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CHAPTER III
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
A. Research Method
In this research, the researcher used quantitative method. According
Sugiyono (2012:14) Quantitative method is research method are based on the
philosophy of positivism, used to examine the population or a particular sample, data
collection using research method instruments, analysis of quantitative data, in order to
test the hypothesis that has been established. There are many principles that go along
with quantitative research, which help promote its supposed neutrality. Quantitative
research generally comes later in research project, once of the scope of the project is
well understood.
The main idea behind quantitative research was to be able to separate things
easily so that they can be counted and modeled statistically to remove factors that
they may distract from the intent of the research. Quantitative research involved
gathering data that is absolute, such as numerical data, so that it can be examined in
as unbiased a manner as possible. The result of quantitative was collecting numbers,
which can be subjected to statistical analysis to come the result.
One of quantitative method is correlational research. According to Gay in
Sukardi (2003:166), Correlational research is a research study that involves collecting
data in order to determine whether and to what degree relationship exists between two
or more quantifiable variables. He added (in Emzir, 2012:38) the aim of correlational

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research is to determine the correlation between variables or to use the correlation to

make prediction.
In this research, the researcher used correlational research to find out the
significant correlation between cognitive style and students reading comprehension.
B. Place and Time of the Research
This research was held at SMAN 3 Batam that located at Jl. Rajawali No.3
Kel. Belian, Kec. Batam Kota, Batam on April 2016.
C. Variables of the Research
According to Sugiyono (2012:61) variables were things that are defined by
the researcher to be studied in order to obtain information about it. Then, the
researcher made a conclusion. There were two variables in this research, dependent
variable and independent variable.
1.
Independent Variable
Sugiyono (2012:61) said that independent variable influenced dependent
variable. Independent variable in this research was cognitive style,
especially in Field Dependence and Field Independence. The researcher
named these variables as variable X1 and X2.
2.
Dependent Variable
According to Sugiyono (2012:61) dependent variable was a variable that
is affected or which become due to because of independent variable.
Dependent variable in this research was reading comprehension.
Researcher named this variable as variable Y.
D. Population, Sample and Sampling Technique

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1. Population
The population in this research was in second year of SMAN 3 Batam in
academic year 2015/2016. Totally in all classes was 271 students divided into
8 classes.
Table 3.1 Population of research
Class
XI IPS 1
XI IPS 2
XI IPA 1
XI IPA 2
XI IPA 3
XI IPA 4
XI IPA 5
XI BAHASA
Total

Total of students
33
34
38
39
39
39
37
12
271

2. Sample
According to Arikunto (2006:134), if the population is less than 100,
the number of sample is all of the population. But, if the population is more
than 100, the number of sample is 10% - 15% or 20% - 25%. Based on the
explanation above, the researcher get the sample is 24% of the population. It
means the number of population in this research is 65 students.
Table 3.2 Sample of research
Population

Sample

271 students

65 students

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3. Sampling Technique
According Sugiyono (2012:118), sampling technique could be divided
into two, which was probability sampling and non probability sampling.
Probability sampling consists of simple random sampling, proportionate
stratified random sampling, and disproportionate stratified random sampling
and cluster random sampling.
He added Non Probability sampling is that sampling techniques that
do not give the same opportunity to members of the population to be selected
into the sample. Non probability sampling consists of systematic sampling,
quota accidental, purpose, surfeited and snowball.
In this research, the researcher used random sampling as a sampling
research. According to Darmadi (2011:49), Random sampling was a method
to take part of population. So, each student got same opportunity to be
selected to become part of sample. The procedure will be follow:
a. The researcher writes the name of each member of population (name of each
student) in a piece of paper and rolls it.
b. Then, she put the paper in a box and shakes it.
c. Finally, the researcher takes the roll papers as much as number of sample and
opens it to know which student who will become the sample.
E. Technique of Collecting Data
1. Embedded Figures Test
EFT (Embedded Figures Test) was a perceptual test in the form of
multiple choice test consisting 50 items. The subject must locate a previously
seen simple figure within a larger or more complex figure that has been
designed to obscure or embed the simple figure. The indicator of EFT was
based on Witkins Theory.

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No Indicator
1

Item

Total

complex context.

50 items

Assessing: (Maghsudi in Onyekuru, 2015:82)

Field Independence
: Score Mean plus standard deviation
Field Dependence
: Score Mean minus standard deviation
The rest are ambivert
The test of reading comprehension was an objective test in the form of
multiple choice test consisting 30 items. The researcher gave 4 alternative
answer in each item ( A, B, C, D ). The researcher took the question from
previous

question

in

National

Exam.

The

indicators

of

Comprehension Test were taken from Brown Theory.

Table 3.4 Indicators of Reading Comprehension Test
No

Indicators

Items

Total

Main idea (topic)

1,3,6,10,13,18,19,28 8 items

Inference (implied detail)

7,12,23,24,25

5 items

Grammatical features

17,21,27

3 items

Detail information

2,4,8,11,14,15,22,29 8 items

Vocabulary in context

5,9,16,20,26,30

Total

6 items
30 items

To measure the validity and reliability of the both of test above, the researcher
used:

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a. Validity Test
Sugiyono (2012:121) mentioned that the valid instrument can be used to
measure what should be measured. Using a valid instrument in data collection, it
was expected that the research results will be valid.
In this research to know validity of the test, the researcher used item
validity Correlational Point Biseral. The reasearcher used this formula because
Correlational Point Biseral was used to count validity item of test in multiple
choice form. The formula was: (Sudijono, 2012:258)
Rpbis
Explanation:
rpbis = coefficient correlation biseral
mp = mean score of items who answered correctly
mt = mean of total score
sdt = standard deviation
p = proportion score of items who answered correctly
q = proportion score of items who answered incorrectly
The data is valid if r counted > r table but, if r counted < r table, then the data is
not valid.

b. Reliability Test
Reliability is consistency of measuring instrument, to test on respondent
consistency to answering the question on the test. To measure the reliability of the
test, the researcher will use KR 21 below: (Sugiyono, 2012:186)

r=
Explanation:
r = coefficient of instrument reliability

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k = total of instruments item

M = mean of total score
St2 = total variant
Table 3.5 Interpretation of reliability
Coefficient interval

Reliability

0.80 1.000
0.60 0.799
0.40 0.599
0.20 0.399
0.00 0.199

Very high
High
Moderate
Low
Very low (not reliable)

F. Technique of Analyzing data

Witkin (1977) did not specify clear cut-off points for determining Field
Dependence and Field Independence individuals according to their performance in
EFT. Thus, in this study the researcher adopted the procedure by Maghsudi (in
Onyekuru, 2015:82) that used Mean Standard deviation as boundary points:
FD Mean SD
FI Mean + SD
The rest are ambivert
1. Hypothesis Test
Hypothesis testing is to find out whether the correlation is significant.
The researcher will use Correlation Spearman Rank to find out the coefficient
correlation and then use Z formula to find out the significant. The researcher
uses Correlation Spearman Rank formula because in correlation spearman
rank the distribution of data is no need to be normal. The formula is:
(Riduwan & Sunarto, 2012:74)

rs = 1

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Explanation:
= Coefficient of Spearman Rank Correlation
= number of students
= the rank difference of variable X and Y
If rcounted rtable so Ha is accepted, but if rcounted rtable so Ho is accepted (Riduwan
rs
n
d

and Sunarto, 2012:83)

To find the significance, the researcher will use formula: (Riduwan &
Sunarto, 2012:74)
Zcounted =

Explanation:
Zcounted
= Significant correlation
rs
= Coefficient of Spearman Rank Correlation
n
= number of students
If Zcounted Z

table

accepted (No Significant) (Riduwan and Sunarto, 2012:75)

G. Statistical Hypothesis
Based on Riduwan and Sunarto (2012:75), the statistical hypothesis of this
research could be written as follow:
Ha: Zcounted Ztable
(there is significant correlation between cognitive style and
Ho: Zcounted Ztable