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51

Universiti Teknologi Malaysia

UNIVERSAL BEAM SECTIONS UNDER AXIAL

COMPRESSION LOAD

MAHMOOD MD TAHIR1 & SHEK POI NGIAN2

Abstract. The main function of a column is to transfer loads by means of compressive action. The

response of the column to a nominally applied load depends upon a number of factors. The most

important are its length and cross-sectional shape, the strength of material, the conditions of support

provided at its ends and the method of restrained to its axis. This paper presents the performance of

cruciform column under axial compression load. Cruciform column, which is also known as compound

members, consists of two universal beams section where one universal beam section is cut into two at

the mid section of the beam and welded to the other beam section. The compression capacity tables

based on the code BS5950-1:200 are developed for columns with different sections and different

effective lengths. The study shows that the compression resistance of the column increases as the radius

of gyration of the section increases due to the formation of cruciform column. The study also concludes

that the use of cruciform column contributes to the saving of the column steel weights up to 35%

compared to UC sections and up to 60% as compared to UB sections.

Keywords:

beam

Abstrak. Tujuan utama penggunaan tiang adalah untuk mengagihkan beban dengan cara tindakan

mampatan. Daya mampatan tiang bergantung kepada beberapa faktor. Antara yang paling penting

ialah panjang efektif, luas keratan, kekuatan bahan, sambungan pada kedua-dua hujungnya dan juga

rembatan pada paksi lenturannya. Kertas kerja ini membincangkan keupayaan mampatan tiang

cruciform. Tiang cruciform juga dikenali sebagai tiang gabungan, terdiri daripada dua keratan rasuk

semesta di mana satu keratan rasuk semesta dikerat di tengah keratan dan dikimpal pada satu keratan

rasuk semesta lain. Jadual keupayaan mampatan telah dihasilkan untuk pelbagai jenis saiz tiang

dengan panjang efektif yang berbeza. Semua pengiraan untuk jadual keupayaan mampatan adalah

merujuk kepada BS 5950-1:2000. Daripada kajian ini, didapati bahawa kekuatan mampatan tiang

bertambah dengan pertambahan jejari legaran. Kajian ini dapat menyimpulkan bahawa penggunaan

tiang cruciform mengurangkan jumlah berat tiang sebanyak 35% apabila dibandingkan dengan tiang

universal dan 60% apabila dibandingkan dengan rasuk universal.

Kata kunci: Tiang cruciform, tiang gabungan, kekuatan mampatan, panjang efektif, rasuk universal

1&2

JTDIS43B[05].pmd

Steel Technology Centre, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 UTM

Skudai, Johor, Malaysia

51

05/23/2007, 15:03

52

1.0 INTRODUCTION

Columns are generally referred to as vertical compression members that support floors

or roofs in structural frames. In many cases, such members are subjected to both axial

and bending effects. In practice, most columns generally fail due to either local buckling

or overall buckling or the combination of both. For short column, the failure is usually

due to local buckling where the mode of failure is known as squashing. However,

slender column normally fails at elastic critical loads which usually located at the midlength of the column with curved shape type of failure. In practice, however, the mode

of failure usually encountered in the design of column is within the range of these two

conditions. The mode of failure does not only depend on the length of the column but

also on its cross sectional area that determines the slenderness ratio of the column.

Slenderness is defined as the ratio of column length over minimum radius of gyration.

The compression resistance of the column is therefore, very much dependent on the

effective length and the cross sectional area of the section. A typical column known as

universal column of H-shaped section is usually used in the design of steel column,

but due to the problem of weak axis, the compressive resistance of the column is

greatly reduced. Therefore, cruciform column using universal beam section is

introduced as an alternative section to increase the compressive resistance of the column.

2.0 FORMATION OF CRUCIFORM COLUMN WITH

UNIVERSAL BEAM SECTIONS

Cruciform column is made of two universal beams where one beam is cut at midlength and attached to the other beam by means of a fillet weld, as shown in Figure 1.

This fillet weld should be stronger than the parent materials that are welded together.

In order to achieve this strength, the size of effective weld (i.e. 0.7 multiplied by the

Fillet weld (size depending

on the thickness of the

welded web)

welding/bolting

Figure 1

JTDIS43B[05].pmd

52

05/23/2007, 15:03

53

size of weld) should be greater than the thickness of the welded column web. In case

of cruciform column, the weld is usually welded on both sides to form a symmetrical

section. As a result, a cruciform shape is developed so that the value of moment of

inertia in the x-axis and the y-axis is the same. The use of universal beam instead of

universal column section for the formation of the cruciform column section is

recommended due to the geometrical aspects of universal beam. Factors including

greater stiffener on major axis and that adequate space between the beam flanges to

carry out the process of fabrication and installation of the beam to column connection

make the universal beam a better choice.

3.0

THE COLUMN SUBJECT TO AXIAL LOAD

One of the main problems in columns is their tendency to buckle. Only short columns

can be easily designed using formula for compressive resistance based on gross cross

section and yield strength. The main problem of the compression member is its

tendency to buckle before it yields even if the column is straight, homogenous, and

centrally loaded. This phenomenon was described in mathematical terms by Leonhard

Euler in 1759 [3]. The elastic critical load or buckling load of an axially compressed

straight column is given by Euler theory as [3]:

PE = 2EI/L2

(1)

E = elastic modulus of steel (205 kN/mm2)

L = length of the column (or distance between restraints)

In case of cruciform column, the second moment of area, I is greater than the

typical universal column section which will increase the value of load, PE. Writing this

in terms of stress pE by dividing the cross-sectional area A, and defining the radius of

gyration r as I = Ar 2, gives

pE = 2E (Ar 2)/(L2A) = 2E/(L/r)2 = 2E /2

(2)

The controlling parameter is therefore, , the slenderness ratio (L/r) of the column,

with the elastic critical stress pE being inversely proportional to the square of the column

slenderness. It follows that there is a certain slenderness 1 at which theoretically, pE =

py, the design strength of steel. This is given by 1 = E / p y . Columns usually have

different second moments of area in different directions (e.g. Ix-x and Iy-y sections).

Therefore, radius of gyration rx and ry may be defined as relevant values in the directions,

parallel and perpendicular to the web (usually the major and minor stiffness directions)

respectively. However, for cruciform column, the Ix-x and Iy-y sections are equal which

also result in the same stiffness in the major and minor axis. According to Euler

JTDIS43B[05].pmd

53

05/23/2007, 15:03

54

theory, lateral torsional buckling will occur in the y y direction if ry < rx, unless lateral

movement is restrained in this direction. However, this problem will not occur in the

cruciform column, as the axes are symmetrical. The presence of an initial lack of

straightness and/or small eccentricities of loading will mean that the column of struts

will develop lateral deformations gradually rather than as a sudden process. Thus,

yielding will develop from the more heavily compressed regions, leading to a progressive

loss of stiffness. Since the actual magnitude and distribution of factors like initial

deformation and residual compressive stress will vary both between section types

and, to some extent, within different samples of the same section, the actual relationship

between column strength and slenderness will spread over a relatively wide range.

BS 5950 Part 1: 2000 [4] recognizes this by providing four column curves, (see Figure

2), each of which is represented by a modified Perry-Robertson formula as follows [3]:

( pE pC) (py pC) = pE pC

where pC

py

=

=

=

=

(3)

design strength of steel

0.001 (0)

0.21

pC = pE py /( + (2 pE py)1/2)

(4)

300

250

Euler curve

200

150

Curve a

100

Curve b

Curve c

50

Curve d

0

50

100

150

200

250

300

350

Slenderness

Figure 2

JTDIS43B[05].pmd

54

05/23/2007, 15:03

400

In which

55

= (Py + ( + 1) pE) /2

pE = 2E/2

From the expression for the Perry coefficient, it follows that pC = py when = 0 ,

which represents the limiting slenderness of a stocky column.

The original Perry formula (without 0) is based on first yield of a point on the

cross-section of the column. The Perry coefficient is an initial imperfection parameter

dependent on the type of section, and the method of forming (i.e. rolling or welding),

which is a function of the slenderness of the column. The values of the Robertson

constant have been determined from tests [3] which allow for actual failure (not

necessarily first yield). Positioning of four design curves (a to d) is controlled by

selecting four different values for the Robertson constant (2.0, 3.5, 5.5, 8.0) depending

on the types of cross section, type of axis, and thickness of the flange.

For cruciform column, the Robertson constant of 2.0 is assumed as the same value

used for universal beam sections in major axis [3]. This value applied for both axes of

the cruciform column where no flange is greater than 40 mm thick. The reason for

using 2.0 as Robertson constant is that the formation of cruciform column is by the use

of universal beam and the bending on major axis in universal beam is stronger than

the minor axis. Therefore, the assumption of using 2.0 as the constant for cruciform

column is consistent with the constant suggested by BS 5950.

3.1

Compressive Resistance

material strength, section classification, and member slenderness [4]. In the code of

practice [4], the compression resistance is expressed in terms of a compressive strength,

which takes into account both material strength and member slenderness, and a crosssectional area that depends on the cross section classification. The compression

resistance is given by:

For non-slender cross-sections (Class1, 2 or 3)

For Class 4 slender cross-sections

P c = Ag p c

Pc = Aeff pcs

Aeff = effective area of the section

pc = compressive strength for a non-slender section

pcs = compressive strength for a slender section

The classification of cruciform columns does not fall into the slender category as

the depth between fillets has been reduced into half and will reduce the ratio of depth

JTDIS43B[05].pmd

55

05/23/2007, 15:03

56

between fillet and the thickness of the web. Therefore, the compression resistance is

calculated as Pc = Ag pc.

3.2

Slenderness

section. The slenderness for non-slender cross-sections (Class 1, 2 or 3) is given by

= LE /r

where LE = effective length,

r = radius of gyration, for the relevant axis of buckling where in cruciform

column the both axes are the same.

3.3

Effective Length

The effective length of a compression member is a function of the actual length between

restraints and the type of restraint provided. The restraint of the column is usually

associated with the type of connection used at the end of the column. The restraint at

the ends of the column will affect the buckling shape of the column (see Table 1)

which therefore, affects the compressive resistance of the column. In Table 1, rigid

joint results in shorter effective length. The smaller the effective length, the higher will

be the compressive resistance of the column. The effective length of columns also

depends on whether the frame is braced or unbraced. For unbraced frame, the effective

length is greater than the braced frame due to the sway behavior of the frame. For

Table 1 Deformation shape with end restraint condition LE [2]

Braced frame

Restraint at

Unbraced frame

Position only

(pinned joint)

Position and

direction

(fixed joint)

Position and

direction

(fixed joint)

None

Direction

only

Restraint at

end 2

Position and

(pinned joint)

Position and

(fixed joint)

Position and

direction

(fixed joint)

Position and

direction

(fixed joint)

Position and

direction

(fixed joint)

Practical LE

1.0 L

0.85 L

0.7 L

2.0 L

1.2 L

Buckled

shape

JTDIS43B[05].pmd

56

05/23/2007, 15:03

57

braced frames, the effective length is equal to 1.0 L or less depending on the condition

of end restraints. For end restraint with pinned joint, the effective length is taken as

1.0 L while for fixed joint, the effective length is taken as 0.7 L to 0.85 L as shown in

Table 1. The length (L) used in Table 1 is the distance of the member between two

restraints.

4.0 COLUMN CAPACITY

The column capacity for cruciform section can be calculated from the Perry-Robertson

formula in Equation (4). In accordance to BS 5950: Part 1, sections which have lower

compression resistance are designed using one of the lower curves. As for the cruciform

column, the formation is based on a combination of two universal beams. This

combination will give rise to stiffer member compared to a single universal beam and

universal column as a column. Therefore, the constant used in the Perry-Robertson is

taken as 2.0, which is the upper bound value for the calculation of compression resistance

of columns. The actual process of design, therefore, consists of the following steps:

(i)

(ii)

(iii)

(iv)

Determine effective length of column, LE, in x and y directions.

Calculate = LE /r.

Obtain the value of pc for each direction as a function of and py and select

the lower value.

(v) Compare Pc = Ag pc with the factored applied axial load for the design of

compression member.

Since this is a trial method, therefore, to utilise the use of cruciform column in the

design, tables of compression capacity are produced (please refer to Tables 2(a to d)).

These tables consist of the compression capacity for cruciform column with steel grade

S275 fully stressed by axial load only for different effective lengths. With these tables,

the design for axially loaded column can be easily done by just comparing the required

compression capacity of a cruciform section that has been established in the tables.

4.1 Discussions on the Compression Capacity Tables

The compression capacity tables are best presented by listing the size of the beam

used together with the effective length of the column as shown in Tables 2(a) to 2(d).

The values given are calculated based on the design strength of S 275 steel grade with

the effective lengths ranging from 2.0 to 14.0 m, for the size of beam ranging from

Cruciform Column Universal Beam(hereafter referred to as CCUB) 1016 305 974

to CCUB 610 305 149. For smaller beams with size ranging from CCUB 610 229

140 to CCUB 127 76 13, the effective lengths are ranged from 1.0 to 7.0 m. From

the tables, the results show that the compression capacity of the CCUB is constant at a

JTDIS43B[05].pmd

57

05/23/2007, 15:03

JTDIS43B[05].pmd

31620

28407

25500

23585

21200

18391

16801

14999

26182

23161

19504

17119

15158

13568

15317

13091

11872

13303

11660

9911

9405

11501

10282

9434

8427

16059

12084

10070

914419776

914419686

914305578

914305506

914305448

914305402

838292453

838292388

838292352

762267394

762267346

762267294

762267268

686254340

686254304

686254280

686254250

610305476

610305358

610305298

2.0

1016305974

1016305874

1016305786

1016305698

1016305628

1016305544

1016305498

1016305444

Section

designation

58

05/23/2007, 15:03

16059

12084

10070

15949

11993

9991

11445

10229

9383

8375

13289

11642

9889

9373

15317

13091

11872

19504

17119

15158

13568

26182

23161

31620

28407

25500

23585

21200

18391

16801

14999

4.0

15767

11854

9874

11322

10118

9280

8282

13162

11529

9791

9279

15227

13002

11784

19449

17066

15103

13509

26155

23130

31620

28407

25500

23585

21200

18391

16785

14970

5.0

15575

11705

9749

11192

10001

9172

8183

13030

11411

9688

9180

15092

12885

11675

19293

16928

14979

13395

25956

22952

31432

28233

25338

23421

21048

18256

16658

14853

6.0

15366

11545

9614

11053

9876

9056

8077

12890

11287

9580

9074

14953

12762

11562

19132

16785

14850

13277

25751

22769

31198

28022

25147

23244

20888

18116

16526

14732

7.0

15136

11367

9464

10901

9739

8929

7960

12740

11153

9463

8959

14805

12632

11441

18963

16635

14715

13153

25538

22578

30956

27804

24950

23061

20723

17972

16390

14606

8.0

14878

11166

9295

10733

9586

8787

7829

12577

11007

9334

8832

14647

12493

11312

18784

16476

14571

13021

25314

22377

30704

27577

24744

22870

20550

17821

16247

14473

9.0

14584

10937

9101

10543

9414

8627

7681

12398

10845

9192

8691

14477

12342

11171

18594

16307

14418

12880

25077

22164

30439

27337

24527

22668

20367

17661

16095

14331

10.0

14246

10673

8876

10327

9218

8444

7511

12197

10665

9032

8531

14291

12177

11017

18388

16125

14253

12726

24823

21936

30159

27084

24298

22453

20172

17492

15933

14180

11.0

13854

10365

8615

10079

8992

8233

7315

11972

10462

8852

8348

14086

11994

10845

18165

15926

14072

12559

24550

21690

29860

26814

24052

22223

19964

17309

15758

14015

12.0

13400

10008

8312

9792

8732

7990

7087

11717

10230

8646

8138

13858

11790

10653

17921

15708

13873

12373

24253

21423

29538

26523

23788

21975

19738

17112

15568

13836

13.0

12878

9598

7965

9464

8433

7711

6826

11426

9967

8410

7897

13604

11560

10437

17652

15468

13653

12168

23928

21129

29191

26208

23502

21705

19493

16897

15360

13639

14.0

11501

10282

9434

8427

13303

11660

9911

9405

15317

13091

11872

19504

17119

15158

13568

26182

23161

31620

28407

25500

23585

21200

18391

16801

14999

3.0

Table 2(a) Compression capacity for cruciform column for steel grade S 275

58

JTDIS43B[05].pmd

59

9434

8427

7632

7095

8215

7367

6837

6435

5775

6625

6042

5720

5203

4703

5565

5009

4708

4191

3663

533210244

533210218

533210202

533210184

533210166

457191196

457191178

457191164

457191148

457191134

457152164

457152148

457152134

457152120

457152104

1.0

610229280

610229250

610229226

610229202

Section

designation

05/23/2007, 15:03

5565

5009

4708

4191

3663

6625

6042

5720

5203

4703

8215

7367

6837

6435

5775

9434

8427

7632

7095

1.5

5565

5009

4708

4191

3663

6625

6042

5720

5203

4703

8215

7367

6837

6435

5775

9434

8427

7632

7095

2.0

5551

4995

4690

4175

3645

6617

6033

5707

5190

4688

8215

7367

6837

6435

5775

9434

8427

7632

7095

2.5

5507

4956

4652

4140

3615

6567

5987

5662

5149

4651

8193

7344

6815

6409

5746

9434

8427

7632

7095

3.0

5462

4914

4613

4105

3583

6515

5939

5616

5107

4612

8139

7295

6769

6365

5706

9397

8391

7596

7052

3.5

5414

4871

4571

4068

3549

6461

5889

5568

5063

4572

8083

7244

6722

6320

5664

9341

8341

7550

7008

4.0

5364

4826

4527

4028

3514

6404

5836

5518

5016

4529

8025

7192

6672

6273

5621

9284

8290

7503

6963

4.5

5310

4777

4480

3986

3475

6343

5780

5464

4967

4483

7965

7137

6621

6224

5576

9226

8237

7455

6917

5.0

5253

4725

4429

3940

3434

6279

5721

5405

4913

4434

7902

7079

6567

6172

5528

9165

8183

7404

6868

5.5

Table 2(b) Compression capacity for cruciform column for steel grade S 275

5190

4668

4373

3890

3388

6209

5656

5342

4855

4380

7835

7018

6510

6117

5476

9102

8125

7352

6818

6.0

5122

4606

4312

3835

3337

6133

5586

5273

4792

4321

7764

6953

6450

6058

5421

9035

8066

7296

6764

6.5

5047

4538

4244

3773

3280

6051

5509

5197

4722

4255

7688

6884

6385

5995

5362

8965

8003

7238

6707

7.0

59

JTDIS43B[05].pmd

60

3784

3229

2822

3366

2937

2596

30516596

30516584

30516574

30512796

30512784

30512774

4703

3993

3570

3152

356171134

356171114

356171102

35617190

2739

2316

3223

2734

40614092

40614078

35612778

35612766

5198

4703

4208

3795

1.0

406178148

406178134

406178120

406178108

Section designation

05/23/2007, 15:03

3366

2937

2596

3784

3229

2822

2739

2316

4703

3993

3570

3152

3223

2734

5198

4703

4208

3795

1.5

3331

2905

2567

3755

3203

2798

2726

2302

4693

3983

3559

3140

3223

2731

5198

4703

4208

3795

2.0

3289

2868

2534

3712

3166

2766

2697

2277

4648

3943

3524

3108

3195

2706

5164

4670

4178

3765

2.5

3245

2829

2499

3666

3127

2731

2667

2251

4600

3902

3487

3075

3165

2679

5118

4629

4141

3730

3.0

3196

2785

2460

3616

3084

2693

2634

2223

4550

3859

3447

3039

3134

2651

5071

4585

4102

3694

3.5

3140

2736

2416

3561

3037

2651

2599

2191

4495

3811

3404

3000

3100

2622

5020

4539

4060

3655

4.0

3077

2680

2366

3499

2983

2603

2559

2156

4436

3759

3357

2957

3064

2589

4966

4490

4015

3614

4.5

3003

2613

2307

3427

2921

2548

2514

2117

4370

3702

3305

2909

3024

2553

4908

4436

3967

3568

5.0

2916

2536

2237

3345

2850

2484

2464

2072

4296

3637

3246

2855

2980

2513

4844

4377

3914

3518

5.5

2814

2444

2155

3248

2767

2409

2405

2019

4213

3563

3179

2793

2931

2468

4773

4312

3855

3463

6.0

2695

2337

2059

3136

2670

2322

2337

1959

4117

3478

3102

2721

2875

2417

4694

4239

3789

3400

6.5

Table 2(c)

2560

2216

1951

3007

2558

2222

2260

1889

4008

3381

3013

2639

2813

2359

4605

4156

3714

3329

7.0

60

MAHMOOD MD TAHIR & SHEK POI NGIAN

JTDIS43B[05].pmd

61

2299

1975

1738

3014

2596

2184

1986

1760

1540

2101

1760

1617

1334

1108

892

25414686

25414674

25414662

25410257

25410250

25410244

20313360

20313350

20310246

17810238

1528932

1277626

1.0

30510266

30510256

30510250

Section designation

05/23/2007, 15:03

865

1081

1308

1593

2075

1737

1975

1749

1529

3006

2588

2174

2299

1975

1736

1.5

829

1049

1278

1563

2039

1706

1946

1723

1505

2966

2553

2144

2274

1951

1715

2.0

778

1009

1243

1528

1998

1670

1916

1695

1480

2923

2516

2111

2245

1925

1691

2.5

706

955

1199

1486

1949

1628

1881

1663

1451

2876

2474

2075

2214

1898

1666

3.0

615

882

1141

1435

1890

1576

1841

1626

1416

2822

2427

2033

2180

1868

1638

3.5

520

790

1067

1369

1817

1512

1793

1582

1375

2760

2373

1984

2141

1833

1605

4.0

435

691

975

1288

1726

1431

1736

1529

1325

2686

2308

1926

2097

1793

1568

4.5

366

597

874

1189

1614

1333

1667

1464

1264

2598

2230

1855

2045

1746

1523

5.0

310

514

773

1081

1486

1222

1584

1386

1191

2493

2137

1770

1983

1690

1470

5.5

265

445

681

971

1350

1106

1487

1296

1107

2368

2027

1671

1911

1625

1407

6.0

228

387

599

867

1217

993

1380

1198

1018

2227

1903

1560

1827

1549

1334

6.5

Table 2(d)

199

338

528

773

1092

889

1269

1098

929

2073

1769

1442

1732

1463

1254

7.0

61

62

certain effective length of the column. This is because the slenderness ratio of the

CCUB sections at certain length is less or equal to the 0 so that the compressive

strength pc is equal to py. The compression capacities values are then gradually reduced

in a non-linear manner in accordance with the predicted graph as shown in Figure 2.

The compression capacity decreases as the effective length increases. The reduction

of the compression capacity is not drastically reduced, as the stiffness of the cruciform

column is higher than the UB or the UC sections. As the effective length increases, the

slenderness ratio of the column increases and the overall buckling effect (lateral

deformations) started to control the compression capacity.

5.0 COMPARISON BETWEEN CCUB, UB AND UC SECTIONS

To investigate the effectiveness of cruciform column, a comparison was made between

cruciform column, UB and UC sections for the compression capacities ranging from

3000 to 5000 kN. The compression capacities for different hot-rolled sections with

cruciform columns under various load case with various effective lengths have been

studied in order to compare the effectiveness in percentage of weight savings. The

results of the calculation are summarized in Tables 3(a) to 3(c). The purpose of the

case study is to test the capacity of different sections to determine which section will

contribute less self weight. From the tables, the use of CCUB sections have reduced

the steel weight by up to 35.44% as compared with UC sections and up to 59.68% as

compared with UB sections. These results show that the use of CCUB section has

significantly increased the compression capacity of the column with the same mass of

steel. The results also show that the percentage saving in steel starts to be reduced as

the required axial load increases. This is probably due to the size of UB and UC

which gets larger and stiffer than the size of column designed for lesser load capacity.

Table 3(a) Comparison between UB, UC, and CCUB under an axial load of 3000 kN with an

effective length of 6 meter

Section

Cruciform

column

Universal

column (UC)

Universal

beam (UB)

JTDIS43B[05].pmd

P cx

P cy

Mass

per

meter

Length

Selfweight

kN

kN

kg/m

kg

3388

3388

102

612

4780

3320

158

948

35.44

5950

3890

253

1518

59.68

Dimension

62

05/23/2007, 15:03

Percentage

of steel

weight

difference

compare

to CCUB

63

Table 3(b) Comparison between UB, UC, and CCUB under an axial load of 4000 kN with an

effective length of 6 meter

Section

Cruciform

column

Universal

column (UC)

Universal

beam (UB)

P cx

Pcy

Mass Length

per

meter

kN

kN

kg/m

kg

4213

4213

134.2

805.2

6030

4220

198

1188

32.22

8620

5250

289

1734

53.56

Dimension

Selfweight

Percentage

of steel

weight

difference

compared

to CCUB

Table 3(c) Comparison between UB, UC, and CCUB under an axial load of 5000 kN and an

effective length of 6 meter

Section

Cruciform

column

Universal

column (UC)

Universal

beam (UB)

P cx

Pcy

Mass Length

per

meter

kN

kN

kg/m

kg

5190

5190

164.2

985.2

7330

5180

240

1440

31.58

7950

5190

238

1428

31.01

Dimension

Selfweight

Percentage

of steel

weight

difference

compared

to CCUB

WITH DIFFERENT EFFECTIVE LENGTHS

For the second stage of comparison, the maximum compression capacity of each hotrolled section was considered. This comparison was done by taking into account the

maximum compression capacity of the biggest section available in the market. The

purpose of this comparison is to find out which section is able to sustain the largest

axial load. The result of the comparison is summarised in Table 4. To have a better

understanding of the effect of using CCUB sections, the comparison is also illustrated

in Figure 3.. The results show that cruciform columns has the highest maximum capacity

which is almost two times the capacity of the largest available circular hollow sections

(CHS) and three times the capacity of the largest available UC sections in the market.

JTDIS43B[05].pmd

63

05/23/2007, 15:03

JTDIS43B[05].pmd

64

CCUB

(1016305487)

Circular hollow section

(50030020.0)

Square hollow section

(40040020)

Rectangular hollow section

(50030020)

Universal column

(UC356406634)

Universal beam

(UB1016305487)

Section type

31620

24400

22700

7820

18300

12400

31620

24400

22700

7940

19800

12900

11800

16900

7670

22600

24400

31620

11200

15600

7490

22400

24200

31620

10300

14200

7280

22200

23900

31432

9420

12900

7020

22000

23600

31198

8410

11700

6690

21700

23400

30956

7400

10500

6280

21500

23100

30704

9m

Effective length

6470

9410

5790

21200

22700

30439

10 m

5640

8440

5260

20800

22300

30159

11 m

4930

7580

4720

20500

21900

29860

12 m

Table 4 Compression capacities (in kN) of various hot-rolled sections with different effective length

4330

6820

4210

20000

21400

29538

13 m

3820

6150

3750

19600

20900

29191

14 m

64

MAHMOOD MD TAHIR & SHEK POI NGIAN

05/23/2007, 15:03

65

This result shows that the cruciform column is one of the best alternative sections

available to be used in the design of column for high-rise building where heavy

compression load is needed as the largest size of UC and CHS have limited compression

capacity as shown in Figure 3. The symmetrical axis for the cruciform column will

enhance the compression resistance and the fabrication of the beam-to column

connection which results in added advantages compared with other sections.

7.0 CONCLUSION

Conclusions of the study on compression capacity of cruciform column under axial

load are as follows:Cruciform column (1016 x 305 x 974)

35000

30000

Square hollow section (400 x 400 x 20)

25000

20000

Universal beam (1016 x 305 x 487)

Rectangular hollow section

(500 x 300 x 20)

15000

10000

5000

0

2

10

11

12

13

14

Figure 3

(i)

(ii)

(iii)

(iv)

(v)

JTDIS43B[05].pmd

increases the cross sectional area and second moment of inertia of CCUB

section which resulted in an increase in the compression capacity.

The establishment of compression capacity tables for cruciform universal

beam column is possible by adopting the methods described in BS 5950:2000

Part 1 [4] and the design guide in Steel Construction Institute [5].

The percentage saving in steel weight by using cruciform universal beam

sections as column is up to 35.44% as compared with UC section and 59.68%

as compared with UB section.

The maximum compression capacity of cruciform universal beam section

as column can provide almost three times the maximum compression

capacity of other conventional compression members.

The use of cruciform columns will enhance the design aspects of multi-

65

05/23/2007, 15:03

66

capacity on x-x and y-y axis has the same value.

(vi) Easy to fabricate the beam-to-column connection as lack of fit which occurs

on minor axis connection can be avoided.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

The authors would like to acknowledge the contribution of the Construction Industry

Development Board of Malaysia (CIDB) for providing the research fund (Vote 73049)

to carry out the analysis and data gathering.

REFERENCES

[1]

[2]

[3]

[4]

[5]

[6]

[7]

[8]

[9]

[10]

JTDIS43B[05].pmd

Nethercot, D. A. 1991. Limit States Design of Structural Steelwork. Second edition. Nottingham: Chapman &

Hall.

Way, A. G. J., and P. R. Salter. 2003. Introduction to Steelwork Design to BS 5950-1:2000. Berkshire: The Steel

Construction Institute.

Nethercot, D. A., and R. M. Lawson. 1992. Lateral Stability of Steel Beams and Columns Common Cases of

Restrain. Berkshire: The Steel Construction Institute.

British Standard Institute. 2000. BS 5950: Structural Use of Steelwork in Building Part 1: Code of Practice for

Design Rol led and Welded Sections. London: British Standards Institution.

The Steel Construction Institute and the British Constructional Steelwork Association Limited. 2002. Steelwork

Design Guide to BS 5950: Part 1: 2000 Volume 1 Section Properties Member Capacities (6th Edition) Incorporating

Amendment 1 (June 2002). London.

Trahair, N. S., M. A. Bradford, and D. A. Nethercot. 2001. The Behaviour and Design of Steel Structures to BS

5950. Third Edition-British. London: Spon Press.

You, C. K., T. Hidetoshi, N. Eiji, and H. Kohsuke. 1999. Buckling Characteristics of High Manganese Nonmagnetic Steel and Carbon Steel Hybrid Cruciform Columns. Trans. JWRI. 28.

Nicos, M. 2003. Plastic Torsional Buckling of Cruciform Compression Members. Journal of Engineering

Mechanics ASCE. 129.

Burl, E. D. 2002. Universal Column Formula. Practice Periodical on Structural Design and Construction

ASCE. 7.

Saleh, H. A., and B. Reidar. 1989. Inelastic Behavior of Single Angle Columns. Journal of Construction Steel

Research. 12: 103-118.

66

05/23/2007, 15:03

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