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I

IRC:SP:64-2005

GUIDELINES FOR THE


ANALYSIS AND DESIGN OF
CAST-IN-PLACE VOIDED SLAB

SUPERSTRUCTURE

THE INDIAN ROADS CONGRESS


2005

Digitized by the Internet Archive


in

2014

https://archive.org/details/govlawircy2005sp64

IRC:SP:64-2005

GUIDELINES FOR THE


ANALYSIS AND DESIGN OF
CAST-IN-PLACE VOIDED SLAB

SUPERSTRUCTURE

Published by

THE INDIAN ROADS CONGRESS


Kama Koti Marg,
Sector

6,

R.K. Puram,

New Delhi -110 022


2005

Price

{Plus Packing

&

Rs 160.00
Postage)

IRC:SP:64~2005
First

Published July, 2005


:

Reprinted

June. 2009

(The Rights of Publication and of Translation are reserved)

(The official amendments to this document would be published by the IRC


in its periodical, 'Indian

effective

Highways', which shall be considered as

and as part of the code/guidelines/manual,

etc.

Date specified therein)

Printed at Abhinav Prints, Delhi


(500 copies)

11 0041

from the

IRC;SP:64-2005

CONTENTS
Page
Personnel of the Bridges Specifications and Standards Committee

(i)

& (ii)

1.

Introduction

2.

Scope

3.

Cross-section Dimensions

4.

Analysis of Structure

5.

Orthotropic Plate

6.

Grillage

7.

Three Dimensional Continuum Analysis

8.

Minimum Transverse Reinforcement in

9.

Minimum Longitudinal Reinforcement

10.

Detailing

11.

References

Method

......

Analogy

Flanges

......

Appendix- 1

Appendix-2

Appendix- 3

IRC:SP:64-2005

PERSONNEL OF THE BRIDGES SPECIFICATIONS AND


STANDARDS COMMITTEE
(As on 2-12-2004)
1

2.

3.
'

V. Velay utham

Addl. Director General, Ministry of Shipping, Road Transport

(Convenor)

& Highways, New Delhi

V.K. Sinha

Chief Engineer, Ministry of Shipping, Road Transport

( Co-Convenor)

Highway,

Chief Engineer (B)

S&R

&

New Delhi

Ministry of Shipping,

Road Transport & Highways, New Delhi

(Member-Secretary)
(A.N. Dhodapkar)

Members
4.

K.N. Agrawal

5.

S.

6.

C.R. AHmchandani

C-33, Chandra Nagar, Ghaziabad-201 Oil

Ahmed

PWD, Shillong
STUP Consultants

Secretary to the Govt, of Meghalaya

&

Chairman

Managing

Director,

Ltd.,

Mumbai
7.

A.K. Banerjee

B-210, (SF), Chitranjan Park,

New Delhi

8.

Ashok Basa

Director (Tech.) B. Engineers

& Builders Ltd., Bhubaneswar

9.

P.C. Bhasin

ADG (B), MOST (Retd.) 324, Mandakini Enclave. New Delhi

10.

S.S.

Managing

Chakraborty

New
11.

K.K. Gupta

12.

A.R. Jambekar

Director, Consulting Engg. Services

(I)

Pvt. Ltd.,

Delhi

House No. 1149, Sector


Chief Engineer

&

Faridabad

19,

General Manager (Tech.)

CIDCO, NAVI

Mumbai
13.

S.K. Jain

Director

& Head, Civil Engg. Department, Bureau of Indian

Standards,
14.

S.K. Kaushik

Kand

C.V.

16.

NinanKoshi

Delhi

Chairman, Estate
IIT,

15.

New

&

Works

&

Coordinator

(TIFAC-CORE)

Roorkee

Consultant, Bhopal

DG

(RD)

&

Addl. Secy.,

MOST

(Retd.),

H-54, Residency

Green, Gurgaon

Kumar

DG

(RD)

& AS, MORT&H

(Retd.) D-86, Sector-56,

17.

Prafulla

18.

RY. Manjure

Director, Freyssinet Prestressed Concrete Co. Ltd.,

19.

N.V. Merani

Principal Secy., Maharashtra

20.

M.K. Mukherjee

40/182, Chitranjan Park,

21.

A.D. Narain

Director General (Road Dev.)

(Retd.),

Mumbai

Mumbai

New Delhi

(Retd.) B-186, Sector-26,


22.

PWD

Noida

&

Addl. Secretary,

MOST

NOIDA

Chief Engineer, Ministry of Shipping, Road Transport and

S.K. Puri
^

Highways
23.

N. Rajagopalan

Chief Technical Advisor, L&T-Ramboll Consulting Engg. Ltd.,

Chennai
24.

M.V.B. Rao

A-181, Sarita Vihar,

(i)

New Delhi

IRG:SP:64-2005
Subba Rao

Chairman, Construma Consultancy (P)

Mumbai

25.

Dr. T.N.

26.

S.A. Reddi

Dy. Managing Director,

27.

Director

Highway Research

28.

G. Sharan

Member (T), National Highways Authority of India, New Delhi

29

N.K. Sinha

DG

(RD)

&

SS,

Chitranjan Park,

M.G. Tamhankar

Dr.

31

Mahesh Tandon

Managing

32.

P.B. Vijay

A-39/B,

33.

Chief Engineer (NH)

(Shri S.K.

Planning

Chennai

MORT&H

(Retd.) G-1365,

Director,

Tandon Consultants

Floor,

Mumbai

(P) Ltd.,

New Delhi

DDA Flats, Munirka, New Delhi


De)

M.R PWD, Bhopal

& Budget

34.

Addi. Director General

HQ DGBR,

35.

Chief Engineer (NH)

U.R PWD, Lucknow

36.

Chief Engineer (NH)

Chepauk, Chennai

37.

R. Subramanian

Engineer-in-Chief,

38.

Rep. of

RDSO

PWD, New Delhi


(B&S) Bidges

Members

Momin), Secretary

Maharashtra

39.

President,

40.

Director General

(Indu Prakash), Ministry of Shipping,

(Road Development)

Highways,

Secretary,

IRC

(S.S.

& Structures

RDSO, Lucknow

Ex-Ojficio

IRC

Seema Sadak Bhavan, New Delhi

(R.K. Gupta) Executive Director


Directt.,

41.

Ground

Delhi

BH-1/44, Kendriya Vihar Kharghar, Navi

30.
.

Gammon India Ltd., Mumbai

Station,

New

Ltd.,

New

(R),

PWD, Mumbai

Road Transport

&

Delhi

Roads Congress,

(R.S. Sharma), Indian

Sector 6, R.K. Puram,

New

Kama

Koti Marg,

Delhi
r

Corresponding Members

PWD (Retd.), Panchkula

1.

M.K. Agarwal

Engineer-in-Chief, Haryana

2.

M.K. Bhagwagar

Executive Director, Engg. Consultant Pvt. Ltd.,

3.

A. Chakraborti

Addl. Director General (TD),

4.

Dr. V.K. Raina

B-13,Sector-14,Noida

(ii)

CPWD, New

New Delhi

Delhi

IRC:SP:64-2005

GUIDELINES FOR THE ANALYSIS AND DESIGN OF


CAST-IN-PLACE VOIDED SLAB SUPERSTRUCTURE
1.

INTRODUCTION

1.1.

The Reinforced, Prestressed and

At its first meeting on 29"^ April, 2003,


the Committee felt that in the light of the massive
construction programme that was under execution
1.2.

Composite Concrete Committee (B-6) of the


Indian Roads Congress was reconstituted in 2003

in the

with the following personnel:

adequately covered in the existing

highway

sector,

it

was necessary

to bring

out guidelines on certain topics which were not

IRC Codes and

The design and construction of castwas one of


the topics selected. It was decided that while
highlighting the special design and detailing
requirements in each case, the guidelines would
be generally in line with IRC: 1 8 and IRC:2 1 with
additional inputs from BS:5400, EURO and
Standards.

NinanKoshi
Addl.
T.

...

Convenor
Co-Convenor

...

Member-Secretary

...

DGBR

Viswanathan

in-place voided slab superstructures

Members
A.K. Banerjee

AASHTO

Alok Bhowmick

codes, wherever necessary.

A.N. Dhodapkar

The

1.3.

Vinay Gupta

initial draft

prepared by Shri

G.R. Haridas

T.

of the guidelines was

Viswanathan and Dr. N.

Rajagopalan with some inputs from Shri C.V. Kand.

S.G. Joglekar

was discussed by the B-6 Committee at


several meetings and finalized in its meeting held
on 3'^ September, 2004. The draft document was
approved by the Bridges Specifications and
Standards Committee in its meeting held on 2"'*

The

Jose Kurian
S.D. Limaye
M.K. Mukherjee
Dr. A.K. Mullick

draft

Dr. N. Rajagopalan

December, 2004 and by the Executive Corrmiittee

G.R Saha
R.S. Sharma
N.K. Sinha

December, 2004. The document was


considered by IRC Council in its 173''' meeting
held on S"' January, 2005 in Bangalore and

K.B. Thandavan

approved with certain modifications.

Dr.

C.E. (B)

on

S&R,

MOSRT&H

Ex-Ojficio

The required modifications were accordingly


B-6 Committee
before sending the document for publication.

Members

carried out by the Convenor,

IRC
(S.S. Momin)
DG(RD), MOSRT&H
President,

(Indu Prakash
Secretary,
(R.S.

18"'

2.

SCOPE
The guidelines provide the basic approach for

IRC

analysis of voided slab superstructures

Sharma)

by different

methods, design of various members and


information on general reinorcement detailing. The

Corresponding Members

designer

Ashok Basa
C.V. Kand

literature

required.

is

advised to consult relevant specialist

on the

subject, if further information is

IRC:SP:64-2005

CROSS-SECTION DIMENSIONS

3.

manufacture of corrugated

steel

void formers,

identical to those used for manufacture of pre-

3.1.

The voids can be rectangular

3.1.1.

For slabs provided with circular voids, the

stressing cable ducts.

or circular.

4.

ANALYSIS OF STRUCTURE

4.1.

The

centre-to-centre spacing of the voids should not

be

less than the total depth of the slab.

longitudinal as well as transverse stmctural actions.

In case of circular voids, the ratio of the

3.1.2.

diameter of void to the

exceed 75 per cent

total

depth of slab shall not


4.1.1.

avoid transverse

in order to

structure shall be analysed both for

Where

the

voids

conform

to

the

dimensional requirements given above and the void


distortional effect.

does not exceed 40 per cent, the structure

ratio

The thickness of

3.1.3.

the

web

shall

be as per

may be analysed as a solid slab for bending moments

Clause 9.3.1.1 of IRC: 18-2000 for prestressed

and shear forces due

concrete slabs and as per Clause 305.2 of IRC:

transverse structural actions

21-2000 for reinforced concrete

the procedure outlined in para 5.2.3.

slabs.

For reinforced concrete

3.1.4.

slabs:

be

200 mm and that below the void

less than

175

Void

ratio is the ratio of area of the voids to

the total area of the slab without deducting the

shall not

area of voids.

mm.

For prestressed concrete

3.1.5.

Other

can be evaluated using

The

thickness of concrete above the void shall not be


less than

to longitudinal actions.

slabs: If the

This method

cables are not located in the flanges, the thickness

is

bridges with skew

applicable to right and

skew

angle upto 20.

of flange shall be governed by provision as in para


3.1.4. If the cables are located in the flanges (not

web

in the

4.1.2.

region), the thickness of flanges shall

be in accordance with the Clause

16.

If the

void ratio exceeds 40 per cent, the

structure shall be analysed

of IRC: 18-

by any one of the

following methods:

2000.
3.1.6.

For rectangular voids,

above the transverse width of the void


exceed

1.5

3.2.

The portion of the


solid for a

slab near the supports

on each

side, shall

Grillage

(iii)

Three Dimensional Continuum

4.1.3.

be

is

satisfied,

shall

greater.

Void formers are required

If the

Analogy

dimensional parameters mentioned

and 3.1.6 above are not


any other appropriate method of analysis

in para 3.1.1., 3.1.2

minimum length equivalent to the

be carried out for taking into account the

distortional effect.

Materials used for Void Formers

3.3.

(ii)

shall not

depth of slab or 5 per cent of the effective span

whichever

Orthotropic Plate

times the depth of the void.

in the longitudinal direction

made

(i)

in addition to the

ORTHOTROPIC PLATE METHOD

5.

to possess the

The

effects of live load can

be obtained by

necessary rigidity and integrity of dimensions in

adopting the orthotropic plate theory. This method

addition to being water tight.

is

applicable to right and

skew bridges with skevv

angle upto 20.

The void formers may be manufactured from


materials, such as, steel sheets, card board, fibre

5.1.

Analysis

& Design for Loi^tudinal Action

reinforced cement, timber, expanded polystyrene,

HDPE,

They

are generally corrugated for

rigidity. Special

machines are available for

etc.

The design forces (bending moment and shear)


for longitudinal structural action shall

be calculated

IRC:SP:64-2005
using the parameters given in Appendix-1, and

moment of

normal design procedure may be followed.


Analysis

5.2.

M Q xd and the compression flange


=

& Design for Transverse Action

shall

be designed for an axial compressive force


M,.

in
The shear force
the transverse direction due to 20T axle load can
be evaluated by using the graph shown in

Evaluation of Q^^

5.2.1.

h,

My= Qvxd
where Q^is
^

Appendix-2. For any other axle load, the value


can be eavaluated by multiplying

andareversiblebendingmoment of

of

the transverse shear, d

is

obtained
the diameter of the void, h^

from the graph by the ratio of heaviest axle load in


tonnes to 20 tonnes.

is

the centre-to-centre

distance of compession and tension flange. In case

of rectangular void, the compression flange shall

Design of compression and tension


may be
The transverse moment

5.2.2.

flanges

obtained

shown below

as

moment

will

Q xS

the

different

in para

4 and the

of along with the axial compressive force and the

be further resolved as axial forces

tension flange shall be designed for a reversible

for

methods of analysis outlined


in the

be designed for a reversible moment

compression and tension flanges by using

centre-to-centre distance of flanges as lever arm.

moment of

along with the axial tensile

4
(i)

Solid Slab Analysis

force where S

is

distance between centre-to-

centre of void.

My

shall

be taken as 0.3 times the

the longitudinal direction

0.2 times the

moment

due to

moment

live

in

load plus

Design of web

5.2.3.

in the longitudinal

direction due to dead load.

5.2.3.1.

Rectangular voids

web

rectangluar voids, the


(ii)

Orthotropic Plate Analysis


for local bending

My

shall

be the

same

as obtained

moment of

In case of
be designed

M = QvS

This

from the

global analysis.

reinforcement requirement shall be provided in


the

(iii)

shall

Grillage (Analogy) Analysis

M^ is the moment obtained for the


beam of the grillage system.

form of

link

links,

may be

however, only one leg of such

considered to contribute to the

required area of reinforcement. This area should


transverse

be added to that required to

resist the longitudianl

shear to give the total required area of link


(iv)

reinforcement.

Three Dimensional Constinuum Analysis

My need

not be eavaluated. However, the

5.2.3.2.

compressive and tensile axial forces in the


flanges shall be arrived by integrating the
normal stresses in the y-direction on the

the occurance of cracks initiating

from the inside

of void has to be prevented by limiting the

maximum

compression and tension flanges.

tensile stresses at the surface of the

The maximum tensile stresses shall be


computed using the graph shown in Appendix-3
voids.

The tension flange shall be designed for an

and

it

shall

and reversible bending

axil tensile force of

Circular voids In case of circular voids,

shall not

h.

be ensured that the tensile stresses

exceed the allowable value of 0.36

IRC:SP:64-2005
where
in

and the allowable

ck

properly introduced based on the direction of

tensile stress both are

MPa. Following two cases have

to

be

placement of bearing.

The bending moment and shear forces will be

considered:
(i)

Tensile stresses less than allowable

taken as

tensile stresses

For transverse

it is

for longitudinal structural action.


structural action, the corresponding

design forces, such

Cracking
occur in
in the

this situation

and

moment and axial forces


bending moment and shear

of a void would not

at the inside

as, transverse shear,

vertical reinforcement

bending

in the flanges
in the

web

and

shall

be

evaluated as outlined under the orthotropic plate

webs should be provided to resist the bending

method.

moment of

/h,

THREE DIMENSIONAL
CONTINUUM ANALYSIS

7.

This reinforcement requirement shall be


provided in the form of links; however, only one
leg of such link

may be

Three dimensional continuum analysis

shall

considered to contribute

take care of all structural action both in longitudinal

to the required area of reinforcement. This area

and transverse directions with appropriate


structural properties. This can be achieved by

should be added to that required to

resist the

longitudinal shear to give the total required area

performing

of link reinforcement.

approach by discretising the structure into number

finite

element analysis using stiffness

of elements and having the displacement evaluated

Tensile stresses

(ii)

more than allowable

using the appropriate boundary conditions and


loading. Discretisation of the elements can be left

limits

to the designer.

would occur

In this case, cracking

However,

it

shall only

be surface

at the

element, such as, plate element, plate shell element,

inside of the void and inclined reinforcement

solid brick element with or without shear

shall

be provided. The inclined reinforcement

shall

be provided

deformations.

to resist the tensile force of

The bending moment and shear

T =

2h Cosa

^'^^^^

'

be taken as it is for longitudinal structural


action. For transverse structural action, the

slope of the

corresponding design forces, such


inclined reinforcement (to the horizontal). This
shear,

reinforcement shall be provided in the form of


links or bars

form of
the

and

bars,

it

in case

it

is

provided in the

compression

be anchored by lapping

and

tension

as, transverse

bending moment and axial forces in the

flanges and bending


shall

shall

forces will

moment and shear in the web

be evaluated as outhned under the orthotropic

plate method.

flange

reinforcement.

MINIMUM TRANSVERSE
REINFORCEMENT IN FLANGES

8.

Alternative to inclined reinforcement, one

additional layer of horizontal reinforcement

may be provided to resist the bending moment of

M
6.

The transverse reinforcement


shall

= QdSin

at

a distance of d Sin

be provided in two

to the

crown of

the void

one layer closer

and other closer to the


area of transverse

outer surface. The


reinforcement in compression flange should

GRILLAGE ANALOGY

be lesser of 1000

mmVm

layer) or 0.7 per cent of the

Standard grillage programme can be used to

The tension flange

(500

mm7m

in

each

minimum flange area.

provided with
transverse reinforcement of 1500 mmVm (750

analyse the structure. This method can be adopted


for right,

layers,

in flanges

skew and curved bridges. The boundary

shall be

mmVm in each layer) or 1 per cent of the minimum

conditions for the grillage elements shall be

IRC:SP:64-2005
flange area whichever

For the

is

purpose

reinforcement, the

2000. The

lower.

of

calculating

minimum

reinforcement shall be

provided according to method of analysis adopted.

flange area of each

Curtailment of reinforcement shall be as per

minimum

the

layer of concrete shall be arrived at

by taking the

Clause 305.7 of IRC:21-2000.

thickness of concrete layer equal to twice the


relevant cover plus the bar diameter.

9.

9.1.

MINIMUM LONGITUDINAL
REINFORCEMENT

as per Clause 15.1 of IRC: 18-2000.

RCC

10.

slabs shall

It

The minimum reinforcement shall be provided

Slabs

The minimum

Prestressed Slabs

9.2.

longitudinal reinforcement in

Typical reinforcement detailing for voided slab

be as per Clause 305.19 of IRC:21-

is

shown

in Fig.

1.

and Fig.

2.

DETAILING

O]

o o
>

O]

o o

u
1

CPRESTRESSING STEEL

IN

o-

U u

LONGITUDINAL DIRECTIO^

OR
LONGITUDINAL REINFORCEMENT
IN

Notes

Reinforcements are as per design requirements.

2.

The Sketch

is

Fig.

CASE OF RCC SLABS

1.

indicative only.

Detailing of Reinforcement at Solid Section near Support

Anchor Length

IN

Notes

CASE OF RCC SLABS

1.

Reinforcements are as per design requirements.

2.

The Sketch

is

indicative only.

Fig. 2. Detailing of

Reinforcement

at

Voided Section

IRC:SP:64-2005

REFERENCES

11.

3.

AASHTO

LRFD

Bridge

Design

Specifications: 1999 (Interim)

In this publication reference to the following

AASHTO Standards has been made.

At the
time of publication, the editions indicated were
valid. All Standards are subject to revision and
IRC,

the parties to agreements based

11.2.

1.

on these guidelines

Papers

&

Baidar Bakht

Publications

&

Leslie G. Jaeger 'Bridge

Analysis Simphfied'

are encouraged to investigate the possibility of


2.

applying the most recent editions of the Standards.

Derrick Beckett 'An Introducation to


Structural Design'

11.1.

Codes and Specifications

4.
1.

IRC:18-2000

Design

Criteria

for

Prestressed Concrete

Bridges

IRC:2I-2000

(Post-Tensioned

5.

Deck Behaviour'

L.A. Clark 'Concrete Bridge Design to

G.

Elliot,

L.A. Clark and R.H.

Symmons

'Test

of Quarter Scale Reinforced Concrete Voided

Slab

Standard Specifications and

Code of

'Bridge

BS:5400'

Road

Concrete (Third Revision)


2.

Edmund C. Hambly

Bridge'

(Cement and Concrete

Association, London)

Road
Cement

Practice for

Bridges, Section-Ill,

6.

L.A. Clark and

P.

Thorogood 'Transverse

RC Circular Voided Slabs' Institution

Concrete Plain and Reinforced

Shear in

(Third Revision)

of Structural Engineers (UK), 2P' June,


1994.

IRC:SP:64-2005

Appendix-1

ANALYSIS BY ORTHOTROPIC PLATE

METHOD

Flexural Parameter
0.25

e =

b/

Torsional Parameter

64P,

12

1-0.95
12

1-0.84

xy

Flexural parameter

=^

Torsional parameter

Va

Effective

Dx

The

Dy

The transverse

Dxy

The

D,yx

The transverse

The thickness

tv

The diameter

Py

Spacing

Poission's ratio

The

Di

the width of the equivalent orthotropic plate

span

longitudinal flexural rigidity per unit width


flexural rigidity per unit length

longitudinal torsional rigidity per unit width

torsional rigidity per unit length

of slab

of the void

of the void

longitudinal coupling

rigidity

(which

is

the contribution of transverse

flexural rigidity to longitudinal torsional rigidity through Poission's ratio) per


unit width

D2

The transverse coupling

Ec

Modulus

Gc

Shear modulus

In

the absence of

elasticity of

of

rigidity

per unit length

concrete

concrete

more accurate methods, the above expressions may also be used

voided slab bridges

in

which the

circular voids are not symmetrically placed

and bottom surfaces.

for

those

between the top

IRC:SP:64-2005

AppendiX'2

MAXIMUM TRANSVERSE SHEAR FOR DIFFERENT PLATE WIDTHS

10

20

50

40

30

SPAN (m)

Maximum Transverse

10

20

30

SPAN (m)

Shear Intensity due to 20-Tonne Axle Load

40

50

IRC:SP:64-2005

Appendix-3

MAXIMUM TENSILE STRESS AT DIFFERENT LOCATIONS

Qyh
a)

Maximum

tensile stress at face of void

60

My
b) Location of

maximum

tensile stress

d = diameter of the void


h = height of the slab
9

QV h

(The official amendments to this document would be published by the IRC


in

its

periodical, 'Indian

effective

Highways', which shall be considered as

and as part of the code/guidelines/manual, etc. from the


Date specified therein)