You are on page 1of 17

Method

DMAIC

Key Points
Robust methodology for improving existing
processes, focuses on preventing defects

Bottom Line
Core Methodology
Major Effort/ SOAR
Initiative, Complement
DMAIC

DfSS

Robust methodology for designing new processes/


products/ services or redesigning entitled processes

Lean

Robust methodology for improving existing


Major Effort/ SOAR
processes through elimination of waste and
Initiative, Complement
bottlenecks, focuses on product/ service value stream DMAIC

TOCI

Compact Methodology for improving existing


processes, focuses on improvement of small,
previously-identified "quick hits"

Resolving a quick find, en


lieu of DMAIC

8-D

Compact methodology for improving existing


processes, focuses on containing problems and
eliminating special cause

Eliminating special cause,


Within DMAIC Measure/
Analyze or Stand-alone

KepnerTregoe
Problem
Analysis

Compact methodology for improving existing


processes, focuses on determining why an variance
from the expected result is observed

Eliminating special cause,


Within DMAIC Measure/
Analyze or Stand-alone

Other
Theory of Constraints, TRIZ (Inventive Problem
Methods to Solving), KT Situational Appraisal, KT Decision
consider
Analysis, KT Potential Problem Analysis

Varies

Six Sigma - DfSS


Tools

Activities

LEAN
Tools

Identify Customer, Stakeholder and


Process Owner Requirements;
Problem Statement, CTQ, Big Y
Musts, Wants, Constraints, Scope,
Timing

Project Initiation (Define Strategic


Objectives); Develop Project Scope (ID
Deliverables, Clarify Financial Benefits);
Interview, Survey, QFD, Kano Analysis, Project Planning/Management (ID
Process Maps, CTQ Flow Diagram,
Resources, Complete Project Charter,
SIPOC, Team Charter, Customer Needs Timeline); Identify the Customers (Target
Matrix, Affinity Diagram, Data Mining Segments, Internal vs. External,
Stakeholder Analysis, Customer
Prioritization); Cross Functional Team
Formed

Project Roadmap, Thought


Process Map, Charter, Multigeneration Plan

Identify Customer,
Stakeholder and Process
Owner Requirements;
Problem Statement, CTQ,
Big Y Musts, Wants,
Constraints, Scope, Timing

Define Performance Standard


Baseline; Baseline DPMO, Sigma,
COPQ Opportunity, KPOV
Identification; Validate Measurement
System (POVs); Determine Product
Capability

Identify what is important to the customer;


Translate Customer Requirements to
Z-Tables, Pareto, SPC Charts, Normality Critical to Quality Parameters; Prioritize
Tests, Process Maps, RTY, FMEA, MSA, Critical to Quality Parameters and
Hypothesis Tests, Time Series Plots,
Establish Acceptable Range; Perform
Checksheets, Minitab (Quality Tools),
Competitive Assessment; Determine
Sample Size, Normality Tests
Measurement Protocols, Needs, etc;
Identify Noise Variables at the Customer;
Develop a product use profile

Customer Research, Quality


Function Deployment, FMEA,
Opportunity Analysis,
Benchmarking, Kano Models,
Attribute Charts

Value Stream Maps, Lean Assessment,


Define Current Performance
Lean Metrics, Visual Management, Control
"Baseline"; Define Current
Charts, Check Sheets, MSA; Takt Time,
State; Validate Performance
Cycle Time, Throughput Time,
Objectives
Benchmarking

Define Performance Objective;


Identify Variation Sources; Screen
Potential Causes

Benchmarking, Hypothesis Tests,


Entitlement Analysis, Literature Review,
FMEA, Hypothesis Tests, C&E Diagram,
Regression, PMAP, Multivariate Study,
SPC Charts, Sample Size, ANOVA,
Concentration Diag., Normality Tests,
COV, Screening, Conjoint Analysis,
ANOVA, Full & Fractional Factorial
DOE, Blocking, Multi-Vari Charts

Pugh Selection Matrix, Risk


Assessment, FMEA, DOE,
Identify Sources of Waste &
Conjoint Analysis, Benchmarking,
Assess Process Stability /
House of Quality Matrix II, DfSS
Capability
Scorecard, Response Surface
Methodologies

Determine Process Capability, Flow-Up


Process Capability to Customer
Optimization Designs, Response Surface Requirements and Identify Gaps, Optimize Capability Studies, FMEA,
Discover Variable Relationships,
Methods, Conjoint Analysis, X-factor
Design to Minimize CTQ Sensitivity,
Components of Variation, DfSS
Establish Operating Tolerances ,
Tolerancing, XY Relationship, MSA,
Allocate and Set Tolerances, Determine
Scorecard, Conjoint Analysis,
Validate Measurement System (PIVs)
Hypothesis Test
Potential Process Risks, Estimate Defect Multi-Response Optimization
and Failure Rates, Develop Process Control
Plan

CONTROL / VALIDATE

DEFINE

Activities

MEASURE / IDENTIFY

Six Sigma - DMAIC


Tools

ANALYZE / CHARACTERIZE

Activities

IMPROVE / OPTIMIZE

PHASE

Implement Controls, Determine


Process Capability; Validate &
Translate; Audit

Formulate Concept Design; Identify


Potential Risks; For Each Technical
Requirement, Identify Design Parameters
(CTQs); Determine Relationships
Between CTQs and Part/Process
Parameters (development of transfer
functions); Establish Environmental
Constraints

Attack and Eliminate Waste,


Create Process Stability &
Capability, Create Product /
Service Flow, Allow
Customer Pull of Product /
Service, Establish Standard
Work, Establish Performance
Standards & Scheduling

Control Plans, SOPs, Reaction Plans, SPC


Confirm the Business Model; Test and
Implementation, FMEA, MistakeValidate Predictions; Set Process
Proofing, Training (New Employee
Standards and Specifications; Conform
Training), Document Control System,
DfSS Scorecard, Statistical
Process Capability; Implement Quality
Implement Controls &
Change Management; X-bar & R Charts,
Tolerancing , Simulations, Field
and Reliability Control Plan; Scale-Up and
Performance Measurement;
I & mR Charts, Attribute Data, Charts (p,
Testing; Control Charts, House of
Commercialize Product or Process;
Validate and Translate; Audit
np, u, c), Minitab (Quality Tools); Impact
Quality Matrix III, Quality Plan
Implement on-going Performance
Validation (DPMO, COPQ, Big Y);
Monitors; Feedback for Continuous
Audit Format
Improvement

Interview, Survey, QFD, Kano Analysis,


CTQ Flow Diagram, SIPOC, Process
Maps, Team Charter, Customer Needs
Matrix, Affinity Diagram, Data Mining

8 Wastes, Process Maps, FMEA, Video


Process Maps, Spreadsheet Tools,
Spaghetti Diagrams, Floor Layout, SPC,
Breakdown Analysis, Pareto Charts

5S, Kaizen Events, Kanban, Total


Productive Maintenance, Autonomous
Maintenance, Defect Prevention, Mistake
Proofing, Andons, Jidoka, Line Balancing,
TOC/ Bottleneck Analysis, GTA, SMED,
Flexible / Mixed-Model Production, DOE,
Cellular Design Cocepts, Point of Use
Storage, ABC Analysis, Heijunka, Work
Balancing, Man-Machine Charts, Standard
Time Analysis, Capacity Planning,
Scheduling

SPC Implementation, FMEA, Mistake


Proofing, Training, Document Control
System, Change Management; Impact
Validation (DPMO, COPQ, Dashboard
Metric); Audit Format

8-D
Tools

4-Block, Stakeholder Analysis,


D1 - Recognize a Need for 8-D
SIPOC, In/Out Frame Tool, VOC and Establish a Team; D2 Analysis, CTQ Tree
Describe the Problem

Detail Current process, Establish


Process Maps, Cause & Effect
Baseline, Identify Potential
Diagrams
Causes

D3 - Develop Interim
Containment Action (ICA)

Recognize a Problem

Containment Plan

Describe the Problem (State


IS/ IS NOT Matrix, WHAT/
Problem as an Unknown, Specify WHERE/ WHEN/ EXTENT
Problem)
(Distinction - Change) Matrix

4-Block, Communication Plan

D7 - Prevent Recurrence; D8 Recognize Team & Individual


Contributions

Process Experts, Process Maps,


Data Analysis Tools, Fact-Finding
Tools

Mistake Proofing, Error Proofing,


Machine Settings, Specifications,
Evaluate Possible Causes (Identify Possible Cause Matrix, IS/ IS
SOPs, Visual Management,
Most Likely Cause)
NOT Matrix
Training, Implementation Plan,
Action Item Table, Paynter Chart

IMPROVE / OPTIMIZE

Develop Implementation Plan,


Develop Control Plan, Develop
Communication Plan

Identify Possible Causes

Business Metrics and Process


Monitoring

PHASE

Mistake Proofing, SPC, Control


Plans, SOPs; Communication
Plan, Management Involvement

CONTROL / VALIDATE

D5 - Choose & Verify Permanent


Brainstorming, Pugh Matrix, Pilot Corrective Actions (PCAs) for
Plan, PDCA Cycle, SWOT
Root Cause & Escape Point; D6 Analysis
Implement & Validate Permanent
Corrective Actions (PCAs)

K-T Failure Analysis


Tools

Business Data Analysis, Team


Charter; Is/Is Not, Pictures,
Problem Statement, 4-block

C&E Diagram, Process Maps,


Determine Root Causes, Prioritize Cause & Effect Diagrams, Cause D4 - Define & Verify Root Cause
FMEA, 5 Whys, DOE, Conjoint
Causes for Action
& Effect Matrix
and Escape Point
Analysis, Historical Data

Develop Action Plan for


Improvements

Activities

DEFINE

Problem Definition, Project


Scoping

Activities

MEASURE / IDENTIFY

Typical Quick Hit Method


Tools

ANALYZE / CHARACTERIZE

Activities

Confirm the True Cause

DOE, Simulations, other active


tests, tools of DMAIC Improve/
Control phases

Internal Environment
List of Activities

Strengths
Major
Minor

Weaknesses
Major
Minor

External Environment
Attractiveness

Opportunity
Probability of Succe Seriousness

Threat
Probability of Occurrence

Six Sigma Project Charter Template


Project Name
Business Unit
Department
Start Date
Project Budget
Project Stakeholder

Name

Contact Information
Phone number
e-mail

Project Champion
Process Owner
Black/ Green Belt
Team Members
Process Name

Product/ Service Description

Objective
Project Y

Baseline

Project Scope Statement

Assumptions/ Constraints/ Risk

Benefits

Scheduale

Goal

Entitlement

Project Name
Suppliers

Inputs

Providers of the
Resource

Resources
Required

Who supplies the input

What inputs are required


to enable the process

1
2

Process
Requirements

Outputs

High Level Process


Description

Start

Process

End

Process
Deliverables

Customers
Requirements

Stakeholders

GAPS
Action Plan

Timing

Responsibility

Project Name
Management

Man
Cause

Method
Cause

Cause
Cause

Cause

Cause

Cause

Cause
Cause

Cause

Cause

Cause

Cause
Cause
Cause

Measurement

Machine

Material

Method

Effect
(Y)

Material

Project Name
Cause & Effect Matrix

Rating of Importance to
Customer
Y 15

Y 14

Y 13

Y 12

Y 11

Y 10

Y9

Y8

Y7

Y6

Y5

Y4

Y3

Total

Process Step Process Inputs


1 Process Step 1
2 Process Step 1
3 Process Step 1
4 Process Step 2
5 Process Step 2
6 Process Step 2
7 Process Step 2
8 Process Step 3
9 Process Step 3
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
Total

Y2

Y1

Project Outputs

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

The role of Cause and Effect Matrix is to identify the inputs for FMEA. The input
variables with the highest total should be the first transferred to FMEA

Process/Product Failure Modes and Effects Analysis


Process or Product
Name
Responsible

Prepared by
Date

Process Step Failure Mode Failure Effects


May be process step,
general activity, functional
area, or other rational
grouping

What is the potential


failure or undesirable
outcome for this area?

If the failure mode occurs,


what will the effect be?

Causes
S
E
V

What is/are the cause/s


of the failure?

use
max
SEV

Controls
O
C
C

What controls are in place to


prevent the cause from occuring
or to detect that the cause has
occurred?

D
E
T

R
P
N

Action

Resp

What specific actions are


required to improve the RPN
number

Who will be accountable


for implementing the
change

Timing

P
S
E
When is completion of
V
the action required or
planned

P
O
C
C

P
D
E
T

P
R
P
N

Capability Summary
Project Name
Process or Product
Name
Responsible

Customer
Requirement
(Output Variable)

Prepared by
Date

Measurement %R&R or
Upper
Technique
P/T Ratio Specification

Key Process Output Variable

Target

Lower
Specification

Cp

Cpk

Sample
Size

Date

Actions

Process Control Plan


Process or
Product Name
Responsible

Prepared by
Date

Specification/
Requirement

Variable
Process

Sub
Process
Step

KPOV

KPIV

Specification
Characteristic

LSL

Target

USL

Measuremen
Frequenc
Sample Size
t Method
y

Control
Method

Decision Rule/
Corrective Action

Six Sigma Project Selection Grid

Bubble Assessmen
Bubble size indicates probabili

Rating scale criteria should be defined and


agreed to prior to rating the projects.

Proj #

Effort

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

Project A
Project B
Project C
Project D
Project E
Project F
Project G
Project H
Project I
Project J

5
2
3
3
3
2
5
2
1
4

Range: 1-25

Impact

Prob of
Success

Desireability
Index

4
3
5
2
1
3
1
3
5
4

4
4
4
3
2
5
3
1
4
2

3.2
6.0
6.7
2.0
0.7
7.5
0.6
1.5
20.0
2.0

5
Impact

Scale: 1 - 5
Project
Name

0
0

Effort

Bubble Assessment Grid for Project Selection


le size indicates probability of success (large = high probability)

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
1
0

Effort

Six Sigma
Project
Selection
Tool

Descriptors
High

High

Low

Med

Med

Med

Low

Low

High

Weighting (weight can be changed based on business conditions)

Project

Project A
Project B
Project C
Project D
Project E
Project F
Project G
Project H
Project I
Project J

20%

10%

30%

Business Impact

Probability of
Success

Resources
Required

5
5
5
2
3
2
2
1
2
1

5
4
2
4
3
5
4
3
2
1

2
5
4
3
5
1
3
3
2
4

Rating
< 3 Mos
4 Mos
5 Mos
6 Mos
> 6 Mos
on business conditions)
30%

Time to Complete

5
3
5
5
3
1
1
4
4
5

5
4
3
2
1
click to
sort
Total
3.60
3.80
3.90
3.20
3.30
1.50
2.00
2.60
2.40
3.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00

GO
GO
Caution
Caution
BEWARE