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Traffic Management and Accident Investigation Definition of Terms: Traffic

is a movement of vehicles along a route where passengers and cargoes are

carried by transportation. Traffic Management

it comprises all public surfaces , facilities and agencies having responsibility

for licensing, approving, maintaining and controlling the flow of traffic and the
use of traffic facilities. Accident (Legal meaning)

an accident is any happening beyond the control of a person the

consequences of which are not foreseeable. ( There is no criminal liability in
accident provided, the following requisites or elements under the law must be
satisfied; 1.) performance of a lawful act; 2.) with due care; 3.) causes injury
to another by mere accident; 4.) without any fault or intention of causing it.)
Fortuitous Event

an event which takes place by accident and could not have been foreseen. In
other words it is an Act of God which could neither be foreseen nor resisted,
such as earthquake, lightning, flood, and the like. Force Majure

is an inevitable accident or casualty, an accident produced by any physical

cause which is irresistible. In other words it is an Act of Man, such robbery,
fire, fault, negligence, rebellion, etc. Defensive Driving

is an act of driving while preventing accidents despite of the wrong actions of

others aggravated by the existence of adverse driving conditions. Which
requires knowledge, alertness, foresight, judgment and skill. Last Clear
Chance - it means that the driver who is in the better position to prevent the
accident shoulders the responsibility of preventing the accident. The last
clear chance principle is always applied in any traffic accidental investigation
in order to justify penalized the driver who was not defensive in its driving.
State of Necessity

there is state of necessity even if the injury to a person results in his death,
because self-preservation always makes the actor feel that his own safety is
greater than that of another. Elements or requisites under the law; 1.) the evil
sought to avoided actually exists ; 2.) the injury feared be greater that that

done to avoid it; 3.) that there is no other practical and less harmful means of
preventing it. Imprudence

indicates deficiency of action. If a person fails to take the necessary

precaution to avoid injury to a person or damage to property, there is
imprudence. Imprudence usually involves lack of skill. Negligence

indicates a deficiency of perception. If a person fails to pay proper attention

to use due diligence in foreseeing the injury or damage impending to be
caused there in negligence. Negligence usually involves lack of skill.

Motor Vehicle

shall mean any vehicle propelled by any power other than muscular power
using the public highways, but exempting road rollers, trolley cars, street
sweepers, bulldozers, graders, fork-lifts, cranes, vehicles which runs only on
rails or tracks, tractors, trailers, and traction engine. Articulated Vehicle- shall
mean any motor vehicles with a trailer having no front axle and so attached
that part of the trailer rest upon the motor vehicle and a substantial part of
the weight of the trailer and of its load is born by the motor vehicle. Transfer

it is an evidence found at the accident scene that will connect to the

suspected vehicle and with the crime scene. Traffic Actuated Signal

is controlled by an individual using his hands in signaling the flow of traffic

wherein traffic shall proceed in accordance with the desire of the individual
controlling the flow of traffic. Historical Accounts in Traffic Sources of Power In
Transportation 1. Man Power 2. Animal Power 3. Water and Air Power 4.
Petroleum Fuel 5. Bi-fuel, biogas, and Ethanol fuel 6. Hydrogen 7. Electric
Development of Roads Stone paved streets are found in the city of Ur in the
Middle East dating back to 4000 BC. The Romans built roads to last. one
meter in height, the road was built up in four layers: slabs embedded in
mortar formed the foundation; masonry made up the second; the third,
finally, the rolling surface could be simply broken stones, paving stones, or
bricks depending on traffic. 1750 Trsaguet in France and Metcalfe in the UK
proposed a method of construction relying on a firm well-drained foundation
of large rocks topped by progressively smaller ones, forming a convex surface
to make it more impervious to water. Around the end of the eighteenth
century Telford in the UK proposed a similarly robust concept, perhaps too

much so for traffic needs (he had been looking forward eagerly to steampowered vehicles),

with the result that it was rather expensive due mainly to its thickness and
very solid foundation, intended to compensate for unstable roadbeds.
Macadam at the beginning of the 19th century to develop the far more
economical approach which is still used today in adapted forms, usually with
a coating of bitumen to seal it. Development of Motor vehicle One of the most
important landmarks in engine design comes from Nicolaus Otto who in 1876
invented an effective gas motor engine. Nicolaus Otto built the first practical
four-stroke internal combustion engine called the "Otto Cycle Engine," and
when he completed his engine, he built it into a motorcycle. Gottlieb Daimler
is thought to have invented the first real motorcycle in 1885. The original
Benz Patent Motorwagen, first built in 1885 and awarded the patent for the
concept In 1879, Benz was granted a patent for his first engine, which had
been designed in 1878. Many of his other inventions made the use of the
internal combustion engine feasible for powering a vehicle. Key Personalities
in Transportation Ferdinand Verbiest, a member of a Jesuit mission in China,
built the first steam-powered vehicle around 1672 which was of small scale
and designed as a toy for the Chinese Emperor, that was unable to carry a
driver or a passenger, but quite possibly, was the first working steampowered vehicle ('auto-mobile') In Russia, in the 1780s, Ivan Kulibin
developed a human-pedalled, three-wheeled carriage with modern features
such as a flywheel, brake, gear box, and bearings; however, it was not
developed further Franois Isaac de Rivaz, a Swiss inventor, designed the first
internal combustion engine, in 1806, which was fueled by a mixture of
hydrogen and oxygen In November 1881, French inventor Gustave Trouve
demonstrated a working three-wheeled automobile that was powered by
electricity hydrogen powered FCHV (Fuel Cell Hybrid Vehicle) was developed
by Toyota in 2005 A compressed air car is an alternative fuel car that uses a
motor powered by compressed air. The car can be powered solely by air, or
by air combined (as in a hybrid electric vehicle) with gasoline/diesel/ethanol
or electric plant. This type of vehicles will be released this year 2009.
Summary of the Historical Accounts of Transportation Montgolfier's Hot Air
Balloons Wright Brother's Flyer Nicolas Joseph Cugnot's steam powered car