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L&T CHIYODA LIMITED

FLANGES, GASKETS AND


FASTENERS

PLANT & PIPING ENGG. DEPT.

L&T CHIYODA LIMITED

FLANGES
Flanges
Fl
n s are pipin
piping components
mp n nts used
us d for
f connecting
nn tin
pipes which needs dismantling & periodic maintenance,
other piping components like valves, specialties,
instrument items like orifice, flow meters etc on to
the pipes.
A flanged joint is composed of three separate &
independent
p
although
g interrelated components;
p
the
flanges, the gaskets & the fasteners.

PLANT & PIPING ENGG. DEPT.

L&T CHIYODA LIMITED

STANDARDS
ASME 16.5 - STEEL PIPE FLANGES AND
FLANGED FITTINGS
ASME 16.47
16 47 - LARGE DIAMETER STEEL FLANGES
ASME 16.1 - CAST IRON PIPE FLANGES AND
FLANGED FITTINGS
API 6A

- SPECIFICATION FOR VALVES &


WELLHEAD EQUIPMENT

API 605

- LARGE DIAMETER CARBON STEEL


FLANGES

PLANT & PIPING ENGG. DEPT.

L&T CHIYODA LIMITED

STANDARDS contd..
MSS-SP-44 - STEEL PIPELINE FLANGES
BS 1560 : STEEL PIPE FLANGES
IS 6392 : STEEL PIPE FLANGES

L&T CHIYODA LIMITED


FLANGE MATERIAL
ASTM A105 (CS)
ASTM A350 (LTCS)
ASTM A182 (AS / SS)
( )
ASTM A181 (CS)
ASTM A694 (CS)
ASTM B62 (BRONZE)

PLANT & PIPING ENGG. DEPT.

L&T CHIYODA LIMITED

FLANGE TYPES
Welding neck flange
Slip-on
Slip
on flange
Socket welded flange
L joint
Lap
j i flange
fl
Screwed flange
Blind flange
Reducing flange
Integral flange
PLANT & PIPING ENGG. DEPT.

L&T CHIYODA LIMITED

W ldi neck
Welding
k flange
fl
The welding neck flanges are attached to pipe by
butt welding.These are mainly used for critical services.
While specifying these flanges the thickness of the
Welding end is to be specified.
specified

PLANT & PIPING ENGG. DEPT.

L&T CHIYODA LIMITED

Socket weld flange


The socket welded flanges are welded only on one side.
These are used for small bore lines only.
only

PLANT & PIPING ENGG. DEPT.

L&T CHIYODA LIMITED

Slip-on flange
The slip-on flanges are attached by welding, inside as
well as outside.

PLANT & PIPING ENGG. DEPT.

L&T CHIYODA LIMITED

Lap
p jo
joint flange
g
The lap joint flange are used with stub ends when
piping is of costly material
material. The stub ends will be butt
welded to the piping & the flanges are kept loose over
the same. The inside edge of these flanges are
chamfered to clear the stub end radius.

PLANT & PIPING ENGG. DEPT.

L&T CHIYODA LIMITED

Screwed flange
The screwed flanges are used on pipelines where
welding
ldi cannott b
be carried
i d out.
t

PLANT & PIPING ENGG. DEPT.

L&T CHIYODA LIMITED

Blind flange
The blind flanges are used to close the ends which
need to be reopened later.

PLANT & PIPING ENGG. DEPT.

L&T CHIYODA LIMITED

Reducing flange
The reducing flanges are used to connect between
larger And smaller sizes without using a reducer.
reducer

PLANT & PIPING ENGG. DEPT.

L&T CHIYODA LIMITED

Integral flange
This type covers designs in which the flange is cast or
forged integrally with the nozzle neck or vessel or pipe
wall, Welded in such a way that the flange & nozzle neck
or vessel or pipe wall is considered to be the equivalent
of an integral structure.

PLANT & PIPING ENGG. DEPT.

L&T CHIYODA LIMITED

FLANGE CLASSIFICATION
BASED ON PRESSURE-TEMPERATURE RATING
BASED ON FLANGE FACING
BASED ON FACE FINISH
BASED ON MATERIAL OF CONSTRUCTION

PLANT & PIPING ENGG. DEPT.

L&T CHIYODA LIMITED

BASED ON RATING

125 # (CI)
( )
150 #
250 # (CI)
300 #
400 #
600 #
900 #
1500 #
2500 #
5000 #
10000 #

PLANT & PIPING ENGG. DEPT.

L&T CHIYODA LIMITED

BASED ON FLANGE FACE

RAISED FACE (RF)


RING TYPE JOINT (RTJ)
(
)
FLAT FACE (FF)
(
)
TONGUE & GROOVE (T/G)
MALE & FEMALE (M/F)

PLANT & PIPING ENGG. DEPT.

L&T CHIYODA LIMITED

BASED ON FACE FINISH

SARGOL AND SARLUN FACING


AARH))
EXTRA SMOOTH FINISH ((32-63
SMOOTH FINISH (125-250 AARH)
AARH))
SERRATED FINISH ((250-500
STOCK FINISH (500-1000 AARH)

PLANT & PIPING ENGG. DEPT.

L&T CHIYODA LIMITED

GASKETS
Gaskets are relatively
y softer material which
are inserted between flanges to avoid
leakage. Tightening the bolts causes the
gasket
k material
i l to flow
fl into
i
the
h minor
i
machining imperfections, resulting in a fluid
tight seal.
seal
Gaskets are made of materials which are not
chemically affected by the fluid in the pipe
and which are resistant to deterioration by
temperature.
temperature
PLANT & PIPING ENGG. DEPT.

L&T CHIYODA LIMITED

GASKETS
Gaskets are
Resilient material
Inserted between flanges
Compressed by bolts to create seal

PLANT & PIPING ENGG. DEPT.

L&T CHIYODA LIMITED

STANDARDS

ASME B16.20 : METALLIC GASKETS FOR


PIPE FLANGES

ASME B16.21 : NON-METALLIC GASKETS


FOR PIPE FLANGES

API 60
601 : METALLIC
CG
GASKET
S
FOR
O REFINERY
PIPING

BS 3381 : METALLIC SPIRAL WOUND GASKETS

IS 2712 : COMPRESSED ASBESTOS FIBRE


JOINTING

PLANT & PIPING ENGG. DEPT.

L&T CHIYODA LIMITED

GASKET TYPES
FULL FACE
INSIDE BOLT CIRCLE
SPIRAL WOUND METALLIC
RING TYPE
METAL JACKETED
PLANT & PIPING ENGG. DEPT.

L&T CHIYODA LIMITED

GASKETS contd..
Gaskets must :
a) Maintain integrity during handling and
installation.
b) Be sufficiently
s fficientl deformable to flo
flow into
imperfections on the seating surfaces to
create an initial seal.
c) Have sufficient strength to resist crushing
under the applied load and defy rupture
under pressure.
pressure
d) Chemically resist fluid under all
temperatures
p
and p
pressures.
PLANT & PIPING ENGG. DEPT.

L&T CHIYODA LIMITED

GASKETS contd..
e) Be strong enough to maintain the seal,
tough enough to withstand creep
relaxation, and resilient enough to provide
recovery during normal operation
including thermal cycling and vibration.
f) Never promote corrosion of the seating
surface.
surface
g) Be impermeable to the fluid being
handled.
h) Be
B sufficiently
ffi i tl resistant
i t t tto radiation,
di ti
if
present, to perform its function.
PLANT & PIPING ENGG. DEPT.

L&T CHIYODA LIMITED

SELECTION OF GASKETS

PLANT & PIPING ENGG. DEPT.

L&T CHIYODA LIMITED

SELECTION OF GASKETS contd..

PLANT & PIPING ENGG. DEPT.

L&T CHIYODA LIMITED

SELECTION OF GASKETS contd..

PLANT & PIPING ENGG. DEPT.

L&T CHIYODA LIMITED

THREADED FASTENERS
Threaded fasteners are the means by which the
flanged joints are connected together.They are
mainly divided into 2 types.
types Viz
1.Stud bolts & nuts
2 Machine bolts & nuts
2.Machine
For low pressure, low temperature service,
machined bolts are used and studs are used
otherwise. Low strength carbon steel bolts shall
not be used above 200o or below 29o.
PLANT & PIPING ENGG. DEPT.

L&T CHIYODA LIMITED

TYPES
STUD BOLTS AND NUTS

MACHINE BOLTS AND NUTS

PLANT & PIPING ENGG. DEPT.

L&T CHIYODA LIMITED

MATERIALS
ASTM A193 AS bolting material for high temp.service
ASTM A194 AS
AS nut material for high temp
temp.service
service
ASTM A307 Low carbon steel bolting material
ASTM A320 Alloy steel bolting material
ASTM A563 Carbon and alloyy steel nuts
IS 1367

- Threaded steel fasteners

PLANT & PIPING ENGG. DEPT.

L&T CHIYODA LIMITED

STANDARD
ASME B18.2.1- SQUARE & HEXAGONAL HEAD BOLTS
ASME B18.2.2
B18.2.2- SQUARE & HEXAGONAL HEAD NUTS
BS 916

- BLACK BOLTS & NUTS

IS 1367

- THREADED STEEL FASTENERS

PLANT & PIPING ENGG. DEPT.

THANK YOU
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