.S. Metal and Industrial Mineral Mine
Salaries, Wages and Benefits, 2009 Survey
Results, 272, 288, 289
U.S. National Geodetic Survey (NGS), 736
U.S. Office of Surface Mining, and coal mining
surface restoration, 669
U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission, 146
Industry Guide 7, 203, 231
Valdez Creek mine (Alaska) groundwater
control (case study), 748749
VALMIN code, 219220
Vein mining, 393, 393f.
Ventilation. See Mine ventilation
Vertical crater retreat (VCR), 365, 369f.
stoping, 392393, 393f.
Voest-Alpine surface miner, 429
Voiseys Bay nickel project, 1798
Volcanic-hosted or volcanogenic massive
sulfide deposits, 85t., 9495
Volvo, 920
Wabi Iron and Steel Corp., 1306
Wagerup alumina refinery (Australia), tailings
management scheme, 660
Warren, H., 127
Waste disposal and contamination management,
33, 1733
acid rock drainage, 1734
asbestiform minerals, 1735
capping in place, 17491750
chemically reactive mineral waste,
17341735, 1736f.
chemically reactive mineral waste
repository in humid climate, 1738,
1744f.
chemically reactive mineral waste
repository in semiarid climate, 1738,
1744f.
closure, 1745
contaminated site management, 17491750
contaminated water management,
17471749
cyanide and other reagents, 1735
and direct exposure risks and phytotoxicity,
1734
and direct land disturbance, 1734
disposal area footprint, 1737
and dust release, 1734

and erosion and sediment release, 1734


facility environmental design, 17381744
and geotechnical instability, 1734
groundwater flow control, 1750
groundwater remediation, 1750
hazardous materials, 17461747
high-pH waste, 1735
improved water use efficiency, 1748
infiltration limiting covers, 1738
in-pit disposal and selective waste
placement, 1738
in-situ treatment, 1749
land-use restrictions, 1750
liners for harzardous materials, 1747
metals soluble or bioavailable at neutral
pH, 1734
mineral waste, 17331745
natural attenuation, 1750
nitrogen compounds, 1735
nonmineral waste, 17451746
ongoing management and monitoring,
17441745
on-site evaporation, 1748
radionuclides, 1735
reagent management, 1748
recontouring to promote runoff, 1738
Rio Tinto examples, 1738, 1744f.
safe on-site water storage and controlled
release, 1748
salinity, 17341735
secondary containment, 1747
selective handling, 1738
site selection, 1737
sodicity, 1735
soil and sediment removal actions, 1749
spontaneous combustion, 1735
and visual impacts, 1734
waste characterization and impact
prediction, 17351737
waste management strategy, 17371738,
1739t.1743t., 1744f.
waste removal and consolidation, 1738
water diversion, 1748
and water quality degradation, 1734
water recycling and reuse, 1748
water segregation, 1748
See also Acid rock drainage management;
Tailings; Tailings impoundments and
dams
Waste piles and dumps, 667
and acid rock drainage, 676677
base failure (spreading), 670, 671f.
block translation, 670, 671f.
closure, 677
configuratons, 668, 668f.
cross-valley type, 668, 668f.
defined, 667
design of, 670676
diked embankment type, 668, 668f.
drainage, 675
and dump geometry, 671672
and erosion, 675676
factor of safety, 674
factors affecting slope stability, 671674
failure modes, 670671, 671f.
and geotechnical properties of foundation,
672
and geotechnical properties of
geosynthetics, 673
and geotechnical properties of mine waste,
672
and groundwater, 673
historical sketch, 667

Index

hydraulic conductivity function (HCF), 675


impacts of, 669670
and land disturbance, 669
liquefaction, 670671, 671f.
and phreatic surface, 673
placer waste and tailings deposits, 669
and radioactive waste rock, 677678, 677f.
reclamation, 677
reliability, 674
ridge embankment type, 668, 668f.
rock drains, 675
rock dumps and erosion, 676
rotational circular failures, 670, 671f.
seepage, 675
and seismic forces, 673674
settlement, 674675
shallow flow slides, 670, 671f.
sidehill structure, 668, 668f.
simplified deformation analyses, 674
and site topography, 671
slope stability, 670674
soilwater characteristic curves (SWCCs),
675
and stacking method, 671672
stockpiles, 669
surface or edge slumping, 670, 671f.
types of, 667669
valley-fill type, 668, 668f.
and visual impacts, 669670
and water quality, 669
See also Heap leaching
Water
acid rock drainage (ARD) and stormwater
management, 676677
balance in heap leaching, 1080
in dust control, 1603, 1604
handling system in quarrying, 1034
inrushes and block caving, 1450
land water considerations in underground
mine planning, 1137
and longwall mining, 1403
National Weather Service rainfall data
sources, 1707
pore water pressure in soil, 471, 472
quality and waste piles and dumps, 669
requirements in solution mining, 1100
soilwater characteristic curves (SWCCs),
675
and sublevel caving, 1430
surface water collection in exploration
geochemistry, 131
surface water hydraulics, 17081709
surface water hydrology, 17071708
value of, 78
See also Dewatering (liquidsolid
separation); Dewatering surface
operations; Dewatering underground
operations; Groundwater; Pumps and
pumping; Tailings impoundments and
dams
Water and sediment control systems, 1705
aquifer testing, 17151716
artificial and synthetic materials, 1714,
1715f.
best management practices, 1714
centrifugal pumps, 1717
computer modeling, 1718, 1718t.
conservation of energy, 17081709
conservation of linear momentum,
17081709
conservation of mass, 17081709
control ponds, 17121713
cost benefit, 1705

I-45

culverts, 17111712
dams and incised structures, 1713
design considerations, 17061707
design rainfall event, 1707
diversion and interception of undisturbed
runoff, 1706
diversion channels and ditches, 17101711
dry wells, 1714, 1714f.
dynamic head calculation, 1717
French drains, 1714, 1714f.
and geomorphology, 1706, 1706f.
and GIS, 1705
groundwater hydrology, 1706, 17151718
groundwater inflow management,
17161717
groundwater inflow prediction, 1715
hydraulics software, 1710
hydrologic structures, 17091713, 1710t.
inlet structures, 1713
Kirpich equation, 1708
Lanes balance diagram, 1706, 1706f.
Mannings equation, 1709, 1710
Mannings roughness coefficient, 1708
mechanical treatment (sediment separators),
17141715, 1716f.
natural and biodegradable sediment
controls, 1714, 1714t.
permanent-pool storage capacity, 1713
probability of failure (design life of
structures), 17051706, 1706t.
pump characteristic curves, 1717, 1717f.
pump troubleshooting, 17171718
pumps, 17171718
Ragan and Duru equation, 1708
rational method of peak flow determination,
1707, 1708t.
regression studies, 1709
revegetation, 1714
Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation
(RUSLE), 1709
and runoff, 1705
SCS curve number (SCS-CN) method of
peak flow determination, 1708
sediment production, 1709
sediment storage capacity, 1713
selection of analysis method, 1707
and slope design, 518519
small-area sediment controls, 17131714
spillway design, 1713
surface water hydraulics, 17081709
surface water hydrology, 17071708
time of concentration, 1708
treatment of disturbed land runoff,
17061707
Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE), 1709
watershed planning, 1705
Water jets, 417, 430
in hydraulic mining, 1049, 1050, 1051
Water monitors, 430
Water rights professionals, and dewatering, 744
Watt, James, and Cornish pump, 3
Web sites, 18271832
Webb, J.S., 127
West Angelas iron ore mine (Australia),
automated blasthole drilling (case study),
820822, 820t., 821t., 822f.
Wet ball mills, 1470
Whitehorse Mining Initiative (Canada), 1666,
1769
Wieliczka salt mine (Poland), 3
Wilson, Robert, 1769
Winzes and winzing, 1192, 1210
Witwatersrand (South Africa), 1375

I-46

Wongawilli extraction, 1158, 1159f.


Workplace Health and Safety Act (Tasmania,
1995), 1560
World Bank
effluent guidelines, 656
Extractive Industries Review, 1666, 1769
and social license to operate, 1779
tailings management standards, 662
World Bank Group
capitals model, 1668, 1668f.
Environmental, Health, and Safety
Guidelines, 1668

SME Mining Engineering Handbook

Equator Principles, 1668, 1770


and International Finance Corporation
sustainability framework, 1668
World Bureau of Metal Statistics, 62
World Business Council for Sustainable
Development, 1666
World Information Service on Energy: Uranium
Project, 1073
X-ray analyzers, 157
X-ray diffractometer, 190

X-ray fluorescence (XRF), 108, 133, 138


in assaying, 190
Xstrata acquisitions, 78
Youngs modulus, 503, 511
Zero harm, 380
Zinc, heap leaching of, 1090
Zircon, and placer mining, 1057
Zoning patterns, 173