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Secondary

Surveillance
Radar
Mode S

Radar equation : uplink/downlink link budget


Pr

transpondeur

Pc

radar

.Gradar Gtransp .i .Ls

(4. ) .R
2

> MTLxpdr = 69dBm

Interrogation 1030 Mhz = i

Reply 1090 Mhz = r

Pr

radar

Pc

transp

Use of 2 differents frequencies


uplink and downlink = independants

.Gradar Gtransp .r .Ls

(4. ) .R
2

> MTLradar > 85dBm

European radar density


- 80 civil SSR in the FABEC area
- As many military IFF
9
From10 to 14
From 15 to 19
From 20 to 24
From 25 to 29
From 30 to 34
From 35 to 39
From 40 to 42

Light Green
Bright Red
Bright Yellow
Dark Blue
Light Green
Pink
Light Blue
Orange

overlap FL 100

SSR limitations SSR

RF pollution - Mode A/C radar RF occupancy

A mode A/C radar interrogates an aircraft 10 to 20 times per antenna revolution

ICAO annexe 10 specifies the rate of occupancy of the transponder to 500 replies
per sec

In airpaces where aircrafts are interrogated by 50 radars, this rate can be reached

! Loss of detection

Aircrafts reply to all A/C interrogation.

The number of replies transmitted by transponders is proportional to the number


of radar and to the density of Air trafic
! In the Core area : 1090 MHz frequency is sometimes saturated

We need to find a system which limits the number of interrogation, and the number of
reply to reduce the transponder occupancy and 1090 utilisation.

Broadcast Vs P2P

?
?

?
?

P2P fonctionement
Im Plane1 and
I speak to
Radar1 My
Mode C is 350

Im Radar1 and I
speak to Plane1
Give me your
Mode C

Im Plane2. I
dont reply
Im Radar1.
I notice the
answer

Im Radar2. Im
not concern by
this reply

SSR limitations SSR


Number of Mode A is limited:
12 bits = 4096 codes available
Not sufficient in dense trafic areas

New address system

Mode A integrity
Received Mode A value not checked
Mode A encoding not robust to interference

Error correction system

ATC systems using Mode A


multi-radar tracker : plot/track correlation STR
(pb of duplicated Mode A)
Fligth Id transmission
Track servers : Flight Plan/ track correlation
7
RadmS

P2P

Interoperability with existing surveillance equipments (same frequency)

Allocation of a unique 24 bits address to each aircraft (@ Mode S) in order to


interrogate each aircraft individually (SELECTIVE interrogation) ! GARBLING
Suppression

Allocation of an identity code for each interrogator (16 II codes ou 63 SI codes) in


order to identify each interrogator. The ID code will be part of both radar
interrogation and aircraft reply ! FRUIT suppression

Development of a special protocol for acquiring @ Mode S of aircraft entering the


coverage of the radar

Mode S Address

India : 800000 to 83FFFF = 262144 number of adress

Mode S ! new capacities


! Mode S Improves radar detection and ranging performances
- Data security improvement, check of received data integrity (use of code
correcting technics)
- Improvement of altitude encoding ! FL Mode C LSB = 25 ft
- Technology changes so that data processing must be able to manage 900
aircraft in the radar coverage
! Mode S provides new functionalities
- Extra data available for identification: @ 24 bit and aircraft ID (ACID)
! usable for replacing Mode A and fixing mode A shortage issue
- Important number of avionic parameters may be send down to the ground
(Ground Speed, Mode of Flight, Roll angle, heading, wind, . )

1
0

Mode S radar standards

1
1

ICAO standards:
SARPS Mode S ( ground station et transponder)
Annexe 10 edition 1987 + revision 1993, 1996,
1998 ,2002, 2006, 2008)
SARPS Mode S network published 1993, revised
1997
Specifics services manual (doc 9688) edition
May 1997, revised 2002, 2006
Industry standard
Euroca /ARINC /RTCA concerning transponders
Mode S

Why Mode S is essential?


to fix SSR drawbacks (garbing, Fruit)
! has been invented for that
Improvement of tracking and Flight plan correlation
Reduce RF 1030 1090 pollution
Mode A code Shortage
Increase radar capacity (technlogy)

All call and Roll call Periods


Mode S aircraf entering
the coverage

Mode S aircraft locked


Mode A/C aircraft

Acquisition
@Mode S

AC

selective Interrogation

Of a @Mode S

RC

AC

RC

AC
time

All Call (AC) periods help monitor Mode A/C aircraft and
acquire Mode S aircraft coming under the coverage
Roll Call (RC) periods enable selective interrogation of
Mode S aircraft already acquired using the AC periods

Interrogation
Tpdr S
Tpdr A/C

All Call

Roll Call

Reply ModeS adress

Reply Mode A or C
Reply Mode A or C

ISLS

P1 P2

P6

P1 P2

P6

P1

P3

P4

All Call
Aircraft entering the radar coverage for
the first time
First scans of antenna

For Sensor 05
I am C0123F

I enter in the
coverage of
05

Here Sensor 05 ,
Identify yourself

Interrogator 1
Interrogator 2
@modeS 1

..

05

@modeS 2

I locate the
position of
the
C0123F

..

C0123F

Roll Call
2 conditions for operating selective interrogation:
- The radar must know the MODE S Address (0xC0123F ) of the aircraft he will interrogate selectively (1 All Call is
normally enough)
- The radar has to be able to predict the position of the aircraft at the next antenna scan (3 positions are necessary to
calculate a speed vector and a tracking window ! 3 All Call)
When Conditions are OK for operating Selective interrogation, the aircraft must stop replying to All Call because it is no
more usefull and, overall, because replying to All Call generates FRUIT and GARBLING and pollutes 1090 frequency.
! The Radar-Sensor will give the aircraft an order of locking itself with the radar. The aircraft is locked only for this
Radar Sensor .

Here C0123F
330

After 3 or 4 scans of antenna

Interrogator 1
Interrogator 2
..

Here Sensor 05 :
For 0xC0123F
Lock out your Addresse
Mode S!
Mode C ?

@modeS 2

05 locked
The Mode S Transponder
0xC0123F is going to lock itself .
It will answer just for Selectif Answer.

@modeS 1

I will keep on to
interrogate the
next positions of
the 0xC0123F

..

.
C0123F

Iock Radar1
Iock Radar2

Lock out system


All Call
Roll Call

New Aircraft arriving


In the coverage area !

Coverage of Radar 1

Coverage of Radar 2

Same radar address

All Call
Roll Call

Iock Radar1
New Aircraft arriving
In the coverage area !

The Aircraft is not kept watch on


in this aera

Coverage of Radar 2
Coverage of Radar 1

Clusters
Iock Radar1

All Call
Roll Call

New Aircraft arriving


In the coverage area !

Transmission of the @Mode S and position


via a telecom/Network
Coverage of Radar 1

Coverage of Radar 2

Lock-out process
Locking a Mode S transponder (@ 0xC0123F ) with a given interrogator (II=05) means :
- It will reply only to Selective interrogations.
- In other word : It will no more reply to All Call coming from interrogator II=05

Issue : What happen if the aircraft is lost by the radar (ex. Technical pb, aircraft masked by a mountain
etc..)?
! After 3 antenna revolutions without detection, the radar cancels the track and remove @ 0xC0123F from
the @modeS list.
! If the aircraft is back into the radar coverage and become detectable :
! It will not be interrogated using selective mode because it is unknown for the radar
! It will be interrogated using All Call which is the normal process for unknown aircraft : BUT,
because it is locked with the interrogator, it is not allowed to answer to All Call from 05 ! the
aircraft becomes UNDETECTABLE by Radar II =05
SOLUTION :
- The locked is maintained only during 18 seconds
- A timer is launched when the transponder locks with the radar.
- The timer is reset at each selective interrogation
- If no selective interrogation is received during 18 s, the transponder is unlocked with radar II=5
This is always the case when the aircraft lives the radar coverage ! allows another radar, with the same II
code to acquire the aircraft.

Mode S Content
- Mode S : the solution to
- Mode S messages
-

Uplink
Downlink

- Elementary Surveillance (ELS)


- Avionics
- Enhanced surveillance (EHS)

Mode S : the solution to


Mode S messages
Uplink
Downlink

Elementary Surveillance (ELS)


Avionics
Enhanced surveillance (EHS)

Mode S : the solution to

Fruit cancelling thanks to:

Less interrogations
Transponder reply containing the interrogator code

Garbling cancelling thanks to:

Roll Call mecanism so that replies do not overlap

Mode S : the solution to


Mode S messages
Uplink
Downlink

Elementary Surveillance (ELS)


Avionics
Enhanced surveillance (EHS)

FRUIT Suppression

Data field including


the interrogator ID
code

?
no

?
yes
Track update

The Mode S reply includes the ID code of the interrogator that has asked the question

RadmS

Mode S : the solution to


Mode S messages
Uplink
Downlink

Elementary Surveillance (ELS)


Avionics
Enhanced surveillance (EHS)

Garbling reduction

Roll Call
Interrogation

reply

Interrogation

Reply

Time
The 2 interrogations are sequenced (the 2nd is delayed if necessary)
so that the replies are not superimposed

Mode S : the solution to


Mode S messages
Uplink
Downlink

Elementary Surveillance (ELS)


Avionics
Enhanced surveillance (EHS)

Surveillance Mode A/C

Experimental Scenario

Surveillance Mode S

RadmS

26

Mode S Content
- Mode S : the solution to
- Mode S messages
-

Uplink
Downlink

- Elementary Surveillance (ELS)


- Avionics
- Enhanced surveillance (EHS)

Mode S : the solution to


Mode S messages
Uplink
Downlink

Elementary Surveillance (ELS)


Avionics
Enhanced surveillance (EHS)

Mode S interrogation types


XPDR
Mode A/C

All Call

All Call
Mode A
All Call
Mode C

All Call
Mode S

Roll Call

Mode C
Request

Mode A
Request

P1

P3

P1

P1

P1

P1

P4

P3

P2

P2

P2

P4

P6 (UF11)

P6 (UF4 for @Y)

P6 (UF5 for @Y)

XPDR
Mode S
non locked
(@X)

XPDR
Mode S
locked
(@Y)

reply
Mode A

No reply

No reply

reply
Mode C

No reply

No reply

reply
Mode S
(with @X)

No reply

No reply

No reply

No reply

No reply

Reply DF4
(with Mode
C)

No reply

Reply DF5
(with Mode
A)

Mode S : the solution to


Mode S messages
Uplink
Downlink

Elementary Surveillance (ELS)


Avionics
Enhanced surveillance (EHS)

Mode S Interrogation /
Uplink Format

Mode S : the solution to


Mode S messages
Uplink
Downlink

Elementary Surveillance (ELS)


Avionics
Enhanced surveillance (EHS)

Uplink Format (block of Data in Short P6)

Format
N
1
4
UF:00100
1

56

PC : 3

RR : 5

ID: 3

SD : 16

UF:00101
1

11

Mode C request

56

PC : 3

RR : 5

ID: 3

SD : 16

UF:01011

AP : 24
AP : 24
56

PR : 4

II : 4

19 (Pading)

AP : 24

Mode A request
All-Call Mode S
only

Mode S : the solution to


Mode S messages
Uplink
Downlink

Elementary Surveillance (ELS)


Avionics
Enhanced surveillance (EHS)

Mode S messages
(UF Number)

0
1, 2 and 3

MESSAGE LENGTH

Short (56 bits)

MODE S INTERROGATION REQUEST

Short air-air surveillance (ACAS)


Not defined

Short (56 bits)

Surveillance, altitude request

Short (56 bits)

Surveillance, identify request

6, 7, 8, 9 and 10
11
12, 13, 14 and 15
16
17, 18 and 19

Short (56 bits)

Long(112 bits)

Not defined
Mode S-only all-call
Not defined
Long air-air surveillance (ACAS)
ADS

20

Long (112 bits)

Comm-A, Comm-B altitude request (SLM *)

21

Long (112 bits)

Comm-A, Comm-B identify request (SLM *)

22 and 23
24 (2-bit field)

Long (112 bits)

Not defined
Comm-C, Comm-D (ELM **)

Mode S : the solution to


Mode S messages
Uplink
Downlink

Elementary Surveillance (ELS)


Avionics
Enhanced surveillance (EHS)

Uplink Format (block of Data in Long P6)


Field that contains
the data-link message
for the upper level of
exchange (Packet Mode S ,
Packet X25 )
Format
N
1
20

PC : 3

UF:10100
1

24

ID : 3

SD : 16

MA : 56

RR : 5

ID: 3

SD : 16

MA : 56

segment data-link
standard + req. Mode C

AP : 24

segment data-link
standard + req. Mode A

112

RC : 2
3

AP : 24
112

PC : 3

UF:11000
1

RR : 5

UF:10101

21

112

NC : 4

MC : 80

AP : 24
112

segment data-link
extended

Mode S : the solution to


Mode S messages
Uplink
Downlink

Elementary Surveillance (ELS)


Avionics
Enhanced surveillance (EHS)

All Call P6 structure


1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56
PR

UF=11

IC

CL

libres

AP = @appel gnral + Parit

identification interrogateur
code II
SI
Low
Significant

bits

adresse appel gnral = 24 1


1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

0 0 0

code II de 0 15

0
0
0
1

code SI de 1 15
code SI de 16 31
code SI de 32 47
code SI de 48 63

0
1
1
0

1
0
1
0

Probabilit de rponse
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1

0
0
1
1
0
0
1
1
0
0
1
1
0
0
1
1

0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1

rpondre avec Pr=1


rpondre avec Pr=1/2
rpondre avec Pr=1/4
rpondre avec Pr=1/8
rpondre avec Pr=1/16
non assign
non assign
non assign
ne pas tenir compte du verouillage et
ne pas tenir compte du verouillage et
ne pas tenir compte du verouillage et
ne pas tenir compte du verouillage et
ne pas tenir compte du verouillage et
non assign
non assign
non assign

rpondre avec
rpondre avec
rpondre avec
rpondre avec
rpondre avec

Pr=1
Pr=1/2
Pr=1/4
Pr=1/8
Pr=1/16

Mode S : the solution to


Mode S messages
Uplink
Downlink

Elementary Surveillance (ELS)


Avionics
Enhanced surveillance (EHS)

Roll Call P6 structure


1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56
UF

PC = 0

DI

RR

SD

AP = @Mode S + Parit

Non pris en compte si:


interrogation de surveillance
ou CommA avec DI=3
0 15 pour demander une rponse
au format surveillance DF4 ou 5
interrogateur II
0 0 0

code II

interrogateur SI
0 1 1

code SI

LS 0 0 0
0
1

aucun changement de l'tatde vrouillage


commande vrouillage

Mode S Content
- Mode S : the solution to
- Mode S messages
-

Uplink
Downlink

- Elementary Surveillance (ELS)


- Avionics
- Enhanced surveillance (EHS)

Mode S : the solution to


Mode S messages
Uplink
Downlink

Elementary Surveillance (ELS)


Enhanced surveillance (EHS)

Mode S Reply /
Downlink format

Mode S : the solution to


Mode S messages
Uplink
Downlink

Elementary Surveillance (ELS)


Avionics
Enhanced surveillance (EHS)

Data Link : Reply

Prambule

Bloc de donnes
Bit 1 Bit 2 Bit 3 Bit 4
1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0

Dure = 8 s

Bit N-1 Bit N


1 0 1 0

Dure = 56 ou 112 s

Format
N
20

FS : 3

DF:10100
1

21
1

AC : 13

MB : 56

DR : 5

UM : 6

ID : 13

MB : 56

segment data-link
standard + Code C

AP : 24

segment data-link
standard + Code A

112

1
3

AP : 24
112

FS : 3

DF:11
1

UM : 6

DF:10101

24

DR : 5

KE : 1

ND : 4

MD : 80

AP : 24
112

segment data-link
tendu

Mode S : the solution to


Mode S messages
Uplink
Downlink

Elementary Surveillance (ELS)


Avionics
Enhanced surveillance (EHS)

All Call reply

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56
CA

DF=11

AA = @Mode S

Transponder Capacity
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1

0
0
1
1
0
0
1
1

0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1

surveillance only (no communication)


reserved
reserved
reserved
on ground level 2 transponder, comm A and B capacity
airborne level 2 transponder, comm A and B capacity
on ground or airborne level 2 transponder (no ground bit management), comm A and B capacity
alert or SPI (active FS) or no null DR

PI = code interrogateur + Parit

Mode S : the solution to


Mode S messages
Uplink
Downlink

Elementary Surveillance (ELS)


Avionics
Enhanced surveillance (EHS)

Roll Call altitude reply


1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56
FS

DF=4

DR = 0

UM

AC

AP = @Mode S + Parit

info altitude
Statut du vol
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1

0
0
1
1
0
0
1
1

0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1

ni alerte, ni SPI, en vol


ni alerte, ni SPI, au sol
alerte (7500, 7600,7700), pas de SPI, en vol
alerte (7500, 7600,7700), pas de SPI, au vol
alerte (7500, 7600,7700) et SPI
SPI sans alerte
non assign
non assigns

Demande descendante
0 en surveillance
Code altitude
M

M: en feet

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
C1 A1 C2 A2 C4 A4 0 B1 0 B2 D2 B4 D4
z

0 z 1

Q: prcision 25ft ou 100ft

pas d'altitude disponible


altitude en pieds, precision 100 ft

codage mode C code Gray

altitude en pieds, precision 25 ft, codage sur 11 bits de N tel que


Z= (25N-1000)+/-12,5ft
altitude en mtres

Mode S radar Performances

Data processing capacity 900 Aircraft-tracks


Probability of detection of 99%
Accuracy :
Random Error in Range:
Mode S : 15 m
Mode A/C : 30m

Random Error in azimuth : less than 0.068


The station Radar can support a rate of average of 11000fruit/s in the
lobe of 3 dB
Protection of data by a Parity Control (CRC)

Mode S Content
- Mode S : the solution to
- Mode S messages
-

Uplink
Downlink

- Elementary Surveillance (ELS)


- Avionics
- Enhanced surveillance (EHS)

Mode S : the solution to


Mode S messages
Uplink
Downlink

Elementary Surveillance (ELS)


Avionics
Enhanced surveillance (EHS)

Elementary surveillance

ELS operations rely on 3 basements :


- Mode S interrogator (radar)
- ATC systems
Multiradar radar tracker
Correlation function
Fall back picture label display

- Airborne equipment (transponder)

Mode S : the solution to


Mode S messages
Uplink
Downlink

Elementary Surveillance (ELS)


Avionics
Enhanced surveillance (EHS)

Elementary surveillance Tracker aspect

Use of the 24 bits address for merging information related to the same
aircraft coming from several radars sources
advantage: @ 24 bits is far more reliable than Mode A because it is
related to unique aircraft and so it identifies it without any doubt
Statistics : only 2 or 3 Mode S addresses duplicated detected each
year

Improvement of FL tracking (tracking in vertical plan) thanks to the


division by 4 of the FL encoding resolution (100 ft to 25 ft)

43

Mode S : the solution to


Mode S messages
Uplink
Downlink

Elementary Surveillance (ELS)


Avionics
Enhanced surveillance (EHS)

Flight Plan correlation aspects


Pure ELS FP Correlation ! to be applied on Mode S flights once ELS fully operational
(radar Mode S + ELS systems compliant + Mode S transponder).
What is a Mode S flight ?
" Flight flying through sectors that are all encompassed into Mode S Airspaces
Double Mode S radar coverage
ATC System full ELS capable

" Flight Plan field : equipment A/C = equipped

Flight tagged Mode S


Automatic allocation of mode A = 1000

(for all Mode S flights)

FP correlation is performed using ACID and then maintained using the 24bits @
FP correlation no more performed using Mode A

! Save Mode A codes and fixes the Mode A shortage issue

Mode S : the solution to


Mode S messages
Uplink
Downlink

Elementary Surveillance (ELS)


Avionics
Enhanced surveillance (EHS)

Get rid of Mode A codes


MS1

MS2

MS3

MS@
A1000
AF123
XYZ1

MS@
A1000
AF123
XYZ2

MS@
A1000
AF123
XYZ3

Tracks
Correlation Item
Aircraft Identification

MS@
mode
A1000
AF123
XYZ
headig
speed

Function
doing the
correlation
with the flight
plan data

Flight Plan
Processing
System

Mode A
AF123
Airport
Departure
Airport
Arrival ...

Flight Plan Data

MS@

Advantage : only one mode A code


for all Mode S flights

N Fligth
Plan
Position
Heading
Speed
Departure
Airfield
Arrival
Airfield

Available INFORMATION
For CONTROLLER

Mode S : the solution to


Mode S messages
Uplink
Downlink

Elementary Surveillance (ELS)


Avionics
Enhanced surveillance (EHS)

Elementary Surveillance: fall back picture improvement

In fall back mode (mono radar data) ! use of ACID received from
Mode S replies

Flight number = ACID delivered to the controller for identification


instead of Mode A

Flight level

identification
Ground speed

A5312
160

FL280

Non Mode S label

AFR2130
160
Mode S label

FL280

Mode S Content
- Mode S : the solution to
- Mode S messages
-

Uplink
Downlink

- Elementary Surveillance (ELS)


- Avionics
- Enhanced surveillance (EHS)

Mode S : the solution to


Mode S messages
Uplink
Downlink

Elementary Surveillance (ELS)


Avionics
Enhanced surveillance (EHS)

Mode S transponders

Mode S : the solution to


Mode S messages
Uplink
Downlink

Elementary Surveillance (ELS)


Avionics
Enhanced surveillance (EHS)

Avionic integration

altimeter

ACID

Mode A

Box

Mode C

Mode S
Transponder

avionics
Enhanced surveillance data
and RA (ACAS)

@mode S

Mode S : the solution to


Mode S messages
Uplink
Downlink

Elementary Surveillance (ELS)


Avionics
Enhanced surveillance (EHS)

Transponder registers
Mode S Transponder

Avionic
Avionic data:
Speed, heading,
roll angle etc..

10 Data link
20 Flight ID

Lock out

255 registers BDS

MB

Com A Interrogation
UF=20 protocol
ou 21

RR =
17 or
18

Id interrogator

NBDS
requested

CRC + @mode S

BDS value

CRC + @mode S

Com B Reply
DF = 20
ou 21

Flight
status

UM Altitude (25ft)
or Mode A

Mode S : the solution to


Mode S messages
Uplink
Downlink

Elementary Surveillance (ELS)


Avionics
Enhanced surveillance (EHS)

BDS 20: Callsign


FIELD
1
2
3
4 BDS Code 2 0
5
6
7
8
9 MSB
10
11
CHARACTER 1
12
13
14
15 MSB
16
17
CHARACTER 2
18
19
20
21 MSB
22
23
CHARACTER 3
24
25
26
27 MSB
28
29
CHARACTER 4
30
31
32

FIELD
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56

MSB
CHARACTER 5

MSB
CHARACTER 6

MSB
CHARACTER 7

MSB
CHARACTER 8

8 characters available

Mode S : the solution to


Mode S messages
Uplink
Downlink

Elementary Surveillance (ELS)


Avionics
Enhanced surveillance (EHS)

Mode S Transponders : Level 1


5 levels defined by ICAO :
Level 1 : Same functions as Mode A/C XPDR with FL report
Able to process All Call mode S interrogations as well as selective interrogations
(Roll call) and deliver mode S identification (@mode s) and Altitude
Able to manage lock out process
Report of flght status data (alert, ground)
Short Squitter / anti collision service

level not operated and not recommended by ICAO

Mode S : the solution to


Mode S messages
Uplink
Downlink

Elementary Surveillance (ELS)


Avionics
Enhanced surveillance (EHS)

Mode S Transponders : Level 2


Level 2 = Level 1 +

Management of short message communication protocol (Comm A & Comm B)

Report of datalink capability

Flight Identification (ACID)

First level operated by ICAO


Requested in European regulations
Level compliant with Elementary and Enhanced surveillance

Mode S : the solution to


Mode S messages
Uplink
Downlink

Elementary Surveillance (ELS)


Avionics
Enhanced surveillance (EHS)

Mode S Transponders : Level 3 and 4


Levels 3 & 4 = Level 2 +

Management of extended message communication protocol (Comm C et Comm D)


" Uplink only : level 3
" Uplink and downlink : level 4

Level 3 : Useless
Level 4 : Full datalink

Level 5 = level 4 +

Improved communications capabilities

datalink multisite

Mode S : the solution to


Mode S messages
Uplink
Downlink

Elementary Surveillance (ELS)


Avionics
Enhanced surveillance (EHS)

ADS-B capabilities

extended Squitter l -ELM

Latitude (WGS84)
Longitude (WGS84)
FL

Mode S : the solution to


Mode S messages
Uplink
Downlink

Elementary Surveillance (ELS)


Avionics
Enhanced surveillance (EHS)

SI Capability
Only 16 codes II...
II code shortage in Europe

SI code operations :
64 codes SI (drawback : suppression of
some datalink functions)
or Mode S radar clusters

Synthesis ELS capabilities


An aircraft that is ELS compliant meets the following functionalities :

24 bit aircraft address


SSR Mode 3/A
Altitude reporting in 25ft increments
Flight Status (airborne/on the ground)
Data Link Capability Report (BDS 10 hex)
Common Usage GICB Capability Report (BDS 17 hex)
Aircraft identification (BDS 20 hex)
ACAS Active Resolution Advisory (BDS 30 hex) if ACAS equipped
The aircraft operator has to ensure that the aircraft reports a unique 24 bit aircraft

Mode S Content
- Mode S : the solution to
- Mode S messages
-

Uplink
Downlink

- Elementary Surveillance (ELS)


- Avionics
- Enhanced surveillance (EHS)

Mode S : the solution to


Mode S messages
Uplink
Downlink

Elementary Surveillance (ELS)


Avionics
Enhanced surveillance (EHS)

Enhanced surveillance

Enhanced Surveillance aims at supplementing surveillance data using


downlinked airborne parameters:
# To get knowledge of the instantaneous state vector of the flight (heading,
speed)
# To improve the prediction of the flight path (climbing rate, intention
parameters)

Two enhanced surveillance services have to be considered :


# CAP service (Controller Access Parameter)
" Magnetic heading, selected altitude, IAS,

# SAP service (System Access Parameter)


" Selected altitude, ground speed, true track angle, roll angle, vertical rate,

Mode S : the solution to


Mode S messages
Uplink
Downlink

Elementary Surveillance (ELS)


Avionics
Enhanced surveillance (EHS)

EHS : parameter extraction

Mode S specific services are used :


- Periodically or on duty extraction : GICB service (ground initiated COMM-B)
- Extraction on event : dataflash application
- Broadcast air- ground or ground-air short messages

Mode S : the solution to


Mode S messages
Uplink
Downlink

Elementary Surveillance (ELS)


Avionics
Enhanced surveillance (EHS)

All the B.D.S Registers


Not valid

Minimum update rate


N/A

Unassigned

N/A

02 16

Linked Comm-B, segment 2

N/A

03

Linked Comm-B, segment 3

N/A

4016
4116

Linked Comm-B, segment 4

N/A

4216

Extended squitter airbone position

0.2 s

Next way-point information

1.0 s
0.5 s

Extended squitter surface position

0.2 s

4316
4416

Meteorological routine air report

1.0 s

4516
4616
4716

Meteorological hazard report


Reserved for flight management system Mode 1
Reserved for flight management system Mode 2

1.0 s

VHF channel report

5.0 s

Unassigned

N/A

5016
5116
5216

Track and turn report

1.0 s
0.5 s

5316
5416

Air-referenced state vector


Way-point 1

55
16
5616

Way-point 2
Way-point 3

5.0 s

4716-5E16
5F16

Unassigned

N/A
0.5 s

Register No.
00
16

01

04
05
06
07
08
09
0A
0B

16

16
16
16
16
16
16
16
16

0C 16
0D -0E
0F
10

16
16

11 -16
16

17

16

16

18 16-1F 16
20
21
22
23
24
25

16
16
16
16
16
16

26 -2F
16

1.0 s

Extended squitter identification and type

15.0 s

Extended squitter airbone velocity

0.2 s

Extended squitter event-driven information

variable

16

1.0 s

Air/air information 2 (aircraft intent)

1.0 s

Reserved for air/air state information

To be determided

Reserved for ACAS

To be determided

Data link capability report

< 4.0 s

Reserved for extension to data link capability report

5.0 s

Common usage GICB capability report

16

Register No.
3016
3116-3F16

Extended squitter status

Air/air information 1 (aircraft state)

16

16

Assignment

5.0 s

4816
4916-4F16

Mode S specific services capability report

5.0 s

Aircraft identification

5.0 s

Aircraft registration number

15.0 s

Antenna positions

15.0 s

7016-E016

Reserved for antenna position

15.0 s

Reserved for aircraft parameters

15.0 s

E116-E216
E316-F016

Aircraft type

15.0 s

Unassigned

N/A

6016
6116
6216-6F16

F116
F216-FF16

Refer to ICAO Annex 10

Assignment

Minimum update rate

ACAS active resolution advisory


Unassigned

N/A

Aircraft intention

1.0 s
1.0 s

Next way-point identifier


Next way-point position

Position report coarse


Position report fine

Quasi-static parameter monitoring


Heading and speed report
Extended squitter emergency/priority status

To be determided
To be determided

0.5 s
0.5 s
5.0 s
5.0 s

1.0 s
1.0 s

Reserved forxtended
e
squitter
Unassigned
Reserved for Mode S BITE

N/A
N/A

Unassigned
Reserved for military use

N/A

Unassigned

To be determined
N/A

Mode S : the solution to


Mode S messages
Uplink
Downlink

Elementary Surveillance (ELS)


Avionics
Enhanced surveillance (EHS)

GICB capability report


BDS register
BDS 1,7

Downlink Aircraft Parameters

Mode S : the solution to


Mode S messages
Uplink
Downlink

Elementary Surveillance (ELS)


Avionics
Enhanced surveillance (EHS)

EHS carriage regulation


An aircraft is considered to be EHS capable if the full list of 8 Downlink Aircraft Parameters (DAP), set out
below, can be supplied :

BDS register

Downlink Aircraft Parameters

BDS 4,0

Selected altitude

BDS 5,0

Roll angle
Track angle rate
True track angle
Ground speed

BDS 6,0

Magnetic heading
Indicated Airspeed or Mach Number
Vertical rate (barometric or inertial rate of clim or descend)

To enter an EHS declared airspace, aircrafts are required to be EHS capable.


Ex. Amsterdam FIR > FL245 or UK

Mode S : the solution to


Mode S messages
Uplink
Downlink

Elementary Surveillance (ELS)


Avionics
Enhanced surveillance (EHS)

Use of BDS
BDS register

Downlink Aircraft Parameters

BDS 4,0

Selected altitude

! Level Burst alerts

Selected level

RadmS

Mode S : the solution to


Mode S messages
Uplink
Downlink

Elementary Surveillance (ELS)


Avionics
Enhanced surveillance (EHS)

Use of BDS
BDS register

Downlink Aircraft Parameters

BDS 5,0

Roll angle
Track angle rate
True track angle
Ground speed

! Improvement of tracker behaviour


True trajectory

Tracked/filtered
trajectory

Mode S : the solution to


Mode S messages
Uplink
Downlink

Elementary Surveillance (ELS)


Avionics
Enhanced surveillance (EHS)

EHS carriage regulation

BDS register

Downlink Aircraft Parameters

BDS 6,0

Magnetic heading
Indicated Airspeed or Mach Number
Vertical rate (barometric or inertial rate of climb or descend)

! Raw and accurate rate


! Save VHF load when operating approach control

Example of BDS

BDS 4,0

BDS 5,0

BDS 6,0

Mode S : the solution to


Mode S messages
Uplink
Downlink

Elementary Surveillance (ELS)


Avionics
Enhanced surveillance (EHS)

Example of EHS : the GICB service


Dynamic
Enhanced
Surveillance
Climbing rate
The controler wants
to check the climbing
rate of the aircraft

Request manager

Interrogation
with BDS 6,0
request

Transponder
255
register
BDS

BDS 6,0
included in
(DF20 ou DF21)
Parameter server

BDS 6,0 reported


in the surveillance
output

Preset of the parameters to be


automatically extracted by the
radar station
Static Enhanced
Surveillance

6,0

MB

Mode S : the solution to


Mode S messages
Uplink
Downlink

Elementary Surveillance (ELS)


Avionics
Enhanced surveillance (EHS)

EHS Label
Speed vector
Position
FL
(climbing, descending)
ACID
Ground Speed

AFR2130 F280
160
310
070 2500 120

Magnetic heading

Selected altitude

Indicated speed
Vertical speed