You are on page 1of 11

1.

The President
A president is the leader of a country or a division or part of a country, typically a republic, a
democracy, or a dictatorship. The title "president" is sometimes used by extension for
leaders of other groups.
Etymologically, a president is one who presides (from Latin prae- "before" + sedere "to sit";
giving the term praeses). Originally, the term referred to the presiding officer of a ceremony
or meeting (i.e., chairman), but today it most commonly refers to an executive official.
Among other things, "President" today is a common title for the heads of state of most
republics, whether presidential republics, semi-presidential republics or parliamentary
republics.
The president of a country is not the same thing as a prime minister. A prime minister is part
of a parliament, but a president is not. In some countries, (such as the United States or
France), the president has more power and responsibility than anyone else. Such a president
is often called the nation's chief executive. As chief executive, the president must take an
active role in all phases of government. In other countries (such as the Republic of Ireland or
Israel), to be president is more of an honor or a symbol, and the position has no real power.
This kind of president is often called "head of state".
Most countries that have a King or Queen as their monarch have no president.
So ,a president is the leader of a country or a company or other group. A president is usually
elected by the people in that group. Voting is one way to elect a president.

2. Advocacy

Advocacy in all its forms seeks to ensure that people, particularly those who are
most vulnerable in society, are able to:

Have their voice heard on issues that are important to them.


Defend and safeguard their rights.
Have their views and wishes genuinely considered when decisions are being made
about their lives.
Advocacy is a process of supporting and enabling people to:

Express their views and concerns.


Access information and services.
Defend and promote their rights and responsibilities.
Explore choices and options
An advocate is someone who provides advocacy support when you need it. An
advocate might help you access information you need or go with you to meetings or
interviews, in a supportive role. You may want your advocate to write letters on your
behalf, or speak for you in situations where you dont feel able to speak for yourself.

Our advocates will spend time with you to get to know your views and wishes.

Advocacy can be helpful in all kinds of situations where you:

Find it difficult to make your views known.


Need other people listen to you and take your views into account.

3. Parliament

Parliament is the very centre of any form of democracy. In it, the interests of the
greatest possible number of citizens should be represented. They all can vote for
individuals who represent them in Parliament.
The main work of Parliament is to make laws, debate topical issues and look at how
our taxes are spent to help run the country. The issues discussed in Parliament
affect us all: health, the environment, transport, jobs, schools, crime.
Generally, a parliament has three functions: representation, legislation and
parliamentary controkl.
So, a parliament is a type of legislature and for more information the word or the
term "parliament" is derived from the French "parlement", the action of "parler" ("to
speak"): a "parlement" is a discussion.
4. The prosecutor
A prosecutor is a lawyer who argues in a court that the defendant should be found
guilty of a crime. The prosector represents a client, which is sometimes the state
(government). It is the prosecutor's job to do what he can to have criminals
punished for their crimes.
The prosecutor has a duty to:
-tell the court about all the circumstances of the case and the facts of the offence
-tell the court about harm to any victim of the offence
-provide the court with assistance on the sentencing range
-identify relevant case law and legislation applying to the case
-make submissions on an appropriate sentence
-do everything reasonable to ensure the court is acting only on truthful information,
and
-protect the judge from making an error in sentencing that could lead to an appeal.
So, the prosecution is the legal party responsible for presenting the case in a
criminal trial against an individual accused of breaking the law.

5. The House of Lords

The House of Lords is one of the two Houses of Parliament of the United Kingdom
(UK). It is in London, the capital city of the UK. The other house is the House of
Commons. Together the two houses form the government and parliament of the UK.

Unlike the elected House of Commons, most new members of the House of Lords
are appointed

There are seats for 26 Lords Spiritual who sit in the Lords by virtue of their
ecclesiastical role in the established Church of England.[5] The Lords Temporal make
up the rest of the membership; of these, the majority are life peers who are
appointed by the Monarch on the advice of the Prime Minister, or on the advice of
the House of Lords Appointments Commission; the rest are hereditary peers

Members of the Lords may also take on roles as Government Ministers. The House
of Lords has its own support services, separate from the Commons, including the
House of Lords Library.

So, basically, the House of Lords is Parliament's second chamber and its main job is
to 'double check' new laws to make sure they are fair and will work.

Its main job is to 'double check' new laws to make sure they are fair and will work.
6. Common law

The common law is a kind of legal system. Under the common law, the law is not
just made by legislation (laws created by the government) but also by the courts. As
a result, some laws and legal ideas may be created through the courts without the
government playing a role. Common-law courts use the precedent of earlier courts
to help them make decisions

The common law is used in the United Kingdom and most countries that used to be
colonies of the British Empire, including the United States. Many other countries use
a system called civil law, where people say that legislation is the only kind of law. In
common law countries, courts usually have more power than in civil law countries.

Common law started in England when courts decided to use tradition, custom, and
precedent to help them make decisions. A precedent is something that another
court has done in the past. By looking at decisions by earlier court, a common-law
court tries to make decisions that will not surprise people and that fit in with the
rest of the law.

In common law countries, when people like lawyers and judges want to know what
the law is, they also look at what courts have written. When a court decides a case,
it makes a decision and then usually delivers a judgment or an opinion about what
the law is. A judgment or court's opinion explains how the court reached its
decision, and it is a guide for later courts that need to decide similar cases. The
case sets a precedent. The judgments of higher courts will commonly tell lower
courts how they must decide a case on the same or very similar facts - if so, the
precedent is said to be "binding". Even if the facts are different, the reasoning in the
case may still be considered by the court as "persuasive".
7. Civil law

Civil law has two main meanings. First, civil law is a system of law in the world. Civil
law, as a system of law, is different from common law, which is another system of
law. The origin of the civil law system of law is ancient Rome. The civil law system is
used in countries such as Germany, France, many countries which were colonies of
those European countries before, and in some Asian countries. It also been adopted
in Latin America as well as in some parts of Asia and some African countries

Second, civil law is an individual part of the law system in any country. It is different
from criminal law. Unlike criminal law, civil law deals with disputes between people
and/or organizations which can be compensated. For example, if a car crash victim
asks for payments from the driver because of loss or injury that happened to him in
an accident, this will be a civil law case.

The civil law's pros are that it is a comprehensive, well organized, adaptable
system.

So, the civil law is a legal system originating in Europe, intellectualized within the
framework of late Roman law, and whose most prevalent feature is that its core
principles are codified into a referable system which serves as the primary source of
law.

8. What role does the Lord Chancellor have?

The Lord Chancellor, formally the Lord High Chancellor of Great Britain, is a senior
and important functionary in the government of the United Kingdom. He is the
second highest ranking of the Great Officers of State, ranking after only the Lord
High Steward. The Lord Chancellor is appointed by the Sovereign on the advice of
the Prime Minister. Prior to the Union there were separate Lord Chancellors of
England (including Wales) and Scotland.

The lord chancellor traditionally served as head of the judiciary and speaker of the
House of Lords. In 2006, however, the posts role was redefined following the
implementation of several constitutional reforms. Most of the lord chancellors
judicial functions were transferred to the lord chief justice, and the Lords speaker
became an elected office. The changes allowed the lord chancellor to concentrate
on constitutional affairs.

In the early 21st century there were calls to abolish the lord chancellorship. Much
criticism centred on the fact that the office held important responsibilities in
different branches of government. In 2003 a new post was created, secretary of
state for constitutional affairs, that was scheduled to replace the lord
chancellorship. However, there was support for retaining the historic post, and after
much debate Parliament approved the Constitutional Reform Act 2005, which
preserved the office but redefined its role. Since 2007 the lord chancellor has also
held the title of secretary of state for justice.

9. The profession of a lawyer.

A lawyer is someone who practices law. A lawyer has earned a degree in law, and
has a license to practice law in a particular area.

If people have any problem regarding the law, they can contact a lawyer for advice.
A legal problem is referred to as a case. A person can hire a lawyer to start a case
against someone else, or to help with a case that has been started against them. If
the case goes to court, the lawyer will represent their client in court. The lawyer will
use their knowledge of the law to convince the court that the client is on the right
side of the argument. Lawyers also help people "settle out of court," which means
that both sides of the argument agree to a punishment ahead of time so that they
will not have to go to trial.

Lawyers work in different settings. Some work by themselves, while some work in
law firms. Some lawyers work for hospitals and private companies. Lawyers who
work for private companies are usually called in-house counsel.

Lawyers generally charge a fee for the work that they do, but sometimes advice is
offered freely, which is called "pro bono," meaning "for the public good." In many
countries, if a person is accused of a crime and unable to pay for a lawyer, the

government will pay a lawyer to represent them using tax money. The profession of
a lawyer.

A lawyer is someone who practices law. A lawyer has earned a degree in law, and
has a license to practice law in a particular area.

If people have any problem regarding the law, they can contact a lawyer for advice.
A legal problem is referred to as a case. A person can hire a lawyer to start a case
against someone else, or to help with a case that has been started against them. If
the case goes to court, the lawyer will represent their client in court. The lawyer will
use their knowledge of the law to convince the court that the client is on the right
side of the argument. Lawyers also help people "settle out of court," which means
that both sides of the argument agree to a punishment ahead of time so that they
will not have to go to trial.

Lawyers work in different settings. Some work by themselves, while some work in
law firms. Some lawyers work for hospitals and private companies. Lawyers who
work for private companies are usually called in-house counsel.

Lawyers generally charge a fee for the work that they do, but sometimes advice is
offered freely, which is called "pro bono," meaning "for the public good." In many
countries, if a person is accused of a crime and unable to pay for a lawyer, the
government will pay a lawyer to represent themThe profession of a lawyer.

A lawyer is someone who practices law. A lawyer has earned a degree in law, and
has a license to practice law in a particular area.

If people have any problem regarding the law, they can contact a lawyer for advice.
A legal problem is referred to as a case. A person can hire a lawyer to start a case
against someone else, or to help with a case that has been started against them. If
the case goes to court, the lawyer will represent their client in court. The lawyer will
use their knowledge of the law to convince the court that the client is on the right

side of the argument. Lawyers also help people "settle out of court," which means
that both sides of the argument agree to a punishment ahead of time so that they
will not have to go to trial.

Lawyers work in different settings. Some work by themselves, while some work in
law firms. Some lawyers work for hospitals and private companies. Lawyers who
work for private companies are usually called in-house counsel.

Lawyers generally charge a fee for the work that they do, but sometimes advice is
offered freely, which is called "pro bono," meaning "for the public good." In many
countries, if a person is accused of a crime and unable to pay for a lawyer, the
government will pay a lawyer to represent them using tax money. The profession of
a lawyer.

A lawyer is someone who practices law. A lawyer has earned a degree in law, and
has a license to practice law in a particular area.

If people have any problem regarding the law, they can contact a lawyer for advice.
A legal problem is referred to as a case. A person can hire a lawyer to start a case
against someone else, or to help with a case that has been started against them. If
the case goes to court, the lawyer will represent their client in court. The lawyer will
use their knowledge of the law to convince the court that the client is on the right
side of the argument. Lawyers also help people "settle out of court," which means
that both sides of the argument agree to a punishment ahead of time so that they
will not have to go to trial.

Lawyers work in different settings. Some work by themselves, while some work in
law firms. Some lawyers work for hospitals and private companies. Lawyers who
work for private companies are usually called in-house counsel.

Lawyers generally charge a fee for the work that they do, but sometimes advice is
offered freely, which is called "pro bono," meaning "for the public good." In many
countries, if a person is accused of a crime and unable to pay for a lawyer, the
government will pay a lawyer to represent them using tax money. using tax money.

10 Treaty:
A treaty is an agreement under international law entered into by actors in international law,
namely sovereign states and international organizations. A treaty may also be known as an
(international) agreement, protocol, covenant, convention, pact, or exchange of letters, among
other terms. Regardless of terminology, all of these forms of agreements are, under international
law, equally considered treaties and the rules are the same.
11 Contract:
In common law legal systems, a contract (or informally known as an agreement in some
jurisdictions) is an agreement having a lawful object entered into voluntarily by two or more
parties, each of whom intends to create one or more legal obligations between them. The
elements of a contract are "offer" and "acceptance" by "competent persons" having legal
capacity who exchange "consideration" to create "mutuality of obligation."

12 Precedent
In common law legal systems, a precedent or authority is a principle or rule established in a
previous legal case that is either binding on or persuasive for a court or other tribunal when
deciding subsequent cases with similar issues or facts. Common law legal systems place great
value on deciding cases according to consistent principled rules so that similar facts will yield
similar and predictable outcomes, and observance of precedent is the mechanism by which that
goal is attained.

13ACTS ARE STRONGER THAN WORDS

Everyday and in every time we here people talking, promising and really we
learn to talk since we are a three or a four year child or maybe later and its
not difficult for us to talk. But, when it comes to act based on those words,
sometimes or in most of the cases we just move back; maybe because its
hard to take those actions or maybe because it is easier to say what we think
instead of acting.

A friend of mine uses this wise word to explain the difference between
acting and talking:
Words do not act, actions speak. This aphorism is so true, but it seems like
most of the people have not yet understood what it is to act more and talk
less, because they are still keeping to do the opposite behavior. Generally,
people have a custom to blame politicians because of just declaring that
they are going to do a lot of things and in the end they do nothing; but are
we doing the same thing even in the common life. I think yes, we have the
exact conduct.
Furthermore, words dont have the same effect that actions do on people.
Words are easier to forget, while actions cannot be forgotten that easily;
actions would last forever if they made a great impression on us. It is also
impossible to show people how truthful your words are without an evident
action. For example; when you say I missed you to a friend, and you
havent even bothered yourself to pick up the phone to know how he/she
was doing, then obviously these words are just lies.

Sometimes you can impact someone without even saying anything. The way
you act can send out either positive or negative message. So, lets
concentrate our efforts more in actions than in words.