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C

ERNY'S

INTERPR-ETATION
OF

BEETPOVEN'S.

PIANO

SONATAS

by Suan Liu Lee
UNIVERSITY OF WALESBANGOR
2003
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SUMMARY
The teachingof Carl Czemywas influential in the first half of the nineteenthcentury. His
CompleteTheoreticalandPractical Piano Forte Schoolandits supplement,
TheArt ofPlaying
the Ancient and Modern Piano Forte Works,are especiallyrelevantto the performanceof
Beethoven'spiano sonatas.Much of the informationin this monumentaltreatiserevealshow
Beethovenwouldhaveperformedhis sonatas.His pedallingtechniques,for example,aresimilar
to thosedescribedin Czerny'streatise. Although TheArt waspublishedin 1846,someof the
ideasin tl-dsbook datebackto Czemy'sHaslingerII edition of the late 1820s,therebyshowing
a.certain consistencyover a period of abouttwenty years. Most of Czemy'steachingon the
hs
in
his
Beethoven's
sonatas,
recorded
piano
piano treatise, stem from
performanceof
Beethoven'sown practice. However,he sometimesalteredBeethoven'sdirectionsbecausehe
consideredhis solutionto be better (suchas the fingering.in the trio of Op. 2/l/iii), or because
theydid not suit the
they did not conformto contemporaryperformingstyles,or simplybecause
moreresonantpianosof his day.

CONTENTS
sUMMARY

H

PREFACE

ViH

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

xi

CHAPTER 1 CZERNY'S BACKGROUND
1

[Introduction)
I

1.1 Czerny's early musical education

I

1.2 Czemy learns from Beethoven

3

1.3 Czemy's career as a performer

6,

1.4 Czemy's career as-a teacher

8

1.5 Czemy's other musical activities

15

CHAPTER 2 MUSICAL INFLUENCES
[Introduction]

23

2.1 Background of the treatisesto be studied

24

2.2 A comparison of the treatises
28

2.2.1 Tempo

Indicationsof Speed- Italian terms,time signature
andthe metronome

28

The meaningsof adagio andallegro

31

RallentandoandRitardando

32

Cantabile

32

Con animaandcon espressione

32

2.2.2 Tempoflexibility

33

2.2.3 Dynamics

36

The rangeof dynamicsin use

36

Functionsof dynamics

37

Accentuation

38

Dolce

40

Smorzando,cala.ndo andmorendo

40

in

2.2.4Articulation.andtouch

41

Legato

Tenutoandsostenuto

43

Legatissimo

44

Staccato

45

43

2.2.5 Ornaments

48

Long andShortAppoggiaturas

48

Turn

49

I

Mordent

49

TriHs

50

Arpeggio

51

2.2.6Fingeringandtechnicaldrills

54

2.2.7Pedalling

56

2.2.8 Stylisticandexpressivemattersin performance

63

2.2.9 Summaryof influences

65

CHAPTER 3 CZERNY'S INTERPRETATION,

AS RECORDED IN HIS WRITINGS

AND IN HIS EDITIONS OF BEETHOVEN'S

PIANO SONATAS

[Introduction]

67

3.1 What is "correct interpretatioif'?

67

3.2 Following the text faithfully

71

3.3 The problems of finding authoritative nineteenth-centuryeditions
73

of the piano sonatas
3.4 Czerny's editions of Beethoven's piano sonatas

74

3.5 Czemy's editions of Op. 57 compared

83

Metronome marks

83

Dynamic markings and accents

84

Articulation

89

Fingering

93

Pedal.ling

95

3.6 Summary

101

IV

CHAPTER 4 TEMPO AND TEMPO FLEXIBILITY
[Introduction]

104

4.1 A Ila breve

106

4.2 Italian terms

108

4.3 Metronome -a provider of ansNyers?
4.4 Maelzel's chart

113

4.5 Beethoven's speed

115

4.6 The application of metronome markings-ýy Beethoven, Czemy and their
115

contemporaries
4.7 The metronome markings of Czerny and Moscheles

117

4.8 Czemy's metronome markings compared with the deductions made by

Kolisch and Gelfand

118

4.9 The validity of Czemy'smetronomemarkings

120

Tempoflexibility

123

4.10A ccelerando

124

4.11 Instanceswherea slowingdown is recommended

127

4.12 Instanceswheretempodeviationsarediscouraged

136

4.13 Summary

140

Appendixto chapter4

143

.CHAPTER 5 STYLE AND EXPRESSION
DYNAMICS
AND
TONAL
CONTROL
[Introduction)
157
5.1 The range of dynamics,the character representedby each dynamic marking 157

and the,corresponding touches
5.2 Accentuation

161

5.3 sf, rf andfp

162

5.4 Unnotated accentuation

166

5.5 Annotations of Cramer Etudes

167

5.6 Beethoven's and Czemy's.usagesqf accentuation

172

5.7 Czemy's advice on-dynamicscompared to Beethoven's usagein the
177

piano sonatas

V

CHAPTER 6 STYLE AND EXPRESSION - ARTICULATION AND TOUCH
6.1 The basictouchesusedby BeethovenandCzemy

179

6.2 Legatoor non legato?,

130

6.3 Legatissimo

183

6.4 The meaningsof slursandlegatq

187

6.5 Tenutoandsostenuto

193

6.6 Staccato

195

6.7 Mezzostaccato

199

6.8 Summary

202

CHAPTER 7 ORNAMENTATION
7.1 The relevanceof Bach's Essay in the understandingof Beethoven's ornaments 204
7.2 Appoggiaturas

209

7.3 The Schneller

210

7.4 The trill

212

CHAPTER 8 FINGERING, HAND POSITION AND TECHNICAL EXERCISES
[Introduction]

226

8.1 Some technical exercisesfrom Beethoven's sketches

227

8.2 Fundamentalrules of fingering

232

8.3 The fingering of repeated or similar figures

239

8.4 Chromatic scale

242

8.5 Passagesin thirds

243

8.6 The fingering of repeated monotones

245

8.7 Sliding from one key to another on the samefinger

246

8.8 Glissando

247

-

8.9 The "bebung" effect

248

8.10 Summary

253

vi

4 Czerny'sauthorityon pedallingconsidered 283 CHAPTER 10 THE PIANO SONATAS IN THE HANDS OF FRANZ LISZT AND HANS VON BfJLOW [Introduction] 284 10.2The Choiceof Pianos 289 10.1 The significanceof Beethoven'spedalmarkings 257 9.2 The functionsof the damperpedal 260 9.1Liszt's Approachto Beethoven'sPianoSonatas 2ý4 10.3 A Review of Liszt's and von Billow's Editions 292 CONCLUSION 300 SOURCES OF MUSICAL EXAWLES 304 SOURCES FOR THE THESIS 313 BIBLIOGRAPHY 327 1 I .3 The una corda pedal 280 9.CHAPTER 9 PEDALLING Untroduction] 255 9.

the non-legatoplayingof Mozart to a morelegatotouch aspractisedby Beethovenis only one example. 500 (1839). I will evaluate the extent to which Czerny's understanding of tdmpo indications.andthe frequency from Thayer and Czerny's to support arguments of scholars: which writings are used with Nottebohmin the late nineteenthcentury to Brown. 57 used as a casestudy. reflect the intentions of Beethoven.Thepianisticabilityof Czemyandhis first-handknowledgeof Beethoven'scompositions be for him be to to would appear sufficient consideredan authorityon the interpretationof the latter's pianomusic. and its supplement The Art of Playing the Ancient and Modern Piano Forte Works (1846).andrelationshipwith Beethoven. Czerny's various editions of Beethoven's piano sonataswill alsobe considered. This subjectis largelyunexploredsurprisingly. dynamic and articulation markings. However.his realization ofornaments. The aim of this thesisis to investigatewhether Czerny's opinions on the performanceof Beethoven'spianosonatasreflectthoseof the composer.Thechangefrom makersandcomposers/performers.by editions the guided writings of sonataswill by intelligent by Czerny. Op. Drake. The rapid developmentin piano technology. These will be discussedin the first section. his idealsregardingtonal colours andtechnical dexterity.andNewmanin the twentiethcentury. deductions from from (sometimes the the sonatas of musical context viii . Carl CZemy. His zealwasfuelledby hislovefor Beethoven's itg to and a sense of mission preserve music performancetradition in Viennaafter the latter's death. My conclusions.(1791-1857)playedan activerole in the promotionof Beethoven'smusic. Beethoven andtheir contemporaries.consideringthe closefriendshipbetweenCzemyandBeethoven.career.especiallythepianoworks.with Op. In the second.achievedthrough the closepartnershipbetweenthe inevitablylea to a differentstyleofplaying.becauseCzerny'swritings mayhavebeeninfluencedby the changingstylesof piano playingin his formativeyears.about how Czerny perceived Beethoven's piano by be Czemy. In order to understandCzemy's interpretationof the pianossonatas. Rosenblum.it is to understandhispersonality.PREFACE Throughouthis adult life.and necessary i to identifyimportanttreatiseswhichmayhaveinfluencedhisCompleteTheoreticalandPractical Piano Forte School. as well as the contexts in which he introduces pedalling.contemporaryopHUOns are divided.education.

When interpreting music.refqencesto Czerny'spiano treatisewill be obtainedmainly from the English translations. The ultimate decision regarding the meaningbehindeachsonata'restsin the handsof the individual performer. Sincethe NeueBeethovenwerke edition of Beethoven'spiano been has not published.genresotherthanthe pianosonatas). we should certainly take his suggestionsseriously and use them as a starting point. Theimportant is in the role of piano madeclear thoseworks written for other instrument(s)andpiano.if not dominant. By identifying Beethoven'sand Czerny's views on various musical details such as tempo. dynamics. compositional with wasalsoanexcellent on thepiano.For clarity.andby modemscholarship.sincehe himselfwas an accomplishedpianist. ratherthanthe originalGermantext.manyof themusicalexamplesareobtainedfrom theHenleUrtext sonatas facsimiles (1980) ofthe autographs. Apart from some misplacedpunctuation.unusualcapitalizations. articulation.thenineteenth-century only ix . and edition italics in fingerings Englishfingering the areBeethoven's. the performers' duty is to realise itsmeaning through sound and this is undoubtedly shapedby their personalities.Whereexcerptsfrom theUrtext editionareused.partner. Czemy'sparticularinterestin Beethoven's pianocompositionsis only to be expected. Beethoven'spianosonatasplayeda centralrole in the musicaldevelopmentof both Beethoven life.their environmentsand an understandingof historical and stylistic matters. The results of this investigation should by no meansact as a set of rigid rules or be perceived as the only solution to the way Beethoven's piano sonatas should be performed. It is for thesereasonsthat this researchis limitedto the pianosonatasof Beethoven.where the pianoactsas an equal.these translationscannotbe faulted. In this thesis.Since Czerny is the closest reliable link we have to Beethoven.and occasionaladditionsby the translator(which do not alter the meaningof the original text) in'the Englishversion. it is hoped that this research will help today's performers make informed decisions. One mustalsobearin mind that Cýemy'sfirst introductionto Beethovenwasasa piano student. and pedalling.especiallyfrom Czemyto Liszt andfrom Liszt to BUlow. Czemy.that is PianoForte SchoolandTheArt.And finally. Throughout his the pianoprovidedBeethovenwith the meansto experiment and improviser He techniques.a brief surveywill be madeto seewhether Czemy'sinterpretationof the piano sonataswaspassedon from one generationto another.

musicalexamplesý are listed at the end of this thesis.nineteenth-centurypianos are referred to as "pianos" rather than "fortepianoe'.in which middleC= c'.when fingeringpatternsare being discussed. for the sakeof convenience. capital letters are used. And finally.which apply in any octave. However.wherethe octave is immaterial.I will be using the standard Hehnholzpitch notation. Sourcesfor all the .in someof the exarhpleshavebeenchangedto the modemstandardone.as for instance. andeachoctaverunsfrom C to the B above. In general. I x .

the Musepm Assistantin the Royal Collegeof Music. for the tour shecon4uctedandthe discussionwe had. My sincerethanks in Mrs Dorothea Geffert (from Beethoven-Haus. I would also like to expressmy heartfelt gratitude to the staff of the University of Wales Bangor library.I havealsobenefitedgreatly from the Germanto Englishtranslationswhich ProfessorPascallandMrs HelenDavieshaveso kindly helpedme with. especiallythe music librarians Mrs Catherine Evans and the now retired Miss Elizabeth Bird.Goudhurst.this thesiswould not havebeenpossiblewithout the assistance of numerouspeople. I wish to convey a specialthank you to Mr Edward Davies and his wife for their constant support and encouragementthroughout my PhD studies. xi . in particular. Finally.I am also grateful to Ms Carol Barker. British Library. Manythanksalso to Mr RichardBurnett for the informativeandthoroughlyenjoyabletour of the pianocollectionsat Finchcocks. the adviceandhelpfulcommentsfrom my supervisorDr Bruce Woodandfrom ProfessorRobertPascallaregreatlyappreciated. I am deeplyindebtedto Mr Michael Freyhanfor allowing me to play on two earlynineteenthcentury. Mr Harvey Davies for lending me their books and music.and for the opportunityto play on someof the pianostherewhich havehelpedincreasedmy understandingof earlypianos. I truly Appreciatewhat they have done for me and I cannot thank them enough.First of all.ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS As with all large-scaleresearch. Vienna) for their kind assistance.pianosin his private collection. for their patienceand guidancein helping me to find the material I need.I am also grateful to Mr Nigel Simeoneand. Bonn) the to the the staff also and Dr Otto Biba and Ms Ingrid Leis (from the Gesellschaftder Musiýfreunde.

SEC ION Fll .

4 below). (1791-1795) His the on a estate. Beforetheseiss4esarediscussed chaptersofthis thesis. Whenhe was about ten had knew he his the and already of piano old. Mozart.but alsoa competentperformer. The family eventually in his Vienna Poland.1 CZERNY'S EARLY MUSICAL EDUCATION Carl Czerny was born in Vienna on 21 February. Throughouthis career.p. a good command much of years repertoire (including a great deal of music by Mozart. among others. that "My father had no intention whatever of making a superficial virtuoso out of me. The slightbut gradual of Czerny'sperformanceideals are evident in his writings.we will first exploreCzerny'sformativeyearsaswellashisbusyandvaried career. He was to spendall his childhood in that for four family lived Polish father. In Carl Czerny to to avoid childhood. I I .Czemyspentall hisworkinglife in Vienna. a talented pianist.Czemytravelledto Parisandstayedtherefor a few months.CIIAPTER-1: CZERNY'S BACKGROUND a Music was a major love in Carl'Czemy's life. and Kozeluch. except Wenzel Czerny. he strove to develop my sight-reading ability through continuous study of new works and thus to develop my musicianship") 'CzeMY(1956). bad taken up a teaching post there. Czemywas an astuteobserverwho integrateddifferent standsof contemporaryperforming traditionswhich he consideredto be good andmadethem into his own. 1. rather. political unrest was exposed returned to a wide variety of piano music played by his father .writer. years when city. His onlyotheroverseastravelswereto Leipzigin 1836. In 1837. andmusiceditor.composer. Clementi. for example! he modificpLtions in the subsequent realizationsof trills (seesection7.music by Bach.uponLiszt's invitation.to Londonin 1837andto Lombardyin 1846. Clementi and other contemporarycomposers)from father. He showed musicalpromise from an early age. 303. by his Czerny later This in his memoir talent was carefully nurtured recounted memory.he was not only an influentialteacher. Apart from a few trips abroadin the 1830sand 1840s. 1791.

very quickly .the famouspianists JosefGelinek(1758-1825)andJosefLipavsky(1772-1810). s.It wasthroughGelinekthatWenzelCzemyfirst learntofBeethoven. only get a good graspof alsogavehim received the opportunityto practisethe art of notatingmusic. his library. usefiil Besideshis father. Krumpholzdeservesspecialmentionhere. 2 piano sonatasdedicatedto Haydn. 307-308.He alsoplayeda furtherrole by passingon his knowledgeof Beethoven'sperformancepracticeto Czemy. 1. it this activity. 254.beinga closefriendof 'Ibid.suchasthe first threetrio Op. Krumpholz.who playeda majorrole in his earlymusicaleducation. 2 .Vanhall.xxvi.MozartandHaydnandbeganto realisetheenormousbenefitshe from did he Not instrumentation. "Vanhall".Vanhaland Wanhalare givenasalternativesin Sadie (2001).around this time that Czernystartedcopyingthe the music wanted orchestralworks of Beethoven.Among themwerethe composerandteacherJohannBaptistWanhall'(1739-1813).who hadbeenchallengedto a "pianoduer' by Beethoven.Czemy'sexposureto eighteenth-century music was further encouragedfrom the year 1802 Government Councillor Hess(a friend of ClementiandMozart) offeredthe boy when onwards.He wasalsograntedthe privilegeof copyingany that were works from library? he It was. pp.severalvariations. Although Gelinek was the first personto mention the nameof Beethovento the Czemys.improvisationsandcompositions. Therefore.This promptedCarl to persuadehis fatherto buy him all the availableBeethovencompositions.Czernyalsobenefited from contactwith the variouswell-knownmusicianswho frequentlycameto theirhouse.Thispianoduelisbelieved by someto havetakenplacesoonafterBeethoverfsarrival in Viennain 1792. library This to private containedBacNsfugues.andthe songAdelaide.. the Op. 'In additionto this-spelling. All theworksmentionedabovewerepublished duel and Czerny'sintroductionto between1795and 1797.there is evidencethat it took placeaboutsixyearslater.the Gelinek-Beethoven Beethoven'smusicprobablytook placein 1797.wasmostimpressedwith the latter'spiano technique.v.Gelinek.andmany access difficult to obtainat that time.andtheviolinistWenzelKrumpholz (1750-1817).Scarlatti'ssonatas. However. p.somethingthat provedvery in later on his life whenhe startedcomposing. Carl Czernywasonly six yearsold.becauseit was he who arrangedthe first meeting betweenthe ten-year-oldCzernyandBeethoven.

Italicizationoriginal. sincehe had often heardthemperformedby Beethovenhimselfandhadin most 4 the caseswitnessed processof composition 1.etc. to the and cancel was on own. Czerny left his By 1802.detachedstaccato techniqueof Mozart'stime was stillfashionable. Before his first pianolesson. Czemylater recalledin his memoir: During the first lessonsBeethovenmademework solelyon the scales in all keysandshowedmemanytechnicalfundamentals. the was with andmusicalprojects. sinceat that time the fortepianowas still in its infancy. Carl wasableto playBeethoverfscompositionsto him regularlyand learnfrom him. He was able to adviseCzemy on matters relating to "tempo..SinceKrumpholzvisitedthe Czemysalmosteveryday. used a technique entirely unsuited for the fortepiano.intendedeffect. Unfortunately. 307.-305.Beethovenwas impressedby the young boy's talentandagreedto teachhim severaltimesa week. E.the fundamentalrules regqding proper playing posture.e. and found that Beethovensobservationwas ' by their confirmed mannerof playing). Bach'sYersuchfiber die wahreArt das Clavierzu spielen. moreaccustomed to the then still prevalentFlagel.card Mozart play on several occasionsand that. too. 'Ibid. 3 . the only properpositionof the handsand fingersand particularlythe useof the thumb. which were asyet unknownto mostpianists. (Someyearslater Beethoventold me that he had h. subsequentlymade the acquaintanceof severalpersonswho had studiedwith Mozart. manner of performance. compositions however. p..hand position and legato "Czemy(1956).at that time all other pianistsconsideredthat kind of legatounattainable.g. P. Although Krumpholzwasnot a pianist.he wasa good musician.Mozart.Czernywasrequestedto get C. He thenwent' through the variouskeyboardstudiesin Bach'sbook andespecially insistedon legato technique.which was one of the unforgettable featuresof his playing.only much later did I recognizefully the usefulness of theserules. By then.p. character.2 CZERNY LEARNS FROM BEETHOVEN Czerny'sfirst meetingwith Beethovenin 1801was a considerablesuccess.theselessonsdid not last long becauseBeethovenwas frequentlybusywith his had lessons. 1.sincethe hammered.latter's ideas familiar Beethoven.

afterthe youngboy succeeded Op. 391. 10. Between 1810 Beethoven's the opportunity again works..In the winter.occasionally. playing-had In the meantime. 9Thayer(1969).and still aspreciseasthey From 1816" to 1818.the correct 1 expression".p. 313. He alsoprovidedtwo differentdatesfor the publicationof his 4 . ` by thesewere replaced quartetand quintet recitals. he had 1812.p. 308.However. ten not affected yearsearlier.asseenbytheirregularcorrespondence. 309.owing to a chancemeetingwith Beethovenat PrinceLichnowsky'shouse.wasworriedthatCzernymightoverlook " Beethoven ifhe "Even the whole. on remarked.From 1801-1804.p.hewasa regularvisitor to the rnýsicalsoir6eswhichweregivenby Mozart'swidow. (1970).p. Czernywasevenentrustedwith theproof-reading terms..therewereweeklymorningconcertsin the AugartenHall duringthe summerwhich featured. plays correctly markings: someofthe expression "he will forget in this mannerthe quick survey. 'Ibid. on all passed pupils.wereanotherimportantfeatureof Czerny'seducation.the symphonies of Haydn.amongotherthings.both privateandpublic. frommemory! Beethoven. Concerts.who wassometimes present. mornings.Beethovenwassaidto beverysatisfiedwith Czerny'sprogressandsightin sight-readingthe newlycomposedpianosonata readingskills. Krumpholzdied in 1817.. Italicizationoriginal. as memory fact. 1819 Krumpholz's the unreliable: on gave of p. 7Ibid.He alsorevealedthat Beethoven'scorrectionswere " been had been had by his hearing loss. 3 10. IOCzerny "Czernygavethe yearhe startedteachingKarl as 1815in "Recollections" (1956). Czemy'seducationtook a differentturn in 1804.' In addition.the a vista-playingand.whenCzemywasaskedto teachBeethoven'snephewKarl.Fromthenon. CzernyandBeethovenremainedon mutuallyfriendly .later duly been fully Czerny his them to and established. these occasions playedeverything.Mozart andBeethoven. the frequency 61bid. and newly published of to study"severalthings"underBeethoven. His in death.p. The concertswere performedto a high in forum Beethovens this the works given of many of great madea and premi&es standard. is dates he date for 305. lastingimpressionon Czemy.Czernycontinuedto learnall Beethoven'spianocompositionsfrom memory. Czernyhad beenin the habit of playingto the Princeon most including he On the piano musicof Beethoven. 53 from themanuscript. p.

Czerny'sarrangements piano'shigh register.Czerny'sarrangements. I Op. Eight years later. which were both publishedin 1817. emphasized events memory he See qzerny (1970). 14MacArdle 5 . moreover. 124: I considerit my duty to wam the musicalpublic againstan entirely misleadingpian6forte arrangementfor four hands of my latest overture.he admittedthat the dateshe quotedmaybe incorrectbecausehewaswriting from long However. the advised he when was askedto make a piano reduction of Beethoven's operaFidelio.which areabsolutely faithfulto the score.- (1958).. a violinistin theSchuppanzigh suggestedusingCzerny'srecentlycompletedpiano arrangement of the "Kreutzer" Sonataasa sometimessufferfrom an excessiveuseof the model. iii. This arrangement Berlin underthe title 'FestivalOvertureby Ludwig van Beethoven'. in 1825. Quartet. 1148. 169.p. he also latter in the art of arrangement.1806on p. dates that erred. 133. Unfortunately. his Beethoven meetings with of Beethovenwas influential not only. p. with "Anderson (196 1). Thiswarningisthemorenecessary for asthepianof6rtearrangements two andfour bandsmadeby Herr Carl Czerny. the arrangementsof the Seventhand Eighth Symphoniesfor two pianos. It was believedto be for this very reasonthat Beethovenhad rejected " for four hands.conveythe appropriate of the high registerof the piano. 314. 312 and 1805on p. Op. Artaria hadapproached Czerny." Beethovenwas also impressedby the speed with which Czerny could complete these " WhenHaimwasasked arrangements. Beethovenwas obviously satisfied.Schindler(1841) (ed.And Czerny'sskill wasalsorespectedby othermusicians.will shortlyappearin the only authenticedition.. 13 Ibid. "Grosse Fuge" Czerny'sarrangement After Beethovenexpressed the of piano hisdisapprovalof Halm'sarrangement.in developing the pianistic skill of the young Czemy. Whenwriting the anecdotesfor Otto Jahnin 1852. much for he entrusted Czemy with many more such tasks: for example. to makeanarrangement of the"GrosseFuge". pp.increased. Moscheles).p.Karl Holz. was able guidance. an arrangementwhich.Apart from this overuse on the whole. Czerny's first assignmentin this field came in 1805.is not faithfid to the hasbeenpublishedby Trautweinin originalscore. 10. he that took time that it wasonly a place ago. I. With Beethoven's learn from Czerny to this project. Beethoven publicly announced his approval of Czerny's arrangementsof the Overture Die Weihedes Hauses. p. iii. 1442-1443.

491. "Anderson(196I)j iH. However. Donizetti. and Mendelssohn.p. IICPM liststwelvesymphonies.Spohr. 17 Sadie(1980). againturned coaching.when Czernyno longeractivelyperformed in public. Cherubini. 139. (Nos." Evenafter 1806. Czerny's arrangementscertainly help cater for that market.Beethovenstill hadfaith in his pupil's pianisticabilities. the Tragedyof Coriolanandthe EgmontOverture. 19Schindler 6 . to Czernyto performtheAdagioandRondofrom the sameconcerto. especiallypiano arrangements. 1414. Haydn (The Creation and some of his symphonies).p.MacArdle). after " Beethovenalso admiredCzerny'splaying.Czernygavehispublicconcertd6butasapianistin Vienna. 160.He wrote a favourable Hummeland Moscheles. I "Among themareCzerny'spianoduet arrangements the Overtureto of the ninesymphonies.v. H6 wasthe soloistin the first for in Beethoven's Fifth Piano Concerto 1812. 93-104). charactersof Czerny'slove for Beethoven'smusicinspiredhim to makemanyarrangements. includingall for pianoduet.who commentedthat "as a result of Beethoven's " brought in [Czerny] best Years later. 1.whenheperformedMozart's C minorConcertoK. Beethoven the the out very music". (1966)(ed.he did not limit hisarrangements Beethoven'sninesymphonies to the his initiative.s. On he by of own compositions also madearrangements of works I Handel (Messiah).this time in a publicvenue. At that time.and others. Beethoven.v. "Czerny". It was also a way for them to get to know great music.3 CZERNY'S CAREER AS A PERFORMER In 1800.at home for their own enjoyment. p. Thecriticspraisedhisplaying:Schillingdescribedit as"uncommonly fiery" and Hanslickconsideredhim the third most important native Viennesepianist." the original compositions successfully. testimonialfor the boy in 1805. as well as works by Schubert. at least six symphoniesand ten string quartets). His audience of a private performance performanceimpressedeven Schindler. there was great interest and enthusiasm families to play arrangementsof orchestral and chamber the aristocracy and middle class among music." Mozart (the Requiem.

had the to of gratitude sacrifices out parents madeto wish income from his he The teachingwasverygood. 775. 775. Of all the explanationsgivenabove. " the public. p. 2'Anderson(1961). Leipzig'and Berlin." This was inevitablewhen he startedfull-time teachingin 1806. Dresden.Czernypreferredto leada life awayfrom the public eye. and of popularity of parents. 22Czemy 211bid. Although Beethoven toured Prague.SeeAlbrecht(1996). noble patronage Czerny and Beethoven belong to the second category. He also cited severalother reasonsin his "Recollections":his elderly an lack Beethoven's the the unconducive wartime conditions. fn. Although highly esteemedas a performer. Czernyknewa výst have if he had ofpiano popular music. too to take who were old may also on parents.andthis that a good education.iii. made Similarly. and could easily performed more works chosen repertoire to do so.Albrecht believesthat 1824is moreaccprate.Czemyhadto refuseon the groundsthat he had recentlyneglectedhis piano playing. the the the concert and public newly extrovert performed who in held in private halls or chambers(usually associatedwith royal and pianistswho played recitals first is by The the typified artists). received ensure enabledhim to improvehis family's living conditions. This lastexcuseis nevertheless compositionswith ratherweak." Unfortunately. and in he did Prague 1798. 7 . ii. 37. (1956). There were two distinct types of pianist at that time: the often flamboyant travelling virtuosos for in built hAs.a claimwhichheseemsto in his by statingthat"brilliant virtuosityon thepianowasat thattime still next sentence contradict " imperfect novelty".it seemsthat the mostplausibleis the circumstance be him his hidden There tours.to "lend-lustreto thewhole concert". ii. AlthoughAndersondatesBeethoven'sletter as 1818. 2 p. for his to trip on such not rely performances another upkeep. less larger.andhis for his help his family financially. 311. of category such artists asDussek and Liszt. other of reasons: his poor health(it was impairedby childhoodillnessesandby his overwork from 1806). He gavethe limp excusethat hisplaying"lackedthat type of brilliant.and thus could not devotesufficienttime to practice. p. Czerny preferred to play for the entertainmentof the nobility (such as he had done for "Anderson(1961).p. Pressburg(now Bratislava) and Pest (now Budapest) in 1796.calculatedcharlatanry that is usuallypart of a traveling[sic] virtuoso'sessentialequipment".

8 . nephew Theo Kullak. such as Theodor D6hler. Leschetizky became included impressive Est Ignaz Paderewski. The last two namessubsequentlybecamehighly influential figures in the musical world during the late nineteenthcentury. a good made the acquaintanceof Andreas and quickly established reputation.4 CZERNY'S CAREER AS A TEACHER Czemy was a well-respected and much sought-after teacher in Vienna. Ninette von Bellevile-Oury. 312. Czerny taught from morning till night in the housesof the highest nobility and the leading families of Vienna. Although Liszt was better known for his virtuosity on the for he training numerous excellent pianists. in turn. in 1836." From 1816. For his own pleasure. Between1818and 1820. Stephen Heller. 1.PrinceLichnowsky'in 1804). Eventually. Czemy's career as a teacherbeganbefore he was fourteen years his father in later He to teach. It was lucrative. teaching started was unable earnesta year old. Beethovenhimselfsometimesattendedtheseevents. p. Hans von BUlow and was also responsible piano. and for private concertsorganisedby Beethovenand himself. Benno teacher of pupils a prominent whose Moiseiwitsch and Artur Schnabel.who was alwaysopento new ideasand "Ibid.Czemyalsoplayedpianoduetsandduosboth with prominentmusicians (suchasFerdinandRies who was a pupil of Beethoven.Theodor Leschetizky. They had a mutual understandingand arrangement. Leopoldine Blahetka. but it badly affected his health. Besides Beethoven's his list includes Karl. Czernywas a broad-mindedman and a keenleamer. would recommend Streicher's pianos to his pupils. Streicher. he gave up teaching entirely. of pupils virtuosos and child prodigies.. It was agreedthat Streicherwould recommendgood pupils to Czemy andhe.andalsowith Chopinwhenhe visited Viennain 1829)andwith royalty andnobility (suchasQueenVictoria in 1837). on occasionswhen he he In 1807. the piano manufacturer. Sigismund Thalberg. Eugen d'Albert among others.he organisedweekly programmesat his homewhich were devoted exclusivelyto Beethoven'spiano music. and Franz Liszt.

Czernyalsorecommends thoseby Bertini and Cramerto his pupils. '7Thayer(1969). There is indeed no evidence that he wrote a Klavierschule in 1826." Beethoven. However.believed in. p. 680. 9 .He andStreicherfrequentlyexchanged in When Clementi Vienna 1810..p. He advisedthem not to use Czerny's Klavierschule (published in 1826 by Haslinger).Beethovenapproved. Clementi's the once and again. In that year. 1279. the same surname. his He al§o exposing studentsto differentmusicalstylesand not just suggestions. visited on him by frequentlyvisiting a farnilywhosedaughterClementiwasteaching. he wrote to Stephanvon Breuning regarding a good piano rnethod for the latter's son.teacherandpublisherwho took over the teachingof Karl Beethovenfrom Carl Czernyin 1818.Czernytook the opportunityto learnfrom teaching." It has been generally assumedthat Beethoven preferred Clementi's teaching to Carl Czerny's. and I primarily owe it to this later fortunate I that was circumstance enoughto train many important studentsto a degreeof perfectionfor which they " becameworld-famous. 500. Czemylater wrote in his "Recollections": I SinceI was very often presentat theselessons. Op. published a piano method Der Mener contemporary hanoforte Klavier-Lehrer. was not published until 1839. p. but to wait for Clementi's piano method which he had ordered on their behalf Unfortunately.pianist. ideason pianoplayingand thosepreferredby theteacher. When Carl Czemy suggestedgiving Karl van Beethoven a copy of Clementi's studies. I became familiarwith the teachingmethodof this celebratedmasterand foremost pianist of his time. Czerny's Complete Theoretical and Practical Piano Forte School. 26Besides the studiesby Clementiandhimself. this letter has caused some confusion. 313. thought highly of Clementi's studiesand his Introduction to the Art of Playing on the Pianoforte (1801).too. oder: Theoretisch-practische Anweisung das nach einer neuen 211bid. Op. 19Josef wasa composer. Czerny -later entitled his study. Gerhard. years ofhis a year of piano method In the spring of 1826. however. 2'Anderson(1961). iii. his 29 by Josef Czerny. 822 (Nouveau Gradus ad Parnassum) in homage ýto Clementi's studies Gradus adParnassum." Beethovenalsoorderedtwo German-languagecopies in last few life in 1825 later.

as describedin the "Recollections". who were unable afford renowned pupils whichare exemplified on aspectsof playingandmusicalunderstanding consistsof explanations in musicalexamples.competentnot improvisation in but in the arts of public perfbný=Ce and piano playing and also only in his his his He Both Complete teaching. Liszt's Playing was apparentlyin a relatively bad state when he in for found it he had Czejny 1819.ThePianoForte basedonhisthirty years'teaching Schoolis a compilationofpianoplayingmethodsandexercises for benefit It the of aspiringyoungteachers. on the other hand.andespeciallythosepoorer was written experience.he initially worked on regulating and (1956). It Klavierschule Beethoven that the that most objectedto was erleichternden by Josef Czemy. summary of mind. specificpoints to A YoungLady. 314-315.pp.was written as a kind of Appendixto the Piano Forte School. Hehadanoverall teachingschemewhichheadaptedaccordingto theneedsofthe individualpupil. was very meticulous as writings reveal.Exercisesaregivenat the endof eachchapterfor thepupato practisewith is inserted Letters lessons in A the taught at strategic points. Czemy instinctive that was a recognised gifted arbitrary him his by Like Beethoven. his the to teaching. Nevertheless.follow a systematic plan. His aim was to createall-roundmusicians.is likely Methode. composition.r 3' Liszt highly fashion". careless.who was supposedlyat a boardingschoolin the country. It is madeup of ten short lettersto a fictitious twelve-year-oldpupil. TheoreticalandPracticalPianoForte School. 500. the talentedand well-educated"Miss Cecilia". and confused. Czerny teaching started as a pupil. used more approach a revelationof practical Czerny's disciplinedand systematicteaching method can also be seenin his approachto Liszt.andtheLettersto A YoungLady. in The Piano Forte School teaching the to teachers. The lettersnot only sumup thesystematicteachingthat is recordedin thePianoForteSchool.but are is informal. IOCzemy 10 . programme pianist and accepted laying the foundations of piano playing systematically . fact the one written in Carl Czemywasnot a rigid teacher. Czerny "irregular. and so auditioned little knowledge of correct fingering that he threw his fingers ove the keyboard in an altogether . Onthe Art ofPlaying thePianofortearewell-organisedand.Op. language Naturally.

By then. "Czemy(1956). if I lacked expression in crescendos. study to play the works of Hummel.Czerny's methodofteaching with an emphasison interpretative valuesechoes that of Beethoven as describedin Ries' reminiscenceIf I made a mistake somewherein a passage. However.Riesand Moscheles.the technicalgroundworkhadbeenlaid.entitled"TheArt of interpretationis emphasized Modern Piano Forte Works". S.a good control of touchandtone. is a study. in which he advisedCzemy on how to teach Karl: In regard to his playing for you. reached but him them to out when he has sake of minor mistakes.p. Czernythen proceededto instil in him a senseof rhythm. " his Once Liszt had basic in these them techniques.Thisaspect in the fourth volumeof hisPiano Forte School.then pleasecheck him only about his interpretation. and proper musicalphrasing. quite even when played public. so that Czemywasfreeto concentrate on familiarizingLiszt with theinterpretativespirit andcharacterof thesecomposers.the first was accident. 315. stop playingfor the and. Czernyalsobelievesthat everypiece.or struck wrong notes.in away. p. 11 .correctfingering. as soon as he has learnt the right fingering and can play a piece in correct time and the notes too more or lessaccurately. strengthening * týlentedand hardworking.and beforelong he could play all the scalesfluently. he in to too. 83. Italicizationoriginal. 3. feeling.Czernyallowedhim mastered spirit".he maintained. or in the character of a piece. he became angry because.etc. Also evident in Beethoven's oft-quoted letter to Czemy in 1817. The first happened " frequently him. Czernyusesscalesto teachthe rulesof fingeringandto developflexibility andagility of the fingers. Eventhe methodof teachingin the first volumeof Piano Forte Schoolis foundedon the studyof scales.followed by thoseof BeethovenandJ. Ancient the and ofPlaying In this last respect." dexterity Liszt's through the mechanical playing of scales. Bach.WegelerandRies(1988). or attention. point "The teachingof scalesis an essentialelementin Czerny'sinstruction. ývhenhe has let him don't thatPoint.if one knowshow to sonatas always remain school opinion.usingClementi'ssonatasas a basisfor this work. while the latter resulted' from inadequateknowledge.Besides familiarizinghis pupilswith the notesandkey signatureof all the major andminorkeys. intervals he which often wanted strongly emphasizedor missed he rarely said anything. In Czerny's best for "will these the the pianist. Liszt was eager.

IýThayer(1969).p. oneof the chiefaimsof the art. AlthoughI havedonevery little teaching. pp. he and clearness explains:"Although his playing was purity extraordinarywhenhe improvised. 16.CzernydescribesBeethoven'splayingasinconsistent. (in 1808). have followed I this method.then. 32.p. after all.p. "Newman(1988). andit is lesstiring for both masterandpupil. Beethoven'sown spiritedbut not technicallyflawlessplayingshowshis attitude towardstechnicalaccuracy. Success.showthat hewasmuch ability ofdifferent pianists ii. 1). 680.for he never took the time or had the patienceto work somethingup again. (1846). Elsewhere. 12 . the as singular and on Beethovenhimselfwasusuallypresentat Karl's lessons. Similarly. 16Czemy "Czemy (1970). 77.andthenumerousbooksof studieshecompiledfor help improve technical to them their technique. -14Anderson "Thayer (1969).aswitnessedby Ries. it is true) aswell 35 fingering its influence interpretation. and occasionallyhe is guilty of " This observationis alsosupportedby Moscheles(in 1814)andFriedricliNisle indistinctness".Althoughboth agreedon the importanceof teachingthe pupil the correct "spirit" of a composition. the writer describesBeethoven'splaying as being musikalische "extremelybrilliant but [it] has lessdelicacy[thaý W61ffl's].it was often much lessgood whenhe playedhis published compositions. In a letter to the Allgemeine dated Zeilung April 1799."" Evenbeforethe onsetof deafness.Czerny's attentionto technicaldetailswasperhapstoo closefor Beethoven'sliking.aswell as"lacking in cultivated " in difEculties". It soonproducesmusicians yet always is which.p." And Czemyagreedwith Beethoven: ietter Noteworthyin this interesting is the very correctview that one ought not to wearythe talent of a pupil by too muchpetty concern (whereinmuchdependson thequalitiesof the pupil.this letterto Czemysuggeststhat theyprobablydifferedin their opinionsregardinghow muchtime a teachershouldspendcorrectingtechnicalproblems. Italicization (196 742-743." Czerny's emphasisin TheArt on technicalproficiencyas a prerequisitein the interpretationof compositionsby Beethoven.The fact that Beethovenfelt compelled to write.p. original. Beethoven'splayingwasnot alwaysdistinctandfully workedup. 205.wasmostlya matterof chanceand mood.finishedplayingthe piece.

"' As a cautionagainst he likened fingers "little through the the to out of control course of playing a piece.I moreconcernedthan Beethovenwith technicalprowess.and a spot alwaysbloomingin vernalbeauty.. You will no doubt have alreadyremarked..aboutthe virtuesof scalesandthe needto overcomethe initial difficulties: Considerthe matter.will alsohelpthepianistto vary histouchandtonewhenplaying. He alwaysexplainedto they gainedsome of unbrokencolt assoonas hispupilshow to practiseandwhy it was necessary to do so. Czemy importance injury.he reproachedthem for "making a cat's back7. and many great artists are more particularly distinguished on account of their peculiar excellencein the performance of them. 4. 13 . " have degtee fluency".to shew the pupil the right path. clear. and strictly equal execution of such runs.if they are not kept well-reinedin[j they to are apt run off . they are musical rows of pearls. rapid. you cannot form an idea of the beauty and effect which is produced by a pure. Although a strict teacher. 4OCzemy 411bid. dear Miss Cecilia. the scales contain all the principal rules of fingering. Now.Czerny incorporatedsome humour into his lessons. and one which costs every pupil a good deal of labour. 23-24.in order to arrive at last at a beautifulprospect. Miss Cecilia. Italicization original.. stresses declares.in almost all cases. What do you say to all these advantages? Is it not well worth the while to occupy yourself seriously with thesesame tiresome scales?" Throughoutthe first volumeof thePianoForte Schoolandthe Lettersto A YoungLady. One of his favouritetricks wasto correcthisyoungpupils' mistakesthroughteasing. At present. enticement. And we shallseethat body movementswhenplayingwasa resultof the Czerny'semphasison avoidingunnecessary (1848).pp.by analogy. he Relaxed to the of relaxed playing so as avoid physical muscles. by encouragement. accelerating like an disobedientcreatures.pp.that is. p..he gavethe following explanationto the imaginary"Miss Cecilia"in the first two letters.For instance. 411bid.. and they are in themselvessufficient.that correctfingering is a very important part of pianoforte playing. for hupchingover the keyboard. This wasdonethrougha variety and evenby temptingand of methods:by clear instruction. 3 and 15.as if you were for a time compelledto wend your way amongsomewhattangledand thorny bushes.

after every short note. friendliness. Italicizationoriginal. p. again. Many.warmth. p.couldnot evenplay the scaleof C majorperfectly. 43 &c.generally." A teachermust also be a competent is as advantageous 411bid. 31.andelegance: revealing Do not suppose that you [Miss Cecilia] areto sit at the piano as . Others.. necessary deportmentof polishedlife mustalwaysbetransferred the elegant . a good draws between behaviour in life He the again parallel andin teaching:"Good temper patience. complainsthat sometry to evena number feelings by their manifest widelyjerking out their elbows. i.and teacher should possess: good communicative skills. moderation. 41Czemy (1839E). Some gracefulmovementsare it is while playing. to the art.he expresses contemporaries hisamazement at the numberof performerswho. When qualities a person outside and a clearparallel hand and body movementswhen playing the piano. Capitalizationorigmial. He wasalso a perfectionist."that everymovementwhich conducesreallyandessentiallyto our'betterplayingis allowed. 'Czemy (1839E)..1). while playing.he listsother traits that firmness. " however. suddenlytake up their hands as far from the keys as if they had touched a red hot iron.for he perceives irable between des in both during teaching. assumea perpetualsimper. andtherule applies.we must avoid all that is unnecessary andsuperfluous. 46Czemy 14 . Czernyexpresses hisclear displeasure including at the contortionsandgrimacesdisplayedby manyof his contemporaries. p. He of good pianists. In his Piano Forte School.or they mark the commencementof every bar by making a low bow with their head and chest. In his concludingremarksto the first volumeof the PianoForle School. 216.others.. as if they were desirous of shewing reverenceto their own playing. in his opinion. in Teachingas in life in general". put on a fierce and crabbedcountenance. i. stiff and cold as a wooden doll..here.and the relativelack of technicalfacility displayedby someof his in public performancesfrustratedhim..influenceoffleethoýen(seechapter8) andClementi(seesection2. he is he insistson avoidingunnecessary for his decorum. only the excessthat mustbe avoided. admiration sincerity. (1848). 219.p. 32." Onecanform someideaof Czerny'spersonalityfrom his writingson teaching.

his heavy teaching "See Liszt's letter of 15February1881(to DdnesPdzmdndy)for example.5 CZERNY'S OTHER MUSICAL ACTIVITIES 1806 was a historic year for Czemy. p." Although Op. success. all the necessary qualitiesof a writing.Liszt continuallyinvited Czernyto Parisandpromisedto do for Czernywhat he would do for his own father. His Liszt Czerny's beloved teachingg to with all were remain master". His Variations concertantes for piano and violin. 1830s. for this was the year he started full-time teaching and had his first taste of composition.Czernywasmore thanmerelya pianoteacherto Liszt. playing international fame his large The teacher. for by Krurnpholz. 41MacArdle 49Czemy(1956). He taken the theme without any wrote except on a himself by frqm Vanhall. The teachershouldalsobe in a positionto demonstration for preparepupils publicperformances. Czemy'sLettersto A YoungLady andhis Piano Forte Schoolarevery informativeand his for his his the they they to also show concern well-being of pupils. asa performer. later hint He the taught rules of composition reading occasional Albrechtsberger's book on thorough-bass. the that teaching van and other of reflected own Beethoven'sdisapprovalof Czerny'sapproacW'may havebeeninfluencedby their prejudices. to time. Schindler's Anton teacher. Czemy He Liszt to very of acknowledged was contemporaries. 130.for demonstrate in One to to the such effectively such occasion order' pupil. p. to teacher. The effectivenessof Czerny's teaching Met with a somewhatmixed responsefrom his indebtedness his fond Czerny. Op. reflect enjoyable read: interestin providinghis pupils with the best educationin line with their ability and the latest his he further displayed Throughout techniques. some showed and pupils aswell as Liszt perhapsalsoperceivedCzernyasa fatherfigure. often referringto his teacher as "my dear and belovedMaster". In fact. I sold well. (1958). 1. of who achieved number pupils good bear his further both. or "my " his fife. 312. 15 . turn. respectedand Karl his On hand. Czemyshowedcompassion andgaveLiszt freelessons in lodging for kindness his board free Liszt.In the from humblebackgrounds. performer is beforethepupil learnsa new piece. witness or a 1. throughouthis life. was based it having lessons.

. on not in an unnatural manner. Czernycomposedquicklyand top twelve-hour teaching the of sche4ule wason fife. 434. p. "Chopin (1988).Czemywasbecomingincreasinglyfamousashcomposer. his enon-nousoutput of light. 181. brillante "4 Op. Czerny admitted that he to to the an appointment and compose advised "Ibid. In a word. manufactureof musical PhantasierP. he states:"By all meanslet him retire and Czerny's of he deserves it him truly.and France). in 1838. many of which are without opus numbers. a pension.designedfor thesolepurposeof displayingthepianist'svirtuosity. prevented schedule A meetingwith the publisherAnton DiabeUiin 1818.53 When Czerny visited Beethoven in Baden two years later.Poland. which had brought him fame. his he had producedover a thousandworks. p. we've gotten Beethoven was also not particularly impressedwith Czýrny's compositional style. Unfortunately. Anderson(1961). he was " in "get larger forms". 1064. Althougha largepercentage of hisoutput consistsof small-scalecompositionsfor the piano.andon folk melodiesof variousnations(includingthoseofAustria.4 him from concentratingon composition. Translatedby Newman.p. he was equallycapableof writing in large forms. Bohemia. (1969). 137..the string quartetandthe mass. 142. iii. Beethoven admitted to Ries that he was in brilliant because keen the they tend to promote mechanicalplaying compositions style. includingnumerous By the end of easily. 313-314. In additionto his reputationas a arrangements.partlythanksto hiswillingness to writepopularmusicwhichwasin greatdemand. however. teacher. also brought him criticism from certain quarters. 14Thayer 16 . and would not [have to] write any more . In 1823. popular music. Russia.p.re-ignitedCzemy's zeal for he in his free time theeveningsto composea largeamountofmusic.. 956. pp.suchasthe symphony.aswell aspiecesin the brilliantstyle.He composednumerousvariationson famous themesby other composers(for exampleon the duet "La ci darenf' from Mozart's Don Giovanni). "Newman(1969). He was also very fond of composinglight-hearted characterpieces. p.populardancesandmarches. Chopin describedhim as "Vienna's oracle in the " And Schumannwas also rather unsympathetic. This and usedup composing 10 his during day. up with gotten stale. he's give " fed his things". Ireland. "Wegelerand Ries(1988). In his review taste".Scotland.

His in F minor. long for fourth The of stretches passagework. The chordal section in the second movement of his fourth sonata in G for like 65. F. Translatedby Newman.eventhoughthe first in 181 Or. ' "Ibid. I 0/iii andOp. preferring insteadto ch. andcolour are especiallyeffectivein the pianoduet medium. 181. between the tonalcoloursaffordedby the differentregistersacrossthe rangeof the and contrast the piano.which I hopeto make " moreandmoresignificant. with compositions. example. At other times. He could indeed compose in any familiar with a wide range of compositional techniques. all Czemy's writings display a certain confidencein his own ability as a composer. 7. the the exploits of sonority range offered andpiano bass deep high the tones the treble. Czemy'selevensolopianosonataswerepublishedbetween1820and1843.harmonicrichness.as theuseof four handsprovidehimwith theopportunityto achievefull textures. 54. also suffered an major. sentto you.he explains: My solopianosonatas.howevermanyI planto write. In spite of his submissivereply to Beethoven's advice mentioned above. Czemy he Sometimes. the pianos certainpassages Suchplaysof timbre.little by little. sounds almost a exercise. However.but its first the of energy.suchas the with penetrating of contrasts in duets Op.andthat hetook musicfrom the publishersin exchange". Peters. asoneitem of an over-all series. movementof his first Piano Sonata overfondness in A flat major. could be seenasa homage third composed sonata sonatawas to histeacher.In his letter of 1823to the publisherC. hetreatsthepianolike a full orchestra. (1969). 57. by instrument. oughtthrough [one separate]continuousnumberingto comprisean entirety [in in whichI want.In all his pianosonatas alsosomething duets.tessitura. 16Newman 17 .ThereforeI ask you to considerthe 3"" Sonate. Op.did not-attachany real importanceto his compositionsfor the reasonthat "he scribbledthem " This maybethe case downsoeasily. harmony He from Op. to recordmy artisticviews themselves]. light-hearted but he certainly conceivedhis solo piano sonatasas serious the pieces. is one such example. and experiences. he generally was genre and develop to a thematic idea. Op. power and passion of movement.It sharesnot only the key andopusnumberof Beethoven's"Appassionata".inge the accompanimentor the seemsunable harmonic progression.p.

Kuerti 493-497. Letters to the the the of music-buying on expectation public and and A YoungLady. variedrangeof From the 1820s. compositional Manyof his pianoduetstoo deservesomerecognition. Op. Czerny was obviously familiar with the music trade both Continent in England.or the technical are accompanied difficulty involved. Cramer's treatise. andcomposition. and Die Kunst desPraludieren in 120 Beispielen. Op.not only exploresvarioustechnical exercises. example. example. difficultiesoverthewholecompassof the keyboard. teachesmusic theory andpiano playing from 'Tor Kuerti's suggestionregardingsomeof Czerny's"serious"compositionswhich shouldbe (1997). 300 (1833). Both translations were published in the sameyear as their original Germantreatises. tonal emphasis. asmentionedin the previous section. touch. As mentioned in the previous section.not uniform It is thereforeimportantthat oneshoulddifferentiatethe good onesfrom thosewhichresemble for His third sonata.1). The preludesandfuguesin his Schule des Fugenspiels.light. are intended to encouragethe pianist to develop the skill of playing polyphonic compositions. as section by instructions concise explaining the purpose of eachexercise. see explored. Great Cramer to the treatises similar of and Clementi (seealso of schools it is English brief Like The in 2. Op. 500 (1839). Czerny's Elementary Worksfor the Piano Forte. They were both translatedinto English as CompleteTheoretical and Practical Piano Forte School and TheArt ofPlaying the Ancient and Modern Piano Forte Worksrespectively. 400 (cl 836). treatises. Op. and its supplementDie Kunst des Vortrags der d1teren und neueren Klavierkomposilionen (1846). studies.WhiChhas oftenbeenviewedin a ratherunfavourable bcre-considered. 200 (1829). all relatively exercises. He dealswith the art of improvisation in the SystematischeAnleitung zum Fantasieren auf dem Pianoforte. 18 . or how to overcome it. contain detailed instructions on piano playing and stylistic matters. 365. should Czemy'sabilityasa composer.is worthy to bein themainpianorepertoire. 54.suchashis OuvertureCharacteristique et Brillante in B minor. His studiesalso should not be viewedas meremechanical des for Die Schule Virtuosen.Czernybeganwriting about music. piano playing. published in London in 1840. As it was intendedfor the use its formula is in Britain.it canalsohelpthepupildevelopa wide and " dynamics.admittedly. is a simplified version of the Piano Forte School. His writings from this period show him to be a well-rounded musician.and articulation. Thequalityofcompositionsin hisenormousoutputis. Op. pp. Op. his three-volume Vollstandige theoretisch-praktischePianoforte-Schule.

a book which gives a list birth Christ from time the the of of until 1800.but alsothe'latter'sskill in thematicdevelopment. is history. The (1824-1826) edition of this compilation.ideas.he was ableto translateAntoine Reicha's Traitj de milodie (1814). to explanations.andTraitedehautecomposition into bilingual German. 1825)and Kleines Elementarbuchffir Klavierspieler (Leipzig.Italian. predecessors. in German. his experthandlingof variousstructures. Essentially the the different stylesof writing andthe using same a practicalviewpoint. Three or ofPraqical years praktischen he published Umriss der ganzen Musikgeschichte bis 1800. literature eachentry. 19 I . Op. Maller's GrosseForlepiano-Schule(Leipzig. Each composer placedwithin a carefully drawn historical context (including major and in history the with cultural of the important literature and musical political events). to a also addedremarksand an Appendix. 815. Tonsetzkunst 600 (1848).Czemyalso du Reicha's. With a good knowledgeof French. as well as the cornpositioýsof his contemporariesand have been for his Czerny the may paving way own compositiontreatise.French. aid not only the aestheticswhichCzernyadmired especially in Beethoven'smusic. Haydn. 32. Czerny'sedition of A.music. Similarly.p. By himself Kunst Die acquainting with the writings of an as important figure'such as Reicha.andthe overallunity in his compositions. with a brief rdsum6accompanying of musicians is he book. He addition providing frequentlyusesthe works of well-known composers. 1830) were perhapsalso preparations in particular towardshis own monumentaltreatiseon pianoplaying. Miller's Fortepiano-Schule "'Newman(1969).as well as of orchestration. andCzechalsobecameusefulin later Czerny'slinguisticcompetence life.all of which is recordedin his Schuleder School Composition.Lettersto A YoungLady andElementaryWorksshow how adaptableCzemywas. later. differentformulasofPiano Forte School. entitled musicale VollstandigesLehrbuchder musikalischenComposition. parallel compositions of the period.waspublishedin Viennain 1832." In he German translation. E. He also possesseda sound knowledgeof variouscompositional forms and genres. In this able to combine the three passionsof his fife . Clementiand his is It Beethoven.such as Mozart. Op.Coursdecompositionmusicale(c 1816-1818).his harmoniclanguage. 4rt dramatique (1833) he in translated compositeur and which published 1835 edited der dramatischen Composition.

In additionto contemporarytreatises.The sixtheditionof this treatise in Klavier-und 1804 Willer's Fortepiano-Schule.also editedthe musicof a numberof prominent Scarlatti Weber from Bach Beethoven.are similarto those in the PianoForteSchool. Indeed. Op.he addeda sectionto explainthe Sometimes. sectionon figuredbasswhich incorporatesthe andcomprehensive addeda theoriesand views of prominentcontemporarybooks. written for both the amateurand the incorporate in In to changes order piano playing.andhis remarkson the useof the pedals. His to and and variouseditionsof the composers. S. ornamentationand performance. invited Czerny to composenew exercisesfor the 50' edition of his treatise. in fingering. his 3 In of will sonatas chapter editionsof J.Czerny. published in London in 1836. this treatise was sent to Czerny for revision.as treatise. A.to be the bestway concerning studyof scales. was editedby Czerny.which dexterity.but the revisionsherewereon a muchsmallerscale.a chapterwhich anticipates Piano Forte School. He itten large newly-wr.The eighthedition. corrections.havingbeenrevisedmanytimes. It wasin fact first written by G. The five classifications for dynamicsandarticulation. newer his each compositions.Modern Instructions for the Pianoforte. Beethoven be discussed in below. In the the chapters on alterationswere made he fingering. not all his editionsof existingpianotreatisesreceivedsuchextensiveadditions. completepiano 20 t . his "editing" and notation. may simply staccato his in editionof Jousse'spiano consistof addinga new setof exercisesat the endof a treatise. replacedmany of the old exerciseswith new pedagogicaldoctrine chapteron he found. the man who translated Czerny's Piano Forte School into English. extensiveadditionsand educatedmusician. some and portato new exercises. '.L6hleinandpublishedin 1765underthe title Clavierschule.CzernyalsomodernisedtheKleinesElementarbuchby addingexercises and the chapteron ornaments. supplementing Nevertheless.publishedaround 1860. Out-of-date for thedevelopment offinger realizationsoforriamentswerereplacedwith include interpretation The to the section on performance was expanded of classical ones.entitled as waspublished GrosseFortepiano-Schule. Hamilton.his descriptionsregardingthe qualitiesandcharacteristics of each dynamicandarticulation.hashadaninterestinghistory. Hamilton proudly declares that Czerny made only very few and insignificant indicating latter's the thus approval. 420.In his editionof Pleyel'sClavierschule. Prior to its publication in 1854. Czerny was also greatly respectedin London. the after a long periodof testing. I In the preface. J.and publishedtwenty-oneyearslater.

Czemyfurther revealshis indebtedness to Beethoven. This is followedby a diminuendohalfwaythroughbar 8 to beginning bar 9. 59Bach(183 7).and etudes. approach is found in is Czerny's Beethoven's. Czemy through the the a recommends crescendo wMch of p at tofat the beginningof the next bar. Sometimes. Austrian romances. the thickening such as ofdouble octaves ofthe of bars25occasional 29 from the C minor fugue in Book I. From fromp two to top the tof within space of and change halfway bar leads bar beginning 7.and the occasionaltempo changewhich havebeeninserted by Czemy.the soil and major change happens bars bars back (from 7 9). from to vice versa: example. As a result. Field.Czemy encouragesa rapid larger Bach than would significantly in in from Book for loud Prelude XV G 1. In the Prefaceto his edition of The Well-Tempered Clavier. particularly bagatelles. polonaises. cadenzas. Bach's The Well-TemperedClavier (1837) and 200 of the sonatasby DomenicoScarlatti (1839). part a In spite of the vast quantity of new music that was being composed in the nineteenth century. or one's amusement. preface.whichclearlyreflectthe earlynineteenth-century the of at p found in baroque those to consistent are with contemporarycompositions. performancesevidentlygaveeach of performances " interplay independent highlighting between fugue in the the voice aswell as an parts. Another trait the which editing nineteenth-century especially insertion his in bass texture. The majority of compositions in the Pfennig-Magazin were by Beethoven. is favouring legato). In his preface. and such composers as contemporary himself The Czerny Amongthern these genres of compositions are. and crescendo nuances. are rondos. A few pieces by Bach and Scarlatti are also incorporated. Clementi. 21 .that is. these pieces contain articulation marks. dynamics.S. and sudden accents. by using Beethoven's basis for his fugues These the as a editing. reading skills. All thesemarkings. he attemptedto reveal the characterof each piece by inserting tempo markings. diminuendo fingerings. variations. intended. However. with Czerny as editor between 1834-1836. the Musikalisches Pfennig-Magazin was startedto fill this gap. Czerny still felt that there was a lack of short pieceswhich would aid the development of sightbe for for the could used or which purpose of entertaining. as it is Czerny's intention to introduce the older composerswho had beenneglectedinto nineteenth-centuryrepertoire. Dussek. Moscheles. also very varied. metronomemarkings. dances. music. Cramer. like his edition of Bach's The Well-Tempered Clavier. ff His dynamic from (often to suggested range pp articulationmarks have.

22 .it means"much for [the benefitofl many. preface. Alles der ZeiC. to revisethe interpretativeandperformanceof baroquepieces io suitmodemtaste.heexplainsthat it *as necessary. I I I 6'Czemy(1834-1836).carlbe bestsummedup by hisforcefulandwitty motto: "Viel für Viele. ` Whentranslatedinto English.Time will bring all to fruitiore'. with his editionsof treatisesandmusicwhich he soughtto bringinto linewith contemporarytaste. 611bid.'O 'Czemy9s extensivecreativeoutput.

piano encouraged in instrument turn.ClementiandHummel.it is essentialthat eventsor first In in influenced Czemy to the are explored. to the provided new opportunities and which.teachers.whichwas (includingeventhosewithout-anystanding)to publishtreatises. In the "Recouectiol&' his indebtedness heacknowledges to C. stay ofthe abreast and ofthe more as important treatises were made. provide an extensive source or of anecdotes reminiscences.CIIAPTER 2: MUSICAL INFLUENCES Throughouthis life. Cramer.Copyrightlaw did not exist in teachersusuallyresortedto copyingthe writings GermanyandAustria. the and writers countries. Bach. sound worlds of mechanism composersandpianists. Paris to London. E. include Clementi.In order to understandCzemy'sinterpretationof Beethoven'spianosonatas. addition occasional remark personswho diaries. of well-established in New improve developments by to the ways were explored manufacturing. The subscribersto Hummel's English translation of the Anweisung (1829). For instance. Versuch The iiber then. -treatises Towardsthe end of the eighteenthcentury. of many which published For the sakeof discussion. P.publishersandpianomanufacturers. begins E. Many musiciansandpublishersknew one anotherandwere interested in new publications on piano playing. Improvementsin transport andcommunication enabledthe main musicalcentresin Europe. P. and Cocks and Co. information.Europ6 was swept by an enthusiasmamongboth instrument for treatises the on playing an publishing especially amateursandprofessionals increasingly for in It becoming London teachers popular. Czemywasexposedto a variety of musicalstyles. such latest developments.performers. Clementi's Introduction to the Art of Playing on into both in German French (180 1) 1802 while Hummel's Forte translated Piano and was the Ausfahrliche theorelisch-practischeAnweisungzumPiano-forte Spiel (1828) wastranslatedinto English the following year. Translations Vienna.I will compareeight importantdocumentspublishedover a 93-year in in lived England German-speaking They The (1753-1846). for example. (the company Czerny's writings and compositions). with ivahre theseaswascustomary 23 I .sothe lessaccomplished for having The craze one?s piano treatisepublishedwas partly musicians.Beethoven. was not uncommon piano. Bach's die discussion C. period or a combinationof were composers.

continuing with J.' Louis Adam's Mithode de ideas (Paris. 1796). G. 7.1 BACKGROUND OF THE TREATISES TO BE STUDIED Clementi's Introduction to the Art of Playing on the Piano Forte (1801) dealswith elementary from Germantreatisesmadein this chapterare mainlyextractedfrom the EngEsh 'References translations. (1974). A. Among them byFriedrich Pianoforte-Schule Starke (Vienna. 1753. leading to the culmination of Czemy's three-volume Vollstandige theoretisch-praktische PianoforteSchule. ix. pedal markings in the music of thesewriters will be incorporated in the discussion. 1801). 1840). Mithodepour apprendre are le pianoforte by Friedrich Kalkbrenner (Paris.p.I amusingthe 1800 has list ItaHan list is in Dussek's treatise terms. Tilrk'sKlavierschule oderAnweisung ffir Lehrer und Lernende (Leipzig.1762) and D. Streicher's Kurze Bemerkungenüber das Spielen. Op. 1802) in Clementi's Introduction' and Pleyel's piano reflects pour nouvelle . B. 1797) echoesconcepts in Dussek's Instructions on the Art. Fdtis and Ignaz Moscheles(Paris. 1819-182 Wiener 1). 3Clementi/Rosenblum 24 . editionof 2Bach(1974). 1812). 2. J. and J. sincesomeofthe treatisescontain very Klavierkompositionen neuren little information on pedalling. 180 1).Art das Clavier zuspielen(Berlin. 1828). N. 1797) is influenced by Bach's Essay. Mithode pour le Pianoforte (Paris. 1830) and Mithode des mithodes de piano by FrancoisJ.p. L. StiMmen und Erhalten der Fortepiano (Vienna. 500 (Vienna.1839) and its supplement Die Kunst des Vortrags der d1teren und ' (Vienna. Edinburgh. Clementi'sIntroduction to the Art ofPlaying on the Piano Forte (London. 1789). Hummel's Ausfahrliche theoretisch-practischeAnweisung zum Piano-forte Spiel (Vienna. Milchmeyer's Die wahreArt das Pianoforte zu Spielen (Dresden.The third editionof Cramer'sInstructionfor the Piano Forte (1820)is used insteadof the original. Dussek's Klavierspielen zum Instructions on the Art ofPlaying the Piano Forte or Harpsichord (London.of which the British Library copy hasbeenmislaid. It is beyond the scope of this thesis to study all the treatiseswritten in that period. JohannP. this wlýich a of not the 1796edition. Cramer's Instructions for the Piano Forte (London. 1846). However. There were also many treatiseswhich echo the writings of someofthe above-mentionedauthors.

treatise).. Although Clementi is often considered "the father of the pianoforte". fingering the the the that scales will of pupil with and practice explains Czerny Piano Forte School. Cramer(c 1820.p. He maintains that the thumb should always remain close to the hand while unnecessarybodily " discourages be Bach from the avoided. Besidesteachingfinger agility. pp. [sic] by ýhe the was secret art. 25 . p. 41. Cramer(1835). ' fingering be important in few". repeatedly in later (1812is from Starting the seventh editions. Bach's Essay.the differentdegreesofstaccato. He uses both the old and the new 4Bach(1974). 5 Czerny (183 i.pp. Clementiand one of his pupils.31. should gestures . in TUrk.. understand whatever 14. and pp. p. By knowledge the time the the wrote of scales of role a beenextended.P. Dussekalso upholdsthesebasic principles. 30. 9E). Cramer. music hand "quiet" lays This the a and on usefulness emphasis of practising scales evenly. 45. I the this of pianoforte. 3. and 'Clementihimselfadmitted"WhateverI know-aboutfingeringandthe new stYle. They were no longer practisedmerely to enableneat and rapid execution..in short.a wide his He levels.the sentenceregardingthe unnecessary motion of the hand is printed in capitalletters. 71bid. edition made more pronounced emphasis 1814). He to theory. 46-77 (1800). Piano Forte School. and ways practise effectively. dynamic to trains the tones ability produce any at will.p. position.extol the virtue of practisingscalesto train technical facility. Dussek help fan-dharise keyboard.' Bach teachesthe correct sitting importance hand in He the the of correct position understands order to play properly. had keys. art of a and practiced writing . E.41-44. This last point and the art of fingering are perhaps the most important principles to influence later teachers. taught and still evident unavoidable. and 152. 2. many of the principles in his Introduction have their roots in C. Czernyusesthemto developexpressive playing:legato. Rirk (1804). circle of playscales little finger black keys it is the thumb the the or of on unless placing absolutely surrounding ' is by Dussek Clementi.Bach was already teachingthat the left hand should be intelligently exercisedso that it has equal facility with the right. ii. and p. sittingand playing position. 9 3 1.pp. The thus taboo the a sense of progression. also pupilsto and of range developing V-I harmonic in fifths. P. 17. Tach (1974). See Bach (1974).fingering. have learned from I book". Bach to a very obviously considers element performance very becausethe Essay begins with a large chapter on fingering. Before the publication of Clementi's treatise. performer adopting ugly grimaces. At the time of fingering known "almost Essay. Dussek 34.

' and Czerny. he expresseshis methodof is. small number of pieces or are a of in their time as dictionaries of elements. Cramer's treatise follows this principle loosely. Bach offers advice on the mechanismsof the harpsichord and clavichord.nineteenth-century of art and ensemble Bach have the must solo concert pianist. longer fingers be important the the the thumb to the thumb the of and crossing over most of fingering! Unlike fingering for in t4e the the easierscales.in keepingwith newdevelopments. gradually Bach'sEssayconcernsitself mainly with the responsibilityof the keyboardplayer within an improvisation. and ornaments followed is fingered by few first. on and Dussek's. simple and concise . Thýs taught sometimes scales and/or a exercises. 26 . tuning. follow the basic arrangement used by most late eighteenth-centuryEnglish instruction books. Hummel 224. then by Cramer. They are lengthy.ibid. over andthe second preference heconsidersthe turning fingeroverthethumb. At the end are lessons English tutors were considered treatises. See the p. options study of of available element thosewith many sharpsand flats permit only the new fingering. that the the third the of vaulting old method.few fingering Inthose with scales. Nevertheless. Lessons would be selectedat the discretion of the teacher and in the order that he saw fit. 150. It is this new method of fingering that was later developed and used as the basis of piano technique. piano technique. first by Clementi. on the other gives hand. Music theory. for finger fourth. on "Bach (1974). In the treatisesemphasizethe contrast. It is has different but format. subject. his From he found teaching that a slightly experience.Hummel. First. 45-46. Another method that they adopt is Bach's recommendation on how to practise technical exercises. the exercisesare practised slowly. 9Hummelshowsan awarenessof Bach'ssystemof fingeringwhenpreparinghis own chapter (1829). no or very sharpsand flats.. the speed is then fingering increased becomes the of such until passages secondnature to the player. H. with rather few or no practical exercises. An experiencedperformer. he for how Clementi's hints to prepare public performances. and care of the instruments. pp. fingering. the added. noticedthe tendencytowardsmechanical virtuosityof he from 1750s by "[p]lay like that the the the warns when early performer must soul. not playing "O bird! a trained Bach's and TOrk's treatises follow the format of many contemporary Gennan tutors. They are simple and concise.p.

Czerny'sPiano Forte School and Hummel's Theoretical and Practical Course is striking. Therefore. Bach's Essayand Streicher'sNotes on the Playing. 27 . They are easyto read but lack instructions on the finer nuancesof playing. explains. In Piano Streicher's booklet is first the contrast. resemblance prepare and piano.Hummelplacesit in the third part of his treatise.Hummel'sTheoreticalandPracticalCourseandCzemy'sPiano Forte School incorporatethe format of both the Germanand Englishtutors: comprehensive by numerousexercisesandpieces. more level to that of the advancedpianist. comprehensive. Dussek's. hand. Unlike the English theoreticalknowledgeis supplemented tutors. of volume shortandprecise.p. aimed at word was used to are said indicate one who truly understandsand enjoys music.it wasmorebeneficialto teachmusictheorythroughmusic. advanced of ornaments of introduced. Hummel's Theoretical and Practical Course and Czerny's Piano Forte School. Czernysetsout the topicsin Piano Forte Schoolaccordingto the order in wbýichthey in his lessons. are for They from beginners' are at all stages written pupils of proficiency.eachexerciseis followed byexplanationandinstructions. of It coversfour mainareas:basicplayingposition. 'Although its market is unspecified. as opposedto a "professional". The high standard expected of a performer asset out in the writings of Bach and Streicher is therefore understandable. In is be if follows teacher taught the the opinion. Like Bach. 295. and the styles three sections: are difference is The discussion is the only obvious where performance. Tuning and Maintenance ofthe Fortepiano As I F.fingering. it is difficult to determinethe witers' idealson suchmatters. I'Rochhtz(1832). Hummel and Czemy give counsel on the mechanismand care of the for ' The between how to the structure of a public performance. the on other styles.themechanics ofthe piano. a unnecessary pupil would lessonsclosely.toneproduction. Clementi's and Cramer's treatisesare written for beginners. one who " constantly criticizes. Both basic into divided theoretical and practical knowledge. ornamentstowardsthe end performing advanced Forte School. Rochlitz be "amateur" the to amateurs. Therefore.and the tuningandgeneralmaintenance of the instrument. however.togetherwith mattersrelatingto introduces Czemy. TOrk's Treatise is probably written for the same category of performers.

p.2. Speedsmay be classifiedin threemain groups. allegro.1 TEMPO Indications of Speed . because than the formeris the diminutiveof to as quicker andante erroneous perceiveandantino 13 the latter. Dussek.includingDussek.insistthat andanteis slightlyquicker Hummelexplainsthat it is than andantino.treatise). speed conveyed slowest Clementi. 14.regardedlargo or grave as the by The tempo. pp.In some eighteenthcentury.Hummeland Czerny. an example.thesetermswereusedasa descriptionof mood. 156.i. In 1789.p. preslissimo. Slow temposare lento.Hummel(1829).p. more cases.slow.p. Clementicontradictshim 'IT&k (1804). 44-45.who standin oppositionto Czemy. moderateand fast. TUrk. andantino was also problematic. Fast by by tempos and adagio. largo. 28 I . Clementi(1801).Italian terms.2. " j The meaningsof Italian termsconstantlyevolvewith time. thereby listing adagio asthe slowesttempo. 52. adagioor gravewasthe slowesttempo. represented The by and meaningof vivaceat this time was ambiguous. and sometimes vivace TOrkdefinesvivaceasa tempomarkingwhichis slowerthanallegro.speed literal meaningof allegro is "cheerfur. The others.andCramer.He andCramerwereamongthe minority who followedthe adagio-largo tradition.TOrk definesallegro as"quick". In his subsequenteditionsof Introduction. Even the degreeof quicknessor blurred became in There disagreement terms time. Clementi/Rosenblurn (c1820.presto. By the middle implications Italian termsalso the the of carried of speed. xxix. 68-69. 14. 13.Italian temis were introducedto indicate the speedof a piece. are expressed grave. Cramer IMIrk (1804).2 A COMPARISON OF THE TREATISES 2. he repeatedly defendedthis practice.i. In the hopeof Clearingup this misunderstanding.Czemy (I 839E). He prefersto follow the practiceof Corelli. these associated with was as to slowness whetherlargo. Dussek(1800). Clementiis more conservative. (1974).p. TOrkconsiderslargo to be the slowest tempo.pp. time signature and the metronome About a centurybeforethe adventof the metronome.some of important is became Allegro The the term's than original meaning. Originally. p.

observesthat a more moderate tempo was expectedof a piece marked of increasing The fifty trend the of speedof allegro and reducing earlier. the speedof adagio continued the mid-eighteenth century. p.p.p. distinctions the time. i. by late Dussek breve. Czemy(I 839E).by listingvivaceasAquickertempothanallegro but slowerthanpresto.p.i. The life "with termsandante. To this time tempo the of signature 4nd meaning contrasting views regarding between C. deducedfrom the characterofthe piece and its smallestnote value.adagio .presto " prestissimo. be depending the to on and speed also may allegro and adagio. the decision may In difficult. 156. Clementi(1801).adagio . there the to the with were many was alla proportions relationship its implication. sign of common were rarely made complicate matters k. The influence of the time signature in the choice of tempo was more significant in the eighteenth in The time the nineteenth century with a the only signature used thanin nineteenth century. Although choosing an appropriate speedis an important criterion in performing. 68-69. -148.vivacissimopresto-prestissimo Czerny: Grave .andante .pp. as with warmtlf while spirit" and as He between fast An tempos. breve. Comparethe two lists.Dussek(1800). pp.DussekandCzerny. Theselast two points are also " by Czerny. Italian As the terms. the the slow and analysisof the and moderato allegretto andantino. 14. iii. 13.largo . sometimes rather TUrk Klavierschule. 29 .allegretto.allegro .on the otherhand.p.andantino .Tilrk (1804). "Bach (1974).allegro . i. Speed be to time the second edition according varies and place. years composed allegro in This the throughout was noticeable even nineteenth century. 47.andante.allegretto . for Bach complains of considerable differences in the speeds of location. 106. startingwith the slowesttempo: Hummel: Grave . him According TOrk. p. p. observed . 156 "Hummel(1829). tableof speedas listed in the treatisesrevealsthe similarity betweenHummel'sand Czerny's. 14.Czemy(I 839E).p.andantino. 69. Czemy (1839E).Dussek definesvivace interprets it Czemy "lively.considervivacean adverbto the maintempoheadings. further.largo . TOrk(1802).151and414. time the of common seventeenth-centurymeaning retains and the alla "Tork (1804).

" In 1724. 4. . 532-535. 534. xxv. two and semibreveetc. is discussion in (1966). There were two waysof interpretingthis time Breve.ý "' indications C. s.that is. p.such as St6ckel's proposal to build a device resemblinga large wall- (1800). 12. Johann Quantz proposed using the "pulse beat at " healthy hand the of a person". " to time the needed perform a piece. Clementi/Rosenblum 21Turk(1804). I 10 and 119.p. 24Sadie 30 . (1974). "Clementi(1801)." - j Such confusion prompted musiciansto experiment with ways of measuringthe exact speed of lists Tiirk's Treatise someof thesemethods: uýing the ticking of a watch and writing eachpiece.. p. In 1752. "a movementthat has " in bar". this time and 'ý as of signature. Czerny(1839E). St8ckel in such as various patents 1800. assigning Apart fromDussek.had a calibrated frame with a peg on the fixed end (1696). A more sophisticated version of this idea included a twoMotions the regular of a by high Jacques-Alexandre-C6sar Charles in 1786 and clockwork chronomNre musical m6tre inventors by Anthony George Eckhardt in 1798 and G. 14-15. 282-294. P.v.xvi.pp. pp. "Metronome". 21Fora list of the devicesusedto measuretempobeforethe inventionof the metronome. 19Tfirk(1804). Dussekholdson to the old meaningof alla breve. Sadie xvi. 17Dussek "Ibid.Clementidecidesto embracethe other meaningassociated with alla breve. pp. LouliCs chronomatre be in frame. 12Quantz(1966). (2001)." In the seventheditionof the Introduction. He writes: A composition marked thus ý was ANCIENTLY performed as fast ý but C. again as when markedthus now is performedsomewhat fasterthanC.all thewritersstudiedin this chapteragreethatalla brevecontainstwo minim beatsin a bar. Someof the patents. see please (2001).p. 4 (capitalizationoriginal). pp.p. 44. Seeh Quantz 283. a one signaturein performance. i. 'Italicizationandcapitalizationoriginal. E. William Turner suggestedsetting tempos in terms of a 0 in the crotchets reversed mensuration should be counted "as fast as speed of clock whereby ` Watch". Pendulumsand chronometers were also usedto measuretempo for example. p.TUrkandCzemyareof the opinionthat the notesin alla breveshould be playedtwice asfastasthey would otherwisebe in commontime. This would then adjust that the the at a number of points cord could plugged on of the length of the pendulum.

26Hummel(1829).Somerelaxationof pulseshouldbeallowed. used metronomecanalso temporubato employedby someperformers. fingers He that the the this with metronome practising elaborates strengthen correct " in andgivesadditionalcertainty performance. 68-69. iE. and and range Czerny also describesthree types of adagio . p. 149. 69-79. Czerny (1839E). i. i. 156 and ifi. Czemy (1839E).. slurred notes and distinction detached In this the through century. wrote with authority and understanding. 2'Bach(1974). pp. ifi. 2'Hummel(1829). pp. pp. movementsmarked adagio and allegro were characterisedby different types of articulation.dictatedby the taste important The Czemy. and out. and is the opportunityit providescomposersto notate the exactspeedof their compositions. p. Hummel and Czerny teach that a piece markedallegro should be precise. 535." harnmers bells. pp. cýaracter execution adagio more of piece should and neat " by finger The tones that through controlled a-variety of are pressure. By the 1830s. nineteenth was achievedthrough allegro finger action and tone. 66-68. The general rule was to expressadagio through broad. 31 . p. The meanings of adagio and allegro In general. pp. and praised metronome Hummel cautionsthat practisingwith the Tetronome is usefulas long as the playerdoesnot follow the beatsmechanically. sentimental.noneofthoseearlierexperiments wereuniversallyaccepted.expressivebut sad.movementsmarked adagio and allegro had suchdiversecharactersthat qualitative terms were sometimesused.The Perhaps be to asa reactionagainstthe excessiveuseof aid practice. notes. pp. is The The brilliant. fii. adagio is often seenas an expressivemovement while allegro is cheerful and lively.Czemy seesthe metronomeas an instrumentto helps fault. notes are communicated have Czerny the a singing quality. 70 and 74. iH. through to thoughtful. be the of subtle. melody must explainsthat more sustainedand the Player must know how to fascinate his Audience by the finest 211bid. tranquil majesty and warmth. Czerny (1839E). Both Hummel and Czemy reveal that the moods implied by allegro brilliance from liveliness. 65-67. according of performer. Hummel (1829). Hummel and Czemy were amongthe many musicianswho recommendedthe use of the its it They about virtues.27 In the eighteenthcentury. feeling the the to most role of metronome.and elegant. a clock with inventionofthe metronomein 1816. 41-42. Until 61 the audible were never carried cm pendulum.

" hearts their th6r or understandings. Czerny (1839E). 190.and by the appropriateexpressionof tenderor sublimeemotions. (see 40-41). IMIrk (1804). 14. treatise). 14. of Cantabile Thetermcantabileis usedto emphasize the lyric characterofa piece:to revealthislyric character to the player. Its specificmeaning. by correct accentuationand phrasingof the fullness by andcloseconnectionof the harmonies. Clementi asks that passagesmarked with either of those two terms be played: "Czerny (I 839E). and encouragehim or her to bring it out. Clementi/Rosenblum(1974). i.possiblequality of tone.pleasantly"is more keyboard. p. p. p. MelodioUSV'. 42-43). p. 52. Hummel (1829). p. treatise). is in Est the the with calando. xxx. This dual meaningis more commonly associatedwith the terms smorzando.gracefulandexpressive originalmeaning legato line is in This the adoption of as the normal touch (seepp. IoDussek(1800).and. Clementi (180 1). p. In the first edition of Introduction. p. feeling and delicacy. Clementi (180 1). may able clarify and morendo matter. p. with manner". Czerny (1839E). p. accordingto the contentsof the composition. i.by a pellucid melody.Clementirefinesthe the to early suited from "in a singingandgracefulmanner"to "in a singing. 74. Cramer'sand Hummel's definitionscarry the samemeaningas Czerny's:"in a singingstyle. 15. Hummel (1829). p. Cramer (c1820.however. Hummel and especially Clementi all emphasize the expressive intention and shaping denoted by con espressioneand con anima. the terms the possibly owing an oversight on part of publisher. p.31 Con aninia and con espressione Cramer. p. i. In the eleventheditionofIntroduction (1826). slowing in intensity as well. 156. Capitalization original.is determinedby the type of keyboardused. Hi. Dussek have been for to this pp. -71. i. 46. Hummel decrease in but terms that not only a gradual speed. Cramer (c 1820. Cramer and Czerny agree that both rallentando and rilardando refer to a gradual both imply believes down. 32 . Unfortunately. meaniný of calando rallentando not given equates " in his Italian to treatise. Tfirk's definition of "pleasingly. he calando. 53. 72. operateon Some Italian terms which affect the speed and/or character of a piece Rallentando and Ritardando Clementi.

[w]ith expression;that is, with passionatefeeling;whereeverynote has
its peculiarforceandenergy;andwhereeventhe severityof time maybe
"
for
relaxed extraordinaryeffects.
And in his seventhedition, the con animahasbecomemore expressive:"CON ANIMA, with
is
indication
for
While
"With
the
the
of
con
meaning
espressione
standard
expressiorf'.
great
is
Hummel's
like
Clementi's,
',
the
anima
slightly
elusive.
of
con
con
anima,
meaning
exptessioif
is"fullof soul,impassioned".However,Czemy'sdefinition,written only tenyearslater,is rather
different.In his opinion,con animameans"moving with spirit, life andvivacity"."

2.2.2 TEMPO FLEXIBILITY

i

by a slightslowingdown,acceleratingor both. Bach,Hummel
A performanceis oftenenhanced
flexibility
In
Czemy
the
tempo.
that
should
not
affect
o,
verall
such
other words, the
agree
and
"
in
tempo,
tempo
the
the
with slight
changeswithin
same
music. The
pieceshouldstart andend
degreeof tempochanges,however,vary accordingto the characterof the pieceandthe tasteof
the individualperformer.
Many instances of tempo flexibility in performance are not notated. Since this practice is
determinedby contemporary taste,which constantlychanges,it is a 'lost" art-form, savefor some
in
Bach
down
be
laid
that
treatises.
the
tempo
suggests
accelerating
and
retarding
can
guidelines
in
The
be
broadened
tempo
transposition
of
a
octaves.
melody
should
each
at
at the
effective
in
key
in
fermata.
Slow
that
the
was
originally
a
minor
major
mode
and
ofpassages
at
a
repetition
I
"
dissonant
for
the
tempo
chords call
use of
rubato.
notes, caressingor sad melodies and

BachdefinestemporubatOasthe additionor subtractionof note values,whereone handplays
it.
definitions
TOrk
beat
three
the
the
with
gives
other strictly
of temporubato,
and
against

32CIementi(180 1), p. 14.
(1974), p. xxv (capitalization original); Cramer (6820, treatise), p. 52;
33CIementi/Rosenblum
Hummel (1829), i, p. 72; Czerny (1839E), i, p. 190.
14Bach(1974), p. 161; Hummel (1829), iii, p. 47; Czemy (1839E), i, p. 118.
"Bach (1974), p. 161.

33

Bach's definition beingone of them. TOrk's secondtype of rubato occurswhenthe accentis
beats.
is
The
by
delaying
third
than
the
stronger
achieved
rather
or accelerating
on
weaker
placed
"
is
by
Bach,
he
does
it
last
Although
type
this
employed
not classify astemporubato.
speed.
in
Tork givesmanyinstanceswheretempoflexibility canbeused.Accelerandois recommended
in
furious
fiery,
in
the
character,
strongest
violent
and
of
a
passages
and
passages
played
pieces
is
in
Ritardando
the
effective
very tender,languishingandplaintivepassages,
repeat.
strongerat
it,
beforeembellished
towards
the
end
of
or
a piece a part of and in passages
marked
pauses,
diminuendo,diluendo"orsmorzando.Certainpassages
shouldbeplayedin strict timebut a little
Among
them are embellishedpassages
than
the
speed.
markedsenzatempoor
original
slower
a softerpassageat therepetition,anda softandpoignantpassage
adlibitum, a transitionpassage,
betweentwo lively ones."
Similarly, Hummel believesthat melodious passagesin pieces marked allegro should be played
in
florid
hand
Conversely,
left
hand
the
pieces
with
right
passages,
slower.
must
imperceptibly
in
Practical
Course
Theoretical
in
The
Hummel
time.
that
and
examples
reveal
strict
uses
play
tempo flexibility sparingly to enhancethe overall shapeof a phrase. He warns that tempo rubato
"
delicacy
the
of a performance.
neatness,grace and
should not affect

Czernyconsiderstempo flexibility to be the most important meansof expression.Unlike his
favour
he
broadening
He
it
is
tempo.
to
that
seems
a
of
explains
morecommonto
predecessors,
because
former
is
less
likely
increase
down
the
than
to
the
to disfigurethe character
speed,
slow
instances
In
to
the
numerous
where a slowing down is favourable,he
contrast
of a piece.
be
firstly,
in
two
the transitionto a
examples
where
accelerando
may
employed:
only
suggests
themewhich consistsof rapid runs or quick legatonotes;seconqly,in piecesof a fiery, violent
'O
latter
TOrk's
The
furious
recalls
one
of
examples.
nature.
or

"Bach (1974),pp. 161-162;TOrk(1804),p. 40.
37Torkdefinesdiluendoas"ext.inguishing"(seeTiirk (1804), p. 35).
3lTiIrk(1804),p. 40.
"Hummel (1829),iii, pp. 41-53.
4,Czemy(1839E), iii, pp. 31,3 3 and38.
34

Like Tfirk, Czernyrecommendsa slight ritardando in sad, tranquil and tenderpassages.In
is
in
following
down
he
the
that
effective
cases:
slowing
addition, advises
(a) In thosepassages
which containthe return to the principalsubject.
lead
(b) In thosepassages,
to someseparatememberof a melody.
which
(c) In those long and sustainednotes which are to be struck with
follow.
to
after
which
quicker
notes
are
particularemphasis,and
(d) At the transition into anýther speciesof time, or into another
in
from
it.
different
that
speed
which
preceded
movement
(e) Immediatelyafter a pause.
(f) At the Diminuendoof a preceding.very lively passage;as also in
brilliant passages,
when there suddenlyoccursa trait of melody to be
delicacy.
playedpianoandwith much
(g) In embellishments,
consistingof very manyquick notes,which we
degree
first
into
force
the
to
of
movement
chosen.
areunable
(h) Occasionallyalso, in the chief crescendoof a strongly marked
*to
leading
an importantpassageor to the close;
sentence,
(i) In very humorous,capriciousand fantasticpassages,in order to
heightenthe characterso muchmore.
(k) Lastly, almost always where the Composer has indicated an
espressivo;asalso
(1) At the endof everylong shakewhich formsa pauseor Cadenza,and
41
diminuendo.
is
which marked
In some ways, this list is similar to Tflrk's guidelines. The main difference is the absenceof
Examples
(a),
but
in
(b),
(0,
(g)
time.
strict
and
slower
are placeswhere
passages
playing certain
TUrk would have played the whole passageslower rather than gradually slowing down. It is
frequently
diminuendo
Czerny
those
that
and
chords
equates
soft
passages
or
marked
:observed
in
bear
list
One
broadening
that
the
the
tempo.
mind
must
above merely servesas a
of
with a
The
Take
to
theme
transition
the
the
as
an
example.
main
variation of speed when
guide.
judgment
is
by
determined
the
the
and the musical cdntext.
performer's
subject
approaching
According to Czerny's list (ex. (a)), the transition passageshould be played slower and slower.
Elsewhere in Piano Forte School, he clarifies this, stating that if the transition consists of notes
hand,
On
the
towards
the
the
of
chords,
performer
should
or
ritard
end.
staccato
other
played
transition passageswhich contain rapid runs or quick legato notes should be played in strict time
"
or accelerando.

411bid.,iii, pp. 33-34. Capitalization and punctuation original. Incidentally, Czerny omitted the
letter 0) as was customary then.
4'Ibid., iii, p. 38.

35

Theabuseof temporubato,a commonmistake,met with strongdisapprovalfrom Hummeland
Czerny. Nevertheless,
the boundariesof what was acceptablewere extendedthroughoutthe
1820s,
Towards
Hummel
the
the
of
end
statesthatanexcessive
century.
useof tempo
nineteenth
Slightly
later,
finds
Czerny
ten
the exaggerated
over
years
also
use
a
performance.
rubato ruins
In
Hummel's,
Czemy's
to
particularly
offensive.
comparison
and
ritardando
of accelerando
in
Forte
School
Piano
tempo
are significantlymorenumerous.He advises
of
rubato
examples
bar.
in
Hummel
Czemy
do
tempo
every
and
almost
not evenagreeon the
change
a slight
figurations.
florid
Hummel
hands
that
the
two
right-hand
states
with
must
of
rendition passages
keeping
left
hand
Although
Czerny
independently,
time.
the
the
strict
alsorecornmends
with
act
from eachother,heallowsthe left handto slowdownwith theright
two handsto beindependent
however,mustbe unornamentedso asnot to blur the pulse."
hand. The accompaniment,

2.2.3. DYNAMICS

The range of dynamics in use
At the time of writing their respective treatises, all the writers surveyed set the soft and loud limits
his
Essay,
Bach
In
dynamics.
is
in
his
It
terraced
still
speaks
of
respectively.
only
andff
at pp
later compositions that the terms crescendo and diminuendo are used. This was in line with the
development in the second half of the eighteenth century, when both terms were used with
increasing frequency. There was also an expansion in the dynamic range; as the piano increasingly
between
loud,
for
Clementi
tonal
varied
soft
and
contrast
and
more
wider
a
possibilities.
all owed
development.
In
he
introduces
this
the
to
seventh
edition,
new
ppp andfff
was open-minded
However, this practice was not immediately followed by later writers, including Cramer and
CzeMy. 44

Mezzavoce,mp,mf, andsottovoceareamongthe termsusedto definethe volumebetweensoft

(1829),iii, pp. 47,51-53; Czerny(1848),p. 3 1; Czerny(1839E),iii, pp. 32,35 and
43Hunu-nel
46.
4'Bach(1974),p. 162;TtIrk (1804),p. 35; Dussek(1800),pp. 44-47;Clementi/Rosenblurn
(1974),p. xxv; Cramer(cl 820,treatise),pp. 52-53;Hummel(1829),i, p. 70; Czerny
(1839E),iii, P. I
36

is
in
between
Czerny
Cramer,
Dussek,
the
loud.
TUrk,
that
soft
agree
mezza
voce
middle,
and
and
definitions
do
The
Hummel
Clementi
Bach,
the
term.
loud.
contradictory
and
not mention
and
did
Clementi
Dussek
Cramer
by
Clementi,
that
show
not
exist.
a
standard
meaning
and
given
loud"
it
between
Cramer
"a
"rather
to
while
sees
soft
and
as
medium
soft",
considersmp mean
Dussek,curiously,claimsthat mp is "softer thanpiano". On the whole, this markingis more
define
in
German-speaking
Bach
TOrk
in
England
the
than
countries.
and
mf as
commonlyused
"half loud" and"half strength''respectively.Dussek,Clementi,Cramer,andHummeldefineit as
"ratherloud" while Czernyinterpretsit as"moderatelyloud". Sottovoceis a lesssignificantterm
it
its
Tark
Like
this
time
was ambiguous.
considers a
thanmezzavoceandmf.
mp, meaningat
it
it
likens
In
Dussek
the
In
to
dynamic.
other
words,
voce.
represents
mezza
contrast,
soft
"
four
intermediate
dynamic
loud.
Of
between
terms,
the
these
only
was
mf
and
soft
medium
indicationthat wasuniversallyadoptedat the time.
There are two possiblereasonswhy intermediatedynamicindicationswere rarelyused. The
it
Micult
different
dynamic
to
the
obtain
on
early
pianos
made
rangeavailable
relativelysmall
have
broader
loud
limits
Therefore,
the
spectrum
may
represented
a
and
soft
moderatevolumes.
frompp
be
P
do
to
today.
they
than
anything
whHef
may
anything
represent
mp
may
of sound
from mf to ff.

This boundarybecameclearer in time as composerswrote more specific

instructions.
Functions
dynamics
of
However, the role of dynamicsis not so much the volume it representsbut its contribution to the
is
Volume
TiIrkto
the
the
character
adapted
suit
of
a
music.
gives
of
piece.
overall performance
be
lively
tender
while
and singing passagesshould
played
strongly
must
pieces
guide:
a general
be softer. Within these pieces,the touch must be adapted accord.ingly. He explains:
Compositions of a cheerful, joyous, lively, sublime, splendid,
fiery,
furious,
bold,
wild,
and the
courageous,serious,
proud,
like, character all require a certain degree of loudness. This
degree must even be increased or decreased according to
is
intensely
feeling
the
more
or
or passion represented
whether

4'Bach(1974),p. 162;TOrk(1804),p. 35; Dussek(1800),p. 46; Clementi(1801), p. 9;
Cramer(c1820,treatise),p. 52; Hummel(1829),i, p. 70; Czemy(1839E),i, p. 184andiii, p.
3.
37

in
itself
different
each
composition
more moderately. ...
be
in
again
necessary,
all
ofwhich
are
must
a suitable
gradations
forte
in
furioso
A
Allegro
the
to
whole.
an
must
relation
thereforebe considerablylouder than in an,41legroin which
only a moderatedegre6ofjoy prevails,etc.
Compositions of a gentle, innocent, naive, pleading, tender,
moving, sad, melancholy, and the like, character all require a
softer execution. The degree of loudness [in 1802, "of
however,
must correspond accurately to the
sofines§"],
is
in
different
therefore
and
most of the
prevailing sentiment
"
just
named.
cases

Hummel'sand Czerny'steachingis in the samevein. Again, this mannerof playing had been,
"
Essay.
in
Bach's
anticipated
Dynamicsalsoserveto emphasizethe structureof a piece. On a smallscale,both Hummeland
Czernyaskthat ascendinglinesbe playedcrescendoand descendingonesdiminuendo,unless
48
TUrk
highlighting
Bach
by
indicated
the
and
advise
composer
modulations,
otherwise
.
4'
TUrk
different
dynamics
dissonances
turn
of
a
melod
y.
recommends
using
andanunexpected
at the repeatof phrasesto providecontrast:
If a passagebe repeated,it is playedthe secondtime softer,if
it wasplayedstrongthe first time. On the contrary,a repeated
passagemay sometimesbe played strongerthe secondtime,
"
if
has
it
Composer
by
the
enlivened
additions.
particularly
Although Czerny agreesthat the choice of dynamicsat repeatsis determinedby circumstances,
he is Particularly fond of playing the repeat softer, with little or no crescendoand diminuendo.
This plan is also applied to formal structures, suchasthe repeatin a scherzoand trio movement."

Accentuation
Accentuationconsistsof metrical,expressiveand structuralaccents. Metrical accentscanbe

is
from
Rosenblum
(1988),
61.
The
36.
taken
translation
46TOrk(1804),
p.
p.
4'Bach(1974),pp. 163-164;Hummel(1829), iii, pp. 40-42;Czemy(1839E),iii, pp. 74-79.
(1829),iii, p. 42; Czerny(1839E), iii, p. 15.
48Hummel
(1974),p. 163;TiIrk (1804),pp. 34 and36.
41Bach
'OTiIrk(1804),p. 36. Capitalizationoriginal.
5'Czerny(I 839E),iii, pp. 16 and 85.
38

further dividedinto two groups:accentswhich are determinedby the time signatureand note
,
divisions. The first type is self-explanatory.The secondtype of metricalaccentis usuallynot
indicated.Playersareexpectedto accentuatethe first of a group of notes,suchas
In addition,HummelandCzemy(asshownin exs.2.1a and2.1b respectively)proposevarying
the accentuationof a repeatedmotivic phrasefor interest'ssake.
Ex. '2.Ia

Ip.

(i

LL

-r---1I

?a
*i
iýii1F16ý4
io

19

j4

-1 111---

111

11

-ýEt4

Ex. 2.1b
/

A

-#", I

--*-

týlft 1,

I

I

.t

AL -0.

f

LJ3'I II I;p

-0

pl F1f1

6--L-L-4

;p

gh
!IN

r. Z: jzz4::

--j

-

>

a

yi, 1,jil IIIIII

-4-

t"4
f=
-0:!ý
>

_

-9-

I
>

Czerny also usesthe sametreatment-at the repetition of a simple melody. The melody is first
in
below).
is
included
The
(this
the
musical
example
not
placementof emphasis
playedsemplice
is then varied so that the melody appearsnew and interesting (ex. 2.2).
Ex. 2.2

Similarly, many expressiveand structural accentsare implied rather than indicated. TUrk fists a
be
dissonances,
instances
accents
can
used
effectively:
expressive
when
syncopations,
number of

39

length,
depth).
beginning
Accents
(in
the
terms
pitch
and
at
of phrases
of
andprominentnotes
havea structuralfunction.Accentson noteswhich indicatemodulationsareof anexpressive
and
in
Czerny
Hummel
Accents
Bach,
and
also
use
accents
similar
contexts.
a structuralnature.
highlightdetailsof musicalinterestaswell as help the performerkeeptime. Hummelexplains'
for
This
fingcrs
doing,
by
the
also allows more scope
that so
can play with more precision.
"
refiýedexpression.
Italian terms with dynamic implications
Dolce
Clementi and Czerny classifydolce under "dynamics". Czerny simply describesit as "soft". On
ýrst
the other hand, Clementi is more concernedwith the expressiveelementof this term. In the
dolce
he
defines
"sweet,
SWELLING
Introduction,
taste;
then
the
as
with
now
and
edition of
in
"sweet,
SWELLING
is
Its
taste;
the
with
eighth
edition
and
refined
meaning
somenotes".
DINUNISHING some notes". Tork fists it with other terms which denote the character of a
both
headings.
dolce
Hummel's
definition,
lists
Hummel
under
as with
passageor a piece.
Tark's, reflects an overlapping of the two categories - "sweetly, with softness". Cramer's
definition is the only one that does not have a dynamic implication. He translatds dolce as
"sweetly". On the whole, it can be concluded that dolce implies a soft dynamic."

Smorzando, calando and morelldo
The original meaningsof smorzando, calando and morendo, as recorded by TUrk, refer to a
decreasein volume. Hummel retains the original meanings of smorzando and calando" but
has
It
is
together
and
rallentando.
with ritardando
now acquired. a new
morendo grouped
Hummel's
Prior
is,
to
the
treatise, the original
that
publication
of
of
speed.
one
significance,
I

"Bach (1974), p. 163; TOrk.(1804), pp. 33,34, and 37; Hummel (1829), i, p. 59, ii, p. 2 and
iii, pp. 54-61; Czemy (1839E), iii, pp. 6-13.
I'Tfirk (1804), p. 15; Clementi (180 1), p. 9 (capitalization original); Clementi/Rosenblurn
(1974), p. xxvii (capitalization original); Cramer (c 1820, treatise), p. 52; Hummel (1829), i, p.
72; Czerny (1839E), i, p. 184.
"'Rosenblumpoints out the weaknessof this definition. She arguesthat the indications
in
Sonata
Op.
81
(1819)
his
Piano
Concerto
Hummel's
Piano
in
tempo
and
appear
calando,
Op. 85 (cl821). SeeRosenblum(1988), p. 83. This indicates that Hummel associatedsome
his
before
he
least
treatise.
down
term
the
years
calando
at
nine
published
with
slowing

40

A suitable articulation can be deduced from the tempo. 14.. 7 1. 148-160. may of calando possiblemeanings declares it decrease both). 52-53. p. is the duration. 41 . IbBach(1974). influential Another Eghtly.-terms "heavy and Eght Expressiorf'to refer to legato.onethat calandoand morendo " both in decrease tone andspeed. Hummel (1829).notes factor Similarly. the notated lengths of notes and the dynamics. werý evolving inevitable. Czemy (1839E). pp. time semiquavers. Someconfusionmight be expectedwhen the meaningsof theseterms decades However. In duration. By Czemy 1839. slow or solemn elaborates adagios. He prefers to use the. 190. legato. relatesto a 0 2. They are played firmly. and pleasant passages should played "Tork (1804). signature also a such as quaversand shorter breve be Pieces influences time to the with an alla signature are choice of articulation.4 ARTICULATION AND TOUCH Among the many touches described in Bach's Essay are legatissimo. and writings. p. be heavier longer to than those of such as and minims.Both Bach and Tiirk recommendusing different touches to characterisethe allegro from the adagio. i. now sharea commonmeaning . treatise).2. semibreves are of general. the generalrule is to play detachednotes in allegros in TiIrk heavier that broad. 3 1. semi-detached and detached tones. speed was with groupssmorzando. slackeningof in both tone and speed. associated adoptinga meaning They together once more. pieces notes require a slurred and touch than fast and lively piecesor those of a plaintive character.While Clementirun-dnates on oneof thethree die it involve (the sounds should away or a slight gradually. and semi-detached(or staccato) respectively. p. Cramer to that the confidently a gradual refers or speed. Clementi (180 1). Crotchets and quavers in moderate and slow tempos are normally played with the most common touch: the semi-detached. meaningsof smorzandoandmorendoareused is the termcalandothat hasthe speedimplication.it in Clementi's Cramer's Instead. p. with fire and a slight 56 accentuation. As mentioned on p. which Soft be factor is dynamics. Cramer (cl 820. i. pp. in first the the trend towards three the of nineteenth century. 35.

37. In long the the these of early editions revisions. they differ in their descriptionswith regard to its length.Germancompositionsrequire by French Italians."In his letter dated 7 June 1783. Mozart still had not changedhis n-dndabout Clementi's playing. he has passages greatest strength not a kreuzer's worth of taste or feeling . for three-quarters of its notated length.he had never heard he "so by Mozart the spirit and much grace" and was also overwhelmed with way perform anyone "Bach (1974). His in his in lies thirds. pp.. Clementi'sdecisionto changetowards legato playing may havehad its roots in the famous himself Mozart 24 December in 1781 Vienna. p. "Harrison (1998). 157. According to Bach. Handel J. 149 and 154. Oneand a half years later. in Op. p. 2 forty legato Short this towards of years record a move over period playing. pp. recognises playedwith two otherimportantfactors:thenationalityandstyleofcomposers. were with articulation replaced of " slurs. already which progressing semi-detached value. most treatisesrecogniselegato as the normal touch. TOrk. Apart from that.taste or feeling. p. 850. slur sonatas piano in found Haydn dominant Mozart. 1 am grateful to Professor Robert Pascallfor sharing this information. he once again criticized Clementi's mechanicalplaying which produced "an atrocious chopping effect" and accusedhim of lacking in expression. Contrapuntal by S.U." By the beginning of the nineteenth century. 792. ii." In 1806. Tfirk (1804). "Bach (1974).Clementiadmitted to his student Ludwig Berger that until that occasion.in short he is a mere 60 mechanicus.(1804). The revisions which Clementi made to his Op. the notes are held for half their is is legato held Tilrk's touch. towards the touch. 36-38. between Clementi's on and virtuosic contest technicaldisplayof doublenotesin the right handdid not impressMozartwho wrote to his father in January1782complaining: Clementi plays well. 6OAnderson 611bid. 2.57 Although Bach and TOrk agreethat the common touch is neither legato nor staccato. the those the traits works with of and are consistent patterns. p.loud heavy light TOrk ones while are played expression with expression. heavier than those touch or compositions or a Bachalsorequirea heavierexpressionthan Classicalpieces. (1966). as far as execution with the right hand goes. 42 .

full lengtlf'. the explainsthat sostenutomeans edition of tempo "to sustain. 19. Plantinga translatesClementi's new way of playing as "melodic and 314). 6bBach pp. TUrk. Her translation. 13 I 780s from the the sonata). a cantabile.Her translation.Both modelscanbetracedto C. (capitalization Clementi/Rosenblurn (1974). p. andalsothroughthe gradualperfection ' faulty Englishpianos. xiii original). should firryfly held down.Clementi.Clementiadvisesthat legatopassages must"in-ýitate " for Hummeland Czemy.keepingdown eachnote its Inhis this touch.thereis a soundidealassociated with theBESTstyleof singing". 25.6' his in his he to io. admired singing quality playing 65W. Adag ability play youth. (1974). 62Rosenblum 611bid.6' This changein Clementi'smannerof playingis also reflectedin his (beginning Op. 39. by Dussek. he is in "in This to time" "in time". In his seventhedition (cl8l2-1814). with onwards midcompositions Legato. Cramer. Hummel p. the notes to their full length". E. Many the then them be equate and of emphasis. qualification modified steady. who witnessed on the piano. p. is humanvoice alsoa model for Czernyis the smoothtoneof wind instruments. P.Clementi. meaningof Clementi first Introduction. Bach. The fifth edition. with struck notes must definitions Czemy's Clementi's and of sostenuto also carry tenuto with sostenuto. Dussek's the Tomagek J. and p. " distinguished instrumentalists. iii. listening to the singersand of advantages emphasizes who Tenuto and sostenuto In general.Hummel.Bach.connectedstyle. Plantinga (see p. The addition may have been inserted as a reaction against the I (1988). 20. In implications. (1972). in latter's 1802.' Technicalexecutionapart. constructionvirtuallyprecluded whoseearlier particularlyofthe legatostyleof playing". p. noble" 64Cramer(cl820. and Hummel usetenuto to indicatethat a note is Czerny length. moderate the steady words adds the twelfth edition (1830). 189 (I 839E). i. treatise). Dussek.and Cramer'sdefinitionof legatois representative given ofthose Czerny:legatonotesmustbe "playedin a smooth. 43 . -151-152. showing off enjoyed admitted also playedan However. or hold on. Anothersourceof inspiration Dussek. Czemy (1829). by listeningattentivelyto singerscelebratedat the time. p. full its that these held tenuto be when adds placed over single notes. He that. iii.he later adopteda more"cantabileandrefinedstyleof'perforrnance bravurapassages.

2. " 7- plr-týl (C-) 9. 6113ach Clementi/Rosenblum(1974). fingers helps This in hand. Hummel interest longer holding than their ofmelodic notated value. " Legatissinto Thecontextin whichBachpermitstheprolongationof notesis exernplifiedin ex. pp. Czemy (1839E). .3 below. ý rý r--ý LLI ?I-tij -t t TOrk. Clementi. . 157. Clementi (180 1). key longer In that the thumb the than the explains must remain on ex.Zý I f in . other play stabili. B.4 N. p. execution.15 6 and 160." and Czerny also prolong notes in certain figurations. Hummel (1829). Notes marked * are held longer than their notated value. H. Hummel (1829). pp. The first exampleconcernsanarpeggiated chord. ii. I. helps length the to the turn on. 2. p." Ex. 6113ach ORosenblurn(1988). Dussek (1800). xxv and xxxi. 47. 68 and 70. 156 and 189.3 H Ff R) I. (1974).. p. 7OHummel 44 . thus giving a sustained notes suggests effect (ex. 25. (1829). 15. Sometimesnotes are prolonged for a practical reasonwhich indirectly results in a better musical Hummel 2.the seconda brokenchordandthethird a repetitive figuremadeup of brokenchords.5. p. treatise). p. 2. i.4). Hummel. p. se while which notated " harmonious to produce a richer and more passage. i. p. pp. Ex. 8. 14. 2. 157. 155. 67. Keepingback".asis reflected in Czemy'sdefinitionof sostenuto.tendencyto hold backthe tempoin sostenutopassagesin the nineteenthcentury. pp."holdingon. p. (1974).11 I-. Cramer (cl 820. -. Tfirk (1804).

71Czemy 45 . ý' rt VI cbtA I Staccato There are many ways of indicating staccato. p. The notes can be separatedby rests.Ex.iii.5 Czernytoo works on the sameprinciple...-P. n1-. f Sclfdlmo 4-ý Lj.the passagecan be marked semprestaccato.. or the notes can be marked with dashes( . Pý' wy-c--J-I v -i 1"T IIII --1 1. 2. )or dots(-). IQ. acknowledges represent dashýs indicate to a shorter touch. to the the of consonantarpeggiatedchords order Ex. 19. 2.. 2. Czemy also does not differentiate that some composersuse (I 839E).6 WMte. Hummel does not differentiate between the dashesand the dots. which Clementi and Cramer believe is in TOrk Hummel but degrees different agreement with of shortness. Ipi6 f' r-. Certainnotesare sustainedin passages whichcontain " increase in fullness harmony (ex.6).

46 .Czernyalsomentionsanothertypeofstaccato. 27-28. A.however.such as 72 (whether it is indicated The debatethat surroundsthe differentsharpness a staccato of notation by a dot or by a dash)mayhaveresultedfrom a practiceduringC. Hummel (1829). - : ý# w-- LJ-J-P 74 *k'T-W "r-4 1 1. D i%pIý -1 . He Piano Forte School in first "Punkle" (notated both dots that the of volume and as clearlystates dashes)indicatestaccato. 13 1"VE I. as describedby Czemy. 142 and iii. pp. Perhapsinsteadof "dashes". (c 1860). P.eventhoughtherehasbeensomeconfusionregardingthis matter.he usesthe term "Panktchen"to referto staccatoindications. 36. Cramer (0820. :1m . 65.s( .betweenthe two signs. 2. Cramer. IIg 1P --- K. e- E !-I -. p. 8. i. Harniltonunfortunatelytranslatesthis term as' dashes. 27 and 38. 186 and iii.7).kt L. i.FFFFFFFFI fij 1 15-1!1 6=L==j .known is be is It in to struck as short as possible.. p.J.6 q. Ex. Ironically.without any referenceto dots. probably stemsfrom the bravura style which was popular in does It described by Clementi and the short not resemble very staccatos the nineteenthcentury.'In the third volumeof the sametreatise. Czernymadeno distinctionbetweenthestaccatoimpliedby dotsor that by dashes. - r d! =. aI:. E. Czemy's edition of Pleyel'sClavierschulealsosupportthis conclusion.p Rdh j. pp. -L crq.i411 ljýll This touch.this term shouldbe translatedinto Englishas "little dots and little dashes".In the sectionon staccatowhich he added. p. Czemy (1839G). Czemy (1839E). p. the which notes are apart and passages chords octaves. 42 :Im:.'N t-F-ýJz- li -1 -- :411 0 13 lw II 1v1. Thisverypercussivetouch. the term "Panktchen"mustsurelycover both signs. In the examples and explanations given. mo rl R f.7 v v I 41 FTAl. treatise). employed as martellato in far (ex. he suggeststhe useof dots insteadof dashesto indicatestaccatoso asto avoid confusionwith 12'rfirk(1804). p. f. II II III I. SinceCzemyshowsthat "Punkte" refersto dots and da&s. Pleyel 21-23. l/. p. Bach'stime. pp. i. in 2. Clementi (1801). Clementi and Cramer use this staccato (indicated with dashes)in a group of notes in close succession.In hisPiano Forte School. generally or staccatissimo. 8.

The manner Tilrk be "the teaches that this was not universal. distinctly". Cramer(cl 820.Czerny proposesusing'the term sciolto to indicate double is because (untied loosened. cantabilepassages. pp. In his opinion. Legato that states notes marked nor sciolto should a played neither 7'Bach(1974).treatise).p. associated The notesare gentlydetached. 75 Czerny(1839E).In slow tempos. the Anothertype of staccato. he is However.iii. explanation staccato nineteenthcentury. p. light This the meaning of sciolto or or and staccato. they agreethat the shortnessof staccatodependson the musicalcontext in which it occurs. Hummel'sandCzemy'sdefinitionsof the mezzostaccatoresemblethe meaninghitherto the is Hummel found in that this touch reveals generally withportato. Clementi includes it for the first time in his it different but he "SCIOLTO FREE. Dussek the the this.known asthe mezzostaccato. Hummel(1829).i."' fingering. 35.the notesareslightlyemphasized When in fight. in TOrk. 36. 66.p. fast for held this their the two-thirds value. Besidesthe staccato signsalreadymentioned. 186andiii. (1804). p. characteristic alone up sums and supple) Hummel do not mention this term in their writings.appearswith slur marks. 24-26. free. 41-42 still apply in piano playing of the He believes is Czerny's Take that as an example. staccato notes must touched* ofperformanceof it Cramer detached. 39. influencedby the tempoandthe characterof a piece. a slightly associates with meaning: means seventhedition Cramer be in Staccato". Clementi least the and classify as afterthe dashand smoothlyand aot.p. 8. Many of the factors listed by Bach and TUrk on pp. 27-29. of staccato.with eachreceivingan increasingdegreeof emphasis: rrr Czemydescribestwo typesof mezzostaccato." in spiteof the differentmeaningswhichcertainwriters associatewith the staccatoindications. Czemy(1839E). mezzostaccatois mainly in (or is orpresto allegro while molto martellato pieces marked staccatissimo) reserved employed " for piecesof a brilliant character. staccato occurs passages.p. and are fingersshouldmakea "scratching"motion. pp. 47 . Clementi(1801). 14TOrk i.

pp. showing the composerswrite out " in their the realizations. and 38. Cramer. xxv (capitalization original). Dussek (1800). 161. i. be to played. p. Cramer (cl 820. 2. and Czemy. Dussek (1800). TUrk (1804). The accentfalls on the appoggiatura rather than the principal note. pp. p. however. 53. The realization of appoggiaturas from Dussek's in found is to those treatise onwards similar modem-day textbooks. Czerny (I 839E). Hummel. wher6by bridges TOrk's development by treatise the this ornaments. 189.5 ORNAMENTS Bach's description of ornamentsdiffers from that of Dussek. 1-13. Clementi. Tilrk (1804). Cramer (cl 820. in which the appoggiaturasshould take the length of the is (after in the tie the played after appoggiaturas note a principal or as a slur shown exs. concentrate on the realizations of factor being in The tempo the the the and character of piece shift question. Clementi (180 1). Clementi and their contemporaries. Clementi (180 1). 10-12. 24-3 0.78 I "Clementi/Rosenblum (1974). p.. had becomeobsolete. pp. 10. iii. "Bach (1974). 6. 6. i. pp. mordents. 2 1. Cramer (c 1820. 48 . p.34. p. differ from those in the eighteenth. Czemy (I 839E). Bach is concernedwith the correct context in which eachornament can be employed. 79-146. p.turns. note while 2. ITach (1974). and trills. p. 24.8a and 2. 21. pp. p. p. The long appoggiatura has half or two-thirds of the value of the principal note. Czemy (I 839E). Dussek. variable ornaments." Althoughthistermwasnot universallyadopted. however.90-9 1.2. staccato 2.32. Bach and TOrk pay the most attention to the appoggiaturasbecauseof the diversity and the frequency with which they occur in music. Bach's practice. i. treatise). Hummel (1829).8c).it showshow Czernyexpects distinctmanner. pp. treatise). p. ornamentsoccur as well as context which Long and Short Appoggiaturas The main ornamentsused in the mid-eighteenthcentury which survive into the nineteenthare the long and short appoggiaturas. 11.8b respectively) or during the ensuingrests (ex. treatise). 160-172. The most common ornament and the function of ornamentsin the nineteenth century. in the way ornaments are dealt with in treatises is the result of the new practice. iii. pp. Hummel (1829).

12. pp. As the nineteenthcenturyprogressed.dependingon the ornamentsbecamemotivic decorationsinsteadof tempo. 6. Clementi (1801). pp. p.? t F9 . fn. only the short inconsistent. Cramer transient to Tfirk a as and call shake. 164-165. in treatises. 160. Hummel by Cramer. i. "Tach (1974).HummelandCzernyare concernedonly with the realizationsof the ornaments. Turn BachandTtirk recognisethat theturn mayhavea pleasingor animatedquality. The variousrealizationsof 80 have inverted the turns turnsand remainedunchangedsince nineteenthcentury. TUrk (1804). Dussek (1800). -I (1829). Czemy 9-10. Czemy (1839E). it Bach The this were ornament calls a name and notation of mordent was used. 2.I --. The tau diagonal the stroke through notation of the short appoggiatura as a small quaver note with a Unlike long Czemy. whose treatise was published before Clementi's.Dussek. IoBach(1974). Tiirk (1804). Hummel 10-11. p. accent of adopted was the short appoggiaturafalls on the principal note while the appoggiaturaitself is played as quickly ' as possible. 5 p.JýLh C Ir cc-) ý 11 Bach. Tflrk and Clementi use the samenotation for both the long and short appoggiaturas. % ii-r Iasi W. iii. in is in The trend this the way ornamentsare change reflected essentialelementsof music. p. iii. (1839E). p. is probably one ofthe first to usea different indication for the short appoggiatura. treatise). describedin somelateeighteenth-century andespecially nineteenth-century Clementi. Dussek (1800). pp.The beautyof the ornamentsis no longerconsideredanimportantfactor. FFF9 .8 0)ý. 10. 39. v Pik-yj ý) WYAQ. 12-127. p. p. By the nineteenthcentury. p. pta3j FFF9 . 9 1. 29-30. a different notation for eachtype of appoggiaturais unnecessarybecauseeach can be recognisedfrom the context in which it occurs. In their opinion. Mordent Bach and Tfirk employ both long and short mordents.Ex. 6. refers calls a mordent. it it Czerny Clementi it beat. pp. pp. 49 . i. the the later and appoggiatura. Dussek. Hummel (1829). Clementi (180 1). 25. Cramer (c1820.

9b). 33. p. 163. technical the various necessary as execution of double trills. 11.9 (a) Ii 4- Ill'A. Hummel it by transient or a shake while shake calls any of three short a beat. 1. iii." "Bach (1974).9. recognisesthat trills are the most difficult ornaments.Thesevariants.* Clementiacknowledges threedifferentindications. This train of thought is ornamenteven followed by all the writers studied in this chapter. (ex. as recommends well as all rapidly fingers though some are naturally more suited to trifling. pp. i. 2.9a) 2.. 171. pp.a composermay employmore than one type of notation. Hummel (1829).however. 32. Sometimes. pp. Clementi(1801). "Bach (1974)..areinsignificantas lonj as the performersunderstandthe intentionof the composers.Tfirk andHummel)andir (Cramer)to the acceptednotationtoday. Bach. contents page and pp.8 and 9. As shownin ex. Hummel (1829). Czemy (1839E). day. 2. Czerny (I 839E). 34. treatise). 28. p. whichremainsunchanged namesand Ex. They emphasizethe difficulty ofexecuting the trill satisfactorily. The transient shake or short notationof the mordentalsovaries. % FIii -0 %\ " AA AA -45". iii. treatise). they concentrate their efforts on teaching finger exercisesthat will aid the successful is This demands increased. Czerny (1848). simultaneoustrilling accompanyinga melody played by one hand. too.In spite of the numerous " its indications. TUrk (1804). e or tzt4-4 I-FP C-1--t=1 F! r J? r-=::I=i r. the this to agree on writers realization. p.W (Czerny). Tflrk(l804). 2-3. 26-27. l 01. 2. (sic). p. 50 . mordente names: from+ (Bach.with the use of trills. nineteenth-century writers consider the trill to be a more important ornamentthan the appoggiatura. Thus. i.102. Cramer (c1820. p. p.(ex. l27. They must be played evenlyand lightness He fingers training the to play this with and clarity. and the like. p.ý :!If Trills Unlike Bach and Tfirk. p. Cramer (cl 820.

Dussek (1800). as ex. however. Ex. arpeggio is indicated with or small notes. 100-101. TUrk (1804). maintains of who refers method playing. pp. $'Bach(1974). the to a with a use and end century nineteenth " Hummel Tark to trills continue use with eitherendings. 171-172. The rapiditý in indications Among depends the the the the the and character of on speed piece. 11. and notewith optionof the old practiceof startingthe trill on the uppernote. to to this as appoggiando. p. 26-27. TiIrk (1804).11. p. Clementi and Hummel follow Bach's practice of holding down all the notes for the duration of the chord which have ( (and in Hummel's case. I and 3. I (ex. was common start principalnote. The during Bach's the time word notes are overlapped are arpeggio. Czerny turn trill turn. Hummel (1829). was also usual the I Dussek. iii. and at the endof the trill. treatise). According to Tilrk. pp. pp. 2. pp. Cramer. Clementi (180 1). that "Bach (1974). and of arpeggio 2. by indicated the is it other shown on small notes.except when the notated note values within the chord are different (ex.Thefirst two to threedecadesof the nineteenthcenturywerea timeof transitionin the way trills The to the trill the on upper practice was start eighteenth-century accepted ended. are divided on this matter.1Ob). i. 159-160. 3 1. Czerny (I 839E). 32. does it Cramer. 6. in Cramer's 2. however. pp. Clementi.also and the term arpeggio) prefixed to it. and started followed it In Dussek. p.1Oa). spreading chord L. Clementi Cramer finishing turn. Cramer (cl 820. p. By the time Hummeland Czernywrote' in It it the trill the to on their treatise. 2.10 (ct) Wr%ttQY\ - -1 Nineteenth-century performers. 51 . not assigna name hand. rpeggio Turk classifies arpeggio under "graces" while the other writers consider it a performance I direction. the with a general. arpeggio. Clementi.

Hummel 1). 2.12). 2. 31 2. and "Clementi p. p.12 L-.Ex. -l 4--:NIU 19. ý Czernyagreeswith Cramerthat arpeggiosareindicatedwith or with a strokeacrossthe chord. 52 . Sonata. 2. surprisingly. Unlike Bach.dynamics. alsoexplainsthat the speedof Ex. Op. 5 i. not should most notes and influencethe speedof the spreadis. treatise). He " is determined by the the the spread characterof piece.13). (cl 820. Cramer (1829).13 41 0. (ex.This is exemplifiedin the following Beethoven's "Tempest" No. 66. ----v- I ( is identifiedby or or is markedby a strokethroughthe stem. the opening of recalls which excerpt Ex.11 1m cýcdon of 91-1 /- 31 k-L4.Cramerinsiststhat the notesin an arpeggioshouldnot be helddown (ex. 2. opinion. (180 pp. be In Czerny's important factor the to the prolonged.Clementiand Hummel. 9. 2.

1Fp11-0 1--M r.ci L T-1 0i j do F-IRe I' -iPM! 0 VLj--4 I 'I Iý Ir [J. 2. 2. Czernyis more liberal. 2. interrupt two types of chordal passajes. single. section.14 the + arpeggiated with moderate quickness. moderate at a flow Czerny be disturbed. 53 .15 I (1839E). with the possibilityof a rallentando. Where indications are not given. the arpeggio also allowed not Ex. 1ý01 JJ44in i111 r- aIa 11P ?it aIIFI. may spreadmust ex. the spreadshouldbe playedslowly. If the be the should playedquickly. 138 andiH. as in ex. 2. i.Markedpp. p. softly andgraduallyslower.14 -4T 4ptký P-0 ol Li 9r ''L V. sustainedchord which precedesa successionof quick chords. marked chords is in Unnotated legato. 55-56. All the chords in ex.he suggeststwo waysof playingan arpeggio:it canbe helddownfor along durationor quicklydetached. In contrapuntal has full be be The to chord which emphasized may and arpeggiated. or not employedat all. II The first is in a slow passageof sustainedchords.15 may be arpeggiated in fourth last bar.In general.a be but in 2. slow. must not arpeggiating The secondcontext is a long. the musical context should be taken into account. smooth of melody chords.This is usuallycombinedwith playingit either " loudly "hard" and respectively.16 (the chords marked + may be arpeggiated). When the the the chord except which closes speed. passage indicatedby the composer. the the these warns. unless arpeggio were markedff.pp." Ex. passages. 16Czemy 171bid.or Cramerspecifiesthat chordsare arpeggiatedonly where indicated.

2.Ex. and the tone playing should produced. clear and varied. natural standpoint most easiestand " first leaning to that the of closer group. black from the to same a white with a repetitionon a monotone. p. 54 . contraction of silent patterns.67. changing.6 FINGERING AND TECHNICAL DRILLS byall thewriterssurveyed. fingerleaps. TiIrk (1804). 1112- [0 . select such writers. ii. the the the the and effect connection composer.considerfingeringprimarily from a technicalor aestheticpoint of view.sliding "Bach (1974).. Thebasicexercisesspecifiedby Bach.however. the chords. affect playing not must neat. technical exercisesin the early nineteenthcentury were aimed at improving finger independence fingers.16 1 nII. thoughperhaps On the whole. 14. smooth.ii. 4. and the style of agility.andClementidealwith repetitivefive-finger hand.Dussek. in The be elegance performance. 2. 4 1.Hummel(1829). the may unsuitable.p. Clementi(1801). p. strength. smoothest produce be fingering Czerny's is in the middle. TOrk In Clementi's is fingerings Hummel to two contrast. priority which are and intended by Sometimes. Theimportanceoffingeringin theart ofperformanceis acknowledged Some. to tbýs aspect attention of playing as as much pays abovewriters 2. 1. None of the Czemy. scales.ý vZ131ý- ý . 17. arpeggios.p. p.TOrk.extensionand key finger. Czemy(1839E). Technical difficulty of and precision. dI-I=i 4ý jý- II 41 11 ' L---ý iI IIIIIý 'iIl Czemy's description of arpeggio suggeststhat it is used for expressivepurposes.

Throughout the early nineteenthcentury.5 I I -0- :t I A I 4 ::r. Trainingin technicalproficiencycontinuedto be intensified. i. This was necessarybecauseof the unsatisfactoryactionof the pianohammers. fingers. under a one with simultaneously fingerunderthe fourth. p. 2.extensionsbiggerthanan octave durable dynamic in the the to an more piano with enlarged exploit range. While for loud two composers and performers searched with morechallenging note a intensify demands. to they andvary the trainingin the basicexerciseslisted continued technical by Bach.Hummeland Czemy. for the training of the right hand. 2.legatooctavesandarpeggiateddiminishedby followed Clementi.chromaticrunsin contrarymotion. The difficult.17 51 If . Among them are exerciseswhich airn to securethe independence of holaingdown somenoteswhile repeatinga monotone.othersemphasize the playingof parallel thirdsandsixths. for Introduction Clementi's this echo with many exercises written specifically editionsof by fingers the left hand. of striking action the after of " would affectequality. and mostof theseexercisesweremeant quickrepetitionofdoublenotes. a result. 9. by Cramer.p KI ýg 00 L-:Tl a-I I1 impressive. 89Czemy(1839E).asin ex..there was an increasingexpectationof training the left hand to be as proficient as the right. crossing. This by the especially was problem notes was caused slow return of repetition quick holding back As finger the the hammer the slightest string.Exercisesincludechromaticrunsin doublenotes.By the time Huninielpublishedhis with a rangeof up to an treatisein 1828. patternswhich are played each eleventh finger longer fifth (the held the and passing of a short chords. This technical trend competence. '-ý 1 . 55 .17).hand Initially. set was quickly ofraising seventhchords. striking of order and.he had widenedthe boundariesto include'exercises finger double hand. The revised ideal. for trills their and variants. The exercisesin Czemy'sPianoForte Schoolareno less Ex.

202. participate one wants some might consideran admirableskill. pp. If on a major and without a played in foolishness. the sixths or octaves). this no means a nineteenth-century of playing mode virtuosicnature. 91Rosenblum 56 . the explains.18)andCzemyalsomentiona peculiarway of playing.4rt dasPianofortezu Spielen: I As part of showmanshipin the playing of the pianoforte I include in glissandopassages thirds. 29-30. so that the fingers that slide over the thirds.His youngercontemporaryDussekalsoappearsto treat Under list Italian in he describes the terms. 9OHummel (1988). Milchmeyerwrites in Die wahre.2. sixths.ii." His account suggeststhat this method of playing was already fairly well-establishedby then. should (1829).2.which can only be keyboard in C deep key dip. sixths. Czemy that the explains when playing so-called of white on a succession fingers be kept but hand double fact (in the thirds. or octaves come virtually to Heon the keys. TOrk did not considerthem of sufficient importanceto beincludedin histreatise. caution. however.7 PEDALLING Although pedalswere alreadyavailableby 1789. 2. 254-255.ii.Hummel(ex. Rosenblum'stranslation. and octaves. at the sametime the thumb must be kept stiff and straight. should stiff. its 8.8 In the also and section relaxed remain spite of overtly must arm and is by invention. In 1797. 2. pp. glissando Ex.Czerny(1839E).p. then one must turn the right hand quite far outwards in going up. Further. of with mezzo an the subjectof pedalling indicates he forte This that the term. pedal of grandpiano unexpectedmanner. detachment His in be the this taking one string.that of glidingthe fingers double-note keys. apparent matter off only gives employed. it is necessarythat one give the two fingers playing a certain strength or elasticity so that they do not open and close with the thrust that one gives to the hand with the arm while playing. this to which.18 cc IIIIiI S5 " flexible (see below).

in All be bass the to these to enable play another effectscan seen ex. 11) the p. from variation 8 of Cramer's Introduction and Variations on Mozart's air "Vedrai (1800). subject. use exan-dnationof the pedal in that the the the tremolando passagesand show use of surveyed pedal authors markings of in damper The figures the common nineteenth century. p.19 below.Clementimentionspedalmarkingsfor the first time in hisfifth edition(1811). 46. pp. (or 'Ted" and"@" suchas Cramer's treatise is slightly more helpful. effect pedal a great primarily used produces in slow movementswhenthe sameharmony is to be prolonged. 14CIementi/Rosenblum xxiii. pp. on we elaborate not 94 frequently in his latter is This Clementi the true." In addition. 34 in 1195 (the two sonatas edition of was of piano published pedalling set beginning first indications. but pedal pedal works. Czemy (183 9E). iii. for CzernytestifiesthatDussekwasoneof thoseresponsiblefor bringingthe pedalinto generaluse " Kalkbrenner's frequently Dussek beginning the that century.published in both Pedal His first were added markings sonatas. publishedin 1798. p. In fact. note sustaina 2. 57 . Czerny revealsthat '6An in broken damper Cramer the Dussekand pedal chord passages.64. treatise). At movement first in his the the the of of sonata pedal without any later. 96Czemy(1846). 9'Cramer(cl 820. His revision (see 42 fingering in (as Op. The Op. 9'-'Dussek (1988).but does Clementi's brevity In know from Czemy this their of spite on use. iii. this could not be furtherfrom the truth. the nineteenth report of at " in his Czemy's damper the playingalso supports statement. by he Artaria twelve about years addsa statementto explainthe revisededition. pedal employed Sini'larly. used. p. 93ROsenblum ý. 118-119. 37.. piano sonatato pedal symbols incorporatethe useof the damperpedalis Op. Thesetermswere soondroppedin favourofpaired symbols "-V')orEband-A-. that employed indicationsare alsofoundin earlycompositionswhich were revisedby Clementi. Czemy (1839E). He recommends that the tremando (presumablyhe [because] be "open diminishing the the sound tremolando) with pedal. above) or articulation adding and changing of mayconsist first Op.impression that Dussekhardlyused pedals. was pedalwas also used to arpeggiated left hand line. the some passagee'. 2. (1974). 50-5 1. p. 64.in whichheusesthe terms "OpenPedar'and"without Pedar'. 34). swelling played and means from in Apart damper is that.

I- I I LIZ r-w-m= H-&-E:: F L-Lý ML. = I 1!-----T--Twr. - TJPed TII () . WHW7-fipK-1 . L JIL.EEýg FT-74P-W W. som: ot wl .10. *z m% - P4 2r-aý- " It R1 I ----- _ -ft -zý -w v 1-- r4-) Lý- -- FIbibIl *- W141 1-4 11 V_ 1?ecl cl Pea. -- v -. -9-1 I- 6.II do. .j-* . ---ý 11 -13 . -1vo. OR=a A ýezi =--- 5 I! Fýý el II AK ---T ý.:171 ýi :il :i-: i ýVZi :ivr -w- 58 . .loco 514k -I *p. 1 d -.1 iv Z Ped -k týt I -i-L -:-L . pnhojzd pn50. --FR i--. I A I_-. 16) .13. L -Aý- 4x1 [4 E LZ. In the the and after pedalremains passages. I.>J.9-. iý :i9--0 ii =7ý-=j R 6ý60ý-. r--d ". w ý -A`IýP- 1 L. - vv . Lt L.' -AF LN . bars 9. res me: . A lzmn-i' lnl--ý IL 'ýý . - Fýý VOC2 (VI---.I . V.-R RiiR Aikeýll III U. __ . arpeggiated finale Dussek's Le Relour The Sonata the senýiiquaver rests. mi cl! nR r«! Nt-r.--J. j-.. - t c - Lýz -fl.I -- EýRpgoir2- 10 - 41- 1 A ý*p. k-I Pn -#Tý. This examplealso revealshow Cramer pedals dominantdepressed 14.. L MUL ML. of ensuing and seventharpeggios Ex.. F F: r-:.me Fmir.J. R 1 ý. - i -_: FiRt WE m -tzml-E+-E++ýýF- .t Cres P--N L-Lei..-ý4 ý1.RM. 1..19 iA) var: (9. 1 a! 1 al 1 1: at -! -1 it RJW/ 7 I .---I1 11 ZýIlj 1.-a. OR%i . //yi FZ-6 F. 2.Carino" (from the opera Don Giovanni). LEL m 'Pea . F-9.".:.

l . 2. 2.20). jr-'s V- " 'll#*q iii iI Iii.21 -'-- Allegro. m faý4 N-mm=22Hir--ý ': ý '-''-. Ex.1 q. to also a naturally.. 58. 2. sustain in Czerny's The Piano Forte School he. II I - -- .prefersnot to prolongthe resonance figure(ex. effect with the resonance (1839E). Z.2. follows the that too. pp.however.- 40 ->I ri 61ýp- I- -4-4-4w-L-L4 4-4ý1 rýý --. /-u.22below. orl ýp rDýU 1ý! JZai /' ýII Mo I.fl. L -1119ý1ý 110corNe - iIoc0 I -. (Euvre the to Paris. exploits used similarly. ' .. .bars is In 117-120. and arpeggios " beyondthe arpeggiated' thispractice.Cramerintentionallyomitsthereleasesignat theendofthe movementto allow is favourite This dissipate Dussek (ex. F« 1 I- .23). L -- i i : wýl -I EýFmý= popr lpý-EdEt=ý [::::I Dý- a -i ý-. 2. 64. 1 :411 "F-Low -no -rP2ý -doý .21). Dussek bass the while prolongsthe pedalthroughthe notes. fe Ii iýl I In ex. pedal ti in bars (ex. examples show rests. 11 1. /1. 97Czemy 59 . Ex.20 r(Ln v a pa.61 and62. 308-311 2. od.. n Ii =. ifl.i--F. Hummel. the same effects.

Clementi. in bars 5-6 2. iii. (1829). p. Hummel as shown with chords of ex. Cramer. CEuvre42 (it is actually Op. treatise). p. iii. special especiallydesirablein very soft createa damper is the especially when slow movements. of pedal not changedthrough several passages "' different harmonies. 40). Hummel (1829). p. 63." Ex. 100Hurnmel 60 . Hummel (1829). passing 98See the end of the secondmovement of the first sonata from Clementi's Trois SonatesPour le Forte Piano. and Czemy.Hummel. 99 be harmony. p. Czerny (1839E). 2. "Cramer (cl820. to the the changed along with this rule is violated to pedal requires According Hummel is Czerny. Occasionally.Dussek. iH. as observedby Clementi. p.24.andCzernywhenthe endingconsistsof only oneharmony.23 The principal rule of pedalling. 57. Czerny (1839E). p. 2. p.22 Ex. 63. 63. iii. iii. 63 and Czerny (1839E). to this and effect. 61.Hummel. iii. 51.

WhHemanywould advisethatblurringshouldbeconfinedto soft passages.:: 4 4-w> ri S -1- D. + Cil 4AI.I.26). of Clementidoes. P. 9. 34/2/iii/l In follow the two this pedal rule.the chromatic scale in the treble. .4).24 LýrgoI___________ v-.. tiii 61 ig ireJ Mi III .-:Sý . LU 111 pp I- t: El - + 4: n -e 1:. - -. . Adag-io. In contrast. is 04-106 (ex. - -I 1367ý ?I -n 1wi -rl ý:Cg. LATI-I I--4) 1 Z+ 1. 47.3 harmonies tonic-dominant significantly more extensive and adventurous and exs.tgggMa E3EEREa5&= . 2. not Altfiough the harmonyin the bassis static. Ex.givesriseto muchblurring. especiallyin a fortissimo passage.. bars.25 Both the damper pedal and pian6. 11 .dawn. =-w . sII Is --. pedal pressed. '1r1 -- Fri. 2.:.harmonies dominant (ex...1-i su A iI44l! fj :f1. 4iliýQ -4 - -- pe LU t LIJ III &J.sinceclarity is his ideal.Clementi'sblurring is (see 9. depressed for his Op.12 _.. 2. LU t -. -- Ex. the tonic through without changing pedal and pedals occasionally He employsthis effect only sparingly. 6. --ej aý...25). * -(ý-A -Z ýt: VVZVTT pp -4.. -_- T- - p. Ir-: 7 . 2. I'on t#.

.. 1011bid. be Dussek's to example prmciple. : :''. .6below). 2.. L Ex. i P-. r--j.25). harmony 2..27. 'O'Czerny Hi. appears Ex.=- iii 1 Jb Atli w1 WE -- ljo -"4 i-1-011 a I. 2.01 CzernysharesHummel'sidealof clarityin playing. 2.iii. . also as as piano.p.-.II :J- ap - Czernymentionsanotherroleofthe damperpedal:that of connectingchordswhenlegatocannot beachievedby the fmgcrs(seeex.rI 11 111 Q pt--t--3 Výý rTI-H 19-1 11v11aj-Iii-11. 44> I.-.102The otherwriters surveyedprobablyemployed (1839E)..27 Allewro. 62 . 59-61.but allowsblurringin the highregistersof the 101 is in bass (ex.26 [::: ý-4-4 ý--i i 11 Wýw MINI. This long the the the same see also ex.Ex. pp.*Jda -iiý-id.. for in CEuvre 64/iv/1 17-120 (ex. I f rl.1kj P04 ýi-i-i -1 r7: 3-ý- - " Ill -j - -Tý -4ý. 63. 9. " ' *0 -00-_OL ý4e eýr-4F-0. 9. id -i Pa: 7r-lAF Cl-ý 11101iiii i i-I iý-ý 15399- ii-2 _-1 i* *14 - if. . 2.28 .28)..

. Czemy and passages. pp. a result of the expandedtonal possibilities employed & has in been 1830s. In by in themselves. 5 1.2.It canalso usedto diminuendo (usually indicated bypoco and a poco 3 cordeandpoco createa gradualcrescendo When damper it the combined with respectively).ughthis cannotbe confirmed.the othermainpedal(that is. use should effects. 2. 3. treatise). special alsoemphasizes mainly employed light anddelicatetone shouldbe producedsolelyby the fingers.Althoughit is still pianos of its function Czemy delicate in sees passages. p. sparing. to anothercolour Onemustbearin mindthat the guidelinesgivenby thesewriters areby no meanscomprehensive. by Dussekand Crameris For example. 57-65.thepedalin this mdrineralso. the musicof these addition. llý Accordingto Cramer. Neithertheir treatisesnor pedal in markings their music offer any clue. createsa pleasing a poco una However. chords warns that sincethis pedal is effect M arpeggiated its be for He that the soft.Nevertheless. the pedalsbecamemorevariedover time. The unacorda is usedto add 'O' the tone. iii. p. It soft and used is particularlyeffectivein melodicpassageswith slOw-movingharmonies. (1839E).8 STYLISTIC AND EXPRESSIVE MATTERS IN PERFORMANCE Bach believes correct fingering. the this the role of pedal adaptedaccordingly. diminuendo As and pp passagýs. asoneof creatingspecialeffects. corda pedal. 114Czemy 63 . the shiftingpedalor the unacorda)is mainly' 103 inp.to correctly understandthe content of the piece and to "'Cramer (cl 820.the use of the damperpedalin broken-chordpassages but by Czerny. good embellishmentsand what he terms good performance are important factors which lead to expressive playing. pedal markings not revealed for Czerny) (except are significantlymore extensiveand variedthan the explanations writers they are informativeandthey showhow the functionsof found in their treatises. good performance area.tho. Czemy (1846). are refers to the ability embelfishments to play the keyboard in a vocal manner. While correct fingering and good It covers a vast self-explanatory.

experimentedwith tonal colour on the piano. he recognisesthe potential of tonal keyboard influential His teaching the on playing remained upon newly-inventedpiano. 164. 36. Although brief.148. In Bach's opinion. His of played by someone with an also capableof every finger hand. variety on future generationsof teac4ersand performers. audience. and 149. Numerous pianists. In addition. Seealsoffi.tempo. light [in] his performance". andmelodicnýeansrather portrayedthrough I ContemporarydescriptionsofBach's playing further reveal somefmer details in his performance.by is dynamics. 36 and 150. believes. including Hummel. 106Bach .O'Ibid. the technical of skill already noticeable a technically accurateone.angerandother passionsare' "' by heavy harmonic than an exaggerated.andtemporubato. than with a greater passion ideas frequently improve Streicher to the Czerny Both exchanged on piano playing and ways and Czerny Since instrument.all the notesandembellishments should played in correcttime with a touchthat is in accordancewith the true contentof the piecein question. He was praised for his expressiveand singing playing in adagio movements. last This to the this point affected articulation.106 nuancesof shadowand . attack. His rendition of but distinct. Although Bach expresseshis preferencefor the clavichord. made instrumentsto emulatethe fullness of sound produced by the richnessof the human voice or a is responsiblefor affecting the feelingsof the listener.pp. Johann Cramer was also impressed by Bach's facility to create "endless. he This instrument. to piano. 14 p. fullness. but none Czerny. 105Bach (1974). Clementi's comments on this matter are along similar lines. clearand forthright. A instrument the the control.30.. 64 . 16. necessary quiet and supple and with understandingof (1974).pp. Rage. wind if is type tonal instrument gradation.. TOrk's teaching faithfully follows the principles laid down by Bach.-33p. improvements technique to the adapts piano according of mechanisms be latter built his The Streicher's this should the views on matter considered. transmit understanding be kcents.. he In Essay. the soft cautions againstrough playing very soft passageswas not only in loud passages. TUrk's treatise. a musically sensitiveperformanceis more satisýýingthan "' importance in is However.fn. The soundproducedmustbe round.

double-note on white to glissando and use (1984). must notes whisper:rather.to vary the placing of accentsat repetitions to add interest. Besides Course identical Practical the and almost structure and indications (beginning from the tempo both the the slowest treatises. full ff in to the to the organ or a orchestra. Bach to especially articulation and matters relating and of contributions in helping been in have keyboard instruments to the shape vital way which expression. on order of authors agree of They by the to fastest). be Other between Hummel's Theoretical technical similarities can observed and on clarity Czemy's Piano Forte School. Every note and 'O' fluently is It from description be Streicher's this that executed. losFufler 65 . arpeggiated notes keys. required good constantlywarnsagainst precise with minimal Ffmust beachievedthrough full-voicedharmonies hardplayingin veryloudpassages.it is obviousthat the eight treatisesrepresentthe personalpreferencesof the flux in TOrk Dussek during the the of performance. On a personallevel. to though the useof crescendoand the ascending and shape pressureof diminuendo respectively. clear and clearly must ornament idealis similarto Bach'sandCzemy's.2. Czemy himself acknowledgesusing Hummel as a model. Clementi. ýxcessive keys. styleand areplayed. create encourage performer a variety the of nuances altering the to descending lines fingers. The staccatomustbe quick and fight. 463-465.9SbMMARY OF INFLUENCES From this study. 2. an and pp passages glass passages produced harýonica.is for finger He but touch. Equally. transitions aesthetics of and performance as in ffigering.. hencehis emphasis facility. descend by the the to a mere than on soft passages must not pounding rather be light but Streicher likens the sound the played with certainty. with writings of serving and period writers Bach's The Clementi's between the time. to prolong beyond length increase figures fullness in their to the the notated of passage. but with a roundedtone. a motion.pp.

of Czerny. improved on discoveriesmade by his predecessorsand contemporaries. The the technical sturdier of with stronger strings. By far the most influential factor to shapeCzemy's approachto piano playing is the development improved had high. oftonal shading short and sharp possibilities numerous of capable At legatissimo became fuller the the other end of scale. of communicative more practicemerely reflects but Piano Forte School does this close examination. the the and piano required close cooperation refinements In best from to the tone the piano. registersof frame instrument.Czemywas inclinedto follow the newwaysof playingthe piano:the manner in whichtemporubato is treated. possible. be developed.was keys. and piano makers. The breakthrough in finding bravura to the style of playing a suitable enable hammers be from for that timbre the the meant more variety could of obtained covering material in its large Viennese 1830s.for example. allowed piano. piano playing. of improved hammer This. other such as respect. nineteenth-century akin mid-and his is He his that than contýmporaries. Very touches and articulation.are In Czerny's' late to convention. on not offer any contemporaries innovations. the scopeof showmanship. on subject. and of itself in instrument in It both technique. 66 .The numerousfluctuations(sometimeswith the left handfollowingthe speedof the right) which herecommends. through his own experiments. could create suchasmartellato harmonies. In the the with piano touch-sensitive short. occurringat shortintervals.In someinstances. order obtain composers performers. was the result of constant experiment. pedalling. dynamic range. him the together to extend the with action. as describedin Piano Forte School. Thicker the tone the the quality the of strings middle and especially piano.

S E-C ION .

13.CHAPTER 3: CZERNY'S INTERPRETATION.Beethoven'steachingwascentredaroundcorrect interpretation?But what does"correct intcrpretation7'embody?Merely accurateplayingdoes (see 11-12). traced to theory. the tfie Beethoven's composer. 27/2.1 WHAT IS "CORRECT INTERPRETATION"? Accordingto CountessGiuliettaGuicciardi. 81a. 31/3. sonatas with piano compositions of Op. 25. 2Czemy(1970).he was delicate the to expression.p. OF BEETHOVEN'S PIANO SONATAS After Beethoven'sdeath. since and studied many chapters and pedalling including Op. Op.and an effectivetempo an equalized 'Czemy(1846).p. more shadings. 101. However. and the "Kreutzer" SonataOp. Op. and all his piano concertos Czerny Badura-Skoda Op. 53. Op. 28. 106. AS RECORDED IN HIS WRITINGS AND IN HIS EDITIONS. that adds was probably also aware of the exception of with Beethoven'sperformanceintentions for Op. Op. 120.p.Czemy expressedconcern regarding a lack ofunderstanding of his style ' Czemy's wish to preservethe correct performance of Vienna. 57. 3Sonneck (1967). must'have been the main driving force for his deals School. main complained not seem in "Razurnovsky" difficulty Quartets. Op. be back fingering ideas Beethoven. 31/2.p. 4 Kerst (1964). 68. 4V 3. Op. Op. 33. Op. especially that for piano. and the Andante from Op. Op. in many performancesoutside Beethoven's music. Beethoven the technical one of the of a passage about fiddle I believe he think that "Does the to of a wretched when spirit speaks me. When Schuppanzigh be Beethoven's to concern pp. 31/2. 26. Czemy 8 (see to only expected. verymeticulouswith regard fight distribution of and shade. Forte Piano Even the which with many aspectsofperformance numerouseditions. replied: Beethovendid not mind Sirifflarly. Op. can which especially on contains and music is be This had 9).Ignazvon Seyfriedrecalledthat duringorchestralrehearsals. 3. 14/2. if certainpassages went amiss. the Diabefli Variations Op. 67 . 19. 14/1.

--A I t I 0 etc.impatience betraying the slightest alwaystook without rubato. 5Sonneck(1967). If you willjust have a look now at what I have corrected.but for the marks p etc. to Beethoven. for it either denotesessentialelementsin the structure of the piece or revealsthe letter. Op. No this. now Obbfigatissimo . Sometimes the are inserted intentionally after the notes. ofcourse. very frequently. impress on Rampel to copy everything exactly as it stands. expressivecontent of bemoans ignorance Beethoven the 132. "correct interpretation" involves conveying the be dynamics through tonal should achieved which colours. in This String Quartet A to the the quoted refers music. =:: -- I_- J) p pp PP =- All the notes are correct . 41.but do read me correctly . To this list. and of a piece appropriateexpression tempo flexibility. Most ExcellentSecondViolin! Thepassagein the first violin part of the first Allegro is asfollows: etc. As Beethoven'sletter to the violinist Karl Holz in 1825 makesclear. pleasure I This passage shows that. you will find everything that you have to tell him. dear fellow. p. So makeit exactlylike that. Well. and ' individually in discussing them the with variousmusicians. etc. also andcarelessness of copyists: where minor. must be added articulation marks. his notation of dynamic and articulation markings is very specific. inserted in the wrong for is For haste God's doubt. responsible sake please place. and are not identical). And in the first Allegro aswell you mustaddin the four partsthese expressionmarks ----N I T 1.Vold Subito. For instance. below. for my your copy. Where there iý a dot above the note a dash must not be put ý i *r instead and vice versa -(rir. 68 . have been horribly neglected and frequently.

1241-1242. great address and flexibility of finger. Some of the differences are underlined below: Clementi to unite brilliant bravura execution with was able . most deep had fall to that. the and supplement. and a want of distinctnessin the single notes in rapid led Cramer. Kalkbrenner and Moscheles. and melodious style of execution.. (b) Dussek and Cramer. clear. Chopin and Liszt. likewise their compositions. (e) Hurnmel. have to contemporary style characteristic to each of understanding a order in Piano Forte School its described is The He 4rt. are chiefly esteemed. composer carefully divides the music of his contemporaries into six different styles and schools: (a) Clementi. [with] beautiful Cantabile.. (c) Mozart. ftill distinguished Singing quality of tone. and correctness. pp. few This Dussek.for which they.The slursshouldbe exactlyasthey arenow. tranquility anda regular position ofthe hands. 118. 7Czemy(I 846)..Czernystatesthat goodinterpretationdepends having technique. (d) Beethoven.[and] in an astonishingequality the runs and passages. 69 . and which was brought to approachednearer by Hununel. which latter to the mode. and brilliantly piquant manner of playing.and which and may be looked upon as the Antipodes of the modem.solidity oftouch and tone. Mozart['s] style.a fme legato combinedwith the use of the Pedals.. but as a properties. they also a of the keys.iii. was more suited to those perfection such exquisite 6Anderson(1961).and Thalberg. andgraceofexecution. the and a goodunderstanding of thecharacter anexcellent on pianistpossessing of a pieceandthe styleof the composer! P Czemy is aware of the importance of being acquainted with the styles of earlier composersin The better music. in his day he was always allowed to be the greatest Player on the Piano-forte The [English] Pianosof that day possessedfor their . execution.p. clear and voluble distinctiveness. quiet. It is not all the samewhether it is like this or like this In the Adagioit is predominantlythus 4r Pay attention to what those who know better are teHingyou _ In additionto the four factorsmentionedabove. a a counterbalance hard touch. that soft. and a naturally others to playing.

but this reason. His executiondid not possess manyeffectsnot the pure andbrilliant eleganceof manyother Pianists.) and also the style ' Beethoven's to according own view. partly by meansof a full. - Unlike modem researchon performancepractice. piano a performer with insists that Beethoven's compositions were usually inspired by visions and images.andneverobligato. highly feeling' and romantic.but on the it hand wasenergetic. on musical a whole. as well suited as more [This stylerevealeda] distinctandconsiderablybrilliantmannerof playing. general purposes. and which thereforeformeda newkind of melody. [It required]anintelligentandanimatedexecution[but the] Pedal[was] seldomused. 99-100. 9czerny (1846).noble.repletewith sentimentandpathos.iii. The text from the two pageshasbeencondensed Spelling. we must more seldom applicable frequentlyattendto the total effect. and which were therefore for for the useof Youth.particularlyin regard to humorousand fanciful levity. capitalizationandpunctuationoriginal. ýnriched Beethoven. Piano-forte by the who appeared new and bold passages. repetition.[German-Viennese] piano-forteswhich combinedfight and easy touch with greatdistinctnessof tone. which placesarguablytoo much emphasisupon the minute details of the music. best the to of our remembrance. which was particularly for remarkable the strict Legato of the full chords.p.brilliant.and in the Adagio..was a musical painting of the highest class.by the use of the pedals. His performance[j like his Compositions. of performance. harmoniousLegato. pp. 119. and we have endeavoured. The meansof Expressionis esteemedonly often carriedto excess. Italicizationandpunctuationoriginal.to indicate the time.profound. Beethoven's He the technique on piano should attempt sufficient sonatas.with all the charms other of smoothandconnectedcantabileandparticularlyin the Adagio.in 1790. Czemy is more concernedwith the result of the performance as is details This is due his belief Advice to that only given where appropriate. (as according the most important part of correct conception. calculated rather on the Staccatothan on the Legato touch. 70 . and shewymanneris but for here.arethe greatrequisitesin the Player! p Czerny confidently declaresin TheArt that: in the present case there can be only one perfectly . correct mode of performance. by an extraordinary characteristic manner of execution. Greatvolubility of finger without brilliant pretensions. The piquant. Meantime.etc.which were to avoid 'Czemy(1839E).andpartly by a happyuseof the Pedals.. [punctuationsic] andby _ before thoughtof. for its generaleffect. enthusiasticexpressionand singingmelody.

be by time. the playermustby himself to alter the composition.2 FOLLOWING THE TEXT FAITHFULLY In theperformanceof his [Beethoven's]works . " is he feels his duty is help It the therefore that to not surprising their performances. musical thesaidobject.nor to makeany no meansallow 147.seeSchindler(1841) (ed.pp. In The Art. 31/2/i "must sound Eke one 13 believed he is have Theodor However. believes Czemy. MQuotedin Newman(1988). (1966) (ed. restricting inspirations. 32.It appearsthat Czerny's is "one the correct mode of performance" a partial adaptationof perfectly claim regarding Beethoven'soriginalconception. Sonneck (1988). Basedon Beethoven'spedalmarkings. wherethe sounds. 53. 60..Beethovenwasratheruncommunicative Schl6sser. thenecessity their thus experiences. " Unfortunately. Schindler 80-82 pp. 398-400.. in thecompositions (where know the orderto understand to possible) sourceofthese . then othermeans. and "Czemy(1846). MacArdle). had in Beethoven's time: changed works the appropriateconceptionof different through the the a acquires value conception mental .drawnfromreading.reverberations. andtoneswould blur confusingly". 3." The two differentremarkssuggestthat.hisreason beingthatifhe divulgedwhatinspiredeachcomposition. 246.Czemy'ssecond descriptionwill conveythe effect more convincingly.it mightforcetheaudienceto experience however.p. the taste must occasionally expressed and of altered " demanded. convey and understand performer Czernyadn-iitsthat Contraryto his earlierclaimto preserveBeethoven'sview in performances.than were By thishemeansthe newpossibilitiesaffordedby the improvedpianos.anaccountsupportedby RiesandLouis . to told also complainingat a Kullak's father) that Beethovenintendedthese recitative passagesto create the effect of "someonespeakingfrom a cavernousvault. (1967).p. Moscheles). 71 . and "correct" the the spirit of compositions. "Ibid. Kullak (Franz distance". 67...It is alsopossiblethat someof theseimagesare invented.Czemyis trying to inventimagesto explainthe music. Ries p. on suchmatters. in this instance. and 12 Czerny(1846). P. he remarksthat the two recitative passagesin Op. Schindleris alsoof the sameopinion.. Histranslation. 1OWegeler p.natureor frornhisown imagination.p.

See Thayer (1969). " his colleagues. p. outburst when was rather considering occasions were himself could not resist the temptation of improvising in a public performanceof this samework. much to the annoyanceof Nevertheless.. 415. p. 15. the written were when six or six-and-a-halfoct4ve piano pieceswhich He in letter Beethoven George the became the to opinion. that is.. who was playing the piano in the Quintet for piano.21 Thomson that he refrains from rewriting his compositions. 350.15 addition or abbreviation." In fact. same explains was of a norm pianos . . his heard have work performedexactlyas it was would rather " it in beautifully however you played otherrespects. Years earlier. 640-641. On the whole.Op. Beethoven was so specific he in 16. Czerny also strongly objectsto the other common practice. Op. 560. p. This the octave notes. hom. Beethoven the his to even wrote out with his first. p. Schindler (1966) (ed. 0 introduction in his Beethoven's to the performance of Czemy's stem warning piano music in The Art has its roots in an incident that took place on II February 1816. Thayer (1969). Op. 69. ii.. ofaitering Beethoven'searlier for five-octave instruments.. 21Czemy (1846). clarinet. 16..through whosewritings this messagewas passedon to future generations. 19Wegelerand Ries (198 8). 16 17Anderson(1961). IgMilchmeyer (1797). and additional act so offended the with part piano in front Czemy day. written. Beethovendecided it double to the concerto would make more brilliant. MacArdle). becauseevery changein the details of "Czemy (1846). Ries that adding notes " Beethoven However. there added or embellishments rarely notes when observed he broke Beethoven's harsh. 32. that playing. p. Beethovenwas not the only one who reacted against this prevailing nineteenth-centurypractice. and bassoon. 32. Czemy. p. p. oboe.in the Rondo theme of his First Piano Concerto. 94. Beethoven's reproof left a lasting impressionon Czerny. "Ibid. Milchmeyer had expressedhis disapproval. p. this he rule. indications According Ries. in Rondo Op. Eingang. 8. The that the reproached ofthe was other members of quintet. pp. had embellishedthe doublings " like. 72 . two him to the to the on only compositions occasions: add notes of asked 13 and the second. next composer Beethoven apologisedto Czemy in a letter: I was very sorry [b]ut you must forgive a composerwho .

However. ofchanging a publishers by decided "improve" four had bars in Ndgeli the to the codaof the music adding extra earlier. version correct reasons. Ries 24Wegeler p. such changes with printing became basis the the this the composer. including Although the to articulation some markings. partnership same with madea second editions details. the and other publishers. later Haslinger. 25Anderson 73 . his "an to collected compositions. 30.uneteeiithcentury by for Op. and (1961). London this Clementi's was not an casewhere after edition of Beethoven's liberty decade More the text the than took without consent. In a engraver's attempt publish a pirated edition publicly In for in Wiener Zeitung.pp. (1993).p. published works collected of 25 he declared his intention of undertaking such a project.p. possibly.3 THE PROBLEMS OF FINDING AUTHORITATIVE NINETEENTH-CENTURY EDITIONS OF THE PIANO SONATAS his Beethoven'scorrespondence with publishersshowsthat. he consistentlytried to correct errors in the fair copy or those which have crept in during in his Pirated In the some were retained published efforts. he Between Simrock.oftenwith inaccuracies. which he himself would supervise.' io denounced Mainz Beethoven 1803. second of authority without print made alterationswere " Unfortunately.Thecommonpracticein theearly in different further the same plates publications using propagatedthe of r. (1988). isolated 1823. 2'Beethoven 77. of copiesof engraving. werealsowidelycirculated. a wish 1816 1825.22 the the his compositionswill change characterof whole piece. with negotiated with matter pursue 2'Kerst(1964).throughouthiscareerasa composer. same article. I- 3. come edition"of not authentic of his for fmancial led him for to of compositions and. 37-40. first movementof Op. 31/1. from dating the year. 90 Breitkopf in Sinirock 1815 Steiner's their were also used plates and problem. the his the piano and strings. 1435. in Steiner. iH. edition. it was another sevenyearsbefore he approachedBreitkopf& Hartel for the publication his it Although did fruition. spite hismusic.

as well as on " is individually.thus acknowledging The by NYessel in Londonaround1852Haslinger the to edition published edition(s). for those the were of of additional editorial markings printing used its Haslinger II As inserted. were alsopublishedboth in Europeand in America. complete Czerny'sactivitiesasaneditorof thesesonataswereby no meansrestrictedto completeeditions. II Haslinger but Haslinger 1. For from time the same sake of convenience.seeibid. Beethoven's Czerny to sonatas about piano with of as the named collection a his life. p. Czerny his Towards turned the of again end attention to a new edition of the editor. In the meantime. According he Moscheles. Peters. Hofineister. On the title pageof the 1856-1868Sinirock edition. as will be shown below. p. 510512.. the of editor was not namedon the title page predecessor. pp. 1) (184 2'Schindler .his effortswereunsuccessful. 510-516. The to the the as and. 107. referred second will as edition plates on. ifi. Many sonatassold separately." Unfortunately.pp. Czerny insertion the credited with of metronomemarks somesonataspublished justify for in 1822 in he Anderson draft to the this 16See reasons project prepared a also (1961). with were but. theiraffinity 1854is one suchexample. at about sonatas now collected be Haslinger I first Haslinger II. 1450-1451. pp. by Haslinger published & (I 828-cl 840). 74 . Schindler(1966)(ed. becausethis Schott. (ed. C.Thepublicwasmore in interestedin newly-composed than works correctedcopiesof musicwhich hadalreadybeen published. MacArdle). to of supervised the edition complete piano sonatas " This company also published another edition of the (1828-1832). Cocks in London published from 1835 1880. "For a list of thesesonatas. F. 3. Someof theseeditionscarry the inscription"revised from the New ViennaEdition" or "carefullyrevisedfrom The OriginalViennaEditions". Czernywas involved. ii. 28 Simrock (1856-1868). 400. MoscheJes). the this time with as publisher piano sonatas.whichnamedCzernyasthe editor. Czerny was involved in at least four editions of the Beethoven.4 CZERNY'S EDITIONS OF BEETHOVEN'S PIANO SONATAS From the 1820s until his death in 1857. and undertakingwould mostlikelyhaveprovedunprofitablefor the publishers. 217hedatesof the HasUnger andSimrockeditionsare givenin Newman(1976-1977).

846).p. 47. Of the last eight P tx.articulationandpedalmarkings. 26/i.19 below) arethe samein both Haslinger IlandinSimrock.83. 3.the e6s in the bassof Op. and alsoaddeddynamicmarkings.accents. p. The dynamicmarkings in Haslinger the must again II (ex.1' bars of variation 2 from Op. Therhythmicaccentsin Op. 3. 3. in is be This fingering. 3.2) reflect this advice..3). In the autograph of this sonata.79.be because. 30Czemy(I 75 . "Ibid. Beethoven does not include a single dynamic marking in tl-ýspassage(ex. this the as will made clear misleading sectionand next.1).and are clearly addedby the editor. and87 inHaslinger " in The Art. but " lightly be bars 4 last staccato and very soft". Althoughthe editorof Haslinger11is not namedon the title page.theeditorialmarkingscanoffer dynamic identity. 57/iii/I 13-118(seeex. 3. Theaccentedfo's in the trio of Op. 51. Czemy instructs that"the crescendomust increasetoforte. 28/iii/71.75. indications his Some in Haslinger to ofthe markings and pedal clues usvaluable II cýrrespondwith Czemy'sadvicein TheArt and in his variouseditionsof the piano sonatas. Czemy's to II also correspond suggestion 31/3/iv/20-34areconsistentlyaccentedin HaslingerII andin Cocks(ex. Similarly.

3. a A -! bi -AI 4L ) I 0 76 . .2 0 (s -4Z.Ex. ) 10 (p TZ S.

is identical to that in the Cocks edition (ex. 3. '"_""j"__'-.. . 6ýý F. ---- _ 4- _L ---' V II --p .3 SOS * I-- 4r-4u--j ý... b5 - --.. .. F_-_j 1T I-I i. E=. I- -1..... L-L-L=j F-101"T FTI-l ---1 -rT bt 2ýi u There are other instanceswherethe editorial markings in HaslingerII are consistentwith Czemy's ýar The in from last deviate but the the markings. II. Similarly... #- -I -*ý I.. - -t ..15 (see the be pedal markings of should pedalled ex.: -_I ..... T -1. 3..Ex. . However. 77 . 3. -'... -1_... this is different from the autograph.. -' _Ii.? -=- i: Z--1- 11i----I: r :r --' r==a " -ý 1 I-4-. -j ... III. I.ýs i x"_ .... pedal marking composer's of editions other Op... .i-.. Op. -'-' Ir- -riJI k_5_. -If 4 2. .. 1 I P1 -." 15. 1"... 101/iii Haslinger 9. in which Beethovenrevealsthat only the last chord Ex. "_ . -. -n j-4..'-.- - te " -III-I II r_-ý I IL] -----. .T..4 viý4" "I L 11- z in below)..-'. for example..: IIII. Ec71 I.i .4).. i -... 109/iii in Haslinger II.

-0. 1" Ir .6).I.1 9ý 1 0. Sul una cotda. .they are different from Beethoven's (ex. . rcd.1.-..5 Mif4iiterSafte.... ý AP k olooli-Ar hd. It is for aUthesereasonsthat the editor of HaslingerII mustbe Czerny. 410pl ir nbft 1L . -pFF . 1. PE -. 3. 3. Olt 5 01 nvt--: ý --.. 11cmpreSto. 3.. =0 . . a ngýa? 7 - n Adaglo ma non troppo Fýý .--. Nach und baela zueltrere Sx itrn '6.-. Z. I .ýý -0. -4 L-H. Ex.4 -ýP_ 101 i IF -_ 31 i. .i±! 1 '1 1.:. . F to c Ljj -to ----s -1-6-ý_ýJjj! Peetho-%eii1.r I- IL= p 1ýý ur ri 11d-l0A 0-If1 -r 90..5) andCocksarethe samebut...:hk ff - ____ P: ": I"" 9 ---- - U" ZAEZ-- I OIE IIE L-jo dic 0 - 10 30'. 78 ".. Hr r Lf$'4- r H e5ý Th. HaslingerIl (ex.1 FF1. 0 .- - - PC R. - ol (2) II. 9ý I. ..Iiýi 0 01 con afTettp.' (r%prII((I%Pr F1. again.-.--d11 - 4ý3 ffm f..

Ex. 2rN '-\ "1 (1 s-i L'- 1L I z. At il I t 79 .6 II/ ____ . 3.

The the fingering of the and finger crossesover only does indicate Czemy fingering finger. he indicates3-1 in both in thetwo sourceS. 33 80 . There Ex. (1846). Iql I 5 L____ u1 .-Ij 143 r_all---ý 4a2 rrrr61Jdrr il (1846). between of Therearealsomanysimilarities editionand bars /iii. Czerny clearly prefers the older method of fingering. 7/iv/76 and 83 in Cocks (ex. 14/1 in the left-hand of example. 3.9). In fifth the the not general.7 1f4 mo ý--? a! J/L -F-rI F -1 r--PIrIF1 -r-r-LI . PTfr F'F'fl IIii=ii v"kqz 'a I 1111111 41 S3 - il J% -f lili ! I1HTI Iw If 10 9 -ov-62 bars. i. Czerny's fingering of this passagealso reflects his reluctanceto place the thumb on black keys. 44. See p. exactly same the note preceding in different editions of the samesonatas. 3. The The Czemy's Cocks Art. The throughout the this (ex.areexactlythe same opening the accompaniment 32For the left-handpatternin thirds in Op. 835-1880). The choice of fingering in Op. (cl p.8) is almost identical to that in The Art (ex. Beethoven 32 p. Czemy 9.fingering.but the principle of fingering is usually consistent. " four finger is first In Cocks. 3. 3. Art. 61. H. for Op. Beethoven p. 81a/iii/l.7) Cocks pattern maintained and Ex. 3.8 3 c ALUI rnlsiý 4J I 4jJI [-. (cl 835-1880). whereby the fourth is between difference Cocks The Art fifth. Czemy 10.

3. disagree on the length of the 35 be depressed Czerny for Art..havea certainindeterminatecast.S k-iýlt III-". (1846). This reflectsCzemy'sremarkin TheArt: The openingresembles a question(theanswerto whichfollows in the 7' bar) andmust. 81 .but on the seventhbar... 14Czemy 'qbid. r- 4. however.p.Ex. ýL-ZZZL F.on that account. after the pause. though basedon the sameprinciple as TheArt. are slightly in Art. ( "No i pi j b-Aa @I -ý 11 u I kv.-4e-. In The the that two-and-a-half states pedal should pedalling. but in the Cocks edition.- 3 LI N«u cu'a toOq . indication His in Op.i.:R pi I.10). l7i-=z4zýH'l -TU ii III h Hm a Sý- rw wA 11 t I . I f--7 27-% ý &F Ij c. 39.-.9 43a -t db y1V. 7/iv/1 55-156 in the Cocks at abrupt pedal modulation modified. In the Cocksedition. 11 01 f--.Czerny's editorial markings in Cocks. . both in time andexpression. j 'S is anothersimilaritybetweenCocksand TheArt: Czemymaintainsthat the first six barsof Op. The his advice supports The two sources. Capitalizationoriginal. -1 pF i_. I. F-1 -ý eEg: - 3 4. P.andparticularly in the 16' andfollowingbars. the pedal is releasedafter two bars (ex. I it f--l --- II--wIr I s Z: r- 1'! F 4 6 L. r--r Fk.yieldsto a decidedstyleof performance " be beats Metronome duly the the then can of observed. 31/3/i hasa free tempo. bars. 3 [lop.which. 3. and Sometimes. 55.as is the norm. the metronomemarking is printed not at the beginning.

UP I- ý!. w- F.I.=i =i . but (ex.. Is 1IIII I r. Wmj= . Czerny retains Beethoven's fingering in bars 61-62. ll -1 Ab -1 iI- sF %Ix v rw. "I.0 I lp i' I! ft ia p- ý 0 on dp ## I-- . i___! Z.aF-aFIIFIw ii! II 12. --.. to note. Czerny had Op.. but in his earlier Cocks edition.11). two double fourths in bars 59-62 between Cocks and The Art (see also the discussionin chapter 8).. .12 nER k4Y4 A. is interesting It that there are no changesto his fingering of the bars. are and already made example the decisionto modify Beethoven's fingering of Op. i-IN 0!3 PIK r: i S4 . IAIIiI -. 9.%&r I& I L.. I- ý rrtý Vii FN.. he makestwo small alterations in these however. 3.-a--iacwr 7.Y ks4 III -. S. 15 xL ý. His fingering of this in is largely The Art (ex. in 81a/i/5 the Op.-I. ýE'! IMIWNM Mý- 1. 1 dd - . 3. 2/l/iii/59-62 (ex. 4st5 r-T-ý -0. r-T..1 rl "1 M' LI: -1II ..12) 3. ý .ý=" It I -- . 3. . Although most of Beethoven's fingerings are incorporated in the Cocks edition. da:ý ( Ex.. omitted.1 Tiara--17 M-1-1-A Ur0r. -ýw I i1i11L111111 -i-r II 1_1III IIIII-IIII1 . -. Ex.13). 3. in Cocks the that these minor same as passage deviations do not affect the overall fingering pattern.. _ VL 1w I t-. IIIIf.-1 i IP *-9 i- If- Im 0If-0. 11 .10 . r- f-- I_________-I --IIIII 82 54 In I L In 11 11- I Eq. a few (for By II I/ii/174) 1830s. 1 2. b.Ex.1. I AD W-Llpr-p--r -ý I - I 11111 it I IIII11.m -*. i V" 'I'dO I Pow 4 PP APO 00 ii11i I .0 -@1 -. mi 2. FEE= lp L_L_I" ftkrd: JFý loftk do . In The Art. Vww JA ý4' tm± 'i1 -leg ý-).=i ---z ý IV mmmmm.r-Y ýAr. . 3..1 iI- 2. ". F .11 1ý I ooý ý%I- u C.k icuzz32" .

they offer. ý.ýk f0--t-la r. Cocks.0. These editions will also be considered alongside Czemy's advice in The Art and Beethoven's autograph of this sonata. Z 4' ! -.Ex.=160 . iii . 3. 57 COMPARED In this section. r-L.1. 57 will be used as a casestudy to exemplify Czerny's editing from the 1820s 65.=120 J. The five editions usedfor this study are Haslinger1. Op. are any' onadding from few in None his four this edition. Beethoven. ko t9a: - jo.13 -f- I-ýfm PFF i i 44 i.and Sinirock. approach goodpictureof 3.In the Simrockedition.5 CZERNY'S EDITIONS OF OP.begun in the 1830s.beforebeing finallywrittendown in TheArt in the 1840s. As this was one of the sonataswhich Czerny had studied with 1850s. Metronome marks First movement Allegro assai HaslingerI J. Piý allegro J. to the mentioned on p. -* he F 1-1-1 F- ¶4 . fairly his The Art..=120 Wessel Simrock 83 1. o le -- ----1 Thesimilaritieswhich TheArt shareswith the editorialmarkingsin Haslinger11andin the Cocks ideas in TheArt by late that the the the many of show sonatas were already sown piano editionof 1820s.-I L--1--L. Wessel. IN -Ih a1 -o- -011 1PF1111 ed.11111111111iwiF.=108 Cocks J.HaslingerII.Thesewere consolidatedthroughthe Cocks edition. and.- -e- 2. 0 . markings of editions additionalexpressive in but his in ideas. V _. conjunction collectively with advice a containsall Beethoven's his to pianosonatas. apart a accents.=138. metronome markings.Czemychoseto concentrate in hardly fingerings There the as all other editions.=120 Haslinger11 J.

Presto =96 =92 As can be seenfrom thistable. a very quick slower significantly in Simrock later Although the the metronome markings edition were published third movement. This is.Czernyhad his obviously reconsidered metronomemarkings on various occasions. terms replaced another. thanWessel. of the third Occasionally. Czerny's discussion sections markings metronome the of also Dynamic markings and accents Many of the dynamic markings in these five editions are the same as those in the autograph.9 below).and one can o'nly ' in He Wessel his four (see the the to outside range of markings other editions conjectureas why in 4.Czerny'smarkingsconsistentlydemonstratethe tempo relationshipbetweenthe first two movements.no longerthe casein editionspublishedin the 185Qs. is by bar In 226 Beethoven's however. movements of metronomemarkings II andCocks. Presto Cocks =138 Wessel = 152.onceagain. of one 84 .Presto =100 Simrock = 144. Although Haslinger11was publishedat about the sametime as HaslingerI. in first'two Haslinger I. the However.morecompatible.Themetronome from being in first being in Wessel the to extremely quick wildly movement swing markings is followed This by in in tempo the the again second movement. the metronomemarkingsin Cocks are identicalto those in HaslingerI.Secondmovement Andantecon moto HaslingerI ý=120 HaslingerII ý=108 Cocks ý=120 Wessel ý =92 Sirnrock ý=l 12 Third movement Allegro ma non troppo HaslingerIJ =138 HaslingerII = 138.wherethe basicpulseof the secondmovementis alwaysthe sameasthe first. Haslinger the are slower.6-4.the speedsof the threemovementsare. surprisingly.

.This error initially appearedin the first editionof this sonataand may have beenoverlookedin Czerny'seditions. A hairpin is addedto reflectthe ascendingand descendingfigure in bar 50 of the first movementin the 85 . p Ji L Z-ff---L 19- to l-1 -. 0-0 II 1-1-ý-IMS It is not unusualto find editorialdynamicmarkingsandaccentsin Czerny'seditions.15 Cl ax inýý19 g. i--1. as will outlined section5.the rinforzando in bar 14 of the secondmovement(ex.. .i 9 Jrf''. In four out of the five editions. We 3. in In addition..68-69how particularBeethovenwaswith regardto thetypeofdynamicmarking be it begins. he did not usedaswell aswhere employrinforzandoasan alternativeterm to sf andvice versa.. " -ý 0 1& . am. 3.15).. the the the as autograph. Although the dynamic in is diminuendo begins in Wessel (ex. 3. ý Z40 7. or ritardando all movement. 3. 1. Ex.is by in Beethoven's five the replaced either rinforzando ritard. i:ditionssurveyed.3 below.14) is replacedwith sf-::. same earlier marking havýseenonpp. -.14 Ex.1 «0.

3.--=::Z in bar 28 anddim.3-.17)andWesselhavep. Anotherdiscrepancyoccurson the first beatof bar 14:fz in HaslingerII but onlyf in the autograph. The sf in bot4. Il.3.16) are not found in HaslingerL Thesfon the first beat of bar 18 is not foundin the autograph. At tlýiispoint.. 3.nor in any of Czemy'sotherfour editions. in bar 30 of the secondmovementof Op. There are significantlymore dynamicmarkingsin HaslingerII thanin HaslingerL For example. 86 . HaslingerI doesnot haveany first In dynamic the these movement. 38). 57.Haslinger11adds in bars22-23. Ex.the sf markingson the third and markings. His recommendationfor the use of hairpins in such instanceshas been documentedin his treatise (see p.Sinirock edition.1*6 17 Ex*. the and appears of on the autograph(ex. 16. I Haslinger Haslinger first beat bar however. additional of fouith beatsof bar 15in HaslingerII (ex.

. :iJ- -----I. #"" t Accentsof anexpressivenaturecanalsobe foundin Czemy'sSimrockedition.. he first highlights the the syncopations while accents movement. In bars37 and 111. - "1 r 5-! J-777ý "4 ?---L-Y AV -1 AV -A - !ýIPi00p1 III-III-- =4ý-4 --1 . but this marking does not appearin HaslingerI or in Czemy'sothereditions.. i 01:j 1ý 7E .& . 3. two otherpassages Ex.18). Accentsarealsoinsertedin bars135-137in the third movementof this because in Haslinger II. 3. 3. tjp-T-pr-tr- SE -. 3.19)andthesemiquavers in the first time barbeginningin bar 300 of the lastmovement. it h 0L -w- L-6-oOL dL 777ng--L- 00 ýE 10 ". rhythmicaccentsareaddedin bars113-115(ex. dw I-.11 31 0 MI-I fý].t. 3. The As theyaredissonantagainsttheotherparts(ex.rhythmicaccentsarealsoinsertedin from this movement:bars96-97 andbars 100-101. In bars105-107 (ex. leý ks 1. k lz -IIII.-- 1. in he bar 206.. er. areaccented sonata 3. fIIiIIrIF. 11 ý1 1 In HaslingerII. a of foreign harmonynote (ex.In the Simrockedition.a crescendois addedto accompanythe ascendingbassline in HaslingerII (see ex.0iI.31 below). j-18 Ex.19 .P-II-. -- dimin. IT.---- -..4 .20)..In bars53-54of the first movement.Simrockis theonlyothereditionwhi6h hasaccentsin thesetwo passages. 97 .accentsareplacedoverlong notes(ex.21)..o 11 &.

hadalsoappearedin anextract in decade (ex.. 01 - II -. 3.. 0ý - LEFTTI . 3.22b).3.ii.". 5. usages a remarkable in his Forte Piano School in TheArt. it Eiý :. 11I dolce FFi- f1iiii111 P7 i 1ý !i4 1ý4ýf4loý 4ýIý--. This The Art than earlier suggeststhat Czemypossessed a publishedmore listed in below. r Ex. Vi 1-" IM 'F 1- ý4 .22b ' 12Li --- FZ IIHtI 111 i40 13 . 3. as all theabove-mentioned memory.-1t S21 2 S2 cres I14 V 1-1ý Ex. LM I I I icr ria 4" ýýcres 2.1- 4 31 i --! - ?-I t?ý Fý 1" §--l + I Ii' :3 -4I F L_Jr All 1 52 . ---1I 88 INQ 0i . -. -1 go -:. 3.-Pt. p= -I: - Ali f-ý f-F+m. -0-. .22a). Theaccenton thislongnote.6 In section addition.22a (2) 1110 4p li ý- -- - . 3.-0114 .iI*111 1-"---IE2 ol 1 j'61 '" --F&- itwi+W I i F-Pl- ..-IýI.. Wý hoW WW 6=ý r-I 13 Ex. (2D -It t1.20 3. .whichwasaddedby Czemy. the with precepts accents are consistent and of unnotated Ex.iIi ý.21 ..

I II I. sometimesbear no is in One the to the example slurs bars33-40 in the secondmovement autograph. jL#-! 05 :J1-1ý2Laf. -Oo WOO Ex.24). 3. especiallythe length of slurs. 3. 3. 3. 57.23) are printed from the sameplates.- 14-1 1w ji--T. the slurringof autoiraph Cocks andWessel. n- ffý . 4-4. SinceHaslingerI andII (ex. the slurs both in the treble and in the bassare shorterthan in the bass in bars (ex. . io. L4-04 . NO2[ -H- dE 01 I II _'I'I. lZ o'fm im IK st -r --I-I.Articulation Articulation marks in Czemy's editions.the slursarethe same.-II 12 1.the long slur in the trebleis alsomissing. 3.24 89 1 dE I- r 'do II F--. Ex.. ýI- 3ýý.. El P!. I-11 1#04 i.25). The 33-40 is the samein Simrock(ex. In all threeeditions.but it is longerthan Beethovenintended.23 I.. resemblance of Op. I týý J): f1 ii riir L--. From bars 33-37.

AZI _! 1 "1 heg oll) III. & Beethovenconsistentlyslurs bassmotif either in groupsof 2+2+4+1+1or of 2+2+4+2(ex. 3. rf 0 P. 3. i- .']» 3 -- /-II /_ 90 -I -- ný'? . q ý- I-It::.-- -r N IFIf A - --- -Iýff F. Wm*d -I . HaslingerI andHaslingerII (ex. V . The lengthsof the slursin bars76-95of the third movementarealsodifferentin all five editions.The slurringin Simrock(ex. Em " 2ý. ivkiý -0 10 :-1ý I i- ak ii 01 -I--I rt: ý= 112 13 OWN 4 ýo (OR47 L! F: pi r! fffF ME-0 I-. .27)arefaithful to thecomposer'sslurringin bars76-85. Ex. II ý' lpl' l' Zia AtIii H im.the slur coversvirtually the whole phrase.c M.. -4. but in the next phrase. Ii 11 .3.Ex.26). - .T1 . 0 tit /77 a / :ý .1. 9ýa irk IqjjkII II.L6 Qq /P 4-ý f. 3.28). CocksandWesselis inconsistentandthe slursareessentiallylongerthanin the autograph... 3.25 iI 3 21 41 a54 'I = i(ANdl+ ý.. -L-I-I H.

27 6ý r ------------------- tý.. 0V of mr L=k--4 FaFFF! %-----------P 7I4 OF - ----------------------------- -V'oFf'.= --IOLIO -I*I rm= CT--- =. -1 LLLLi-' P F f- IF I ""h I A JF . 3.. 4! -r rrgF1I/-II- -IýIIII -i Fp- F.. I op. 3..ý 1ýr -n EFE i? I- i . i- ? "t 1 II.26 (con't) Q 2T 1 I __ --- ----r '71 Ex. * im --- .0iF=01.. . w - e ý crese. ýIIIM--. iF -.. ý= R. 19rIr- Ar - F".dý I:. . 31?1 --JXý or 2F I - a. F.-iý lwml jo -. ---------------------------1#---01.Ex. . ý 1 .. H PU 67foi- - *--- m..-MRPFM 1L I- 1 L--L' r IF fFAF -*P? -1 -pb. - -.I.. . I LM 0 Ar m r -F i 91 0lot - P=- t r- ts :: loco.m . ý A AFý -ýAFVP'J 17 __I. !--------------- i .. ____ " dimin.! i6w ýx r__i? - I 4l =2 ý-MýM-Wý1 V I.10i mr .. ts 14 sip f.-p ýý Wl. -- jur ýAr -I e 4 20 .. 2. at -t- -b -.I YE dimin.

Ex.4 below). edition. .29). 1-'. pa E. This articulation is not included in Simrock juncture in four However. 3.30). -W f. ly H-_: 01-0 ý=fl-.28 aýd 31-32 in the first movementofthe HaslingerII edition (ex. Even without this indication. Czerny still holds to a similar rhannerof performing those quavers. T .-0. the secondnote ofthe slur is expectedto be detached.28 al. but without the staccato sign (ex. 12 4 res 13. !. the the this other editions.. -j D AT 92 --. =--+ HF ýp lbI: IM 17 9i - Jyp -- PEN". I ___ _____ _____ ======I'I. 3. aimin 9 pip ij q N't rr 9( 12 -- diinin: lal .. 3. This shows that in spite of the twenty.7- a 1. ýWll "aaai of FIAat /. - b%.. accordingto Czemy's teaching(seesection 6. iiiH 1.r-- T-- . g 3. Ex.to thirty-year gap between the publication of thesetwo editions. slurs are added in at bars 94-95 in the developmentsection. a - L----- 1.PiF 0iI yp 11 o- Mý 'crei 10-: k7. -4h [.: Two-note slurs and staccato dots are added to the quaver accompanimentin bars 25-26. 3. -ý r-% -OF 111-fIIiI 00a ii L-L-i I L---L L-I. '-.29 IL"l-b @ ast it-.

3.anotherengravermay haveadded engraveroriginally dots at a later stagebefore printing.94-97 (ex. In Sinirock. thus confirming the articulaiion of this passage. Ex. staccato is usually in Czerny dash. indicated staccatowith perhaps. has by the where passages made additions. or the ascending ascending in dots in bars 266-267 figure the third movement. Czerny the thumb such passages: only one requests sonata. so as to incorporate Czerny's suggestion. 3. I-W Sý It is observedthat Haslinger I and Haslinger 11use dots to indicate staccato.The same 11 is in Haslinger every time this motif appears.differentfingersare Throughout first in the movementof this normally used passageswith repeatedmonotones.6 below. Haslinger II (ex. such as the represented in bars 192-193 first bass figure in bars 53-54 the and movement. It is unlikely that dashes and dots were used to represent different degrees of sharpnessor that Czemy had be for to type used. It is possible thýt the quaver dashes but. aj ýý VL -r -I _:. staccato signsare also added in bars 192-193.33. 6ý.As will bediscussedin section8.3 1) and Sinirock. of sign a particular specifically asked Fingering Of the five editionssurveyed.31 Ir-IN %R. are us&d.albeit sometimesincomplete. marked articulation In Haslinger I and in Sinirock.Ex. in bars finger in 24-28.only the Simrockeditioncontainsfingeringaddedby the editor. Simrock and Wesselemploy both signsin this sonata. 93 . However. while Cocks prefer the dash.Haslinger 1. . 3. Onemodeof fingeringis unusual.30 I fp2 2 000-- O LO"" 0 MM Mumm 0A121121 II SI Staccato signs are also addedto the ascendingbassfigure in bars 53-54 of the first movement in three of Czerny's editions .

with the thumb. most fingering.and172. 57/i/134-139 be struck with one fmger.135. Off OR +14 2 S+ 2s cres 2512 3262.134. I 94 .149. F#w " -Ff hl ýff 0001 ýe * -0--OL-OL -ko--.. 38 Czemy(1970). bk moh QF7= At ýi! c iý .32 4 I. convincing effect would be best bass." In the Simrock edition.are changed. 3.13 (ex.32. 3.32 above)..0--e "go--0--e -0.asshownin ex. studied this sonatawith ominous-sounding Beethoven "several times"" so it canbe assumedthat Beethoven conceivedthis effect and. Inthetwo instanceswherethesecondfingerisemployedratherthanthe thumb.30 above).. he reinforces this idea by in bars 13 4.p.andthe secondfinger in bars150and 173. this requested probably. 3. r7C ýr 2 f In TheArt. aimost produced. Ex. 3. He the the thumb and would candidate.3 Cs 5 3) Is the over and 149 (seeex.. p.166.it is to facilitatethefingering of the figure which follows. Why repeatedly marking does Czemy insist on this fmgering? He explainsin TheArt that if the fmgers.a less " he be Presumably envisagesan'insistent.rumbling. Czerny advisesthat the repeatedCs in the bassof Op. Ex. or preferably. 171bid.r: ul i . 3.33 161bid. 59.3.

Ex. *. . Towards the end of the first movement. do. 3.. Beethovenusesthe pedalto link the adagio sectionto thepih allegro at bar 23 8. -VI The lack of accuracyin the positioningof the pedalreleasesignsprobablyresultsfrom a lack of intentions and ontheengraver'spartratherthanCzemy's. a barearlierthan is specifiedin the autograph. 3... * - 4Ted. where the peddl is released .for example. m ao ao .. sometimeseven marking where the pedal should be released during a rest (see chapter 9. 57 ofthe markings many pedal editions of correspondto the autograph. -Although the exact place for the pedal releaseis not always as precise as Beethovenwould have liked. I 0 E= -PP j:. notation ofBeethoven's understanding figurein bars176-183ofthe third movement. da 11 -r----r-. The is first faithfully the the release on chord of allegro piii pedal observed in Cocks. In HaslingerI.: .. The latter was meticulous in his notation. LI 6-iV fl D p-j-j jI u ý-l Ex. pg. ). 3. HaslingerII and Simrock(ex.. :ýE. but not in Haslinger I nor Haslinger II (ex.andsometimes evenwithin thesameedition. especially pp. -01 -.36). Wessel (ex. *. ibrýtý (Pi2p 1 .that is.---- E2Er$ý ------ --------'-' - ------:.Pedalling in Czemy's Op.34) and Sinirock. pedal empty asks (ex. 3. ýeiý: 0* -. 3. --..37).34 PIG (ý13 ALLEGRO. ADAGIO. r ir ý-.varies Thepedallingofthe arpeggiated from editionto edition.Beethoven depressed including be for bars 179and 183 to through the the two the rests. 256-257 below).In theautograph.35). 41 =160. before the beginning of the quicker section. *.The pedalis 95 .A 1. "1-. 3.35 Adagio.thepedalreleasesignsappearat the endof bars178and 182.

Ex..39). 3.p 42 if el I __ t+ wol =ý 0 Ij !e ii!m1-. ej 'I -- L2 . Wesselis rather inconsistent(ex. Ex.4 M2el - * ý S: * Lp- dimin: 96 ý c- sempre Ped: .1 P!ý -fýO.-. but that in bar 183is a bar early.38).ým.thepedalreleasein bar 179is accordingto Beethoven's autograph.36 t (a 4-r .to be releasedevenearlierin Cocks .37 ý00 ii IA- -0- il ý 119 :eg 1. mol 242 53 . . 3.on the last quaverof the bar 178 (ex. 3.3.

1 11' :i- -- K iiAý1 ff IM -. R=L. 3.Ex. ý: dim. - -. I-. r ''II 'I Fi II MT-9 .ý r-1 i11 ir d! . ý. 3.' T- JJ . I. I-i-i ------------------- hi =11 id id-id I F!! = loco. -7 . r_-.39 .1Ir I ___j 1- *p(. Oom EE se ro zempre rea-.. 1" +- +- +- t- t- t- . FEE -OSUE 44ý I- F7 ' --V-IeP - . Sf LI Triff-Dir7= K7P TJ or red: Z 11 -. d.. Ex.- .: . 8va--. ___________ w r- Pfd. Pe& men -.1 ct-l-T R5 i. . 0'**-. "i . 1L-III-III 11 'Fl -- Wc 1ý: Z id 'l - 39 ý 1'. i P9 97 1: 3 Ap . 1'2 - I VL d RV "-. -.a. 'im' == 7M:- == Z- Jr 4-- +- LLJ. :. - f- -k . G.38 -. -: IIr -- pq. .

59.40a II L-Ic-lia-V I-LI3 v ELI u 0 fý 4 -h.40a)andin fi do These in four (ex. OF ýg-. 0'. in in bar 19 should two the these the passages pedal release sign pedalling on most of be at the end of the third beat of the previous bar. however. :.--.. o.thepedalmust reflect editions. 98 II -1b1: i: . markings not appear other -bars in in first The Art Czemy's but the they advice where. . - .two obviousmistakesin theWesseledition. Ped. 3.suchasthosein barsl7-22 (ex. 3. 1!2 . movement. while in bar 155.. -I JlOL_3016 -W6 JgF6 ffir P4 R -n /I .20 Thereare. it has been accidentally omitted. rd . 9. &C'y%3 9 (as in.[and] energeticpassages. i. __. Basedon Czemy'sremarksin TheArt and I in Wessel.40b) 152-161 the the of rst movement. Ex..OL J J) fl --l .5Eý. l fl$ .17. p. oe.Wessel. q fI1 I1 1 11 If . 4- rI yEI I II I ff nfl IiII.-.. Punctuation original.. i -LI 2KI 1ýpI rvvrI -IJ F:::] -I .bars 14.- ri d.occasionallyhasadditionalpedalmarkings. be usedin "all concording. ---. 3. Both are engraving errors. 19Czemy(1846). .

a pedal releasesign on the first beat another error. pr-ý r7-L-jl. - Sý 1 Iikeýkli-v [=ý a L --ml _. Khm. I-=1111 pq -4" - 6. The The bars 132-133 in changed every pedal pedalling of this passage only in the other three editions is the sameas the autograph.hm 1.1 IAE fS !MV I. 1--F-TT ITI cjý (a U. 3. in the previous phrase.from bars 140-143.dI LA L.i i.I-I.41) is probably be According there to the should autograph.but is bar..40b 7. F.if- ']'1 qlý : 'ii : : i5ed. 'Id - 00 Fi ý. ýL. Simrock also has additional pedal markings in this passage. I.C 1 1..1. Vý ýl . 3.the pedal should be depressedanew in bar 136. If There 132. 61 11V [ HIAý -iii-iý.ewp.1311 - 4 ý -. LA. (ex. w FI .Ex.-U. a. is credited to Czerny. 'J: jjjj I The pedalling from bars123-139in the first movementofthe Wesseledition (ex..42).N1 Ic mi Peth' 49 Qr . bar is 218.. 7. -1 . lz t. 111721 * I.I C:N r=rý IAL c:. FTT-M 7 'r -1 1. bar then the additional pedal marking in until marking no pedal of Wessel. i Af qm7d AV C5 eAI. -L. 'I . 99 . zzý I--. then. 111 If 1111 El in" III Rý 1-1 11 cl*es. II. in dm-=- t9lI . a l'i If p 11 W-ZL. 3. III-ý-. d-- fi: ý!ýIo r7r .. I- JAI &ýW. 13. a Ii II U If L I. 71P 111.

.II1 . - ROW W-i ýo sumpre red. -1 eep . k. I-.iiM-1 -I-Lii OL ------------! -Iý ffi 111V 7r ý(6i - -... 9 /' - f-t-T- 0'" 11 6. -F. itlý P-307I *=.. dtHtK 1 M 00 !3 PI-1w- w 1 40 I -- I. =-f . =.. I_Ii U 100 1!= smoR 'A ar ... NE 4' ... "Mq . ii: - - " i...m --. -ý . u 2=22MMEM II-. m-.. . ýMT - ý9 ý-l bow sompre Fed: 9 r--l 0. po ''L. Pw--M rM r-=l r-!l -ýJe--Jw.1 2-1 L-i.-. -- I :W.. WE K - 1. --j --. J "- eýl . V ý ý... ý .1ý1iI. L.41 1-1 'j 1ý 1 ý M.VT- Avr-r- r Of 17--l- If--0 2 d. F. -- 0ae 1" _j . - F=:: ý rc-4 M. ýjl ý--!...OL 614') bo Ll I-II--. 45 I" -i -Ii -IUWt "I -1 J -J --it 'ff 1W.. . . 'n ý-. . -i - 1--j- Mr-ot... '1-00 i 12* r F... gl - OL Eý ------------------------------------- -1 ýff I-A-f . ho (M) c F---L= OZZilimia I...I Fc-44: 44 F7 M F7 N---L-d ý'.... 1 -1.. 0..0 Elld 1 ap-.1-"lVI of ýRj 0#I LIII - I .. vif 1 pm-M pmm-9 -1 . --. ho b.7 I. I -id Wr. ? 'ý . ýI. ig oz 34 I"1 . -. JlT i7ý f -ýJ.qý 6.... )...1 IV I-. ie -.ý9 kc ýi -ýý 1.. r-11 I WFv...I1 1M. IOL ..= . 17 Clý ...... Ofi 15mi -q . v . Or-] lo.. M 11- -11ý ý Im.. tC. 1A LIE I----9.. . - ar.11 I r r.... 6... i_ :" M... 1 I+ -*.I-III-.2i i..- 1...ý 1910 fla. -I FOMT71L-ý :w.. --A J1-1 J .. ff-. .I . -J 19 flf.. FF1 -& i OEI -j ký rol .. . R H6-..:ýt-- A-- 1. dim . . -i-0 'lkF IIII FI. . p I I. F4 -. .. O! 2N. oon IIC. Wp......--I ýj iNA. .'' VTJ1 Oýlp 0 10 v A).. ul FýL I- I-M MC -. -. L' --. - -OL cl'i.. V-01 lip tg p -1 M -j .d ... 1ý ýA i I-V v rl F16....j.e- II.r- (ýýg I. 0.. 61 hd -P Irlaq.!.. .. 'q -#m t I**. F0 Himo 100 Fýo 6! r aI ýý ýý0ý. Ft 101 il- o WM!!: MI. IIII-Ii m....i-.NI--F. 0.. -.. ýv k) w. !A. Iýý 1... .r:. 3.SVII Ex. IIII-II 1-1 II-I-rI 31.I...

It was common to share because it the was expensive and time-consuming to re-engrave. --2 Mt Z. 101 . publishers plates among Unfortunately. S P0"dimin"i .. 1 0-.13 3. !1. 1111. L-1 d r. M.1. However. - 1222 . dynamic and articulation markings. 567. Ll » If --s32j- cpiiii 141 41 I . rn= Ped: "1 4 i. Czerny emphasizesthe importance of observing Beethoven's tempo. 0.. rii ý4tf1.3 1. such as Clementi's London edition of Op. 90. ________ ________ Is Il lý - I- sempre-Ped: !9 ý T1 1. == 3. 11 rrl m=. Alt -- di m"q =.Ex. 3. lp-. 0 : . It is therefore perplexing that Czerny insisted on this when a "correct" edition of the sonatasdid not exist. mistakeswere sometimesoverlooked and were retained in new editions.' - 1 J EýFt 77 .6 SUMMARY Throughout chapterstwo and three of TheArt. from the various editorial changeswhich Czerny form his it is to understanding a of more comprehensive approach. .42 13451 ie= I! . ýýiý e=_o 2ý .-Tlý 4 JqS semnre Ped: Now iI . There may be possible made.. ..

Someof the ideason the performanceof Beethoven'spianosonatasin TheArt canbe tracedbackto the Haslinger II edition from the late 1820sthrough to the Cocks edition in the 1830s. consolidate earlier addition. is employedin Op. is repeated his fingering in Simrock this through the of movement reinforced edition. His adviceof usingonly one finger to play the in first Op. 7/iv/76 whereby methodof . and markings. appear was an opportunity comments to elaborate on the character of the individual sonatas and also to provide some solutions to technical problems.his but discrepancies among various editions. 57/i/I 7-22 and 152-161from the Wesseledition are exactly the sameasthose he suggestsin The Art. additional pedal markings in Op. to the ascending added crescendo marks are also Haslinger II and Simrock. identity lead to the of editor us also There is a certainconsistencyamongCzerny'svariouseditionsand his commentsin TheArt. 102 . The importanceof maintaininga freetempoin the first few barsof both in Cocksand in TheArt. The old consistently fourth finger fingering. He added not only fingering and metronome marks. the movement of monotones publishedin The Art. together with Haslinger II The Art Czemy's share with which and other similarities numerous other editions. 26/i/var. The dynamic markings in the last eight bars of Op. Although this Forte School Piano his 1846. first bass 57. 2 in Haslinger II correspondclosely with Czemy's advice in TheArt. Thesemarkings. Accents are added in Op. 57/i/53-54 in Haslinger 1. Staccato and bass figure in Op. Apart from the featuresalreadymentionedin the previousparagraph. Op.the similaritiesalsoextend to Czemy'sfingeringand tempo indications. many of the main principlesremained some unchanged. the crossesover the fifth. but also pedal dynamic The articulation. accents. 57/iii/I 13-115 in Haslinger II and Simrock. to editings. in both CocksandTheArt. 31/3/i is alsoemphasized Suchconsistencyalsoreflectsthe seriousstudywhich Czernymusthaveundertaken. as many of the titles suggest. its Czemy. Czemy's editing of Beethoven'spiano sonataswas more thorough than originally thought. markings. Czerny's to was not publ-ished until monumental supplement his In it in 4rt The.

fourths 2/l/iii. . reviewing studying understanding consistently ofthem.however. process.Sometimes.Czemy'seditingcontradictsBeethoven'sindications. did not simplytry to recallwhat hehadlearnedwith Beethovenalmosttwo decadesafter the latter's death.he wascommittingto paperhis understanding of thosecompositions from whenBeethovenwasstill alive. Thisprovesthat Czemyhadbeen in his the the sonatas and. In The ýe Art.albeitwith so# modifications. This wasthenslightlymodifiedin The.in the Cocksedition. 103 .4rt.reverencegaveway to a moremodemfingeringby the 1830s. double Although trio the the composer'sfingeringwasretained the of -6f in the two Haslingereditions.suchashis fingering in Op. Rather.

Timesignatures his final first eventually onJ= the symphony. 1he to and allegro ma non second. Beethovensometimesalteredtempo finale His first "Wer three the the successive versions of ofFidelio performances. 341-342. . "LebhafteresTempo"(morelivelytempo). also can the trio of theNinth Symphony.he laterusedmetronomemarkings . after markings increase 1814) in (1804-1805. Even when his deafnessbecamepronounced. so speed.seeStadlen(1967).pp. often ' but decided 88. [a]ny musical piece produces its proper effect only ývhenit is played in the exact. signatures. as as well MM 108 He 120 been the possibility of considered or asthe speed carefullychosen. in fluctuations them tempo or rhythmandcorrect the-smallest This concern with tempo was shared by many musicians.degree of movement prescribed by its Author. importance him! be to to of secondary seemed There is clearlysometruth in this statementby Schindler. and any from deviation inconsiderable that time.was 2 in in Frustratea troppo the third.HermannBeckobservesthat the originaltempomarkingfor the finalewasmaestoso. 423. vivace changed maestoso by the differentmeaningsassociated with someItalian terms.the violinist JosephBblim recountedthat the bows [ofthe hewas judge followed "eyes that] to the quartet so closely string able composer's . Czerny being one of them.CHAPTER 4: TEMPO AND TEMPO FLEXIBILITY Whena work of Beethovenhad been performed. 324.. 4For a detaileddiscussion.1805-1806 Weib holdes show and an speedand errungen" ein liveliness. 132. whether as to even 'Schindler(1966)(ed.940-941.his first question Every " "How tempi? the other consideration were was always. movementof of is important it is In influence to the the choose one which most appropriate.Beethovenmadesketchesin both2/4 and4/4 time implied ' by breve deciding before that the accentuation alla was moreappropriate. MacArdle)..whichwaswritten at theedgeof thefirst version. p.for example. minor. he his had Metronome to tempo markings which assigned compositions markings. fn. 'Thayer(1969). 104 .He Acknowledgesthat:. 52.p. 5 inimediately". 3 Barth (1992).. Op.pp. 'Rosenblum(1988). This eventtook placeduringa rehearsalof the Quartetin A in 1825.p.

whether as to quickness.destroy totally the sense.55-57and80-81. and end same should and a piece also words. 'Czemy (I 839E). termssuchas"strict time" which notated arenot led GeorgeBarth to accuseCzernyof encouragingthe strict observanceof a single speed throughouta pieceor movement. 157.i.' By requesting that "the exact degreeof movement" be preserved. Capitalizationoriginal. However. would in bars it is by Unfortunately. P. and the intelligibility of the piece" could be understood to mean either (i) the initial tempo selection initial (H) tempo selection and the strict maintenance of that tempo throughout a the or performance. p. 53. inconsiderabledeviation from that time. E.or at least. 31 he meantwhat we No. suchas slow movementof interpretive flexibility however.the will often or slowness. quickness. the the time". carrying have both he the use of accelerando and not requested rallentando. As discussedin chapter2. If flexibility tempo slowing p. of which movement. the meaningof his next point is slightly ambiguous. Op.pp. accelerating or were excessive spokeout against to be completelyforbidden. Beethoven. Bach to Czernyunequivocally back for holding They within a piece expressive on and pressing purposes. helpingto establisha new one. "strict to when asks a whole movement way. might for be he it Had to tempo to one maintainedrelentlesslythroughoutthis wished excess. other down (see 36). the treatisewriters from C. 31/2/ii (mentionýd in flexibility his his both tempo treatise. 2. ICzemy(1846). desirable. to that are sufficient of explanations prove above)and Barth's accusationsarecompletelybaseless.the beauty.' Czerny'ssuggestedperformanceof Op.they would haveexpressedtheir remarksin a differentand more for Czerny be in Therefore. beauty. 1-2. distort In though tempo the tempo. "[A]ny.He alsocriticizesCzemyfor distortinga tradition. 55-58. that should not such overall caution in begin Both Hummel Czerny the tempo. Czemy is obviously referring to the necessityof observingthe tempo which hasbeen"prescribed" by the composer.p. 'Barth (1992).will often totally destroy the sense. played comprehensive ' "Tempest" Sonata.. 105 . some recommend flexibility.or slowness.andthe intelligibilityof the piece.. tolerates tempo term today which a steady rhythm without.

to tempo. 106 .he advisesthat since"the measureis alla breve.Czernyalsounderstands the relationshipbetweentime signature. during "second "must be distinguished Beethoven's period". p. 15. same: metronome have he breve.1 ALLA BREVE Like Beethoven.the 3/4 of J. 14/2/His markedandante.the time should be a tolerablylively Allegretto". for the first two barsof this section. was are played signature.Beethovenalternatesbetween3/4 (molto vivace)andalla breve(presto) is breve bar A half throughforte the given accentuation of alla reminder marks at every sections. elaborates of with at alla movements studied however. is inform breve that the sections us alla onlysomewhatquickerthanthe 3/4 metronomemarkings 29-30.but not necessarily 9Czemy(1846).especiallythe Czemy.. it. 87. 16. Beethoven's be This In to the scherzoof certainly quicker. 45. breve 16..like Clementi. of tone andperformance. 49 and 104.Although than often with a quicker an should played Op. "Ibid. moreby beauty composea " by than excessiverapidity". 1. As thereweretwo meanings onpp. thannotated. Beethoven'smetronomemarkingsin thesetwo symphonies show the newermeaning:that ofplayinganalla brevepassage thathe. intention. p. introducedwithin a movementwhichbeginswith a differenttime Evenshortalla brevepassages.A briefpassageof alla breveis alsoinsertedtowardsthe end Third Symphony.embraces quicker twice as fast. and the first the of second movement signature: " Czemy knew Beethoven's intentions in No. Accordingto Beethoven's the sections o=1 while alla arc =1 sectionsaremarked basic in both breve 3/4 is As the the the the and pulse alla sections markings.4. having movement Czemy breve least the that two them composer. Op.' Sin-dlarinstructions are given to two works with this key Beethoven's Piano Concerto No. movementswith thealla brevetime signature and alla indicated. pp. 27 of all threeworks. degree increase be in liveliness. "Ibid. 2. mentioned precedes associated with sectionwhich thistimesignatureat thistime. According breve (ý). In both 3/4 the trio the of and movement scherzo symphonies. because his the adopted meaning could not old associated with alla a result. Op. the Ninth Symphony.

Czemy is moreconservative.2) showshow the alla breveshouldproceedfrom the 3/4 section. 29-30. 4. accentuation correctly points out is Beethoven "likely the why preferredthewhitenotesalla breveto the reason most accentuation " ordinary crotchete'. p.he denoted by deduces He the time the that the signature. he if (as defh-ýition time the the signature were using crotchets" old of as played this signature. AlthoughCzemy'ssuggestedspeedof the alla breve sectionis questionable. 4.he doesnot breve depend in The follow the the this alla may on speed of musical practice. "Ibid.1) too slowly. pp. B. rule slavishly is Czerny's finale Op.4. two quoted the examplessuggests Although Czernygivesthe old meaningof alla breve in his Piano Forte School.His examplebelow(ex. "[p]restissimo is in to the the advice play case of structure. 4. The inconsistencybetween from Czerny the that extracts memory.as 12Cocks(1853). Both notes are extracted from the E flat major chord. However.1 Ex. Ex. 30.2 - vwv f If ýj > it V- I f 0 > N. 53/iii.1 and 4.In an articlethat appearedin CocksMusicalMiscellany(I April 1853). 4. Here.2 are as written in Cocks Musical Miscellany.hecomplainsof thetendencyto playthe alla brevepassagefrom the scherzoof theThird Symphony(ex. The first'h6tes of t'heallý breve section in exs.heappearsto be unawareof Beethoven'smetronome in he breve for be that the the this minims explains alla when passage passage should markings is 2/4).. 107 .

. Czerny frequently Op.and " know by learn to their experience real significations. 285. have be disagreement. 16 Czemy(I 839E). 46-47. Italian Against by Czemy the the this ternis of are main given changing. first Forte They were also frustratedby the in Piano the two volumeof tempoof the In 1810. andlikewiseto the characterof the composition. 156. p. etc. 74.2.2 ITALIAN TERMS A piecewhichis playedtoo fastor too slow losesall its effect.theplayermustlook to the Italianwords which indicatethe degreeof movement. 106 the of smaller and notation note-values of sectionshow marking metronome that he considerslargo to be slowerthanadagio.Czernyplaceslargo as a slower " School. Beethoven the to tendency slow movements.1. pp.Wherethetime is not markedaccording to Maelzel'smetronome. 57. BeethovenandCzernyboth construealla breveto imply a quickertempo. p. In The Quartet String the cautionsthat slow movementof be largo "spun in is. straightforward.as allegro. moderato. "Anderson(1961). 108 . Both Beethovenand Czemy considerlargo a slower tempo than adagio. Beethoven's his in largo Op. p. i. gradually i Unfortunately.is affirmative. Similarly. a small should section an alla 4. presto. Regardingthe speed however. IlCzerny(1848). as section meanings. exaggerate public's asked general Breitkopf to add ma non troppo to the existingadagio indicationon the headingof the second " Art. breve they played. wereconstantly always were not definitions background. the*beginningof the movement.and becomesquitedisfigured..[markedalla breve] with the greatestpossiblerapidity"" ratherthanmeasureit in relationto . i.in the majority of cases. (that those should or not adagio) marked out" or played a movements "draggingmanner". likely to be thoseof Beethoven?The answer.the "degreeof movement"andthe "real significance"denotedby Italian terms discussed in Their 2. 14 Czemy(1846).

Beethoven even resorted to using German indications frequently been had "merry". slower or threeusesof andantinosuggestthat it is moreoftenusedto meanquickerinsteadof slowerthan " defines it He "progressing Czerny the ofandantino. p. In a letter to Mosel (cl 817). Czerny'sdefinition less however Adagio"" impression he have "moving than the that gives so slowly.i. 156.dochmit viel Ausdruck"(with walkingmovement.i. than slowly metronomemarkingsofthe andante playedandantemore fairly brisk. yet not hurrying onward"22also is in This first Beethoven's the term. 101. 101.Capitalizationoriginal. same meaning as with also adopts andante. his Beethoven. 221bid. reflects indication lebhaft German "etwas Its der innigsten troppo. " it but than andante.asunderstoodby Beeth6ven. "Anderson(1961). The mearing of andantinowas more problematic. In 1813. 10 1. p.askinghim whetherheunderstoodandantinoto be quicker " discovers Beck In Beethoven's this that than twentyof uncertainty. spite andante.Beethovenwrote a letter to the ScottishpublisherGeorgeThomson. cheerful. 21 Czemy(I 839E). 19Anderson "Newman(1988). und non mit ma allegretto marked Empfindung" means"somewhat lively and with deepestfeeling". the exemplified of usage movement of Op.i. still considers quicker a tolerablyslow pace" Czerny's defHtion of allegretto as "somewhat lively. p. that is " ignored. 727. 406.refersto "a walking pace". so andante.ii. In his the order to clarify the meaning of allegro-in compositions. term. Czerny'sandantemust have beentaken at a speedcomparableto Beethoven. 109 . Beethoven complained that the original meaningof allegro. onward may of However. Op. doch nicht zu the translation last the movement of "Czemy (1839E). (1961). p.alsomarked indication in instance is direct German The this translationof the Italian a andanteespressivo. 156. 81a. p."In gehenderBewegung. to convey spirit of some of includes he German "Geschwinde. In in Beethoven's sonatas are piano spiteof the choiceof wordingsin movements his definition of this term.but with expression) is the GermaninstructionBeethovenassignedto the secondmovementof Op.

(I 839E).larghelto .he usesvivaceas an it is its indication. Capitalization original.allegretto .and in Op. Czerny's Beethoven the of character a piece marked specified allegro. In everyinstance. Op. two of allegro main Op.vivacewas usedin two ways.soft. headings..andevensublime (e) Brilliant. p.on the degreeof movementimpliedby the maintempoheadings. with warmth" correctlydescribesthe characterof all the movements 26 it He too uses asan adjective. excited.andantino .28/iii.iq a seriousaswell as in a sportivesense. 21bid.grand.Vivaceappearsfairly frequentlyin Beethoven'spianosonatas. 69.some(suchasTOrk. yet without ain-dngat too mu&hmovementor rapidity (0 Light. p. 101/ii.andunbridledor furious. In definition the third volumeof with textbook simply'Tast. all of in Beethoven: features the sonatas of piano which arerecognisable (a) Tranquil.largo .i. Op. p.or harmoniouslyintricate (d) Majestic. of allegro Piano Forte School. and one of mit und sehr.usuallyasa qualifierto is in This Op. the tempo the case and allegretto. 106/ii. Agility". i. 78/ii.but decision).andante .Beethovenusesvivaceon its own (asin Op.3. 31/3/ii. rare occasionswhen ` is Lively. a main as rather adjective definitionof vivace"lively. 156. 79/iii) or with otherqualifiers(in Op.hasty. 2/2/i.Hi. is This (fast. 0) was omitted as was then customary. (beginning Beethoven the tempo): be that to slowest with of echo said can Grave ." During Beethoven'slifetime.allegro -presto 27 prestissimo. 3 I/l/i.excited. Entschlossenheit" too the with not much.. 109/i. "Czerny . 261bid. 156.adagio . 110 .ma non troppo).and Clementi) it Dussek) (such indicate it to used asan adjectiveto the maintempo as speed. Again. andOp. (k) Extremelywild. Sometimes. vivaceis usedwith alla marcla. in Op.or fantasticandcapricious (i) Stormy. The following Estby Czerny. 211bid.while others used . indications. Czerpy's tempo than even when used on own. 109/hi/var.he elaborateson the ýwiderangeof emotionsembodiedby the term. andcoaxing (b) Thoughtfulor Enthusiastic (c) Sorrowful. Capitalization*original. Op. with this marking. cheerfulandsportive (g) Hastyandresolute (h) Impassioned.assai.

3 METRONOME OF ANSWERS? PROVIDER -A his supportfor the metronomepublicly (in 1813)evenwhile it wasstifl in Beethovenexpressed the processof beingmade.the "Hammerklavier"Sonataandthe Diabelli Variations. unwritten as yet except symphonies. the term with 4.The first published for in 1817. Op. 333-336. notwithstandinghe had joined SaHeri and the other composersin strongly in Beethoven believed 1813". The the secondpamphlet. appearedin the Wiener Allgemeine musikalischeZeitung (14 February 1818): Maelzel'smetronomehasarrived! The usefulnessof his inventionwill be Moreover. its the to to and praising vowed spread a use. 302.he invention help letter Mosel. ClementiandHummel.p. onemust recommending feel the tenip&%2' Eventually. hasmetronomemarkingsfor his first elevenquartets. 'chronometer' is "[i]t the that silly stuff.hehasotherideas Stewart Rosenblum. whether a useful. Deas(1950).he changedhis mind.WienerA11gemeine "celebrated including ' Beethoven. who pledged musikalische to includemetronomemarkingsin their future compositions.p. Septet.Thayerclaimsthat Beethovenwasat first "not well disposedto the instrument. Deas the of assai.p. He also wrote in Tempo Fixation Maelzel's terms two on a of of pamphlets metronome. Ninth.In Decemberof the sameyear.Although CzemyagreeswithBeethovenonthemeaningsoftheseItalianterms. have But have France we not consideredit quite adopted and superfluousto voice our convictionandto recommendthe metronomeas beginners indispensable in to aid all and an pupils. 118(1969).i. Germany. '*'Yrhayer ill . "very".defines 's This is morein line with the usageof Mozart. 20 and all his the contains metronome markings published one.this time as a teachingaid. England the all composers of and more.namelyin the Ninth Symphony. p.publishedtwo yearslater. 687. Metronomemarkingswerealsoinserted in someof his compositionswritten after the publicationof the pamphlets. Czemy (I 839G). nay. Czerny.pp. andCliveBrown areconvincedthat regarding meaning Beethovenoftenusesassaito indicate"enough"or "rather". 320. On 6 February1817.on theotherhand. provedmore it.Brown (1999). Zeitung named numerous masters. Another public endorsementofthe metronome. "Rosenblum(1988).

does feel it. 1325. and string quartets of markings he fulffl Unfortunately. use. nothing of inventions.For sincethepupil directions by the teacher.instrument By it for the they or any other using pianoforte Will singingor learnto judge andto applyin the easiestpossiblyway the valueof a note. 31Schindler (1961). Beethovenmayhavebeenbusy because he did be disturbed. "Anderson(1961).Beethovencertainlycontinuedto advocatethe death.must the method and provided observing suitable by latter's in time. asked not want when and perhaps Whatevertheinterpretationof Schindler'sremark.but Schindlerquotedthemout of context. 425-426. 127' Ninth the the the major. any remark can't. MacArdle). Ninth problematic relationship the with nephew. Schindlertried to play down the advantages of the metronome.Whenaskedaboutthe discrepancy. metronome also attributed which the with and " in 1826 Symphony Ninth The first to the the metronome of markings. iii. his lost this to temper question. be difficulty in time they to the will enabled without shortest perform and to anyaccompaniment andwithoutbecomingconfused. so useful seems which " it has been. the arbitrarily sing or play out of absence meansof not themetronomehisfeelingfor timeandrhythmwill quicklybe soguidedand have further difficulties he to encounterin this that soon nd will corrected invention that this think we should acclaim of Maelzel's. of broke. (1966) (ed.pp. iH. this particularadvantage not yet sufficientlyappreciated. Opp.He claimsthat Beethovenhad (on for different Ninth the two markings separate sets of metronome occasions) assigned. performance -successof in March further 1827 bear Moscheles his he for to to this witness sent which work markings endorsementof the metronome. in his to 131 managed to promise only publisher respect and his health. for Anyone the right need can music not and who anyonewho more metronome! " he is is This the away with whole orchestra runs anyway". his to the time the of metronomeup useof From February 1825 to February 1827. respect . his Schott. Beethoven repeatedly promised to send metronome in Op. 32Anderson 112 .p. pp. deteriorating His his Symphony. his He frequency the are possible causes. is Schindler's be Beethoven 'It to that of also possible another now generallyassumed did utter thosewords. Beethovenwas supposedto havereplied"No Symphony. 1441-1442.we from is for it indeed for this that of point view also. D 123 Mass Symphony.

finale Septet. spite of acknowledgment it provides informationon the varying speedswhich were employedand the factors which influencetempo. the to three makes sense at consider used metronome were alla and by breve Beethoven in for time whichwerepublishedprior to markings presto movements alla 1821.andevenmore so that he attributesthe metronomeindicationsin TableNo.while Beethoven'spresto C coversa rangeofJ=1 52224. 67 ( c) =1 12) are J Op.4. No. lie figures Maelzel is that It peculiar which outsidetheupperlimit of themetronome givesseveral . 3 the the composers. chartalsoshows =96). presence suggested Maelzel'sclairnthat the metronomemarkingswere takenfrom actualmarkingsby the various left by For dubious.sincethe signsfor commontime it interchangeably breve time. 1 Cramer'smoderato2/4 covers =63-116. composers rather Beethovenfor presto movementsin commontime. l4owever.Beethoven'spresto (J =224) is twice asfastasClementi'spresto by large Italian for The the term: of speedimplied each range example. ' (that is. It alsorevealsthe relationshipbetweenspeed. is there are examples of no metronome markings a start.. (J=l is 20 12) the the Maelzel's of while of =152-224.time signatureandItalianterms. Of the threemetronomemarkings. but brief by three tables.or explanationof treatise. some of clear speeds regarding Maelzel'schart(shownbelow)thatBeethovenwasinclinedtowardsfasttempos(seealsosection 4. Beethoven's the secondmovementof the Ninth lower marking metronome the Symphony. Comparisonswere made is by jeading It from favoured in Table No. the the that these to chart useful sense eccentricities. table. the without any correction.Op. 8). 59/2 (o=88) andthe fourth movementof the Fifth Symphonyin C minor. 3 to is inclusion by in his Hummel Even the this of curious chart more thoserespectivecomposers. Although is included in composition not each asa speedfactor in thý the smallestpredominantnote value by large is its the rangeof speedsassociatedwith eachItalian term.5 below). outside range within for limit. 160).publisheda few yearslater.Maelzel publisheda chart of metronomemarksand Italian terms in the AllgemeinemusikalischeZeitung (the Intelligenz-Blatt. 113 .that for the finaleofthe StringQuartetinE minor.4 MAELZEL'S CHART In September1821. alsolies within Maelzel'srange. For example.accompanied a is in In Maelzel. Op.

21 ..... ia -.... 222 'i -A 1 1! I I -..0 i -g . .............0 ... - t- IL- qb- u- t- . r21 I Z: R C.... ..! f- L) i st %R I. 5 -m-M82 j_? Croz -. S §I -ý a IAa S iI -.......... - so a Ci -4 Vuu LLLLLL 0 $ 8 9 er2...zi -.....Z %-F U-zi 2 I - "........R 2 t -Z I %. I ý........ &....... C.........2 12 s -Z a -Co I lax I- 0 I-......... 7-e 4L-- 2 .......N $Z2Z3 ........ -- fi fi uuu R %-Mý . -d% 2 . a ..3 --0 »J-Fi 1uu ....... eZ* 14 .... 5t I --4 -..Zzj g10...... t-t t-!: - I- IL- - 1! 25 i- e2R ý......Z . 99------ ssmmmmmm j %6..... aIa %Zý 11 le..... st 333 ao======= C) -c t- woo ago ýJca 42.. w 114 2 .. -.. c"la"MIA99919" VV a21! I v--vF tt..... C4 a4aa4 ..3.- a3 ........ 3 4... @7-777-.i 9 %Z: h..

Here as elsewhereI missthe right "Tempi.with astoundingcommand. whichBeethoven. 286.5 BEETHOVEN'S SPEED In the early nineteenthcentury.. The be by Maelzel's Moscheles tempo.JosephFischhof.p. . playfulness. He also considerstheythennew piano concerto"of.4. at all..p. immense difficulty. and side with those who can appreciatea Haydn's grandeur.but the moreI considerthe tendency I know I that the taste..6 THE APPLICATION OF METRONOME MARKINGS BY BEETHOVEN.a Mozart's Cantilena.anda Beethoven'ssurpassing What antidotes have we here for all these morbid moanings and overwroughteffects! . However. 115 . (1953).A Piano Concerto Fourth Reichardt Beethoven's which attendedon 22 December1808 concertof left a favourableimpression. 334. strenuously will uphold which more of modem ." in which thereis no "moto" is but "Allegro anything comodo" which comfortable.executedin thefastestpossibletempi"..p. GermanorchestrasplayedBeethoven'scompositionsmorequicklythantheywereperformedin 33 Vienna. that spinningout of an Andanteuntil it many a away sweeps becomesan Adagio.H. to be sound art. as confirmed by by Wagner in He tempo 1840s: the the extremities of set saddened was early clear. extreme. fast tempo and that of someof his'conternporariesis also fast however.Beethoven'sown playingwas consideredfast by his contemporaries.wrote that from the 1820s. Capitalizationoriginal. 14Sachs I'Moscheles(1873). That tearing speedwhich little note. makes I know manythink me old-fashioned.Maelzelexplainsthat themetronome in anarticlein theAllgemeinemusikafischeZeitung beginning He the be tempo that to of at a piece.." This is in spitethe fact that neitherthe first nor the third movementof the concertois marked indications large The the they allegro moderato and vivace carry respectively.. CZERNY AND THEIR CONTEMPORARIES (1821). 325. prestissiMo: s differencebetweenBeethoven.fast temposwere more moderatein Viennathan they were in Germany. also a correct stresses communicate used could "Rosenblum(1988). should never chart. and ý 4." and look in vain for the traditions of my youth.. an "Andantecon moto.a Viennesepiarnstandmusichistorian..

53 "must then that this c)--88. p. enters who playeror variations.31 Moscheles is alsoofthe opinion that metronome markings must not be applied strictly throughout by how He were viewed marks nineteenth-centuryperformers and metronome reveals a piece.Italicizationandcapitalizationoriginal.sincefeeling also has its beat.were strictly to adhereto one and'the same tempo." imposed be Beethoven for tempo.. which cannot be conveyed wfiolly by a number (that is. Here.or its under conductor.Moscheles). -57. (1821).. the also on uses metronome mechanical rigidity could not head indicates He the of the autograph to the song "Nord oder SUP. I 11.thatthe and changes. p. life or a would any a real and no piece.particularlyat but it isnot to befollowedstrictlythroughout. at 0 817): 'ýI 00 according to Malzel. Czerny's metronome markings are also intended to convey the speedof a piece only in the first few bars. I Trio Piano the also markedprestissimo.p. have dance. not to say would metronome marksof " impossible. 53-56. comments marked third the movement of " The is last the the same advice given rapidity". regarding possible greatest played with No.. Op. followed slavishly. 116 .. 111 37Newman 38Schindler (1841) (ed. conductors: Its objectis to showthe generaltime of a movement. For example. metronomemarking ofthe movement is 152. he has introduce feel to the the whenandwhere piecemust spirit of delicate these so are often of anature. Therefore. 100).or the orchestra shade. 3. and expression. they should serve only as a guide. 39Czemy(1846). WoO 148 thiS'purpose.p. 94.for its commencement.except march if Solo fight the performer.pp. necessary become the superabundant. without regard to the many marks which commandits into The the time and conductor.'o Both metronome markings probably reveal the speedat which Czerny could play be dogmatic he indications is It be to them that meant unlikely which must those movements.. 401bid.the prestissimo section in Czerny is fmale be Op. 36AIlgemeine (1988). yet this can only apply to the first measures.

Moscheleshadfaith in Czemy's " in Haslinger I his The the markings edition. 26. 411bid. Czerny's slowest metronome markings are found mainly in Proper Performance. the to too Czemy's.7 THE METRONOME MARKINGS OF CZERNY AND MOSCHELES As listed in the Appendixat the endof this chapter. lend latter's than to the the quicker also slightly credibility or same either are generally markings. metronome markings. 10% Moscheles' I in than Haslinger of markingsare quicker while are very markings fast in be fast. would metronomemarkings Czerny'ssuggestedspeedsfor the slow movementsare ratherbrisk. 78/i. In the three the are same as most cases. The in two the sets of metronome markings which century. All derived the markings edition metronome are slightly quicker from Haslinger 1. Op. Op. in the shall title use subsequent reference used commonly discussionsin this chapterfor the sakeof uniformity.Czemy'smetronomemarkingsfor the fast five Op. but the former occasionally has in Czerny's Cocks indications. the prestissimo section of Op. 26. 101. with all of exception-of of section maestoso Op. The Today. 27/2/iii fairly the the sets. 31/3.p. is two three the more Performance. Moschelesstatesthat he I 4' his favoured by fast the some. except Op. metronome majorityof of authority andapproved Czerny.Moscheles). the Sinirock's. 11. are exactly the same as Haslinger IL Apart from the third movement of Op. the these. and of 4'Proper which madeup of chapters former I in Therefore. 26. 27/l/ii. 42Schindler (1841) (ed. their movements appear markings of than most lighter key-dipof the pianohasoften beencited as a possiblefactor. About 25 % by Moscheles those to of of the metronome similar are the markings less fast. earlynineteenth norm Czerny's. and the Out I the Op. of course. different that the speeds suggested not significantly been have conceivable. Op. movements other metronome markings of is The Art. and yet metronomemarkingsare tries to avoid extremely speeds implies by Tl-ýs Czemy's from Czemy's. On the whole. with of exception over consistent movementsare in Proper Performance" for His Op. This. books. these slower are significantly movements markings and (a differenceof threenotchesor moreis consideredsignificant).4.was the by Moscheles. 107. Many of the markings in Simrock confirm those in Haslinger I. 117 . 109.

into the formula which took as same account . tempo and prevalent minore of song signature. he from dates 1790. 92-129. He choseto calculatemetronomemarkingsby using his own elaborate 4' factors Kolisch Unity of the whole work.wasalso especially Such a study is relevantsinceBeethovenwas certainly aware of the relationship betweenthe time draft On for his indication the the a note values. pianosonatas.and whenthe categorizedundera particular in 1993. 4'Gelfand(1985).the metronomemarkings of Czerny and Moschelesare internally is It Discrepancies thereforesafeto accept the seven sets are usually negligible. over consistent. 118 . first in 1943.pp. at the most andante quasi adagio. song of much "See Kofisch(1943)andKolisch(1993). had I Simrock. adagio or. contemplates: "Klage".8 CZEftNY'S METRONOME MARKINGS COMPARED WITH THE DEDUCTIONS MADE BY KOLISCII I AND GELFAND Rudolf Kolisch(1896-1978)wasa pioneerin the deductionsof the tempo for all Beethoven's left by Factors few based the the composer. into His Each taken were published results account. range method was refined. but he Gelfand Yakov In 1985. In the majority of cases. precisemetronomemarkingswere assignedto every published was version revised " investigation. 49/1 and completely changed of rriarkings conceptof this sonata. different approach. that Czerny'smarkingsof theslowmovementsandmanyof the fastmovementsarebasedon the have Beethoven them. As latter faster the. about which That which now follows will be sung still more slowly. the the tempo than appears. of the of character words. compositionwas musicwere broad This of speed. prevalent note and a piece. the the texture time the values signature. WoO 113. Andante in 2/4 time must be taken it here. into last in taken three the consideration. similar carried out a useda slightly movement.difference Perhaps is inconsistencies the the metronome most striking the arerarelysignificant. markings suchastime-ý metronome on compositions. played would fI speedat which 4. Czemy Haslinger between his Op.

p. his markingsare significantlyquicker. It appears. for they displaya for in in bias trend the twentieth the towards slower century speeds allegretto andslow strong .in for 2/4 is too slow for it. The first [part]. In the past.quartersslowerthan eights. In nineteencases. many reveal Kolisch andGelfandsometimesarriveat the samefigure asCzerny'smarkingin the HaslingerI is first Op. Gelfand's interpretationof allegrettomovementsis differentfrom Czerny'sandKolisch's. His markings (Op.46 The existenceof this relationshipis alsoimpliedin Maqlzel'schart.the significantdifferencesarein HaslingerI. A comparisonbetweenCzemy'smetronomemarkingswiththosededucedbyKolischandGelfand Many Czemy. thirty-seconds and Perhapsthe contraryis alsotrue. fact the the that they reinforcesome same musical groupingcompositionswith fast Czerny's in influenced that tempo the the movements prove choices were markings quick of by Beethoven. Many of Gelfand'sslow movementmarkingsare also not Kolisch. 119 . In twenty-one the of an example movement edition. 22/iv that he agreeswith Czerpy's HaslingerI and Simrockmarkings. time the music cannotremain ý bestto setthemboth in time. Kolisch's On fast of the other of markings movementsare movements. 14/l/ii 10/2/ii. the side and on slow are 31/3.for example.longernote valueswere alwaystakenmore slowly than shorterones. Op. It is only in Op. otherwiseit be would sungtoo slowly. The smallernotevaluesdeterminethetempo. is interesting It those complement to notethat ofthem of similarities.Czerny'smetronome markingsare significantlyquickerthan those by Kolisch and Gelfand. However.for example. Op. Gelfand's than even markings are more moderatethan significantly quicker Kolisch's: only three fast movementshave a quicker marking than Czerny's. Haslinger I. 75. Czerny the and of range within The investigationsof GelfandandKolischare by no meansinfallible. 4'Kramer(1975). must remain in 2/4 time. Gelfand'smarkingsin the slow movementsare lesshelpful. In the scherzoof Op. instances. in E major. 10/3 (see The Appendix). frequently 27/2/iii). with the majority in fast fourteen hand.sixteenths in 2/4 time nbke the tempovery slow. Someof the contrasting be by different Gelfand Kolisch their can explained and personalopinions when results of ideas.

27 No..gifted with anexcellent but had doubts Czerny's He teaching reliable.9 THE VALIDITY OF CZERNY'S METRONOME MARKINGS NottebohmdescribedCzernyasanhonestandknowledgeablemusician. (1988). Czemy"s. 4.did not hearBeethovenplay. Vienna 1) Adagio =60 =60 2) Allegretto =84 =76 3) Presto agitato =92 =92 insert by Rosenblum. he the term this were markings not notated chose perhaps. latter's metronome markings in Proper Performance: Although not of authentic validity. and will have in had he that the such outwardly tangible musical certainty noticed 47 matters. Moscheles). This is a curiouscriticismconsideringthat Nottebohm. the two then sets ofmetronome compares markings of original 48 London I editionwith the new edition: Op.pp. Schindlerwasalsodissatisfiedwith Czemy'smetronomemarkings.Kolisch's Similarly. He alsodid "not he he Had those markings metronome of authentic validity". which was'above all directed toward the practical. 4'Rosenblum and p. (1841) (ed. 4ISchindler 120 . especially for those works of which we know that Czemy either heard them played by Beethoven or studied [them] knew Czerny instruction. on the authenticity of the considered memory. 2 New London Edition Haslinger. Anyone his who personally. 109-112. considered why not explain basedthis conclusionon performancetraditions in the mid and late nineteenthcentury? Or because by Beethoven himself. still these indications can lay claim to a certain confidence.however. His argument. of slow movement markings are also slower than some movements.is by Moscheles London He the to the that edition approximates new composer's adnýiits weak. had the opportunity to observe his nature. very Czerny's He Haslinger intentions. who under . will believe him capable of impressing fimily on his memory a tempo that he had heard.. bracket Translation 329.

in New London the metronomemarkingsshould also resemble markings Beethoven'sintentions. largely differences Schindler's Since to the according are opinion of the notches. 27 No. only markings. 1. 49 Czemy (1846). Czerny's Edition.Op. whole. metronome between difference the metronomemarkingsof the two men. 64. was not throughpractice. Moscheleshimself had complete'confidencein Czemy's least (see I 117). a small The metronomemarkingsdeducedby Kolisch and Gelfandalsocomplementmanyof thoseby Czerny. 106 "unusually first for though the even of movement quick and marking impetuous". His thinkingwas influencedby the twentiethcentury'spracticeof playingslow movementsat a been in have the they than played early nineteenth century. 27 No. 121 .he defendedBeethoven'smarkingsby declaringthat the suggestedspeed indicated insisted be He in that the impossible speed could achieved performance. would normally speed slower Although thesecomparisonsare not fool-proof.aHthe metronomemarkingsare within three insignificant. =1 16 =104 1=126 J." Rather. Vienna 1) Andante 2) Allegro 6/8 =72 =69 J. is in Haslinger On the the there edition at p. After all. 3)ARegro molto vivace 3/4 =138 4) Adagio 5) Finale. He was reluctantto alter Beethoven'smetronome he found it Op. I New London Edition Haslinger. Czernyhad great respectfor Beethoven. they show that Czerny'smetronomemarkings had been carefully consideredand they were basedon the knowledgehe received from Beethoven. The maindifferencelies in Gelfand'sdeductionsof the speedsin the slow movements.. allegro vivace =76 -t=69 1 =160 J =132 With the exceptionof the finale of Op. p.

A morelikely explanation.Nottebohmandmodern-dayscholarsall agreeon Czerny'sgoodmemory. the Haslinger and the Simrock editions. speeds resemble 122 .He mayhave in fast Haslinger II andProperPerformance.he mayhaveexperienceddifficulties oneway or the other. even though Czerny had studied the latter with Beethoven. 14/2/ii between the there a significant speed of why and accordingly.Czemybecameincreasingly concernedwith the beautyof tone (ratherthanspeed). This 49 Op.In spiteof Czerny'sbestintentionsto indicatethe "correct" speedsof Beethoven'spianosonatas byuSingthe metronome. both Haslinger 26.is Czerny'schangingperceptions his fife. stages of sonatas at speedalters of drop in is is Op. Proper Performance in the the movements of markings and metronome Simrockedition are lessextremethan in the HaslingerI edition. except suggested speedof the "Marcia markings funebre"in the Cockseditionis strikingly slower than the two HaslingereditionsandProper Performance.It is alsopossiblethatwith maturity.therefore. will explain why more in in fast Haslinger 11.This developmentwould havemadeveryfastplayingslightly in These in 1830s difficult Czerhy's than the the early nineteenth century.Thelackof majordiscrepancies in the majorityof casescommandssufficientconfidencefor oneto concludethat thesemarkings intended in Beethoven the the slow movements.Did Czernythendecidein the 1850sthat his previousattemptsfailedto convey Beethoven'sintentionssatisfactorily? Is that the reasonfor the more moderatemetronome fast Sinirock in in the the than of edition.As adjustments frame instrument.because down the movements ofthe speeds slowed he consideredthosemarkingstoo fastin HaslingerL The Cockseditionusesexistingmetronome for Op.Czerny'smarkings for the slowmovements arelargelyconsistentoverthe five sets. However.evenin the fast movementsof the sonatas. were key-dipsgraduallybecameheavier. After the HaslingerI edition.hepublishedat leastanotherfour setsof metronomemarkings.but are slower than in HaslingerI? The difficulty in searchingfor a "correct" tempo does not necessarilyimply that Czernyhad trouble recallinghis lessonswith Beethoven. from The editions. his As different "correct" the the view changes. movements which are generally quicker markings HaslingerII andin ProperPerformance. to tones the the the to the the and strengthen of piano project of made.

Translation 386. (1988).pp. 59/2] with great precision and skill. or retarding gradual certain played with a degree just Time: that the the of movement shall as others require of be gradually accelerated. 123 . he At times. or hurried onwards. Capitalizationoriginal. 13 bracket inserts by Rosenblum." Contemporaries' description of Beethoven's playing. Schindler(1966) (ed. Czerny states clearly that [m]any passageswill not producetheir intendedeffect. which doesnot like be that can only pleasing make a good effect since something " in once quick passing. so that one in In in for the playful menuetts general. in its Hudson the history early nineteenth tempo see century.quickened. They usually do it twice in a row. unlesstheyare holding back. q4. 'OFora meanings and rubato of (1994) andRosenblum(1988). very rarely. the tempo restrained the tempo somewhat.TEMPO FLEXIBILITY Giventhe vagueandvaryingmeaningslinkedwith temporubato in the first half of thenineteenth be in following discussion. (1988). also employed Sometime between 1815 and 1816. and that of the performers he approved flexibility be in to type tempo the Czerny's the teachingslon of used performancesof corroborate Beethoven's piano sonatas. square and '14Rosenblum p.chapter10. MacArdle). i. which had a beautiful and most " striking effect. "Czerny (1839E). Dorothea von Ertmann (one of Beethoven's favourite pianists)" and the SchuppanzighQuartet features highlight in flexibility the to tempo particular or climaxes a piece. slackening. 209-211. more. speededup in his crescendowith a ritardando. the violinist Michael Frey witnessed a performance by the SchuppanzighQuartet: They played it [Op. According to Ries. indeed. p. 189. " flexibility" the term"tempo the wig used century. usually most compositions own played kept a very steadyrhythm and only occasionally. Beethoven generally he his though capriciously. nothing need wish [elements] the they playful and casual exaggerate sometimes places in the performance. Ries Wegelerand 12 p.

However.p. markings. comments. with regard Beethoven'scompositionalstyle had developedto include greaterfluidity in his late works. accelerando and unusual ending of Beethoven's Czerny his In the to He observe asks player tempo. writes: a "The conclusion is remarkable. Terms suchas accelerando. He if he is playingonly for his own amusement. Beethoven indicates 4.10ACCELERANDO Beethoven's written indicationsof accelerando in his music are as sparingashis use of this effect in his playing.perhaps that can. This would alsocontradictthe accountof Beethoven'splayingasgivenby Ries." with a high degreeof freedom basic (even is It to the the tempo true that to extent of obscuring pulse). (1966) (ed. "Czemy (1846).p. must and piece unexpectedly.as Schindlerclaimedhe did. 412. it is Sometimes. is therefore in line with Beethoven's. '6Schindler "Czemy (1846).2. to and a only unlikely that playing was since Beethovencouldhaveallowedhimselfso muchfreedomasto makethemusicincomprehensible. This term is notated when tempo change is not apparent. he should play with greatertempoflexibility.Frey's commentsrevealthat tempoflexibility was not introducedhaphazardly. " between is difference If the two types this the case. pianissimo and be introduced.ritardando and rallentando are also more numerous. and must. 4. as the last eight notes almost disappear. himself freedom Beethoven the presence of allowed was playing greater when friend. exist. Czemy can not when requeststhat where accelerando. 38. Op. it himself Even is'still highly he then. a s stresse Beethovendid not normallyplay. 90/ii whereby ritardando.In addition.If a performer is playingto an audiencewho is unfamiliarwith the piece.2.p. but " The difficulty lies in determiming thus the close". Czerny's cautious use of accelerando. as mentioned in section 2. However.he mustplay in strict time. strictly in time. in he Schindler. such as the (ex. MacArdle). 124 .3). Czemyalsodifferentiatesbetweenperformances with and without an audience. indicated. 62.

4. 191bid. Czerny suggests that the crescendo in bars 55-57 should be played with increasing rapidity. 4. 53. 106/iv/10 and Op. 4. for example.. Czemy uses accelerando to create tension. accelerando is used on its own.p. 57.Themovementand power first continuallyincreaseon the repetitionof the secondpart andtowardstheconclusion.6). p ufýdo pp ýgElo A I. " Sometimes. The be distinct to are performedwith passages equalityandlightness. 60.. 4.such as Op.1 - accelerando sfý17: A"A. "Ibid. ýýl F]Illl 1ýit::::1 dP. the third movementof Op. 4 42 F -V- - 4 a a in be played quicker orderto obtainthe maximumexcitementandintensityin a finale. 4.andthe Prestowindsup the Sonatawith all thepowerwhichcanbeelicitedfrom the Pianoforte. Here. 601bid. .only slightlylegato. it is paired with ritardando. 57/iii] must not be played too fast. Beethovenalso in increase to the senseof excitement. 125 . while bar 58 (markedp) should be slowed down gradually.far 'It - I "ý-. such as in the crescendo passage of Op.3(S) v-ALL ---*'s. I 10.by employing " its all means.andbut [sic) seldomimpetuously. 101/iii/i6certain passages usesaccelerando 28. p. andthe fourth movementof Op. for example Op. 56-57. 54.61in which the ascendingfiguration and dissonancesdemanda quicker pace. - It4a a 3 2 ý7 cresc.0..Ex.5). In addition. 49.60 and67. 27/2/i/32-35 (ex. III /i/I 28-131 (ex. p.4).. Op." He elaborates on how this be can achieved: The presentFinale [Op. 31/2/ii/55-58 (ex. 6'Ibid. pp. P !I : IF # 6-6-" rt i - dt'mt'n. an ending.the conclusionsofthe first andthird movementsof the "Waldstein"SonataOp. -----4 a ff " 4jt _ ýE.

5 3 4 "I 4 7/-jJ e v LU m 0 -a 'Z)7 126 V F i Pi I -SL ... r4ý 1 ad i--11111-- ýl F -- . Eý-ý Iii -.. --. - . A1314 a I rl 0!ý HEEEýý ý. 16.. 1 rrv I Rf ! Yl rA iz u T: mý EN r!! ý IIi1 off 11-. 6 Sf it 12 r On I 3 a 2 41-.ý.dpl 1 t ý-r7zzi .4 co 3 Lwý -OL 3 rcrtcc....Ex 4.

11 INSTANCES WHERE A SLOWING DOWN IS RECOMMENDED Czemy explains that a slowing down is usually indicated by ritardando or other equivalent The difference lies in the varying smorzando...o F/ I 52 r- t Ap.may havebeeninfluencedby the popular nineteenth-century bravura styleof playing... 127 ...... Both Beethovenand Czerny did not make any distinction betweenrallentando and ritardando.... to a certainamountof speedingup wasprobablyusedto increasethe accelerando is 4 passages or those excitementofa passage.. the concluding of advice accelerando ascending with a bars of a movement....... ccelerando thereforesuitablein certain crescendo introducing line.. Czerny's in dissonant......... do poi a poi sno? dan .. atmospheric or poetic of can piece.. - ý-Ls L I......6 4 f) 4 r--ý I 0 01 : ýH... such as ritenuto....6 W4 4 Tentpo 1 CD .......... " down implied by degreesof slowing eachterm......... r IF cresc.....however.. ol ýl & plit alle''-ro IIssjt -44ý It..... rallent..4........ etc.... iii.......... 2/2/i.Eyt.. Czemy suggeststhe use of rallentando to mark important structural junctures in a Examples its former increase be found in the to effects... calando...... expressions................ AD10 1 lip Fill lot lmopg F-I i4ý i twF- dw I I- 44 Although it is difficult to determineconclusively where Beethovenexpected unnotated be introduced. p.-rita? - WA" -- - .... Beethovennotatcs rallentando in the exposition and ritardapdo in the parallel passagein the recapitulation. or 62Czemy(1839E).... In Op.... Czemy also usesboth in TheArt..... 34. 4... temis interchangeably In general........

49 and61.. In Op.11r7'1 FI _______ (b) "In those passages. 128 . duringthe smallclinm beginning before bars few the the quaversection introduction bars before in Op. 90/i/54 (ex. Incidentally. 4. 53.. )-)' ____________ IIIII-I-I 41 :---II. .disturbthe basicpulse. 33. ________ ________ r7 CL (cZ __________ I ''' rlqtNFIN- 1.7 F==F=FFI VL/ 0..Czemysuggests someslowing 64 in distance.gradual. 4.7). dying the away an effect reminiscentof thunder Czernywarnsthat the degreeof slowingdown shouldnot.pp. Beethovenrequestsa slowing down (respectivelyrallentando idea.iii. 2/2/i/221-224 writes calando. the the Op.q instances Beethoven's in following the the compare with markings eleven on recommendation piano sonatas? " In to the the the transition (a) "In those passages principal subject".which lead to some separatemember of a melody". p. 13/i. Op. Czemy(I 839E).9). 65 'Ibid.. that varied scarcely prescribed so . 2/2/i/48-53 (ex.andequallyprogressivedegree '5 by 1/4 1/6 is How do Czerny's time the or part".the sameprincipleappliesto the useof accelerando.63In Op. _________ pr.1 CA-12 I mitr. to the new and ritardando) to ensurea smooth connection 6ICzemy(1846). 27/2/Hi/55-56.. return contain which Beethoven 4.31/2/i. in the majorityof cases.. '.in bar 89 of Op. ý=- Ll P nL IIII II-I I- 4- Lop? 1 1.8) and Op. (ex. passageof Ex 4. p.it shouldbeachievedthrough"a very small. 611bid. three the of section allegro and of in last down tenbarsin orderto produce the 81a/i. 43.

r- 12 r_a E) -ý4 --f- 4 I (c) "In those long and sustainednotes which are to be struck with particular emphasis. 4. 4. 4. -4b. lbb- Ap -Fý -ilb. -VA m- --Il.11) would benefit from a slight holding back. - -AL.8 Ex. 129 . 101/ii/5 0 (ex. 2/3/i/249-251 (ex. --&- -0. 4. 4.3 4ri1 :t_: at-1 i :fIItI-r -f -1 . Op. Indeed.9 ý5. --#.and after " follow".10) to *and such passages as are which quicker notes Op. Ex.Ex.10 6'Ibid. w -10..

iI ýi I -i ý9 111 ha 1. There however. I-f S4 119 ________ -1 111. 1% n I (e) "Immediately after a pause".12 c6t un Foc- r [lili /i If _______ 1. 19f1 [J. then a tempo (the last line of ex. 4. 31/3/iv/317-322. Does Beethovenexpect the 611bid.II ý - t.I 6)!11 1 -1 VTL4 11 Hkil I( I. the to as original speed. 130 .II 1.he in Op.'9 Beethovenis very specific about the speedinu-nediately'after In Op. 53/i/293-295. and vice versa. the tempo change from largo or adagio to allegro. I RJ :11 'I -Q'ý LJ-1-4L-1=4=1 i -v r (d) "At the transitioninto anotherspeciesof time.. 691bid. many may require a return instanceswhere no indication is given. IIh-.11 u (I -I J.. lili i171-III. the pausein bar 318 is followed bypoco ritardando. NI ýh I 77ý "v la 7 r I'll '. iiJ lilý rI(kiiIF ..differentin speed from that which precededit". In Op. 31/2/i/l to the of a movement.12). Ik -1 .is carefully indicated.I 1' -7 1It 1 -1 C1 In k I/ . ýiý..-1 -1 ý.Ex. " In Op.ei 911Iqj :p16. --Ii -1 k . -II :Iý j 11 -H pmýý.-ý-I "ý ____ -. (D. -* -0i w I t-\ . alla poco ritardando. 308-318) does not have any tempo indication eventhough it follows a pause. In other compositions.1- ________ 11. \. 4. the 3/4 sectionendswith un breve by is followed the sectionmarkedpresto. -( . 4.ýý1ýýIr. I..13). and i Ex. 106/ii/164-167(ex. The precedingpassage(bb. 4. ri III- VIJ IL 'iII LýFl I. are. clarify structure a pausewhich serves -9. or into anothermovement. ': IvI -r ir---=l 19 I-1 _____ - -' -A 1. Jj I.

il ?D4 gw 1s1.I - 01-IN - Ex.in original speed that passage.0.* IT Ev wi -1 1) . e il 99-. .1 et-lm? -1ý Afff -. before immediately little a after pause. 4.- r1 __________ -F -NJ Fr :0 4n.M9. some plausibleto easethe speed a pause.. 11 .two out of in thepianosonataswhichdo not havea tempoindicationimmediatelyafter the manyoccurrences in Czemy's In it is is truth there three advice. ýý . bL Lc IýIuý-IwI i-1 r PW Iv AL 1. 4. 78/ii/175-178(ex.4 : -0.1ý. 4.. 4.13 - ___________ 12* 1pr _____ I. i3 mý2h.-l h 14 rI13-a II 04 (1) - 4ý v TT III ýIit C. - 4wr Crt SC. to slow down imperceptibly?If we wereto examineOp. that is. I e-ý .14 11 1 41 9 (9 -.1-. Iý--4-4iIaIINIIi i ---- i4il 0iýiIk4ý *-. r. I ý.14). a Ex.. i It.. .0.or should we take Czerny's advice. all cases. 57/i/16 andOp.1. 1.--ii :Z:= ei 11 '. -V I-j I I/-/ 1-1 -ý 11 J/1 1 II-j 19 -4ýil U ýAý __- 01Q -2 131 1ý .4 I r'. ivii. resumingthe original speedsoonafter that.- . -t - -0 --t -4 Ck { Fooo r.. lý 110 4F II' i.0':t 4- rF1 MIff i i2T+j . -j .

90 (ex.as also in brilliant passages. in Op.when there suddenly occurs a trait of melody to be played piano and with much delicacy".i -1 (g) "In embellishments.p E54 p . 4. 132 .15 V LL (CO 4D JaE ':P0W hjhI. II I/i/I 18 4. 4. Ex. -. but furnish the use of a small amount of slowing down speed such passageswith not cannot be ruled out. ornamentation Ex."At the Diminuendo of a preceding very lively passage.15) is an instance.16 IOIbid. ." The following passagefrom the first movementof Op. Beethoven does indications.16) which meno allegro by Beethoven. of movement is indicated (ex. 4. rr--.. 711bid.consisting of very many quick notes.. IIII CrUc.. which we are unable to force into " is first This degree clearly exemphfiedby the elaborate right-hand the chosen7'. Capitalization original.

in order to heighten the character so " "fancy".19respectively). Capitalization original.17).(h) "Occasionallyalso. Ries As 123. or build-up bar 232. the rapid time. capricious. In Op. single notes. thenumeroussfmarkings important passage to the close". description of Op. II I/i/22-23 (seeexs. device" 'braking the towards to quoted on p. emphasize act asa'. 711bid. witnessing recalled Ex. p. such as in Op. in the chief crescendoof a strongly markedsentence. we must there also remain true to though.I . by Schuppanzigh the this effect was alsoused 711bid."' Beethovenhimself asksfor retardationin a similar context in his late works. 10 1 4. 123.leadingto an ' /iii/214-223 (ex. to may be displayedparticularly so peculiar in the middle subj ect (from the 17' bar) by a humorous retardation of in the whole. "whirif 'or in in language Czerny's Humour time the the of means as seen much more".. ýw - 4 (i) "in very humorous. 74Czemy(1846). I 0/l/iii: This Finale is altogether written in that fantasticalhumour which was feature This Beethoven. and fantastic passages.4.18and4. 133 .17 4 3 42" a #_"" a* tI 4 2 5 3 OPM 2ý Ll ff . Beethoven usingtl-ýseffect.- 2:: - Contra E I #ý- :. 4. 40. Quartet.P--m 4 4 i- 3 ! --a .Asmentionedonp. I 10/ii/33-35andOp.

. In most cases. 34.. III /i/34 and 99 are followed by a tempo in bars 35 and 100 respectively. 81 tempo as a as a/ii and Op. k. such asthe openingbarsof Op. Beethoven in It be to two use espressivo ways. can either appears used to refer to a slight slowing down or to tempo flexibility. 4. - ME i ahl 12 19 mi .21). - I ' 10 70 rl* mezzop 0 occ ritenente -- -il . 109/ii/ 120-124(ex.Ex.. 4. 79/ii and Op. it is a directive to the uses espressivo "Czemy (1839E). -2i" 9 (k) "Lastly. II 0/i.. 4. - " 2".-M do4w -- - r dw ..19 ARegro.18 IV F] ryr U-1 -. in Op. This is often apparent from the music itself. Capitalization original. iý. 8la/i (ex.tempo flexibility is implied. '- 5 ' lj 3SaP. .fo - - L-o cres_c. iii. ýIl 4--.. do 5 I Ex. PR no 11 i 11ý 1. 4. 134 . w A 45 2."..20). con brio ed appassionato -ii === ----------------------- - ncrrffmr rrtvxy=l ý&: 11 I 1 - 4 ldpý Sf it g3 . espressivoandpoco ritenente in Op.1 i11 - ' :i 11 h*--t -i M- :2' :a I-A 11-1 HE a tempo al 1-1 _7N 2 17 dan 1 IF2--i. almost always where the Composer has indicated an espressivo". Similarly. The context in which the former occurs is easily recognisable since Beethoven often writes a tempo to follow espressivo. p. 29' 111r. WhereBeethoven heading.for exampleOp.

and which is marked diminuendo". mezzavoce.22).flexibility. 54/i/132-136(ex.I F J. %o kI I f (1) "At the end of every long shakewhich forms a pauseor Cadenza. 4.H f 04 I- ý-l - a -I 790. -M +/ Al \-V Ir I -t? .ratherthandiminuendo. .is usedto indicatea suddendecreasein volumeandintensity. 135 F- .20 U LL (a 0 1-Trý 0 9 Qsve U f Ip- ILz=- TLt. 4. 4. Ex.22 1) vIIIv-." In Op.21 A4AA. L. 4.Capitalizationoriginal. include tempo to an element of performer Ex.tj -flII 1 1 I =: Te--p" u: ' 16Ibid. Ex.

Beethoven's Drake (0 has doubts playing after reflects piano while above about under be because Their (1). found The be every various markingsinsertedby sonatascan Beethovento indicatea slowingdown serveonly to strengthenCzerny'srecommendations. his to tendency the criticize given writings even of contemporaries. 71Schindler (1966) (ed.Barker andDrake" eachfound an instancewhich they do not consider language. 411-412. 136 . -cl :1 t! ) pI AA vI l et 'ý-I -#. from the piano accepted. yIVh -f.In his Schindler.:: i Pu Through their analyses. Ex.This alsoappliesto the trill in Op. 71.Czerny did not encourageits introductionin certainpassages: "See Barker (1996). --ý0 a-)P. MacArdle). 71 andDrake (1972). 4. 4..0- pr . L At-Au As4 Vh 11 & Pasro " VA (k G -2 14 ir I TTY gzpz: L.23 * -l' -. cannot musical assertions examples example by in instance listed Czerny. again ends movement. 27/l/iii/26 (ex. tempo on modification approves of 4. A perfectcadenceis formedwhenthis dominant-seventhchord of E flat major resolvesto the tonic at the beginningof the next bar Beethoven this cadenza-Eke muchsofterthan it began. 78 in discussion Czerny's thethird part ofPiano Forte School. Barker believes Beethoven's Czerny's that musical with statementgiven corresponds death.12 INSTANCES WHERE TEMPO DEVIATIONS ARE DISCOURAGED Although tempo flexibility was widely used in performances.p. 't 0*& 0 IPa AI. -44 11 Rrý 1 b v -fIIIII q4C.pp.23). 0.p. a*- . addition.

p. IV 'PP'Fi F? IIIIII IIII. the 4. ý Qiý 11 i0qv F) -IIý I- Ad-jýtýj- . Ex. p.suchasthe secondsubjectgroupof Op. tempo" the manner of a recitative. 51. I III IIII -L-L-L-I-J " (c) recitative-like passages..(a) passages character. of movement "Czemy (1846). "Ibid. 53. 28/1"1 with a marked/march-like for exampleOp. 4.. 55. 4. Thig is supported by Beethoven's direction in bar 8 of the last but in Symphony: "[fln Ninth (ex." (b) Passagework. "Ibid.p.. 137 .25).24 I= 12 ojdo.24). 31/3/i/177-182(ex.

Ex. li . ý 11 Vic. 93. p (d) The secondsubjectgroup/expressivethemes.icl&c d*un Rmitativ ilw%. 106/i/198-200 (ex.si.. beauty is In than through the three-bar an rather alteration o ofspeed. volume and "'Ibid. ff I Viol.26). p.. rki lit I Lein lljltcNiVc. Beethoven asks for a gradual diminution in in bar This 20 1. VCc 13. 19 in Reil) --ý- -Z-- Cor. in Aulopriph. are melodious " ftone. 11 I ti Clar in II Fag 11 cle .25 8 I Fl. 138 .0 1.1111P. The the transition to a smooth second ensures subject group speed. 11 1 Ob. Czemy insiststhat secondsubjectgroups which be have The tranquil character must not played a perceptibly more and slowly. Sclon Ic car. 4. III IV Rdl) clim. 4.. tImi. expression obtained linking passageof Op.

. 12 "Ibid.... v dp 3 4 2 5 I_- 11 W-M v 3. . 4............ ""I G II I 4 i-i. ... beginning that this the suggests may expected melody tempo of at a in be time. ...27 ..-111 mi... 4 5 .......... 1-2 -- hmidoT .27)................... 52 2 4 2 ............: i 1ý iHIa 1..like Czemy...... 4. .......... Ex. 55.... 8 '2 3 51 (e) If the characterof a passageis lesseffectivelyconveyedwhen tempo flexibility is used... "\ F: - F p cantabile 13 ii F: R :: L 1 P J_ 4 I 4 ?: j 12 H09 L espressivo SS mo -1 .. 4...........--I 8 TI I II Ei]..mi-- ..... have Beethoven.......... 139 _LZ I-6p. Z2 II" poco si =4 p [ý- elm dando i*ilar_i"\ 4p-.... p..26 ..... 4K 9 * =ý 5 :ý RP 1 1 Cr t pil * ýt '3 a lempo 4 pi "# fit: i o dinlin......i1i +r..... 31/3/ii (ex...." probably becauseany slowingdown would destroythe mischievoushumour.... . to played melodies Ex.... Czernyasksthat rallentandobe avoidedin the conclusionof Op..- bt rih __________________ -_-_I- 6 )! __________ F I w -lot I*-_.....ad........... (1-292)0 .... .0v crese...........

Wherealla breve is introducedduringthe courseof a piece. Nottebohm praised the honesty and good memory of Czerny. These. metronome of 140 . for example. Many of Czemy's metronome markingsof the fast movementsare also relatively consistent over the five sets. However. Only a few in Haslinger I are significantly quicker than those by Moscheles.BeethovenandCzemyusealla breveto imply a quickerspeed. with associated both the old and new meaningsof alla breve. tempi the by to was astounded concept very a no means was in which Beethovenplayedhis Fourth Piano Concerto.thereis a strongpossibilitythat Czernypreferredtheold meaningor employedit more frequently. Unfortunately. Although be discrepancies to too the usually are some markings appear prepared. this is not the casewhen comparedwith the two setsby Moscheles. markings markings sets of metronome They show no sign of being influencedby the Wagneriantrend in the 1840s. One must bear in n-dndthat a quick tempo Reichardt by fast foreign Beethoven.hisdeýinitionof assaias"very" insteadof "rather" or "enough"betrays his allegianceto the tradition of Mozart andHummel.dependingon the context in which it occurs.where the speedsof slow movementswere exaggerated. Allowing for Czemy's varying moods on the different occasionsthe markings were insignificant. the slow movementsare trustworthy. Both of themreactedagainstplayingadagiomovementstoo slowly. he did not explain why he considered Czemy's be Although discrepancies in Performance Proper to unauthentic.However. Czernyalsosucceedsin capturing I by allegro. but had less confidence in the latter's metronome markings.Beethovenappearsto haveadoptedthe new meaning hand.he probablyhad a similar understandingof the term to Beethoven's.13 SUMMARY On the whole. fast.together with Moscheles' approval latter's I that true Haslinger Czerny's confirm most ofthe markings area markings.the vastemotionalrangeencompassed in spite of his definition of andante. the spirit impliedby eachterm. I Czemy'sdefinitionsof the maintempoheadingscorrespondcloselyto Beethoven's. On Czemymay have employed in his day the time that other signature. exist among the five markings his for by Czerny.4.

Playing in strict time is an aspect which Czerny constantly emphasizes in The. be Czemy's to the that of or unlikely metronome performances. whole the movement.as compared with the earlier instrument. Czemy.4rt. such as Kolisch and contributory Gelfand. 141 . markings. performer's markingscould serveonly "correct" tempothat would enablethe characterof a pieceto be conveyedsuccessfully. Unfortunately. fails to make clear the meaningsof the metronome indications and the term c4stricttime" in his writings. In Kolisch's too to the they subjective on whole. 49/1. some are. For example. but asks for tempo flexibility later in the movement. of reflection Occasionally. Where appropriate. readers. fail to provide satisfactory answers. of rigidity recorded mechanical Piano Forte School and its supplementprove Barth wrong. such as Op. who is usually thorough in his explanations. than that of performance modem-day If a literal adherenceto Czerny'smetronomemarkingsof the fast movementsresultsin manic is intention Beethoven Czerny.The slightly heavier key-dip of the piano from the 1830s. is It decision the to to choosea as a guide performers. Although George Barth accusedCzemy of creating a tradition of performers who play with flexibility in the throughout tempo examples a numerous piece.the discrepancybetweentwo of Czemy's metronome markings is so large. fast in that they tried to this so who are avoid markings problem his calcufation. the of modem scholars. This was inevitable as Czemy's experiencesincreasedand the styles of performancechanged. there tendency everything a nowadays. Maelzel and Beethovenexplained.the metronomemarkings were understoodto refer only to the first few bars of a piece.Beethoven's style. take to As Moscheles. a slight acceleratingor slowing down should be introduced. impractical. when usedto refer to an entire movement. "strict time". is also a deductions factor. produced markings for the slow movements which are more in the style of Beethoven. This means that when "strict time" is apphed to a is it flow to to to the throughout y maintain a abilit steady used refer rhythmic movement. However. Their meanings may have been obvious to nineteenth-century literally is Unfortunately. Although some of their results confirm Czemy's be helpful. 31/2/ii to be played in "strict time". that he must have changed his concept of this composition completely.Czerny advisesOp. become Gelfand. instances. was not meant to be taken literally.

used relation when only meaningof According to Michael Frey's descriptionof a performanceby the SchuppanzighQuartet. an unexpectedquarter its literal sense)is preferable. Beethoven's may made certain changes on and playing on flexibility in frequency tempo the bravura style and perhaps occurs.Czemymanagesto list numerousinstanceswhereaccelerandoand rallentando is important highlight imperceptible This to be change of speed necessary cffective. All in dying the capture guidelines style. the only (in in time With regard to those passages which strict is from Beethoven have the treatment on of recitative-like passagesand we confmnations is Czerny's this On the advice on matter convincing. but the essenceoThis which by Beethoven. as is in intended is . term this to "strict time" shortpassages. understandingwas shaped 142 . such as evocation mentionsof a particular or emphasize structural his Beethoven's distance.In this matter. but had been introduced flexibility these certain tempo at planned was unnotated beforehand.Czernyreceivesendorsement Schindler. would he the features to character. whole. expressivemelodies. high level to the a very of excitement and produce useof accelerando exceptionof in is by Beethoven's list Czemy's Although supported musical examples rallentando ofunnotated degree by flexibility determine tempo taught the type is difficult it to and of whether music. from Czernycorrespondwith thoseof Beethoven. instances. most of Czerny's advice on tempo and tempo flexibility (or the lack of it) is modelled have Czerny based the teaching.described by literal Ries. In short. The Beethoven's Theseare also characteristicof piano playing.with thepossible thunder away intensity.

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0 tn V C.Itn cn -1 en %lo GZ' CD rq rn rn r4 CY. CU - -ö ý< <. -i r. rA cz rq c41 C> ý4 C> 1ý0 en I'D CIO 1.I C14 tn C) kr) 1ý 00 W Irl CD 10 vi tn N ul C) N U \0 1ý0 C14 . l(1) 156 .ý^: Z) 0 C) NN 06 11 11 11 cl M 1-4 0 w-4 0. 0> 3 CF.

according rule. limits Passion dignity. and into declaiming in descending a whisperor a loud tone. by the still soft and tender.loudnessand softness). so however. a way. Czemy (1848).mystery. more importantly. the within of presumption.astonal and interpretativequalities: (a) The Pianissimo(pp) which indicatesthe gentlesttouchingof the keys. i. to heightentheeffectofa piece. THE CHARACTER DYNAMIC MARKING.andby the use of ' In the previouschapter. It bearsthe characterof secrecy. expressivemode (c) The Mezzavoce(m. TONALCONTROL Accordingto Czerny. articulation. andmay comparedto the tranquil speakingtone usedin narration. whatever and may executedwith this also.Articulation(whichwill bediscussedin chapter6) anddynamics but in different to a pieceor passage. tranquil equanimity. Softness.as not to becomeindistinct or inaudible.andwhenexecutedwith the utmostperfection.CHAPTER 5: STYLE AND EXPRESSION . 30. REPRESENTED BY EACH AND THE CORRESPONDING APPROACH TO PIANISTIC TOUCH Czerny does not describedynamicssimply in "mechanicar' terms of volume but.1 THE RANGE OF DYNAMICS. proper as excess or without is brilliant be to shewy. matter us more (d) The Forte (/) denotesthe expressionof self-sufficingfirmnessand power.) This degreelies exactlyin the middlebetweensoft be loud.or of an echo.attack.its impacton colour andexpression. were alsoused characterise 0 5.v. degreeof power. or quiet sorrow. p. 184."style" and"expressiorf'in interpretationareinfluencedby dynamics(that is the varieddegreesof shading.DYNAMICS AND. p. though yet somewhat firm and themselves manifest keys the touch of with which are to be struck.it is capableof producingon the hearerthe pleasingeffectof musicat a greatdistance. 'Czemy (I 839E).it will interest andwithout be by by than to the styleof the performance. the played. (b) The Piano (p) Loveliness. 157 .we sawhow tempoflexibility wasused accelerandoandritardando.

p. 44. 'Schindler (1966) (ed. 90. and a cantabile. is finale "very facility". it absolutesplendorand as alsoelevateswhat Czerny'sinsistencethat dynamicsareto beusedto conveymood clearlystemsfrom Beethoven.the playermust it deliver different to time a with gradationof tone. performanceof a produced the quickernotes. Even the the with a certain gay and playful while manner". which can be light fine delicate by touch.requiresdifferenttreatmenteachtime.but lively ' but lively. but endeavour each ' delicacy.andthis ideais not unlike Schindler's description ofDorothea he impressed by imaginative Ertmann's this the was of movement: performance way she von introduced a different nuanceat eachrecurrenceof the main theme in this movement. p. 'Czemy (1846).he commentson ihe tempo describing first individual "serene". MacArdle). 158 . "noble" the movement movements. Czerny'sadviceregarding the is follows: this movement as performanceof The utmost sweetnessand feeling is here required. I beginwithp. Spelling. Insteadof followingthe generalguideabove. of or coarse thesebounds. p.. hasalreadybeensaid.it expressedthe exaltationof joy to extacy. was sometimescoaxing and caressing.at other Evenbeforethe turn of the nineteenthcentury. be limits the and never allowed to degeneratein a of what within ill instrument.Beethoven'sextremeconcernwith tone colour is evidentin his letter of 19November1796.(e) The Fortissimo(ft) That eventhe highestdegreeof force must alwaysrest is beautiful. 14No. p.but jokes that it is "far too good" for him becauseit "robs me of the freedomto producemy own 'Czemy (1839E).of grief to rage.the different gradations of tone are understood to include a slight changein character. is Op.this doesnot meanthat Czemyallowsonly the expressivequalitiesequatedto each dynamiclevelasdescribedin the abovegeneralization. 62. 4Ibid.As the themeis frequentlyrepeated. 210.For example.just ' is brilEant-to Bravura. by in the theme markedp of and often accompanied movement second either recurring dolce or leneramente. as ofthe and andcharacter "lively". the secondas a kind of "sadhumour"which must be played "in an earnest. Within treatment the thumping. 5. He thanksStreicherfor the receiptof a piano. However.all threemovementsof Op. italicization and capitalization original. alwayswith Although not expresslywritten into the score. so that it ' times more melancholic. iii.

manner 11 letter is is (an desired 24 1). No.Beethovenproduceddifferenttonequalitiesby varyingthe " ThusCzernyalso echoeshis teacher'smethodof producingdifferentqualities fingerpressure..2 improvements. 10 the through touch: pressure. 742.he often prefers a pearl-like effect. 61. p. p. 78. or tenderlyexpressivecompositions. 'Sonneck (1967). IOAnderson Czemy(1846). Italicization original. It would be merespeculationto concludewhetherBeethovenwould haveendorsedthe useof a laricr varietyof tonal colours. i.tone". ofjeweV' a but thevarietyof shadings Czerny'sinstructionson tonalcolourcanbetracedbackto Beethoven. 24.Czemyrecommends In fastanalivelymovements. reminiscentof Hummel's does disapprove but Beethoven Czemy this. 11 Czemy (I 839E).. p. 42.thanis in fively.. iii.. andheavierweight.in order necessary to producethat significantkind of tone. I 10. finger Czemy Op. dynamics is ivhat His p912 the thus colours given above of on an extension advice of alone Beethovencouldhaveachievedon thepianosat the beginningofthe nineteenthcentury. we are ableto produceat least in degrees loud different by hundred the loqch of and soft striking any one note mere one . 3. that] mustbe playedwith the Aiostattentiveexpression. that sometimes of not reminds of playing. ii. 91bid.9 "brilliant" the touch merry and second movement of a more In non-brilliantpassagework. 10. the the handsand fingers proper put ourselves mustbearon the keyswith a different.p. improvements is (for discussion Czerny to the the a of result made proposes piano a of which below). considers second varied movement of of as Beethoven'sgrandestbut most melancholy.p. p.' Accordingto CiprianiPotter.. which may duly animate the slow courseof an earnest. Op.and [one of one . facetioue' in "humorous. p.4dagio! the touch shouldagainbevariedaccordingly. In theperformanceof piecesof this kind it is not sufficientthat we into disposition."' He evengoesso far as to declarethat ".. 6Anderson(1961). 12 159 . 3.. 'Czemy (1846). kind this "different of excerpt quotedon p. (1961). He these see section admitsthat the extent of tonal someof between is 1820-1830 because improvement in in the greater of performance modifications hammercoverings.

15 (ex.alsousesmezzavoceto indicatea relativelysoft dynamiclevel. mezzavoce indications in bars . 5. 1. This that non-melodious passage mezzavoce -a Beethovenusesthis term as a dynamicmarking. its expressivequality is indicated not by mezzavoce. again its dynamic The role as a marking. 155-159. Schindler. Barkeris in partial important Beethoven's He is its that the more connotation of argues mezza voce agreement. the third sentimento. 5. 283. expressive quality of the theme and the first suggesting is by marked molto cantabile ed espressivoand mollo espessivorespectively.p. restrained in bars introduced 194-195 is (ex.1). "Schindler(1966) (ed.asunderstoodby Modem-dayresearchers Beethoven. 13 the second movement ofthe oftone.1 In the third. 58.havedifficultiesdefmingthe meaningof mezzavoce. 106. sharp n-dnor. but by In late Op. Althoughmezzavoceis usuallyfoundin passages reference which are melodious. implies 5.2) and 31 are preceded-bya set of hairpins.pp.expressiveand/orserene.p. movement of e con molto another piano sonata. variation "Rosenblum(1988). appassionato 109.this term was usedby Beethovento indicate a In String Quartet level in C Op.14 Ex. 160 .a contemporaryof Beethoven. Barker (1996). movement of Op. MacArdle).Rosenblumbelievesthat the term refersto a level of soft sound. " to the singingqualityof a passage. In addition.

In ex. which is introduced by the first violin. this the the melody. refers to a soft slightly soft. to mezzavoce. This range. is lower than Czerny's suggested level: the "middle between soft and loud". mezzavoce Hes between p in bar 191 and pp in bar 197.1 above.although markedp. is is In instance. however. accompaniment while markedmezzavoce. i F. would dynamic level. and rinfor rf.1 i J] --- i's u - iIý7. 2 40 i el . ffp. markings 161 . of course. occasionally also mfp. G) IF cs aw 5 ll U TV I 4 © R. compositions: sffz. 5. 5. fp. louder Beethoven's be have thanp. varies.Ex.2 Gesangvoll. The opening melody. This term is also used in the third movement of Beethoven's last symphony. 5. ranging frompp to mp.I II ý- W.2 ACCENTUATION The importanceof correctaccentuationin Beethoven'smusiccanbeseenfrom thevastarrayof f. therefore. f) a Cý Vý-ti 41. mit Innigsi-WEmpfindung Anda7zle mollo cantabile ed espressivo . On the other hand.! W- 1F 4 3 s43 2--A 8 2 ---_-i---- I tIs IIIIý- 11PRO EE2ýý . Reichardt in his >.=-IIIIT IT 11 1- -IH '1 -11 40 1 - =j p" ____ _______ Is 8 The degreeof softnessimplied by this term. the character Czerny associates in "the tone the tranquil term used narration" this suitably speaking reflects character with is of the passagewhere mezzavoce used.

and Beethoven.5 5. among other things.draws attention to the use of accentuation.4. School. refer rhythmicandexpressive in discussed be 5. Which to context accents.6.. p. 16Czemy(1839E).or rather. feeling.. 162 . rf ANDfp While sforzando(sforzato or sj) andfp are used to emphasizethe note which carries the indication.he skillfully leadshis W'CII-chosen colleagues. is. not alwaysabsolutely He to the also accentsvery correctly and care. Rosenblum. (1988).Czerny'sexplanationsof rinforzando (rinforzato.5. not on is full His too. who 's into the the composer. 5. Likewise.3). and third volumeof later in himself in for by Piano Forte He an example asking contradicts only onenote. the about which virtuososseem. pp. ft. whole. often singing quite and of cantabile. original. "Rosenblum and p. in his description of a in 1808: Quartet Schuppanzigh by the performance himself hasan original. in local tune.. Forte to the Piano that to equates rinf accent.In the he fp. 6 and 76.it hasresulted from the spirited [launig] mannerof performancesuited to these difficult He the most passages clearly. be sections and such accentuationcan appliedwill 5. rf or rinfi areinconsistent. interesting[pikanl] style Herr Schuppanzigh that is very well suitedto the imaginative[humoristisch]quartetsof Haydn.Mozart. 184andiii. perhaps. meaningfully. truly enter spirit of This so-called"correct" and "meaningfur'accentuationwhich Schuppanzigh employedwould both in The types are often unnotated. for be bar in 9 two to sustained the rinf bracket in italicization Square Spelling 386. sf. i. emphasize " bars (ex.although plays masterpieces.3 sf.

J 'IIII _. Op. determines /iii/7 (ex. N I cri 6711017. When rinfis used in this context.. flowing in be in Rinf employed a particular context can order to highlight the yearning movements. Both meaningsof rinf were acceptablein the early nineteenth century. 5.Ex. Op... 5.4). it is very 163 .3 IV ildagio . 53/ii/I 0 and 12). Beethoven does not notes on single Rinf.. kd F I LP H011 rop p0 r--7 gll -1 P IIIL. Although Czerny gave in School. 53/iii/99. " II FUYý -I 1ýý.3 above shows that he employed both.. on the context. espress.. expressivemovements..103 and 107 and Op. while rinf can be used ei!her depending a or on succession of notes. interchange to which and used much lessfrequently than sf.and only occasionally appearsin fast. only one of An examinationof the piano sonatasrevealsthat Beethoven applies sf to single notes only (see for example. i. 5.. sf rinf appear it in occurs mainly slow. definitions Forte Piano the ex. 27/1 first the that the slur such as a note.tone. but (in this case)not harsher. of the two notes quality of is given a stronger. is haphazardly.

r--L .IýIA ' 10-v 0' . 10/3/ii/44-48 In the 64). - II-- II I-U M- 04..Ex. -.I.1 'I OFor I114 Ir -W -- of-9 IIII Er L) I likely thatBeethovenintendsrinfto signifya moredelicateaccentthan sf. -----r ýto i ----...1-fl LI A rT- 11W0-t. 4. few to notes strengthena secondmeaning164 . 5. few as movements. a is intended. The bars in bar 64. IrN.ý*j41 i4l--. ..5 4nut r- _____ IIIII. I'm-ý.. 4-. 1'. II P. on other shape of right-handmotif as and denoted by dynamic that the Beethoven's emphasis suggest markings over rinfis sustained well as in fast in Op. the the Op. -1. 14) N.. -.5).6). ul. v i-i p_. In Op. (ex. 62 are chosen sfmarks preference each statement. When II I/i/33-34.irk-. occurs and rinf notes. J V ske J'1' It 1 Pý 7 4: hand. hIjIA-. 14/2/i/190 its Op. ýIIýI&I#ImII .11 auIILIm. -'Ilv -1 -I 14 i VV- I-. - -NI J L. 3 11 Mli. it i 4i.1i -1 -01 I -I-.. 7/ii/59-65(ex. IIIMaIPZ I' i f11 III Jrt-. --.IiI. the build-up of the phraseis determinedby the relationshipbetweenrinf and sf... 0- 15q-H . .-0. i IV V. 5. If ..1 ad -.4 /1 IiD. 5. over with required rinf are accents Ex.iI-1-1 rWII ý_j ii L- rvr M-_. increases the the As two climax of phrase until every stronger accentuation in (see bb.. Eý144sly Iv 12 1v IE It4! Iii I". WX= I _________________ LCN -I lim to 1rfIIIII _ITrJr %i-. 5. .

5. is 5.6 Whilefp does not appear as frequently as sf in Beethoven's music. In contrast to Czerny's convenientdefinition whereby all the markings which indicate an emphasis hasthe samemeaning. 27/2/iii/78-87 (ex. The (ex. 5. it too has its own meaning. also used second above). be in the two that the samepassage. confirmed offorte abbreviation is placed on the secondquaver in the bassof Op.7).8).while in bar 71. 57/i/93: the note which immediately follows the fp chord (ex.4 which meaning. it indicates that the first beat of the bar it in bar 87. 2/2/Hi/58-68 Op.Beethovenusesfp in two different contexts. accent stronger for example in Op. more as an rinf even by immediately is followed This by the p marking which piano. Ex.7 =p iEEEý 4 I p 165 . In bar 79. than it accent sf and a more or note is frequently. Althoughfp is employed at the climax of a passagewhich incorporates a it be build-up. be not only crowns the climax of the passagecommencing should emphasized. 5. but also marks the sofl beginningof the next phrase.Ex. The first is to emphasizethe (Op. meanings offip may used sf. it is deficate but 28/i/40-62) indicates. during fp is the to that would erroneous conclude markings of sf a succession Occasionally. 5.

Ex. 5.8

ED

I

42

do
L -J

dd

-

Iaop

M-

crese.
-

3

III

917t

4

II

-J==:

==-

iiii
aI

aa

(5
pna

ir.,
le

44

It 5 =
ý: ý

1

I

Foii

f)-A
17
àifL1id

Fo%i"k
pi

_lu

I

24
F E=9 IF . IF rl-P11 -I
-?
Pit=
P4==
P! ==

P-1##

-

IV

09

(-

-E-

r-

El
L-L-6w-LiLl.

ý

I

--L-.

j

II

II

-E-3

L-3

II=

**

Pýý
2---ý

(-

FF-r9FF9,

oue.

FFM P:Fýý r-fi: ý

-

F:fý

1

Sf

e
ýý-iý
:
ýt
:ý ;ý -e

5.4 UNNOTATED ACCENTUATION

Schindlerclaimsthat Beethovenlaid muchemphasison rhythmic accentsin his teaching. He

writes:
As for Beethoven'sparticularstyleof accentuation,the authorcan
Czemy's
fromBeethoven's
critical
remarks
on
playing
speakpartly
instruction
Beethoven
him
from
that
to
the
gave
piano
andpartly
directly. It wasaboveall therhythmicaccentthat hestressedmost
heavilyandthathewantedothersto stress.He treatedthe melodic
(or grammatic,as it was generallycalled) accent,on the other
166

hand,mostly accordingto the internalrequirements.He would
especiallythat of thediminishedsecond
all retardations,
emphasize
in cantabilesections,more than other pianists. His playingthus
highly
different
from
the even,
personal
character,
a
very
acquired
"
flat performances
that neverrise to tonal eloquence.
The importanceof accentuationis further strt-,
ssedin the annotationsof Cramer'sEtudes(see
in
it
helps
because,
Schindler's
below)
deep
5.5
the
opinion,
convey
section
poetryin Beethoven's
"
Schindler's
Although
the
given
annotationsare,
reputationas an insecureandjealous
music.
in
Conversation
Books,
forged
the
the
some
of
entries
viewed with suspicion,his
man who
basis.
his
In
day,
Cramer
for
the vocal
without
are
not
was
accentuation
admired
on
cornments
both
features
in
his
are
playing;
whichprobablyattractedBeethovento
accentuation
quality and
Cramer'splaying. In addition,.Beethoven's"Rolland" Sketchbook,which datesfrom the latý
in
C
inscription'auf
1823,
Sylbenmasse
the
melodies
major
with
contains"two
summeror autumn
InstrumentalMelodien(schaffen)machen... (to createinstrumentalmelodiesaccordingto syllabic
meter).

5.5 ANNOTATIONS

OF CRAMER ETUDES

The annotations of Cramer's Etudes are signed by Schindler, with some remarks attributed to
Beethoven. They deal mainly with rhythmic and melodic accents, which are derived from a
by
the prolongation of the accentednote. Beethoven
touch
accompanied
are
often
and
stronger
is supposedto have written the following instructions for Etude no. 3 (ex. 5.9):
The melody is nearly always to be found in the third note of each
be
but
the
accent
must
given uniformly on the
rhythmical
group;
first note. On account of binding, the finger should dwell on this
20
accented note.

"Schindler(1966) (ed.MacArdle),p. 416. Barth correctlyobservesthat Schindleris mistaken
in equating"melodic" accentwith "grammatical"accent. SeeBarth (1992),p. 130.
(1893),p. ii.
"Cramer/Shedlock
"Rosenblum(1988),p. 100. Rosenblum'stranslation.
(1893),p. 7. Seealsothe commentsregardingEtudeno. 21.
IOCramer/Shedlock
167

I

Ex. 5.9

!

t .5-2'.

5

4.

r==
10

EjEEJ

EMS ý

{

-I-

2

C==

1

2

I
2

=

11 ýý

==l

IIICýZR ý

II
1
I
...
ý

L

ME

a

4

3

4

These suggestedrhythmic accentsin the Etudes do not necessarilyfall only on the first note of
beats
by
Rather,
the
time
to
the
suggested
strong
and
weak
signature.
or
conform.
each group,
it appearsthat there is more concernto place the accentsin strategic places in order to bring out
importance
line.
The
(or
the
sometimes
accents
override
suggestedrhythmic
the melodic
scalic)
"
following
from
in
Etude
16
(ex.
5.10).
the
passage
no.
of the metrical accent, as shown
Ex. 5.10

(

Moderato con espressiorie.

D9

J=132.

il. .

16.

5
2f

4

I

'I
P. 0

I

12
v

TW

C=
CV)

r-

4A34-2Ti'50"*
a
(V)
(VS)
(0

-4
44

2'

CV)

W

"Ibid., P. 27.
168

(v)

(Y)

Accentsare alsoinsertedto marksyncopation,for examplethe syncopatedC-E dyadsin Etude
help
6
(ex.
5.12),
Etude
In
to
the
5.11).
the
I
(ex.
accents
are
used
clarify
and
rhythm
no.
no.
Beethoven,
bar
is
in
four
15
(according
to
the
to
to
the
attributed
study
up
comments
polyphony
"
voices).
Ex. 5.11

B

mmtv--ý
Ij9m5
IM
IIII

-F1F1FF

I-

-11,

ll: f- "-j

".

in P

a212a2,
5
4

"I

8

I. -.

4

0

Ex. 5.12
ovivace

3

4

pi

6.
.1

PýVý

I.-

At -. 1"

a

-

.98

aA

r, A

F,

4
f:

n

i

77!
7,47ýýl
'1

..

A
i-

'j;

;--

sist.
-

;-IrsII

ý004

P4iiil

In

i

6-4--ý

-i

!i

,a

si

-t-1

-i--

710
4

..

"Ibid., pp. 3 and 13.
169

1-P.

1T

III1

-. -m ?V. -1

a

-i

(con't)
5.12
-Ex.
.P

MLVm

fj

M=awoA i

Fl

r-

laý

is

A2'3

-#-4.1--

:;ý

III

II.

ii-.

II-

_LJ

Dissonances are usually highlighted in this manner, as in Etude no. 21 (ex. 5.13):
Attention must be paid to the accent of the fifth note of each group
which mostly appears as a minor second. Trochaic measure fornis
the basis of each group: the first note accented and long, but less
23
fifth.
the
so

Ex. 5.13
Maerato.

c

-,Off

J-84-

-1 135a12

140

(V)HI

21.

i4*4:

i Od -ii.

-

t-::

.32

12

j

I

3
1.
231bid.,
p.
170

40

Cresc.

Sometimes,the notated rhythms are altered so that a "melody" can be formed, suchasEtude nos.
7 (ex. 5.14) and 24 (see section 6.3). Since the first and third notes of each group in Etude no.
7 carry the melody, the first note must be held for the length oftwo quavers,thus giving the effect
in
5.15.24
ex.
shown

Ex. 5.14
92.

Pib
tosto moderato
G13, P.-r-9
-

?-

dolce

7..

=011

A
Z AI ul
M

LA

II.

I-I-.

I

0- 1-..

t

ý
=
-o -1- ! i!

.
-9

0.. 1

0

ot

i - ii
1-.

i
I

.

"L.

-

i-

J

-

AgUd

Ex. 5.15

/I

KyII

VIIIII

This study is also consideredto be in four voices even if it is not explicitly notated thus, with the
tenor supporting the soprano, so the alto and bassshould be played with a lighter touch.

Schindler claims that Beethoven consideredthese Cramer Etudes "the best preparation for his
"
own works".

Beethoven is also believed to have written that "... all nuances cannot be

These
S-)2.26
in
help
for
they
studies
provide
other
pieces.
counsel
and
all case
indicated, neither can
When comparedto the functions ofaccents found in Beethoven's sonatas(seesection 5.6 below),
the "counsel and help" in the annotationsof Cramer's Etudes are rather limited; they deal only
dissonances.
In
Etudes
these
addition,
and
syncopations
are confined
accents,
with rhythmic
largely to passagework,with a few studies in polyphony and cantabile melodies.

"Ibid., pp. 15 and35.
(1966)(ed.MacArdle),p. 379.
21Schindler
(1893),p. 27. Italicizationoriginal.
Cramer/Shedlock
26
171

5.6 BEETHOVEN'S

AND CZERNY'S USAGES OF ACCENTUATION

Czemy'scommentsin TheArt alsorevealhis concernfor correct accentuationin Beethoven's
be
divided
into
Czemy's
the
the
of
unnotated
accentuation
on
use
can
advice
piano sonatas.
following categories:
(a) to emphasizethe highestnote in a phraseor motif
In the third movementof Op. 14/1(ex. 5.16),Czemyinstructsthat the highestnotesin the right
"
be
G
hand(in the majorsection)should well marked. This correspondswith thestaccatomarks
left by Beethoven.Before > becameuniversallyacceptedas the sign for the light accent,the
indications
dash)
If
dot
(both
thestaccatonotation
the
the
one
ofthe
was
used.
and
staccatoSign
hiccupsin thephrases.Sometimes,Beethoven
is understoodliterally,it would causeunnecessary
In
he
for
Op.
2/3/iii,
the
types
two
minor
section
of
accentuation.
marks
of notation
combines
the highestnote of the arpeggiatedfigureswith both a staccatoandan sf.
Ex. 5.16

{

p
-0-

(b) to emphasizenotesof longerduration.
long
Op.
Op.
14/2/ii/2
4,
Czerny's
on
a
accents
are
Among
note
and
manyexamplesof unnotated
14/2/fii/3, Op. 26/ii/6, and Op. 57/i/37 and 39. The sign A in ex. 5.17 (an excerptof Op.
2,Czemy (1846), p. 44.
172

52.. Therefore. /IJOW ==..- iif hjj4- t--ý f W'-1 j) F-- -11 -II-. 5. ii Ioqý -t I P--Ir--r-l 1I lk Fý -I of iii 1 -. 28/i/310-31 1. 46. 173 . 14/l/ii/3 and43 Pin for Czerny's 123. 5.is insertedby Czemy.19). a strong accent. 26 idea: this echo 59. 14/2/iii/121 Op. i1 *-- -1 L. (c) to highlightdissonances Beethovenfrequentlymarksdissonances with accentsor sfmarkings.47.asin Op. 11 -I ----I -T-7 I be -1-1 4-4 41 __ (d) to highlightnotesof harmonicinterest Both BeethovenandCzemyemployaccentswhena noteof harmonicinterestoccurs. the the thealto request emphasisof and a and is because it forms diminished (ex. with Ex. and pp. 211bid.suchasto Op. 5.17 411fgretto ." Beethovenalso subscribedto this 7 in Op.asshown Ex. L-/ 1 I. 45.31/l/Hi/I and 5). 29Ibid.18 CLI) ýI- Vifa IV I-III-Ita- i 11 \. Czemy'scommentson the fourth movementof Op.p. highlight (at dominant to the the shift to the the of or cadencepoints) mark dominantin Op.gc . 57/iii/228-256 (in the the where minimsare markedsf rhythm usage. 14/2/ii/6-7(ex. 22/iv/1 an unexpected valid seventh voiceof bass the andmakesthe g' an accentedneighbournote. 5.18)" 2-13 Op.

40. slightly 27/l/i/4 and 28 (ex. --1 IL L' I 1 M-.r.staccatois oneof the signs usedto signify an accent. 101bid. we shall impartthe true unity andcoloaringto the whole. In Beethoven'sworks we often find that he groundsthe structureof hispieceson singleand apparentlyunimportantnotes.in the 6' bar. * )a 02 1ý1 ." Beethovenhimselfmarksthesenotesstaccato. passage. 41-.. the syncopatednotes in the last twenty-two bars of Op.IIII 17 II in the bass. J (e) to emphasizesyncopations According to Czerny.1 . correctly observesthat those notes at original.1W-i 1 II-I 41 iF.. . ýw-. 5. as must points cadential notes". 10/l/ii must be " in does Beethoven but in this Op.Similarly. 5. 5. [:: I-F-. mustbe The two quavers markedwith a certa6degre"eof emphasis.wherever theyoccureitherasa perfector asanimperfectcadence asin the 12' 20' 28' 30' 32nd& 34' barsetc.-. 71 1 . any accents not mark syncopated marked. :91P---. As mentionedabove.20). p. v 1.20 Czerny Although Punctuation 48. 174 . his do be I "unimportant to them with not agree reference accented.19 0 (D Iv 41Hý: j I1 :1 J iizP! b). "Ibid.as he himselfwas accustomedto do. p. Ex. he reveals that it is necessary to accent the syncopated b6l in the treble.a.andby bringingout thesenotesin the performance. 'Vý 1E. . Ex.

22). 109/iii/107-108(ex..OccasionaUy. of must surely accents metric pp. 10/2/iii andthe bassof Op. note (even if fall beats) in does the they teach selected notes of accentuations on weak not order also his line. (1839E). and 170. Nevertheless. 3.21). Op. ý...andihereforenot indicated. hev ý-ý-Li-t -- e---. 31/3/i/174-175(ex. 106/iv/ 102-110 his the to to strong as emphasize music accents -224. pp.. 5. L1 r i. 31/3/i in begin in bar 55.." The accentsin ex. iii.. 5. beats. would such passages the resonant permitted. 90/ii/223 Op. fek h.11. t-t-f-- tu 1F1Lii -11d-1- mmhmwm6-1--J WD- . " benefit from full.L1' -1111- oi 1i-! [I II llýIn contrastto the Schindler/Beethoven annotationsin the CramerEtudes.9.asshownin his directionson the first phraseof Op. 33Czerny 175 .(f) metricaccents Czernyadvocatesthe useof metricaccents.1. because is He first tones. 78/i/20-23. Beethovenadds Metric accentsareoftenunderstood. form adviceon varyingthe placementof metric to a scahcor melodic (see 38-40) is by from the pp. The 41 the 121bid. 5. and 19. of supported passagework an example at repetition accents Beethoven'sOp.21 fý F. in Op. Czerny does not in brilliant first lengthening the of notes passageworkas a meansof of a group mention lengthening in is It that the arpeggiated consonant chords with of only passages accentuation. bass Op.21 are Czemy's.12. 5.ý -1I1i2T -11 I II -Iý-ý-. 0 m= 1--Fi MirOR-00 Loi 1 Fopý i 0@! JL I T.LeLA -1W1F1M. in bass the of and Ex.

34 This is soundadvice.vvIý-- 1r4TI - il I II ii n*--l (g) to highlight the lowest bassnotes when they forrn a meaningful line Czerny gives Op.p.-: ý I It I-.:41 i s -4 11I A4 1 IqIaImI G)A ii IIýIi. u iß --x cmV..-s-2ý F.. 5.IL 1L . in the contexts as same usedaccents "Czemy (1846). I.L-L-j I.p. 31/I /iii/3 6-42 and 132-140 as examples.applied to the lowest bass notes in bars 132-140 (ex. 5.22 > 5 Jýl 41.. 176 ...111iiiI & -1 ..23 - C. ý it .1 IIIIIIII I_I fl11 ILII1 4-1 IIIII OQ l1wý Ili (1111115 0* 41 * it T!! I_.. 26/i/I 11-116 and Op. "Schindler(1966) (ed.... 54/ii/37-44 are another two instanceswhere Beethoven highUghtsthe bass lines. ... Iiii-! ______ 0 lit I L- I I- IfI'I"Ii V.Ipiiivi ii .MacArdle).if It v4 M) 11 11 -9[ ý4 j02 41 ii'''i'' ii Z : Ig 'Z-i1.. - I -. evidently having their alternative function as accents. 416.Beethovenis saidto havecriticizedCzernyfor "false" accentuation.23). i-- . "J " J" r" 41 I"1i w04 }I! Ii1 __ II I1I -1-i--1 . L1I?! .. IIIII 35 Accordingto Schindler. r.Ex.1 IVP F1F I I n.. -. ...... 5. Ex. erer iIýICIII tiISJI--4--Th1 I. Tl '1. rz CL IL I- m F- w W-F I ___________ IL- IlI J. This is mostprobablyanothermisleadingaccusation:the abovecomparisonsshow that Czemy Beethoven.. Op.judging from the staccato marks.- -- fb..At i4l# ---T- IiIIIIIII. 53.11(ý- -L 10 .1. L--- II.

In Trio Op.Czerny'sstatementsserveto reinforcethe markingsalreadyin the score.the structureand Op. Where no dynamic marking is given.5. 47. 101bid. pp. 33. and pp. 26/i/var. he piano. Again. "Ibid. the the the ending of of soft emphasizes confirms unexpected importanceof maintaininga soft dynamic" (as indicatedby Beethoven). as is shown in his advice for Op. in the first phreise from bar he Op. P' Occasionally. he 2/l/iii... 14/1/ii and Op.. "Ibid.Czernystatesthat the expositionof Op. 14/l/i.56 and 62.probably herecognises because therelationshipbetweenBeethoven'sdynamicmarkings. 33. the crescendoand diminuendo. Czerny (like Hummel. exact observanceof " "crescendo the that the andforte must. seep. 5 in bar 13. He may Beethoven'sdynamicmarkingsproduceanunexpected havefbuýd this necessary eitherbecause importance he because large-scale to the the wishes emphasize of observing effect. Op. 41. thus crescendo must cut confirming off abruptly also endssoftly. he Of remarksthat the movementcanbeenlivenedonly "by an characterof a piece.For example.. 38) is fond of using crescendo in an ascendingline and diminuendo in a descendingline. in Op.p. forte. "must 2/l/i that the when observes musical structure of of understanding " does Even Beethoven though and vivacity". 177 .. 54 and 59. p.7 CZERNY'S ADVICE ON DYNAMICS COMPARED TO BEETHOVEN'S USAGE IN THE PIANO SONATAS In general.4' to theforte the a recommends crescendo of up even scherzo of line. Op. descending Beethoven also follows this rule of using 8 bars 7 though and are madeup of a "Czemy (1846). or simply functioningof thedynamicmarkings. Seealso his musical exampleof the first phrase of Op.44 191bid.Czernyalso showsan he bars 68-89 be Op.. 10/2/H. mark in bar 90 he by the the tension until climax sequences when and releases writing sf markings decrescendo... 37. 31/2/iii.Czemyasksfor the carefulobservance of Beethoven'sdynamicmarkings. reminds reader Sometimes.-bewell observed". 57/ii. 90/ii.53/i be both He the that times. pp. 2/3.. augmented power constantly with not performed intended build-up in his thesebarsis clearfrom his useof insistent tliýis passagecrescendo.he deviatesfrom this generalrule.

Occasionally. he introduce knows the to composer's not exist markings often such where when and. 75-77that last bars Czerny's the on eight comments of Op. 178 . his ideas to the the act as an answering phrase preceding arethe opposite since in bar By 89 direction (seeex. one must be wary of his occasional deviations from Beethoven's indications.different diminuendo fan fine to to the the suggest nuances according and crescendo rise and of fok small-scale structures.suchasthe descendingline in Op.suchastheshortmotifsat thebeginningof Op.His a legitimateinterpretaiion.26/i/var. We haveseenon pp. 7/iii to be indicates loudly" Beethoven dolce (ex. It is alsovery strangethat Czernyshouldaskfor the first note of the third bar of Op. above). Czerny hasa very good understandingof the functioning of Beethoven's dynamics do in hand.. the appropriate dynamics or accentuation.Beethovenwould level. 411bid.24 I On the whole. dynamic In is this the case. 5. 38.24). a appropriate crescendo choose more suitable becausethe descendingline leadsto a climaxin bar 65. However. 5.Czerny'sadvicecontradictsBeethoven'snotation. although bars last four four. clearly when and very p played Ex. the not cancelling crescendo with another of intends implies Beethoven last that the to this crescendo until the endof this variation. Wherea passage hasa largerstructuralfunction.3 Beethoven's. 101A. 54/ii/61-65. p. 3.

must struck with emphasis. though also applicable to the Legato.prolonged. LEGATISSIMO andMOLTO LEGATO Very connected. connectedand detached he and Beethoven exploit the numerous variations available. is most properly employed in quick. nearly to the approaching prolongedtouch. ANDTOUCH 6. this term is employedbut seldom. Hammered. which firmly held down.CHAPTER 6: STYLE AND EXPRESSION . generally united with staccato. movements and in the somewhat staccato style or touch. smoothly connected. With peculiar emphasis.i. although certainly a to be introduced into generaluse. 179 i . Italicizationandcapitalizationoriginal. TENUTO (ten) Held on. The highestdegreeofStaccato. light. separated. be then and STACCATO Detached.1 THE BASIC TOUCHES USED BY BEETHOVEN AND CZERNY From the three main type of touch specified by Czerny . p. though it may also be applied to the Legato as well as to the Staccato.' 'Czemy(1839E).and but by few it deserves authors. be in that case. 189. is sometimesplaced over singlenotes. some of which arc described by . Czemy as foRows: -LEGATO Gliding one into another. MARCATO and BEN MARCATO LEGGIERMENTE and LEGGIERO MARTELLATO ftee.ARTICULATION. agile.

touchin compositionsof thebrillianttype(seep. in 3 "sing".a treatisewhichBeethovenheld in greatrespect.In the sameletter.on the otherhand.' In 1796. ArchdukeRudolph's the he strongly emphasizes the nd-cessity of making piano instructionbook. This clearlyindicateshiswishfor a smoother. 129. It is therefore no surprisethat Czernyrecognisesthe singing. Beethovenagainadmitsto usinggood singingasa model: Good singingwasmy guide. Bachhadgiventhis advicein his n-iid-eighteenth centuryEssay.As wasmentionedin chapter2. 180 . listening by "appropriate to to a perplexing words passage and singing assigning or problem ' it". The in Beethoven's vocal quality slow of or wind player play playing a good violinist He his draw his by is the to was contemporaries. 'Schindler(1966) (ed.consistently introducing for its (see 16.p. mentioned on p.I stroveto write asflowingly aspossible justify before judgment-seat in to the trusted ability myself my of and soundreasonandpuretaste! Schindleralsoconfirmsthat Beethoven"adoptedthe methodsof cultivatedsingers"in cantilena is faced difficult Beethoven he In a with when passage. 46). sections. not of onlypianist many confirmed movements inspirationfrom excellentsingersandinstrumentalists. 'Anderson(1961). 416. E. C.Sostrongwashisbeliefin this methodthat hepassedon this ideato Czerny(the latter's idealshavebeendiscussedon p. it. piano recalled slow movementsofBeethoven's 2Schindler (1841) (ed. his disapproval virtuosity own sake of pp.with the exceptionof martellato. and expressed 6. 'Kerst (1964). Beethoven.p. P. Czerny that sonatas.expressinghisobjectionfor thepianoto betreated like theharp. 25.p. legato tones neededto perform the in his As 3. 43).i. 25-26. MacArdle).connectedsound.231 232). Moscheles).All the abovetouches.2 LEGA TO OR NON LEGA TO? SchindlerandMoschelestestifythat Beethovenalwaysinsistedon legatoasthe normaltouch. a characteristic enthusiastic more soýatas. can be found in Beethoven'spiano Beethoven is Czemy than abouttheuseofmartellato. pp.Beethovenwrote a letterto Streicher. would overcomethe addition.

ratherthesetwo barsareexpectedto be slurredin the samemannerasbars 442-443and 446-447.2). 59. l r The sameassumption.Beethoveninsistedon. 6. the this to shift slurs passage of non ornission 53/i/l 96-215is conveyedthroughthe presenceandthe absenceof slursrespectively'. (ex. The indicates in frequently Beethoven's of slurs suchpassages wishfor thenonlegatotouch. from legato in legato Op.Beethovenusesthe termnonligato to confirmthat thý is intentional. the the asexpected.p.1).legato technique.therefore. absence In Op. have it is inserted be beginning has to that the to unusual slur marks not aware only at of a one in the the restof the section. amongother things. 181 .however. in Op. Ex.However. 53/iii/450-451 6. This certainlyappliesto the slow movementof Op. theme. I ri A la in EJLIU kW pvf-.eventhosewithout slur marks.2 " -r FI.31/3/iv/275(ex. r djo I-" = v " := -4p 0'.first lesson. "V .shouldbeplayedlegato. m'y v 1. For same articulation expected with stylisticallyuniformpassage.v V 10 rT=I 15 ýj .A cantabilepassage in a Beethoven'spianosonata.3) lack does indicate the of slur marks not a non legato example. touch.shouldnot be mad&tu passageworkwithout slur marks. 57 (ex.1 f y 7. 6CZeMy (1846). 6. Czerny'sadviceregardingthe " involves legato.for example. useof opening performanceof Ex. in Again. 6. 6.

4 below).. 416.wl Ul i ti I= m rkým 0<..1 -1wVIJ1U :1 . P _ I' ii ________________ IILIIIIIIIII 'Schindler(1966)(ed. 6..f5fQSSIOV) 9.p.. is without basis.4 AA.. the bass from Op.0. --I f. ti Y%44ý ly :31ý111111. 182 1L' _____ I""-l .p. as in Op. rather prove'that. ICzemy(1846). (_1 _ e 0 . rhythmic resemble far from Czemy's playing showing. but Czerny states that it should be played legato. W%. Jdy -- I ýKj M . On the whole. a lack of "binding". 'ý. smoothly connected strokes. 6.-I . IP-f -i- r 0 -0 3 3' if bý -C-ý -ýý rýr_z -s UO I--- Ll y. as Schindler claims. soft. it is legato that he always asks for.Czerny would sacrifice the rhetoric ofa phrase in favour of an unbroken legato line (seesection 6.Ex... 46.. 6. In ex. .MacArdle).4. 22/ii. mw\t). perhaps therg is it. Even when he occasionallydeviates from the composer's indications.Ia111 y IV.ý-. Schindler's accusationthat Czerny "never sustain his notes".. Sometimes. 22/ii is marked mezzostaccato. j..' He is mistaken here becauseBeethoven most probably intends the accompanimentto drum These than triads...3 4- -b. considering the legato in Czemy frequency the performance of recon-imends playing with which emphasisand Beethoven's piano works in TheArt. many of C2emy's adviceon the use 6f legato conform with Beethoven's notation. is Czerny danger that of over-fond sometimesa Ex..

F 91bid.-- r--N 01 -f-- ------ - !01 . p Ex.39.suchasin Op.3 LEGA TISSIMO In TheArt.. iilMi--44 F. 37. -+2ý7 R!EWIO M"W 11. Czernyrecommends theuseof legatissimoin certainpassages eventhoughdirections for it is not specifiedby Beethoven.. 27/2/i) (Op. terms the them sostenuto or cantabile or uses slurs.. Notes are lengthened to contribute to the overall harmonic bass line. 6. with marks The notation of Op. and 67. 7/iv/150-154). 31/2/iii. "6wn ritard. highlight (note for to the the to show progression example the resonance. (Op. n .. fý rý- Beethoven evidently wishesfor some degreeof sustainedtones in all thesepassagesbecausehe (Op. Sometimes.1% %. it9'0[a 1 1 L=ý iý rM0 i 1-ý= mi -'-..6b). ý_e r f 0. with its extensive use of sustained notes. d: P. tonic and dominant harmonies supported by the sustained a in the bass of ex. 6. -r-T-" tempo. 5220 f9-0'Ge* -1 .-PP..5 ý >WC >ýi 09 . II I/ii).' 6) Ex. II l/ii).43. and as a meansto project in bass (Op. " -. --t- I'I rI I (FINYI FIj i F4=.. 183 F -1 . 6.Nevertheless. mimL. 13/ii/9for 2/3/iv/1 it choral-like or passages melodies cantabile reserving only 16 and the themeof Op.Czernyis carefulnot to overusetl-ýstouch.... 03-118. -- 0.6a). could perhaps offer an insight into Beethoven's usesof legatissimo. 27/2/i). - blo rý- -120 »mý-i - ftýi= RgMil ii-! Ememm ý- !Pýq 014101 ir rIr-. and to I increasethe impactof the dominant-seventh anddiminishedchords(ex.pp. arpeggiatedchords (Op. 0 umm .49.6.5).. 6. cs -EM R. 6-6a 1 -j t: ý Fý-ý I IIfa- Iv I ip L-ý-ý T----T-1-7ý Iv- Ir 9 1 -T. Czerny the couplesaccentswith counter-melodies legatissimo. Op. . 7/iv/150-154(ex.

aIk4: -1 1 his w IWI. i3rH -1 rl ItIIrIr ipi!. order may made band must be dealt with in the sameway. be figure in left In the to triplet the obtain clear. 4DIIaI 11 EP r.Ex. Cramer the the annotations emphasized of aspectwhich lends (ex. 1F*-"i --FI If K1 11 111 iý.::: ý 11 IT V. The 2 Czerny's Etude to this to annotation etude use of support no. so note. binding.6b PI-Ifd TP r" I lvýR -zl L- - -1i T -1 11=8=4 ftýý fj::: IF 1 IF Ilk r. -4 JT1 -_IF fII -101 1tzJ 10 21 r-I WW. 1F 14ýT. L---+.7). I IV M - 12 FIpi4iiH. I.the lengtheningofnotes is another' for in is Schindler/Beethoven Etudes. " "Cramer/Shedlock(1893). ý 1--- =P=ý1 1. 6.p. legatissimo in broken chord passages: In the four introductory bars the thumb adheresfirmly to the fiindamental in broken that the triad.i -ý- 111 1" 1-4. 5. example. 6. and a similar manner all broken chords.510! (Cly 21 11. I-I-19 77 1110 L--r-- A_i tlfi v ISý r.which were discussedin the previbus chapter. - Besidesaccents. 184 . ________ - 1111 .

appearsas follows: Ex.. dp do 2. OL -." Etude no.:r6 4=ý2 A =71 11 tt ¶ I'Ibid. however. Ita. 24. p. 4 4 02 4- ýtr- 0:. g'.r--ýe r- a--. ratherthan 185 is probablymeant. Notes may also be sustainedto form "unwritten7'melodies.: . therefore.seeingthat the . #g .8 a. The rhythm time signatureis 2/4. wo.. 6.so second that the melodymay standout thus: K *1 The fmger.. 6.as seenin the commentsregarding Etudeno.Ex.7 JPresto. 24: In the first five barsthe first noteof the first triplet andthe third noteof the in best be together the triplet connected must possiblemanner. must remain on the long note. 35.

However.1 iý . to they of notate chords only when seems other he does in bars 116-117 Why for bar the "static" two.such lengthening broken Beethoven the instances.9 4. - 6f-. sustain arpeggiated not chords or a remain instinctively. bring legatissimo line in bass to the the the out and of of accents melodic use adviceregarding Op. e:j Ili I III M 'IF 21' "Czemy (1839E). 19 and2 1.5 than their those are often notated value also section with melodic and be determined. 4 - 3 3 I 4 3 ý-! -. he Czerny Does in bars 104-113? to them performers sustain those expect as or done? have would probably Ex. Legatissimo was a common early nineteenth-century practice but the reason or the context in from have is interesting It introduced it to to note that the person person.*= OR - ý -.0 --- Hr. 186 :0 Výa 4 ri . He adds that legiwissimo is used mainly in fairly soft passages.118-119 and similar and numerous as passages. 7.rarely in forte or fortissimo ones"' Instancesin Beethoven's piano sonatasreveal that the composer also usesthis touch to increase the resonanceof a passage. unlike his pupil. fii. while role ofthis it is to increaseresonanceeven when applied to arpeggiatedchords in fast movements. pp. 6. in Here. Czerny's If they these that the annotations can of will confirm validity above).25 ýpf 13-I IIII $ -- --jo -1- Eý ý vr -p dp . 53/i/1 14-115. II p . Beethovenis not shyabout using it in loud (ex. ETTk. 1 I --L H--+do v1J--- r-r-I L-ia . 64. 6.ýaI-0 ýý tw-L !r1 FI 214 2 4 f) -ti ON . 4 Ii (5o 2 mJ 1 - --4dO go . in Cramer to to the touch give annotations rhythmic or motivic clarity.1a ý" I 1.9) bars. varied may which was is Czemy. Op. 7/iv/150-154comesto us directly from the tradition of Beethoven. II-- a I)- do .Many of the annotationsof the CramerEtudesrevealthat noteswb&h carrythe metricaccents held longer (see interest 5. -ýI 2 2 II1I I-- .

4 THE MEANINGS OF SLURS AND LEGATO The difficulty in understandingslursHesnot in the touch they represent. 10/3/iii/74-85. 4rl. movements.for example. 134. giving marked same advice on when 15/iii. 50. i. Czernyshowsan important he this that the lastnote of of short-slurred motifs of role when stresses understanding " presumablybecausehe the two-note slurs in the scherzoof Op. 28/i/448-453. and Op. 78/ii. on convention.. 187.Czemy(1846). sempre of common addition of phrasing.is determinedby the musicalcontext.or three-noteslur shouldbe detached.p. 28/iii.excitementor intensityof theclimax. Czemy's advice on legatissimois not unlike the advice in limited found in in Beethoven's the the and musical examples annotations piano contained demands due therefore consideration. this the vein continues staccato. 6. 7/iii/71-79.the dot on the last note of a two.andthree-noteslursis morestraightforwardthanthatof the longerones. from oneor two basicideaswhicharerecognisable Beethovenoftenconstructswholemovements fast his In basic developed these through slurs. and 104.or three-noteslur in Op.Op. He it is Op.6 1. however. legato.Op. Op. fiveliness in it the conveying andhumourof this movement. 51. and sonatas. Op.especially in in The. Of be found in Beethoven's the two types to main of slurs slur of each music. Accordingto Czemy. These "Ibid. 53/i/146-153. annotationsand Czerny'swritings. 14Czerny(l 846).pp. 168. p.. use of short short motifs are partly in a way that increasesthe liveliness.51.Beethovenwouldhaveexpectedperformersto lengthencertainnotesaccordingto contemporary few have based Unfortunately. 187 . the exact degreeof "binding". "Newman(1988). p.p." Someof Beethoven'snotationindeed confirms Czerny'steaching. note theperformanceof two.Rosenblum(1988).the last note of a two.but in whetherthe last is detached. 27/l/ii. 28 should be detached. Schindler/Beethoven the only a guidelines survived. element considers an essential It has been establishedthat the long slurs in Beethoven'smusic refer to legato rather than " ligato figato indications In to the and are some slurs.andOp.

trill rr Lzk-. f H Lzý III 65. nineteenth started which last long by be detached. does have indication long the not slurs. For example. Czerny Although that the the of note slurs should stating contradicts latter recognisesthe importance of observing Beethoven's articulation in order to achieve the is influenced Czerny by from legato the to also expression. 38. He writes: When.he asksfor a "very legato" touch in Op.with analmostprolonged touch. slurs aredrawn over severalnotes. 47." he often relieson his musicalinstinctswhen decidingon the degreeof legato to be employedin eachpassage. 188 LI ----. 19Marx 16Czerny(1846). as is the casewith the short slurs.. "Czemy(1846). several lines. 106/iii). p. 2 1.--- rrrr !1-ýIIa . although the slurs but broken into are continuous. however. Similarly.60.- .pp. in B. they are are not forming [punctuation but.1w a-IIIII --. 186 andiii.64. "Czemy (1839E). i.pp. p.59 and65.differentdegreesof legatoarerecognisedby Czemy:his descriptionof this touch rangesfrom legato (the Op. sempre carries which also The most hotly-debated issue regarding the performance of Beethoven's long slurs is whether the last note of the slur should be detached.irrespectiveofwhetherlong slursarepresent. 7/iii) legato (the 57/iii) legato (Op. style and change non appropriate legato as the normal touch. considered sic] and no perceptible separationmust take place. 26/ii andOp. I 011Fi N-V ) 'i -=Fzw I I1 -t. 109/i/2-3"-a passage but legato. from Op. as one. This question. trio to through of very or extremely a slight "' Op.both arepassages whicharemarkedwith long slursandsempreligato (or semprelegato). 109/i and vivace SinceCzemyconsidersslur marksto indicateboth legato andlegatissimo. . 57/ii/33-48. Thereis alsoa strongpossibilitythat Czernyequatespassages which carrythe indicationsempre ligato (or semprelegato). (1863). Marx" A. and pp. to to this the continues researchers century.Czernyrecommends a "very (or extremely)legato" touchfor thetrio in Op. baffle day. 53-54.

Unfortunately.Someof his in Op.p. UL t-w 1. The decision on whether the last note of a long slur should be detachedwill depend on the context in which it is used.135 and 136. "Czemy (1839E). i.Herethe last note of eachbar must not be playedshortor detached.quoted above. with a dot.1.10 1 ---'--4 -O a- . 109/i/21-35).where he advisesthe use of continuouslegato irrespectiveof the slurs. Beethovenmakeshis intentionclear. iE I dy (I 116 10-11-1P. 127. decrese. Capitalizationoriginal. are akin to what beýamethe nineteenth-centurystyle however. bar A by the tradition separationat the end of each slur win crossing not century in disjointed.mostof the long slursin his piano sonatasdo not endwith a dot. be a standardmethod of performing his long slurs. 6.especiallythe very long onesin cantabileor chordalpassages Ex 6. on the contrary. 189 .hemustplacea dot " it. dash over or By endingthe long slursin Op. Beethoven's is (which long the of a combination old andnewwaysof writing)" alsomakes slurs of notation it difficult to establishwhetherthe lastnote of everylong slur shouldbedetached. 26/ii and Op. Beethoven's inspection Closer slur notation. is This in to the this sounding passage similar example phrase undoubtedlyresult Czemy'sPiano Forte School. pp.such relatively line. Draýe (1972). Shouldthe Composerdesireto makeit detached. of suggeststhat there cannot of slurring. p.10). late long those to the conform eighteenthas slurs. (q) 6-6ý 4 n ý-ý 11 ol H-A 011 +- IIIi (the trio of Op. 10/3/iv/41-45 (ex. 28/i/20. 2'Newman(1988).39 etc. be connectedwith the following one. 187. 122.. but it must.Others.

Thesmooth. from bars51 to 55. (Op. Incidentally.if the last note of bar 47 is detached. note each slur should gently endof the overallshapeandphrasingof the melodymustnot bedistorted.continuouslegato impliedby this long slur alsoprovidesa contrastwith the slightly"breathlese'effectcreatedby the shorterslurs. pp. and Drake (1994). was again as normal practice). and even cantabile passages slow movement 2/3/iv/103-110 andOp.slurs can be used to enhancethe articulation and to highlight the harmonic in Op. the pianist will help highlight the changeof harmony. 6. 2/3/i/27-37 (ex. between define bars 48 49 two the next a slight separation over and will clearly presented the beginningof the motif.it is believed It is not unusualto find slursof oneor two bars'lengthin slowmovements.In Op.attentionwill be focussedon the highestpitch of this two-bar is 40 172. motif bars. last 6. 6. By detaching the transition the such as passage progression. the slurs in bars 35 and 36 have the samefunction. 182-183. 190 . 53/i/35-42). be the these the of slurs. in themes the fast movements(Op. 1 TI - w R-0- vq 0 4v 4 In a lively passage. bar.. Beethoventheninsertsa long sluroverthe secondhalf of this phrase. 2/3/i (ex.11 (D 3w A r 2ý ) dolce l0t (ED tj 2 41 dO 2 TI . Since this on and was mentioned pp. 13/ii). pp. and now " Someof the that suchnotationreflectsBeethoven'sintentionof creatingrhetoricalexpression.1 agree with Newman. in bars 33. 2ISeethe discussion in Rosenblum(1988). who rejects Mies and Grundmann's suggestionthat the irregular slurring in Op. pp.certainlybenefitfrom a slight feelingof "breathing"at the last in instances Although detached.12). 13/ii servesto mask the regular eight-bar phrase. 17-32. Barth (1992).11). 27 in bars 28 and 34 will'be the the crispness and shortness and of acciaccature notes last bar is discreetly from beginning If 29 following the the the note of separated of emphasized. Ex. 108-117. idea (tlýiis.4 4 6-"6. to balancetheprecedingfour one-barslurs.

. L-. V! ... In its from bars 5 to this the this end of at slur can addition. ti IL. . Ex. 60. 1 lý . g-- 1 ýgm1i1g.with the slur ending at preciselythe samejuncture in the next phrase. Beethoven's for Wagner's the opening themes slurs probably as a result of in favour ignored longer for have been In Op. El .---. .r. However.12 n2 li -4-ýmt. III1IIII1III1II L.. h kp . ý ow ý o- 4- -.. ý-. 114 -- rI r I' p -ýý-l IL Ci. Unfortunately. and of Czerny's slur marks indicate the phrase structure (ex. i 'II 12 --r-W -W i. .. sequence. since the top of the page of theautograph hasbeenslightly trimmed off..13a). i L-L-L-j 4 3 -0-4 I- - r7jý .. -= --- 108 1! ý p- --1 -- II. -q-0 IIIL. end slur as shown a cadence.. is slurred inexactly the samemanner. before to a ex.. of slurs. influence... declamation in 6. 10 --- 9 ip o- Iai- 41 I Czerny's concept of long. dp iiI! IT11" ---d ý ý-.. I. 99 . 10 ii00. -- f 70 riTii Iq-) (OUR --4ý . to the simulate vocal as'was good slurs mentioned section used is intensity better his The detaching by the this guide.C- FITI. 101/i Op. 57/i. ý.... I' II 111ii II II I. -- -. ==9=: r1\'] F. -.2. the discerned be bar.The latter most probably practice. example. 57/i Op.au m-1a r- ýL Q. 3 r. . because.. In The Art. J I L_J] f . ýýii x-.O-rwl 41 ?--. WO-1 tý 11 91 'It. Ex. I--ýII--. 6. the first slur seemsto disappeartemporarily in bar 2...13a 41tegro assai.TAIýI-I----.- 191 ! I -ý... L ý"-I ! ý- i zu J. -ii -..13b... end of 8. A-um- I -i ..4iiiiiiiiIIIiiiiiiii.19 rl 1 i I vt 'Movement. seamlessmelodies originated in the decadesafter Beethoven's death. IIII I-I J-ýF-L . --i f: i %F go --i1ýýLiý . of phrase maintained slightly singing was ýlur beginning bar 3 (according Beethoven's by from bar 2 to the than piaying Of marks) end of legato throughout the first four bars. 9 -- 14 -1- - -. L--.. while Beethoven's common is long is in 6. -.F_zzzzmlz:. -. 6. 6.. Pr I"-I-I ýl -7--- 1 Iý1.I L-j w- L-L-L-J PR L--L.

/. t. * ýo 192 - ...

Keepingback" asdefinedby Czerny. uiIiII VI 4il I-qHK ý!ý-ýr.14) in 8 The Op.15). Their functionis to enhancethe expression. Lr ý H- -I IILI 0 9ý1 k.as in Op.bý. tenutoon singlenotesis also usedto mark a key change. to used a smoothconnection slight emphasis)on singlenotesor chords." Tenuto. The tenutoin bar 9 from the Largo of Op.i. BeethovenandCzemyusethetwo termsdifferently. The first is to indicatea deepertone (or a it is indicate Secondly.canbe usedin two ways. Theyemploysostenutoasanadjective to the maintempoheadings.In later works. 81 tenuto markings and and a/i/I of chords.The indicationadagiosostenutoin Beethoven'sOp.14it :K t%Fi. 6. IWýýI IýAIIrV VKI I. 189.0 . 156. p. 6. 13Czemy 2'lbid. 106deservesspecialmention:it is placedoil Ex. Ex. 106/iii prove that he usessostenutoas an adjectiveto adagio.. ýj (I 839E).27/2/i andOp.i.15 /-/\ A&tl a ALLýto ýýj "-"-. 4344). kf 1ý11+1 pA Iv 4.5 TENUTO AND SOSTENUTO In contrastto somenineteenth-century theoristswho equatetenutowith sostenuto(seepp. Czemy" alsoperceivesthat tenutoon singlenotessignifiesthat they shouldbe emphasized. succession a on III are examplesof the former. 6.14 klaý.Like Beethoven. p. II 01iii/6(ex.on the other hand. 193 K---KT--r ?II 14 . o "N / II. -a& t(j) u ki- I eýv l9' Ww F-41 -IiIIV -F k. 53/ii/l (ex. tlu-t rl1)vV9 II 1-0 1. 6. The debatablefactor is whether Beethovenconceivessostenutoasmeaning"holding on. in Op.6.

At (ex.by whichthe fulnessof the sameisproduced in everydegreeofpiano andforte. such a succession as sustain sempreorsempretenuto 44-47 and 58-59 and Op. 6. 47-48.16). Here. marked tenuto sempre or sempre tenuto.pp. 78/i/24 83.the right-hand melody. as witness his instructions regarding the tenuto also employs staccato. this to tied appears a glance. 6.the deathof a hero. chord a Wouldit not bemoreappropriateto introducetenutoon the first of thisseriesof chords(in b. FuneralMarch of Op.17 Il Ii -i I'-. has an accompaniment marked staccato sempre or sempre in Czerny this manner. a curiousand most unsuitableplace. but alsoby a heavypressureof the chords in the strictesttenuto. 6. tQ - I -#Vw tq 2'Czemy(1846).13-16.18). 6. 7/ii/50 and and usesthe term tenuto case Op. 26: I As a funeralmarchion. with a structural Ex.this movementmustbe performedwith a certainearnestgrandeur.16 t1vto = -I-&Pvo e 0*A. " Jr pf -*w. FA 1 2+AAr.17) Alternatively. It hastakenon a differentmeaning:one function.32-36.25 Ex.be 6. -T III1 11 IL If tenuto is required over two or more chords. to of chords.) A 111W (AN Ll rz V -H Ll IL- F ----v- fIII.whichis expressed not only by the slow time. 8)? However. in Op.. as is the in Op. 194 II . 2/2/ii/1-5. In both instances. 7/ii/25'(ex. he (ex.tenutohasceasedto bean expressivemarking. Beethoven would spaceout the marking.the significanceof this notationbecomesapparentif oneconsidersthe possibilitythat Beethovenmayhaveusedtenutoto mark the point of modulationaswell asthe first beatof bar 9.

reasons.pp. In 1957.. -TIT\ ý-v jv14. Newman.11 kA rlo- . 195 . f25.p. Fischerclaimsthat Beeýhoven alsoemploysthe wedge. Newman claims that such distinctions already exists in an early work for four hands (179 1) - in bars 59-60 of Beethoven's Pariationen fiber ein Thema des -Grafen von WaIdstein. or . and Fischer suggest that dots refer to a light staccato afid dashes a heavier one. Keller (1973).Newman(1988). Zaslaw.. 26 Wo067. 100-101. -.it 1:9 F-ýý Al- -1 11-iI ii 1 ip4p I- Sk'(( 6. Fischer(1990). Although Nottebolun states that Beethoven made a distinction between dashes and dots at least from 1813 (possibly even by 1800).Mies opposedthe ideathat Beethoven'sdotsanddashesrepresentdifferentdegreesof in Beethoven have dots dashes He that my opinion correctly. 154-166. would used and staccato.pp. kz" -k III V4- . Keller. 6. Unverricht.pp.18 p AIII. Unverricht(1960). 2ý. 210.Brown and Sadie(1989).. 107(18 72).. Nottebohm. "Nottebohm pp. The aim is to determine whether dots have a different meaning from dashes. Unger.pp.L :ý"ýIp ý.Ex. .6 STA CCA TO Much research has been conducted in the last one-and-a-half centuries in an attempt to decipher Beethoven's staccato notation.p. 139-144. Ozýý.v-_-v0 D r 4- -1 a 4011 1i. 56-63. Unger (1926).

but the staccatoat the beginningof this passageis clearlynotatedwith small dashesrather than dots as claimedby Newman. his opinion. Ii J. Tht -1 . in tlý 1 17 I-i. iJ.19 p Il.). ___ Hj iI :1 . -" . -i iq iiiý -i Lmj-IL: AI19 . :. 83-95. I HIII)III1--i . 26/i/77-81 (ex.gentlermusic..19).- . - 196 1 .1--I -I-4iII- II" 1 I. II -A41. that Beethoven'sstaccatonotation is sometimesaffectedby the expressionof the passagedashesbecomeincreasinglylongerandheavierin loud passages while the staccatomarkingsare in dot-like is It this sameobservationwhichled Newman soft passages. quoted example accentedsounds. IIIIIýý J. i4 .1 'j IIi LI - I 1-.-tsI- H1TT111I1 li I?r[J1$LLki 11 Li t7. more and/or ritardando " he from The Op.9..-. ý.Nevertheless. II L-I-Fi -1 I 1 r'Liit haphazard in A convincingexplanationonthismysterysurroundingthesupposedly manner which 17Mies(1957). I .t F-fý -- i-I- . Dashes.-1-777ý . are associatedwith brighter.unfortunately uses. his is It theory. oftensmallerandmore to arriveat the oppositeconclusion. 4- ¶kT) s.that Beethovenconsciouslydifferentiatedbetweendots in insists dots dashes. pp. 0.4.jij. -F J].ýII-I I- H.andin passages marked and in diminuendo.4/ I. IJ i .1I i"J" r--. pp.. He that aremainlyused softer. uj 4ý4 Tý4: i. Newman (1988). 143-145.heobserves in a systematicandconsistentmannerifa differencehadbeenintended. Ex. . -Y-_J.' 'V JI "" i i.4 la'A F.. 6..C-r-! . -1I biq A.-- I-7II7. 6. ý Ol . I. -.1 -=f ijj.T . 'I 4. J.4" I.# --- . than true that Beethoven'snotationwas to support rather serves contradict influencedby the emotionsof the passagehe was writing at the time. dr - i4i wý I q--Zzzý 4. Q P=ý-.

or the "emotionaldrive" of the passagehewasnotating. (1988). pp. hole becomes been has the times that if the the so many rather sharpened nip endof especially 1 Rosenblum 348-349. 132 from benefitted the have the of manuscript of which wascopied also subject " Unverricht Nottebohm (it their Holz by and presented views). AlthoughNewman. Drake 245-269. (1999).the two "groups" aboveoftenrely on the oft-quoted letter whichBeethovensentto Holz in 1825(seepp. wasunavailablewhen II. A page from the autograph of Op. (1993). 28 i Riggs(1987).Beethovennotateshis staccatomarks can be found in an unpublishedthesisby Riggs. concludes dots areusedwith slursto indicateportato. His view is also sharedby Rosenblum. 202.andthe composer'scorrectionsin in No. indicationswhichcould be causedby writing fatigue.308-319 and p. 348-349. for A 92. the the and sizes shapes of staccatoandpor6to given. Allowance must be in Beethoven's irregularities for however. and long dashesfor staccato.pp. Brown Brown 252. 197 . p. They maintainthat dashesare employedin all instanceswheresinglenotesare to be detached. In dashes that the to parts the notices when correcting addition. A similar for Seventh Symphony: Beethoven is the the changed orchestralparts regarding observation made Riggs dots. by to to careful change very en was under slurs copyists.heagrees " indicate dots to that portato. He dashes indicate Beethoven to the that. 136.hastheoppositeviewpointregardingstaccatonotationoversinglenotes. slurs under all (portato) dashes his Beethoý. 252. Symphony to supporttheir arguments. and pp. major. andslursareemployed Althoughthey arriveat opposing results.who hadnot read Riggs'thesis. but did not make any changesto the dashesplacedover singlenotes. parts a set of Orchestral When commentingon the letter of 1825. (1988).or the varyingsizesof the pennips. 68-69).Drake and Brown. (1972).Riggsand Brown clarify that Beethovenconsistently dots String Quartet dashes the the correcting copyists' when work on with under slurs replaced Op. p.20) shows how Beethoven clearly differentiates between round dots under slurs for portato. prepared dots. (1999). 7 Op. 10 257-3 (1987). 132. 13 p. Brown 6. 6.Rosenblum(1988). 186-187. uses staccatooversinglenotes. 186. 90/ii (ex. Writing a dot with a quill pencanbe difficult.p.but wasnot concernedaboutalteringhiscopyists'dotsto dashes(to indicatestaccato)over in Investigations this the two types occur close articulation succession.while on whole. Drake(1972). p. Rewman 143'.irrespectiveof the degreeof staccatodesired. "Riggs p. on of unless notes single discovery Op.

the added is In bars in bar 66 first 19-21 the to relevant. NNUle he was proofreading a work. added years pencil. sonata particularly and again staccatomarkings in thefirst movementof thissonata. In the autographof Op.the two dots undera slur towardsthe endof bar 17have beenlengthenedto the extentthat they look like dashes(seeex. 101/iii..it is muchmoredifficult to write thedotsundera slur.large. His staccatonotation later. 10 1 thirty-three the staccato markings. same wasstill 198 .20. Thisapparent"inconsistency"is obviouslynot intentionalon thepart ofthe composer. that the pennip at this stagewasmuchlarger. the staccatomarkswhich were addedin pencil could shedsomelight ftom large debate (the have been this sometimes which could result problems a pen nip on discussedin the previous paragraph).20 "t -. suggests carefully.6). In his corrections of the three early sonatasfrom about 1783(a set of sonataswhich he dedicatedto the Elector of K61nMaximilian Friedrich). 6. Ex.. This the thicker than the and are much much ex. The in /ii/54 in Op. Consequently. 3. o Ij 1ý I Beethoven's staccato notation was also consistentthroughout his careeras a composer.longdashesareboldlyaddedin pencil. If onestudiesthe writing darker lines is in ink 6..

28 and Op. In all his explanationsregardingthe choice of the different degreesof touchesand articulation. 37. 2/3 mustbe"light andshort". 6. the smoothlegato and the pointcdstaccato.(ex. 199 .and he likensit to the nccompanimcntof a guitar.7 Af EZ7. In contrast.51 and 52. Czcrny's solution is exemplary.21) are also in the shapeof long dashes. for example. it is the characterof the individual passagesand/or of the overall movementwhich is the deciding factor.thestaccatois delicate. Ex. struck Nvith --ý. 28 shouldbe "very short. 6. 31/1. In the gracefulsecondmovementof Op. 2/3 and the bassin the secondmovementsof Op.0 S TACCATO Czcrnyconsidcrsviezzostaccato(usuallynotatedthus: *01-IN -. " 6.) as a touch tx-t%%-ccn "'Czcrny(1846). light. The third movemcntof Op.21 Even though Beethoven does not vary his signs to indicate different degreesof staccato.the bassin the march-likcsecondmovementof Op. Eachnote. 3 1/1. and remarkablystaccato". or whenappliedto singlenotes. Czerny correctly observesthat the staccatoin the lively schcrzoof Op. pp.are all markedstaccato. performersshould be able to decipherthe composer'sintentionsbasedon the musicalcontext.

24) in (ex.23 In addition to the "sighing cffect". +1 1 'vk' :ii1 E11 ______ -j-. Beethovenimpliesthat an almostlegato cffect is neededeventhoughthe finger hasto be liflcd beforethe secondchord is played. 26/i/209-212(ex.should 3' interrupted be by "a thus this touch would resemble speech sigl&'. and would cffect of appropriatein Op.riV3840.24 and 25.18.26. Note how effectively Beethovenchangesthe characterof bars 205-208 at its modified repetition in bars209-212 of ex. Op. 6. 6.4344. -f Lu 4-i. as "Czemy (1839E). 10/2. pp. iii.I Ic often usesit on repeatedchords.Op.for instance.20.for its full be held two-thirds of note-value.23.22 tI 11 A w0l Ifny r 4 . 6. Beethoven rnay have used this notation to convey a psychologicalmessage. 6. 6. 6.22) and Op. His advicecan also be appUedto movementsof moderatespeed. Ex. 20. 2/2/V221-224 by and mezzostaccato chords arc separated rests.22 aboveand inOp.4748 (ex. In slow movements. and27.the a slight emphasis. for example. Ex. In this context.23). - fe -. in Op.in ex. 27/l/iii/19. --T __ ___ 6): 1 1. 6. 53/iV4. Sometimes. 200 . prirnarily through the use of a different articulation.

7. M -4. ýýý j P.25) andsimilarbars. 1v IF- i's -. p.It is obviousthat Beethovendoesnot intendthat the chordsin ex.0 In florid figurations. i 'JI F na *ýti r-ia 4=4= -r Czcrny also states that mc=o staccato should be employed in very fast passagcsmarked kgglermente or k=1crissimo.5ii/82-83.24 shouldbe becausethey psychologicallysegregated eventhoughtheyhaveto bephysicallydisconnected.suchasthosefound in Op.. "Ibid.and in Op.referto a coherentphrasingleadingto the recapitulation. in legato. 186. 6. E9 ff I I I I - O. Ex. By a rapid action.. anothertype of mezzostaccato is used. forma vital finkbetweenthedevelopment Theslursoverthedots. CzCrnycalls it the lingering staccato. 6. 26-27. e---N . 79/i/12-23 and 134-144 which are in fast "Ibid. 31/1/ii/2.24 lb 4 L I-- 111 1 op len C& r- 30 - A F-6 . sectionandtherecapitulation. hand the tranquil the as so that the notesare and must remainas " fingers. i. 6. Apart from Op.25 ýIrA%Csfj 0 1ý i 'ýT--vlW. 78/i/8-10 and 60-64 and Op. therefore. by the tips the shortenedonly a gentlewithdrawing of of Ex.pearlyand equal. makea movementlike that usedin scratching " be I'lic tone must clear. He describesthis methodof playing as follows: I 1crcthe fingersmust rest on the keysfor onehalf the durationof the notes. iii. 53hill I and 13. To achievethis touch. 6. 201 .4 (ex. [c]ach finger mustmakecontactwith the keyswith its soft and fleshy tip. pp. or tearingoff something.

26 III 1! Even though it is difficult to assessthe authenticity of Czerny's instructions on mezzostaccato his is lack this to to matter. 11I/ii/72-80 (ex. In The Art. By asking for the last note of thesetwo. the appropriate character of the movement (such as humour) will be successfully legato in is for his However.26). Op. chooses sacrifice rhetorical extending questionable. in for Op. Ex.or three. when playing obtaining a good Czemy's enthusiasmfor the use of martellato.8 SUMMARY BothBeethoven and Czernyemployeda wide rangeofarticulation (from legatissimoto staccato). II those and and example speeds. 6. was probably not sharedby his teacher.in derniserniquaver leggiermente passages of eitherslow movements usuallyoccurs movements. but elected legato as the normal touch. legato. The latter repeatedlyvoiced his objection on composersand pianists who introduced virtuosity for its own sake. for expression continuous 202 . seems suit on advice plausible and writings of contemporary a owing the various passagesin the piano sonataswith this touch. however. Czerny shows a strong understanding on the performance of short slurs in Beethoven's piano sonatas. smooth cantabile or chordal a passages advice conveyed. 0/i/12-19 76. of moderate or Op.note slurs to be detached. 6.74. Beethoven also taught Czemy the important lesson of imitated that tone the especially one piano. 6. excellent singers. longer Czerny Beethoven's By to slurs.12. 3 I/l/ii/1 0.

of chords. portato.in contrastto manyof their contemporaries.When tenutoappearsover singlenotesor chords.manyof Czerny'ssuggestions on legatoandstaccatoconformwith Beethoven's His Beethoven's also understanding advice reflects a strong of style andthe. Beethovendifferentiated betweenthe two signs. however.while as tenutowas applicableto either singlenotes(or chords).CzernyandBeethoven. rI.but only as far as using dashesfor staccatoand dots under slurs for degree is The derived but from therefore. not notation. 203 .or to a short chordalpassage. froin the contextit is usedin the music. two as was used an ad ectiveto the maintempoheadings. On the whole. treatedsostenutoandtenuto Sostenuto j different terms. especially performance preference.distinct notation. Beethoven'stwo mainusagesof tenutoare correctlyunderstoodby Czemy.this signifiesthat the note or the chord shouldbe indication Beethoven tenuto to sustaina succession employs also as an emphasized. In Czemy's betray each movement. the of shortness of a staccato. Czernyrecognisedboththedashandthedot asindicationsofstaccato. some of comments a personal character long in the of slurs. instances.

7. WhileBachusedsmallnotesto indicateboth the long andthe difference between (the had be from deduced the two to the ornaments appoggiatura short his long Beethoven in largenotes. I 10. over add appear never 2 brilliance to a performance".During Bach'slifetime. ornamentation. there is already a hint that he did not in he introduce Bach his the on which should agree with context ornaments. From his first set of piano sonatas with opus number. the of some ornaments earlycompositionsshowthat he regard from departing Bach had the tradition to established.pp. notes. Suchchangeis clearlyreflectedin Beethoven'streatmentof ornaments. was. in indicated by small notes orderto avoidanyconfusionthat mayliave were appoggiaturas short dual function the of thesesmallnotes. 204 . appears only a two-note slur (ex. 2Ibid. indicationsof ornamentswerefew. someextent.. Only the to notate appoggiaturas preferred musicalcontext). I 10-112.p. those 'including their unnotated obligatoryornamentsat the cadentialtrill own at in his indications fermata. Beethoven the was more particular asto thetype of ornamentand and the contextin which eachoccurs. as a result of arisen fI.1 THE RELEVANCE BEETHOVEN'S OF BACH'S ESSAY IN THE UNDERSTANDING OF ORNAMENTS The general survey of early nineteenth-centuryperformance practice. and 'Bach(1974).CHAPTER 7: ORNAMENTATION 7.already The first obviousdifferenceHesof coursein the notationof ornaments. Theway necessarily the Schneller is employed is an example. in By their areas.1b) and should ' it is detached its Since function is "fife to over placed rapid notes. 7. sinceperformerswereexpectedto introduceembellishments but discretion. Bach states that this short trill (which he calls a Pralltriller) in is descending found either over the second note of a It second.1a) or in descendingpassagesof three or more notes (ex. of uncertainty many no means the smallest issue is that of state reveals asthe role andrealizationsof ornamentswereundergoinga periodof transition.In spite of his high in Beethoven's for Bach's Essay. as outlined in chapter 2.

Newman concludes that Beethoven. 446-450.190. 2/2/iv/27 and 29 (ex.191-192 and Op. 7. 79/iii/7 and 41.2 / /-Xlý %r_v II ^V 0 I r f v WA 1 bid I 1--+-t--i I . 7. 110. Op. Op. 2/3/i/58-59.3). 22/i/10 and 137 (ex.Ex. For example. 'In addition. 7/iv/43 and 136 and Op.1a Ex. 205 ýw ip a-& I it 1 t .Op.3 discussionon the placementof the relationto the section Ex. 7. -- :prI-II IIrIvIi EFif: ['--:7-ý 'Newman(1976).1b 4. not of of three (see also the consists 3 in Schneller beat in below). He even uses the Schneller in ascendingfigures in two of his piano sonatas .pp.1a but notes as suggested above). Although Beethovenretainsthe quick and brilliant characteristicsof this ornament. 7.2).p.the Schneller in his piano sonatasalways begin on the first rather than the second note. 7. 7.s Sqhneller by Bach four (ex.Bach(1974). 7.

Both the types of'Slideareperformed stepwisemotion. is used frequentlyin Beethoven'spiano sonatas It by 1800.pp.is lessradical. Similarly. of notes which usuallyplayed consists one it helps iW'. by"v 7.5 The three-noteslide. 7.such as sometimes. the gapin a leapbut its speedis determinedby the characterof the movementandthe tempo. 7. appearsalongsidemodifiedversionsof this ornament.Ex.Thetwo-noteslide be (ex. It is suitablenot only in rapidmovementsbut alsoin slow andexpressive ones. 7. leap in cn slide may with a out or a or a note written 4 before beat. t_ : :t -E -F-ý h I" /i 41 .Bachdividesslidesinto two categoriesThe is three. i ýj Iý 111 1ý lqý '4/ y Id ztII II ______ Beethoven'streatmentof slides. Ex.however. two-note the two other of and slide.4 or wi. 136-138.3 G.iter% 0'so fII Ex.5). 206 . by indicated be the three-noteslidecaneither smallnotesor can be indicated (ex. This followed by 7. written 4Bach(1974). as describedby Bach.4). in leap fill The is fill is "always to three-note to which used a slide also used quickly.

9) Beethoven's the two-note at. 11 194-196 and statesthat the two-note slide often and in Op. in 44 Op. piano all common 46.1 10-11. performed broadening invites Beethoven the tempo.155-156 and for and the main notes.Beethovensometimesusesit as a decoration(often without a leap).7. -Ff1P01 yI I I-T ý1 594 ip %-I kA IF1 -1 --. Suchslidesarerelatively Ex. Op.125-126. 3 I/l/ii/42). -IPj L -6 I -10- rýnl.6 A16o-PA Pi It( J)v cin it --N 1. Q9 f 1117-0- r nt 11-ý : 44 All. 0/i/25-26 Op. n is in It his in that the two-note observed piano also many slides sonatas. is Although Bach 84-85. He alsousesa succession of two-noteslides.7. 74 7.and Op. climax of Ex.with sonatas not conform While Bachusesthe two-note slideto fill the gap of a leap.as in Op. Bach's do the those to and exceptionof rules.8 -+Qr. 7/ii/14 (ex.againasdecorationsto Ex. the of also extends natural which a phrase. IIA !IFF II. 7. 7.1 1.and 175-176. 10/1A/9-13(ex. a11"1F1114j' lot.8). example . -. 7.7). 7. 13/iii/5-6. Op.6).thosederivedfrom triadsor brokenchordsin Op. - G -1 I& P4 { IF 16 7vv in 40-41 (ex. 7/ii/3 8 27/2/iii/61-62.1111T 14DJ ý:i 207 A . slide and appears quickly. 3I/l/ii/33 and97 (ex.7 4 ýý TI.66-67.

Even in an early composition such as Wo04O (seeexs.19.10). for it calls into question the extent to which modem scholars can rely on Bach's Essay as a basis of understanding the realization of Beethoven's ornaments. Sometimesthey are modified.21. espeoially..9 fl' IK ell -f the numberof notesin a slide. therefore.29a and 7.Ex. ornaments. since the fori-ner did not leave sufficient directions 208 . 7. 7.10 ýI I ".4 below. possible compare and rather sometimes Czemy's realizations of every ornament. 7.29b below). 31/2/ii/5 and 94 (ex. his fingerings for the three trills indicate not only an upper-note start (as Bach practised) but a main-note one as in lack A the the early nineteenthcentury on realization ofornaments consensus ofuniversal well.62. and66 and Op. tf-p-. The only alternative. Ex. as is the casewith the Schneller and the sl*. only realizations observed by Beethoven. 10/l/ii/17.turning it into a florid figurationwhichfills the gapin a^leapin Op. This has serious implications. - - e-11 -j IL Cý i -U-- 1 I1: IL - r F A number of Bach's rules governing the appropriate contexts for the inclusion of particular loosely their are and characteristics. the consult contemporary unhelpful equally some of makes his have Beethoven trills given rise to more questionsthan answers.as will be over added which discussedin section 7.64. 7. it is Unfortunately. . where Beethoven's instruction is in is ifthis (even these the the contexts which of musical ornaments study occur may unavailable. be Beethoven's to not subjectiveý. it Even few fingerings to treatises.trius.

it is not possibleto deduceBeethoven'sintentionsherebeýause he always assignsthe appoggiatura sign to the samedescendingfigure.12).1 f' II I 1141? -IW-IIrII lrtT vr 11 Dý. of performance of not realizations. he uses 1.p. 7. the the the analogous with aP passage short appoggiatura recapitulation notates ý. 7. 6Czemy(1846).discussion For is this the the turn their reason. 13/i/51-71. for instance. Czemy(1846). 42.12 II ii 'Czemy(I 839E). Czerny acceptsthe two signs to representthe short appoggiaturaexcept 221-241).1 Ex. 161.i.5 in the contextsshownin ex.0-1. iii W- IF II 11 .p. he is long [sic) beplayed little therefore that"the appogiatura and a must note as a quaver spSFifies 6 Unfortunately. i'II _____I r. 209 . Ex. across a stroke or without In he interchangeably. II11iiiii LJ II fl't I II F-UII1 1E1 IIP-I 1-III11iAI I dJjJ -Uiii A few years later. be Op. With regard to the passagein Op. 7. the to exposition of used signs seem in but in (bb.11 above. regarding includedhere.11 E A :I--I-I1 OP-2-1 I Li ') I. p. Czemy again asks for the samerealization of an appoggiaturasimilar to the third instancein ex. 10/3/i/53-55 (ex. 7.2 APPOGGIATURAS While manyof Beethoven'slong appoggiaturasare written out. 7. 7. 42. heprefersto usesmallnoteswith X) 3' indicate ( The to the two the stem and short appoggiatura.

14 I 01 I It -7I-F LL lb wv A ý:. sfor > markingson the mainnotes applied note'can safely 125. this the third the ornament same explanation movement of using ornament.38 in 2/2/iv/4. --. lCzemy(1846). 163. with an small notes.. p. 7. 31/2.Czerny'sinstructionthat the shortappoggiaturashouldbeaccentedon the second Nevertheless. He third the consistentlygivesthe sameadviceregardingthis or written note! on emphasis for in His Op. The Beethoven's be to compositions. 'Ibid.14. 7. p. i.3 THE SCHNELLER Accordingto Czerny. i.13 7.the Schneller(he refersto it as the transientshake)is madeup of three be The to the two written note added must notes playedvery quickly. Ex. and and and and of determine (ex. 54.-I40 r. Op. 161. Op.28 40.13) bars that the secondnote of the short appoggiaturareceivesthe similar accent. realizationof recommended Ex. Op. 210 1 .111 4-1 Hfpl r 1_J__IL Tzemy (1839E). 7.p. 13/i/53-54 2/l/i/5-6. 7/iii/36. the ornament shown ex. ' beginning in bar is in 43 7. \ A 11F7-ý 0-1 -3 c. "*-. Op.

of which position Schnellerare on the first of a two. pp. 213-ý14. pp." io is be basis.ratherthanthethird.the further in Beethoven's his in Many this they music could clarify occur matter. -1--] Rý4 ý.% &-I A 'if Kullak andNewmanalsobelievethattheaccentshouldbeon the first beat. rhythm of of equal quavers would shorten distorted.By suggestingthat the bass"mustcomeout smartlyafter the two smallnotes". not without takenliterally.4. 77-78.ii 11 I -t -9 . In this case. "Newman (1988). 101bid. he believes. so accordingto the rule governingshort in first (and 6. Newman (1988).playingtheSchnellerbeforethebeatandplacinganaccenton thethird notewoLuld The length be the the the two ensuing quaver.15 e. played should claim In bar 108 Newmancites Op." he is implying that the Schnellershouldbe playedbeforethe beat.1.it is moresuitableto placethe accenton the first note." Ex. 213-214.14 Their adviceregardingthe passage ex. A&- bo 2. Beethoven introducedtlýiisornamentin a differentcontextfrom Bach. 7/i/ 109-110(ex.15) in which. In addition. 7.or three-noteslur.the semiquavers from introduced being Schneller beat first before first the two the the of notes of the prevent following bar. If Czemy's is in doubt 7. IlKullak (1973).suggestingthatthe formermighthave hada differentrealizationin mind.-q ý -L *F. question practice before beat be it the that andthat the accentshouldfall on the third note. As mentionedin section7. pp.do Czerny'srecommendations aboverepresentthe have Schneller? Although in Beethoven the would realized scholarsof performance which way his Czerny's this that three they suggestion ornament consists of accept notes. 4- Wý4Ett t OYV t: ý :t-ýtj IV4 e". pII tý. 7. 211 . However. first discussed the the therefore the of note slur section note of the slurs as Schneller)is to be slightlyaccented.

asks on the uppernote. p.his earlier emphasis. Czemy (1839E). Op. pp. 176 "Ibid. be trills to one and a succession quitted of played those which accompanya melody he had decided School Forte Piano By to (ex. A in his introductory later. p. Schoolfor to the two these years remarks appeared rules summaryof for Op.16). trill. " begin Double trills their by a lower appoggiaturaprefix..on the note above.7. by for trills which were quitted note start "Czerny (I 839E). hand. 632 that most trills should begin on their main notes. 151 he for beginnings the upper-note'start. Op. 151 (cl 828). 1830s that the trill the the his view on the performance as and of below. twelve the practiceof Practice the which contains a work exercises the of the trill. Although Czerny is insistent in the Piano Forte School and in Op. Of the . i. 7. 171-175. "Czemy (0828). ofthe realizations appoggiatura and advice on note is differs from in in 40s 1820s. is to begin them on their upper notes. in for Op. ij. outlined Accordingto Czerny'sPianoForteSchool.a start on the is lower it begin The is the trill on auxiliarynotewhen preceded mayalso uppernote advisable. and 1lCzemy (184 1). 5. In by be to this trill the the to start advice same played a melody. preface and p. 130. p. adopt a mainskips " leaps. the time was written. . invariable his Unlike the the below.4 THE TRILL Czernyliststhreepossiblewaysof startinga trill .a trill maybeginon themainnotewhenit is preceded by restsor by any note apartfrom the principalnote itself If the latter occurs. 129. " " begin for he 632. In this type to the trills of on mainnote. 632: Shake. The notabledifferenceis his adviceon the startingnote of the trill whichaccompanies his is Piano Forte School. 128 i. as specified in his prefaceto the Grand Exercise for the Practice of the Shake. a preferenýe expresses three possible a The vast majority of fingering in the exerciseof Op. ii. 151 refers to an upper-note start-. also on respectivemainnotes. pp.on the mainnoteor on the Schneller. 212 . 4.including by by hand.

0 11 IF -01. this that successive approach..the number of notes in a trill varies dependingon the context. By 1839. eachtrill consistsOf five notes. 7. p. 17As mentionedin in definite 2.Czemy(I 839E). In instructs Eleven Piano Forte he School. that the treatise same year published of ahead practice Czerny'sOp. in 7. 151 with Czerny's comments in the Piano Forte School further reveal subtle changesto the rapidity and the qualities which he claims constitute a good his In descending in Op.with thetrill finishingwithouta suffixunless notated. " This shows a significant is his in following 7. years without that irrespectiveof whethera suffix is notated.. 213 .thetrill shouldbcrperformed he his later. graceful. Czemy. the earlynineteenthcenturytowardsadoptinga main-note trend there wasa chapter it Although Hummel both for the trill suffix. with a embraced and ending upper-noteand start for latter.16 4. In theprefaceto Op. "Ibid.His notes suggesting with nine an each shows in ýn Op.hestatesthatwhena suffix is not notated. he is more concerned with trills being "quick.i.17). 7. he He began the a preference starts. 151. trill the rapidity of the tri. "Ibid. expressed also embracingthis new main-note Hummel his In German (1828). 171. IlCzemy(cl 828).Ex.preface.11. 151still endorsesthe upper-notestart. A comparison of the preface of Op. style". also confirm change ofadjectives choice trills in the grand exercisemust be played "quite legato. had it. trills on realization explanation a of a cýain of performanceof 151 (ex.the trill shouldendwith it. The samerealization in the Piano Forte Sýhool " increase (ex. the trill. change in the Piano Forte School . 4Y -rf* Tr - :r q-t- ly Sf Czerny'sview on the automaticinclusionof a suffix to enda trill wasalsodifferentin the 1820s. equal and distince'.18 to afler consideration given qualifying even statement attitude ex. the changed mind. and in a light. 15 he instructs 1.18).

according " below. 214 .18 D M 131 t 3. For contradict of double first begin trills the to over single notes volume. -- IIIII-1-1 '-a En! ± 01t! fl_ III » 1rr I: ri -AwT-: 1-4-4 ý4:::J 11 -4-1-1 - "Lzl--I= U] p. 7. in the trills. as shown 2'Czemy(1839E).-I II Czerny's theoretical writings display his conscious efforts gradually to incorporate tho newNyays in his fingerings Unfortunately. in 7. p--:. .19 ex. p. 7. the second volume some of examples performing of in first his School Forte Piano the guidelines volume of the same treatise.I! 1111.11 -' . 111111 FI LU 11111 rzr=tzl=L Ex. respective main notes.11 I__IIIIIIlIIIIrrIr--'-I iiiP P-.11 III WI 1-4=hd -. 174.:t 31 %1 4123 1 f9 r ý:f 0"00WW. .1 4-% [AýJý X a.1 ill LflJ L % iiii r pro 0 1.Ex. should on their example. i.17 fIA34 -tr h ý (I-N I u -a .

21). 7. 215 . begins on the upper note (ex.3lý . Op. . 7.. In the third movement of the Septet. is more appropriate in the piano Czemy's The the to clearly confirms with prefix position regard upper-note added arrangement. starting note of the trill. 41 ý i 41.1j111 __ -Lý The sametype of trill in the secondvolume.Ex. 632) and in his arrangementsof Beethoven's compositions. 12.20). wind unlike very quickly.19 --4 -vy ýy F.1.1 ititiuli rrniiti -ei . at As a result. insteadof an unembellished long-held b62. 20. a trill.20 / Incidentally. i I F1-Fi ilbll . 211bid.0. however.0-0-4-0-0-0 '1 11 II-lI-IIII1IJ 'I ýj I1. . and the Septet. decays but the tone this once a piano struck. Ex. Op. 1. 20 does have original score prefix not a trill upper appoggiatura is key instruments. ý llý jjj 10-0-0. 132. 7. all - iiititii" iiiriirrrnimi i ei 20i 11 20jý. 7. including the "Kreutzer" Sonata.1 ý -1.j tt1II-f'llI!!! 2. 47.'4' -I- + -4 h nIý. point. p. Czerny adds the Beethoven's in bar (ex.ý1j. ii. it is common for Czemy to add prefixes to trills in his theoretical writings (such as in Op.

7. This is in direct opposition to the in himself listed he the first volume of his treatise. 216 . 4-d- -1 ew 4--# 14 141 P3 3 II c'.22 iýFL9 1. 7.Ex. 130and 132-134. 176andfi. 211bid. % 9-0- tý -0 _. begin on their upper notes..2ý e-. p. except the ascendingand descendingchainsof double trills. Ex. 7. 138.it is also contradicts itself" The fingeringin the first bar of ex. -L. I U-- Y::ý ZL I t f-! --'-t±I -f -! -1 I N I --_j 1 The fingering in ex. 7. i. In the first volume of this 1839 treatise. p.22) while the second volume. hand in is (both the the third the while right and an upper-note start start note i. 175and 177andii. pp. 7. 211bid. from the secondvolume of Piano Forle School.23 below. not only instructions in first Czerny's the volumeof the sametreatise(seeex. 7. Discrepancy also existswith regard precepts to Czerny's realization of a trill which is sandwiched vertically between two notes in the same hand.. pp.23pointsto a maininconsistentwithin thepassage left) in bar. 1= - IF 1' -W IF -ff F -. he insists that the double trills should start on the in (ex. r ý All Czemy's double trills in the secondvolume of Piano Forte School. the same'type of trill begins on the upper main notes 22 note.24).

intended. only occasionallyopts unclear why Ex.09i 1.. LU_I pI L I--t I! L: ýý] 1111 1 2-1 po p0e0 f. 7. 'Fm4li /I 9-0-9p-9-"-9-0-0-4-0 tz 0-v-0-v..25 -9=- ON aly TL. 9. +I ý ý-1 L (cl 828).25). 7.I i fl- 9..22. has different starting notes and an uneven number of notes in each trill. 7. This example. as can be seenin ex. V4 ItIi' "_... 151 (ex..26 below.i. till_I ?0M0 III IIIIIII LULLLUIUJLLUflJJJJ FIlFTF1I Ill OJ IIIIIII 1iIiJ1-11I I 0 III 0. examples. the the the same note all still starting prevalent same employing Piano Forte School.as well as exst 7.apd.hestipulatesanupper-notestart in ex.24irrespectiveof whetherthetrill is accompanying a melodyaboveor below it. According to the fingering of an ascendingmotif in Op. p. 7. -. 172. In these three in first is have It he trill the trills while all subsequent eight seven notes notes.23 Ex.ar II In !'0T0 II L.. Ex.ýff It_I_I__I__i_i I1'-l-"UI I I 11 This mixture of main-note and upper-note starts within the samemotif is a common feature in Czemy's writings on the subjectof trills. I'. ! III 5 SAr 'I 'I . Czerny(I 839E). 7. 7. 14Czemy 217 t17 14ý -0- .19 and 7.24 I . it appearsthat no consideration is given to maintain tlýs stepwise rise by in The inconsistency is for trills. notates " for "uneverf ' he such an realizýationof certain trills. p..In contrast.

133. Later.:-:T3.ii." Ex. 47.Onlyonepassage in the Simrock edition (from výr. To aid his discussionon the appropriatefingeringsfor trills.32.pp. fingeringsareindicated. in his scoreeditionof the samesonata(publishedby Simrock).replacingthemwith singlefingerings. The majority of the trills in from Variations Czerny'sarrangement the"Kreutzer" Sonata(Kullakdatesthepublication the of date c1821).Vý T. Czerny's how fondness for different this erroneous assumptionmay given st. p.beginon the uppernotes. 7. results of of convinced realizations him otherwise.4143_ . 31 13 2. Czernyrecommends the combinationof 42-31 for a trill in thirds.which havedoublefingeringsor addedprefixes.Op. (I 839E). edition indicatethat the preference trills shouldbegin on their main notes.but his singlefingeringdoesnot refer to the startingnote (ex. revealsthat when siogle notes. FranzKullak wasoneof the first to observethe inconsistencies He initially consideredCzemy'sremarksin the Piano Forte Schoolto be valid adviceon the but in Beethoven's his investigations the trills piano music.27 -i "Kullak (1973)." We haveseenin the previous ýrting be.27).26 iA 0 ý. 4) has double fingerings. paragraph Piano Forte School In the the second volume of addition.Czernyhadremovedmanyof tfie doublefingeringsandtheaddedprefixes. III H' 2% 24 in Czerny'srealizationsof trills.Ex. . In contrastto Czemy's earlier double fingerings in for Simrock the this upper-note starts.. 83-86. 7. 7. 16Czerny 218 .41 2 -. differed in two separateeditions. He was shockedand disgustedthat Czerny's fingering of the trills in the "Kreutzer" Sonata. Kullak assumesthat the other trills with only single fingeringsin this passagewould alsobeginon their mainnotes.theymaynot necessarily referto the startingnoteof the trills.

is direction for begin (ex. a on upper note published 7.28 I (ý)ý-4-1-1 .His fingerings. IIvIJIIIII II 'S I 2 r. 7. (ex. Wo04O (1793). - .Czemyshowsa lack of consistencyin practice.In spiteofa gradualchangetowardsthepreferencefor a main-notestartin histheoreticalwritings from the 1830s. 20 (ex. 7. It is noted with interestthat this arrangementwas Piano Forte School. Beethoven also inserts fingerings for three trills in his Variations for Piano and Violin.r Cre-SX.and his own from (as is to the casewith the vary one arrangement another addition of prefixeswhich may in Op. Ex.29a).29b). bar In 8 the the part piano of amongmodem scholars. The commentand but to divideopinion the few fingeringsheleft on thematterhaveservednot to secureagreement from in Piano Trio B flat. in he before the the of publication which strongly madeabout a year favoureda main-notestart. Wo03§. 219 . Theseinconsistencies raisemanyquestions. Even in an early work suchasthis. 151andin the "Kreutzer" Sonata).21 above)indicatesan upper-notestart. The addedprpfix to the trill in his arrangementof the Septet.1 vI. 7.often contradictthe very ruleswhich he emphasized Piano Forte School. fingering in the trill to the Beethoven's 1812.Beethoven'spracticeon thismatteris not entirelycleareither. only two of his three fingerings reveal an upper-note in bass) both begin in (first in bars 59-60 treble. 7.Op. Could hd merelybe during Beethoven's lifetime? inconsistent Are Czerny's how trill this was realized recalling dictated Beethoven's they of own practice or are simply of startingnotesa reflection suggestions by his own fancy? Unfortunately. In contrast. then the their the The trills on upper notes start.28). his fingering in bar 74 implies a main-note start (ex.

Su ta'. Ex. 7. . _________ "1 5. 7. The fingering of the trill in Op.29b 4- 4: -41 F Ll (I.30 (0 Jý. Ex. They are befieved authentic and I.Ex. the two trills begin on their main notes (ex. a I. 7. -___ JJ J 7 220 . 119/7/1-2 in Starke's Mener Piano-Forte Schule (1819-182 1) by in English the edition published Clementi (1823) are the same. to have been inserted by Beethoven but.30). 7. here again.29aThe triH beginsin bar 49.

Newman (1988). 28. tonic the the through of and passes finally the resolution to I in the following bar. 217. The faint fingering (1-2) in the tenor part of this bar hasalso beena source of debate. (1966).p. (1988).sqethe list in ffi. nld(31en .Drake.he musthavedecidedthat considered second it was the most suitable for double trills of smaller intervals. 194. 100. 2' it by inserted Beethoven Assuming that the fingering is by time this regarding whether was . Beethoven. however.the trilling of this chord. Wlbd*%4t% IMriLxt -pahr v4ý ýun rýrtt.p. 221 . 7. 492-494. Although he be impossible trill to the with the 51-42fingering. Mies p. 7. £cäz.l1eyschlag(1908). then to the trill two the chooses one on upper an 06? as note notes. begin bars later If (with.pp.29a a compositions. The music then W V in bar first inversion in 118. againreturns in below). He suggestsa rather peculiar alternative.begin on their upper notes. Winter.Nottebohm(1887). will act as V4ý". where ex.by later Beethoven (no An earlymiscellaneous than 1792)containstwo double-notetrills sketch in whichthe secondfinger crossesover the thumb(ex. Drake(1972). with the upper-note starts.p. pp. Beyschlag. bar briefly 119. and 29Fora list of sourceswhich containsthis argument. that the trill on the soprano 2' 62 begin The d2 begin the the the on upper note while should alto should a on main note. indicated). p. III (see double 7. II Mill 12 (ex. 194. be its double-note E6 the to trill this viewed within should context of of modulation realization . The trills. Newman.p.t in bar 106 in d2e2d2e2d2 lower its firs few The being trill to the would result C02 prefix major. In two of his published fingering: double in he to this trill thirds in Wo04O (seeex.31 the trill of notes on their upper notes. in bar 120.32). 359.32 trill ex.Grundmann 28 Newman (1978). above. 167.31 54 iý 2 . Grundmannand Mies believethat the fingering (52-41) indicates a crossed fingering as shown in Beethoven's early illustration in double begin both 7. 7. this will lead smoothly into the double note trill in bar 112 (with upper-note starts for both notes). above)anda One fingering by Beethoven wl-iich have causedthe most debateis that of his double trill in the treble of Op. in fifths Op. 7. 21Newman Winter (1977). is unconvinced.31). 125-126." Ex. accordingto Beethoven'sfingerings.x.

ESh ý 1.pp. compositions.Winter (1979). 250-2ý5.32 229 os&!& Qoi) 11 12 =fF k1 di ib ).Ex. 1 -- -. I? a 13 L121 Various hypotheseshave beenput forward in an attempt to discover how Beethoven. 1bllý- IrT. 222 .Winter (1977).pp.:. -. pp. Although Rosenblumrecognisesthat the starting note ofa trill he. 440-446and451-453." "Rosenblum(1988).pp.luave intendedhis trills to be performed. is by dissonance determined be is important that the the convinced she melodic most and can influential factor. 98-103. Winter also placesmuch emphasison the importance of dissonance. ON L.Although Newman acknowledges the function of trills as dissonant appoggiaturas in Beethoven's early from he deduce to the trill note of a starting prefers melodic and technical factors. qý 0. He considersthat using dissonanceas a factor is too subjective and therefore unreliable.0. 7.pp. Newman(1988).Newman(1976). II 1-116. -.pp. 196-202.1 V. 1 iý 1! YW0.may.Newman(1978).---I---------pp -. 483-504. -----.

Beethovensuggeststhat the trill in bar 485 shouldbeginon the but does instruction 7. on theuppernote.34a (exs. unlike Czerny. thoughintelligent. It also offers the insightthat he.Takefor exampleBeethoven'sfingering for Wo039 (ex. (ex.Beethovenclearlydoes advisea main-note Consider his follow the suggestionregarding one of the trills within the long same rules. theywouldprobably takeinto accountthedescending for begin In the to trill asking start. the third the towards end of movement of series Ex.Theseexplanations. 7.33). not Op. 7. 11 j ýt- 2- .is not unduly (which trill the accompanies a melody)at a slowerpacethanusual: concernedaboutplaying 223 .61 J.34b) 7. 53 7. I ýj -dP6 i13 I 2 * i Iýa- At the endof the autograph. FollowingNewman'sandRosenblum'sguidelines. not provideany and on the startingnote of uppernote the trill beginningin bar 477.areall subjective.33 I V2))) E : t : JJ I JI cr I I 0.which would line andtheharmonicprogressionin bar8.28 above).

Drake's translation.34a]. herewherethe theme is joined with it. In all threeinstances. 7.7. Each the theme time.N. tiejoining addition.p. 7. 7. The trill trill. I If onewereto apply Newman'sargumentsthat Beethovengenerallypreferredto beginhistrills (as Rosenblum's) his the guidelineregardingthe preservationof the well as and main note on has in bar 485 begin in bar Although 477 line. Generallyit is not importantif this trill also losessomethingof its " usualspeed.perhaps on g' each becauseBeethovenconsideredit to beunderstood.34a Ex. 224 . 55. accordingto the extentof their capability. in by bar followed indiscriminate 477 to a of main-note start an upperchoice rise an apparently is. the three times and entry of previously announced in in bass held four bars descending by the trill semiquavers anda g' the right of on a preceded hand. not preceded anupperappoggiatura. the of another solution. may facilitatethe trill in the following manner[ex. the the trill the trill should on main note. sean-dess g' a suddenly into bar be for 485.168 337). however. one will be able to maintaina consistentpatternwherebythe Rondo theme In in bars 485 484 from long. in bar 477.or. 165.alsodoubleit [ex. melodic beginning This Beethoven's trill the the suggestion shows on upper would give note.34b] Ex. no prefix. closer examination continuation note by been lower hand has in Rondo theme trill the that the a accompanied right scorereveals is (bb. in bar There A 485.by startingthe trill in bar 477 on the upper note. This Beethoven to the trill that continue smoothly can achieved wishes shows "Drake (1972). the to "appears" trill.Therefore.Beethovenconscientiously notatesanupperappoggiatura(a4) to is bý however.34b Of these sextupletstwo are played to each quarter in the bass. Thosefor whom the trill is too difficult. B.

225 . 7. but how does he expect performers to notes of Could "inconsistent" trills the those without prefixes? starting notesin the passageswhere realize trills are precededby appoggiaturasbe a clue that the performer has the freedom to choose the by the trills preceded of which are not a preffix? note starting I The views of Winter.Onereasoncouldbe. Beethoven leavesno doubt as to his intended starting by trills they when are pre6eded appoggiaturas. to three the notes according starting of I "Ibid.beforecrossingit out andopting for the Beethoven (see 7.begin in bar 485 if to the triH were on the upper note. Rosenblum.that he expected this trill to be treatedin the samemannerasthosethreeearlierstatements. PerhapsBeethoven. Newman and other present-dayscholarscannot be fingerings fact limited The Beethoven left do not favour one that the conclusive. uppernote Drakereasonsthattheshadeof the ink on the g2naturalandthe slantof thehandwritingsuggests irill beginningon the mainnote. considered might In the long trill passagefrom Op. Re Czerny. the trill in bar 44 is preceded by a lower appoggiaturawhile those in bars 45-46. only By initially startingthe trill in bar 485 on the mainnote. He continued to use all three ways ofstarting a trill throughout his creative output. but a lower-note start in bar 511. Drake. 57/i/44-46 have different starting notes. Although Czerny's usageof a combination of starting notes in exs.26 above is now Beethoven himself have done that the the same. 493-514).34b and above). givesthe impressionof beingindecisive. exs. by upper appoggiaturas.501 and 507.asis explainedin the previousparagraph. employed one his "fancy". possibility remains eccentric.25 and 7. the trills in Op.32This is a perfectly that Beethovenautomaticallythoughtof the it does Beethoven that except not reveal why explanation plausible eventuallydecidedto starton the uppernote. the latter requestsfor an upper-note start in bars 493. The theory that the starting note of a trill (without a prefix) can be chosen by studying the harmony (often the starting note of the trill is expectedto createdissonancewith line by following logical doesnot seemto apply to every harmony) the the the or path of melodic trill which has been fingered by the composer.34a 7. which entirely he did the that over other suggests not strictly practise either the cighteenth-century starting note or the nineteenth-centurysystem. Similarly. 53/iii (bb.

226 I . .. 235.1 N II ký S4. therewasno tossingthemto andfro.CHAPTER 8: FINGERING.' Beethoven'scontemporaries.. II isý. 'Sonncck (1967). 'Schindler (1966) (ed. "Z QXI J" 7-ISAMIOP -V\ all rSqý. from dates 1793 (ex. direction in 8.laterrecalledhow he"playedwith hishandssovery still. Fr'N-') . 8. a correct aspectof playingis againemphasized and includ. 15... See also Czemy (1970).GerhardvonBreuningandFriedrichWieck. p. i/iI/i r--777=1 tl & t: . -1 'Anderson (196 1). p. Breuning (1992)...ing SirJohn Beethoven'soft-quoted1817letterto hispupil.-iiii ir i . *. 78.whichI havebeentaughtto lift high heard Beethoven Joseph Mahler. Willibrord hold a proniinent portrait painterwho straight"! and in 1803. pp. 742. p.1vq- III I HI -I .2.. Czemy (1956).1 blý. 307. hands his body wereheld [in a] quiet in "[h]is Schindler's the upper portion of and words and [manner]"? ThereseBrunsvik. 415. Russell. p.' Evenwhenthe musicis not in a closefive-fingershape.the fingersalonedoingthe work". 115 and 128. MacArdle). a Ex. 337.1).Czerny'sfirst I&ssonwith Beethovenwason correcthandposition fingering is fundamental in That fingering. HAND POSITION AND EXERCISES TECHNICAL As discussedin section1. p.. 'Ibid. E 11 iAii1v1 1(%I ýýL4 0p Iv11.4 -4. they seemedto glideright andleft overthe keys.. Beethoven's about reveals asshown anearlysketchwhich that he expectsthe hand to be always held in a close position. up anddown. ii. p.all agreethatheplayedwith curvedfingers.who hadlessonswith Beethovenin 1799. wonderfulashisexecutionwas.relateshow Beethoven "nevergrewwearyof holdingdownandbendingmy fingers. i.. p. 4Thayer (1969).

' this chapter(from section 8. he showsthe relationshipbetweencorrect fingering. notes. 5.p. FI.since he evenpreparesa comprehensive Czernyconsidersthe rules of fingering to be influencedby the developmentof mechanical dexterity. 'Ibid. SeealsoCzemy(1839E).Usingcorrectfingering.i.aswell as positionof a correctholding down of the keys. noting down some of the results in sketchbooks.that modeof fingeringmust be chosenby whichwe may be'able fine to tranquil maintain a and most easily and naturally hands. as naturehadbestoweduponhimat least fifty fmgers. and a beautifulandconnected 6e the the scalesandruns. firm the a andperpendicularpercussion.In the secondvolumeof this treatise.He tirelesslyinsertsfingeringsin all the exercises in the Piano Forte School. play a single a achieve note means unconventional 6Czemy(1848). consisting boldest delicate the the skips.adoptinga quiet handposition andplayingwith curvedfingersare also in frequently his Czemy's In Letters to the stressed are writings. pp.ý.Czernypromisesthat the pianistwill be able to executethe mostrapidruns.the mostintricatepassages. Est of the fundamentalrules of fingering. 2. 227 . Italicizationoriginal.Beethovenexperimented with varioussoundworldsandtechnical difficulties. However. with the sameperfect equality. which piano aspectsof playing A YoungLady. most and numberless often of [ ] complicatedembellishments.2 onwards) will comparehis teacyirtgwith the few fingeringsprovidedby Beethovenin compositionswhich involvethe piano.a quiethandposition and fingers: curved playingwith In general. 25-26. Tzemy (I 839E).right'from the very first pages. 2 and44-46andH. p.andvolubility. melodyand of performanceof Oncethe art of ffigering is mastered. 8.' The largecollectionof Audiesby Czemyfurther testifiesto the importanceheplaceson correct fingeringwhenpractisingtechnicalexercises. if connection.pp...1 SOME TECHNICAL EXERCISES FROM BEETHOVEN'S SKETCHES Throughouthiscreativeyears. He sometimesresorted to fmgers for his two to to such as using goal.

8.F.fuller in tone. p..f115" 4 I A I W I -4 Olok WtýzAr 'v) -0. 8.asit wasstill mentioned in Czerny'sPiano Forte School. 169.ii.2). -Ar"Xlcyý& -.2 .' Ex. This methodof playingremainedin useevenafterhis death. - -. 228 I ---I- . strongerand asshown bars25-31 from a sketchof 1793/early1794(lines3 and4 in ex.jj 't 4-1 II'I"/ PIy I 4 CA Vu-t 9 ---U- I/'I -J -iý -1 !«/' C 1-1 91bid.

Ex. Kesslersketchbooks. 8.8. Her translation. 8. 8. leaps.p. Many of Beethoven'ssketchesfrom 1790-1803containinnovativefingerpatterns. The benefitted Czemy. Beethovendemonstratesan fingers.7 and 8. In the the characteristics of order to obtain a powerful natural of understanding fortissimo on the singlebassnotes. Exs.8 below requirethe combinationof light. his 1790 figures October to traced who canalso sketchof practisingrepeated (ex.2 above (see the first two lines). canbe aswell asfrom a miscellaneous found in anyof Czerny'sstudiesfor the advancedpianist. indicatesthat the motif is to be playedmanytimes.henot only choosesthe strongestfinger. for finger the actionanda relaxedarm agile "Rosenblum(1988).3).3 iot-PA- -C -A f 441.5) flexible The to to exercise same on octave applies which arm. Thisexercise. 229 .heis alsousingthe weight of the armto makethenoteslouderandfuller.accompanied by remarkson effectivewaysto executethesepatterns(including the art of fingering). a k v'. obtainedfrom his Kafka and leaf in Nottebohm'sBeethoveniana.4). 8. resultsof facility finger In technical through to training all conceivablepassages and studies.In the first nine bars of ex. foundation for his the these which provide numerous explorations. 8. 207.6. in for His fingers.to beplayed"up and down throughall majorandminorkeysin asfasta tempoaspossible"" is practicableonly if one his leaps has (ex. playswith a be playedby throwingthe hand. 8.but by assigningone fingerto all thesenotes. Beethovenmadea sketchon rapidstaccatooctaves(ex. and preoccupationwith agility of in be Beethoven.a\ma.As a youngmanof abouttwenty-pne. addition develop Czemy the to the strengthand of such exercises also encourages repetition patterns. to the strive greater evenness playing. I H The finger patternsin the varioussketchesby Beethovenbelow.

7 4 m 1) vo // I 230 Al MW . 8. 8.5 I 5. it it h :t A Ex. I-I Ex.4 SýraccAN 9-"nvm mo\l-AA c-ý tzw44 Ex.6 MTEEEErsads Ji I" -1'I --.Ex. 8. 8.

8.in Thirds. as was mentionedon p.I -*-f -it C!. including a few which are written specifically for this 12 purpose.Op. ErnstPauer. 735.' He wrote based in bars in from 7-8 8. 8. a 1w "I I/I ]c I * -9 :t via k 2." but also provides ample studies. Beethoven was mindful not to neglect the training of the left hand.i. 51. EasyStudiesfor the Left Hand. the left hand is again expectedto match the virtuosity 1790. Ex.apianist. In another exercises contrary motion exercise(ex.Ex. Icl "- I j However.Op.9). 399.8 Nevertheless. 16. Beethoven Even left hand be the to the already as early as required right. andEtudes. I ýT I I-A -p Lf91fl1 ii i. 231 . above. 8.Op.sWqnz 0. p. 718. Forte Piano this training the not only emphasizes of right School.for the Left Hand. 8. technicalshowmanship "SeeCzerny(1839E). Lk it -4 .8 above). as agile asthe of Czerny left hand in his (ex. -N! I D M. "Grand Studiesfor the Improvementof the Left Hand.7 the motion on pattern contrary ex.9 m.. one must bear in mind that Beethovenneverallowed to bemoreprominentthantheexpressionofmusic. .

" and "increasing that the the mechanismof pianoforte expresses opinion " destroy in in truth the all of expression music. However. as and others: were performance. style passage. sensitivity musicreflect By insistingon goodtechniqueandan understandingof the composer'sstyle. He its (polyphonic example. p. Hummel." all of which are attempts to state the fact that in his playing.onemustnot automaticallyassumethat Czernywasinterestedonly in drilling the fingers. partly Indeed.2 FUNDAMENTAL RULES OF FINGERING t Czerny declaresthat II. . others express as recalling the effect of while with "reciting. the technical before disappeared the transcendenteffect andmeaning appliances. 232 .. and partly and which occurs.his choiceof fingeringfor the exercisesand examplesin the secondvolumeof Piano Forte Schoolandin thesonataexcerptsin TheArt oftenhelpsthepianistto obtainthe smoothest highest figure. 4. of W61ffl. 8. such "speciar' artists he satirically calls "gymnasts. as highly Hummel's he in 2. Punctuationoriginal. indeed. " by the style of execution. the execution. end playing would Czernyis oftenaccusedof embracingthe idealdescribedin the lastsentence.. shouldbe played in that mannerwhich is the most suitable and natural to the casethat is by determined the adjacent notes. the means. than technique 'He than more emphasis on good also placed of playing (seepp.the passages. . 98. Kalkbrenner.It is true that.hetries to get the bestof both worldsby expressingthe poetic contentof the musicthroughtechnicalskill.His commentsin TheArt regardingthe performance of Beethoven'spiano distinct his to the characterof eachsectionandthecompletemovement.and "Quotedin Gerig(1974). ii.p.in his He the particular was not polishing and refining music. for fingering). the thought of clarity and of more neatness was mentioned chapter Beethoven Beethoven's. a also require particular passages. 14 Czemy(1839E). [e]very passagewhich may be taken in severalways.writes: They saythat his performancewas not so much "playing" as"painting it " tones. into He the thecharacterof each takes note of each account connectionof notes. 11-12).

53).e Fmý iL i a (MI.. ii 51 . 5.. offers alternatives:either glissando betweentwo hands(asin Op.10a e 41 fýýI 2 S 2a2 1F:51 Fjst 25. 34 and57.88-89.r8 131 -. 8.pp. 233 v . 8 Ex. 8. 34.. For in Op. 8. 2/2/i the the shouldnot alter characterof passage.has hands" find it broken difficult therefore. to who small and.1f 15 . Beethoven's octave Ex. 8. 2/2/i) or play singlenotesinsteadof octaves(in dividethe passage he remindsthe readerthat the suggestedalternativeway of playingthe Op.304-305 (ex. with pianists play sympathizes in 308-309 Op. 2/2/i/84-85. 749) 748 (Opp. 3 de . 53/iii he these pianists..1Ob hands.10a) and or the octave octave passages in bar beginning 465. " (ex. to those with smaU and "He evendedicatestwo setsof studies IlCzerny(1846). "Ibid.. P.16Nevertheless.1 Ob) in figure Op.

EtT.he arrangeshisfingeringin sucha way in hand fifth finger highest the to the the to right play noteof eachphrase.1-1.13.12b)andOp. In Wo05O/i/13-17andWo039/5. Tie ý5.y - -- d.41 5/1-3 2aIIIt -- I r I _____ ____ i-ri".'1. JFHILfJ I *Pao FLLjj' Z4 !wV zt 13S4 I E=E-l 11 si LIN iF: I p""".11 Allerr4tto Viatioe Vialoaccllo 1-- 1 Ii ýQ Alle FA tto (V Klavier il wp dolce 14 14 a-t 9 444t1 ststst FFF mký . Ex. jI I l . I Crete. 8.12aand 8.Very often. so as allow different hands he to sizes of and shapes. 90/ii/132. providesmorethan one set of so as accommodate fingering. and 15(ex. 8.11). 24 r 3'32 Alp 101 I J. h.a fftI A 5E m r.10. -f Iii nl 234 p " . 8..for exampleOp. 28/iv/205and208 (exs. 41 II _____ ____ ip It ( I"J t I.fingeringsrevealthat he too consideredall thesefactorswhen choosinga suitablefingering. F-7 -- - Eý -- :.

Fourthly. 8. Fifthly. either in [sic] five in descending.The thumb must never be placed on the black keys. are the sameas those in the Piano Forte School: First.12b u F-71 JII4 16 4D II 1F . We must not strike two or more keys one after another with the self-samefinger. 114A 14-1L -91 pPr1rA JL 1+1 AN Ex. Secondly.however./ . The fingering given for the scales must be resorted to everywhere. 235 .In runs. but we must passthe thumb under. for each key must retain its own finger. vI. little the mayoccasionally uponthe blackkeys. or passthe three middle fingers over the thumb. as Sixthly. 8.the thumb. When severalkeys are to be played one after another.and as much as possible. In chordsandwide extensions.12a -.the little fingershouldneverbeplacedon theblack keys.ý6 1F1 Ia Czerny's rules on fingering in the passagebelow.aswell fall fmger. Thirdly.the four longer fingers must never be turned ovdr one another. fingers that and ascendingor are not sufficient for this purpose. quoted from the Letters to A YoungLady.Ex.

except when or on of -51 in the octavepassageof Op. 8. Beethoven still bear black keys. 2/2/i/84-85. he this the the on a employsthe of second note exceptwhen in in Op.we mustconsiderwhether. Newman suggeststhat. 78/ii. with a piece many sharps.seealso Czemy(1839E). rI111jiIIIII -'t-FF 'llmd.1151 'A ir' a. (ex. ve have seen in the previous paragraph how in the next piano sonata. the following note (a 6) would undoubtedly be played by the thumb (ex. He Op. When happens.10 above). I 11. II 0/ii/7 1. finger 8.304-305and308-309whenthe first andthird keys. 288. in One the thumb must also on n-dndthat the passagein Op.13 0 Vi yl)v I/ '14 ý4ý R-ok "Vill i -IU041-j iII 171 ! FZPý4--. Italicizationoriginal. 8.-j li 1 4-hi 13 L=:: .the appropriatefingersstandin readiness.At eachnotethat we strike. so as in Op. hedoesnot However. 25.88-89.he uses5-1 to connectthe gapsin the passageworkin Op. 19Newman 236 . 8.14)).ii. ZLI 51 a -I--' jr-I . 78/ii. III /i/27-28 is black leap key. Similarly.Seventhly. 116-117 and 120-121 in ex. black the thumb the of on use without "Czemy (1848). (1988). pp. Op. but 2-4-2 black keys (see the two chooses when outer notes are on white on are ex. Both Czemy(rule (2) above)andBeethovenconformto the generaltaboosurroundingtheuse is indicates black keys Beethoven 1 1 2-5there thumb the no alternative.for " the fbHowingnotes. II 0/ii/64avoided 72 is in E flat minor.p. -tý9 1 39 have any choice but to employ the first finger on black keys where necessary(seehis fingerings in bb. notes 8. it would be almost impossibleto play fast passagework keys.Beethoven appearedto prefer placing the thumb in he keys. by indicating first black 4 that the quotes which reasons on on righthand note. 2-4.p.13). Ill]:-. in his later compositions. such as second Ex.17).

4F:a:. 43. on the three middle rely 'OThismovementof the thumbis constantlyemphasizedin Czerny'swritings.4 ff (4) As shownin ex.3 ýr !ýý -0 0-%2%IIiý. i.that one shouldemploy the normal fingeringfor scalesas much as it know fingering during Beethoven's The today as we scales was established systemof possible.seefor example Czerny(1839E). p. 12-13. it and was not widely adopted. choosing insteadto 21 frequently long finger fingers heavily vaulting a and over a shorter one. 8. The first. 237 . 8.pp. % 2. The generalpractice then was to usethe thumb and the fifth finger sparingly. Ex. the as role played century above.15 The pianopart only. 8. II 't -4. iÄ -iv Dýý -3Ai between difference half lifetime. rule eighteenth is finger fingers. early eighteenth century. the the thumb the all-important which enablesthe smooth and easy passingunder " known few in Although tl-ýs to method was already a musicians the execution of passagework. Czerny's this that the main system of the and of and by described is in Czerny's (1) By the thumb. including Couperin Francois Marpung.14 -A- :-I-. Beethoven'sfmgering in the right handof Wo039/95 confirras Czerny's rule (6) above.15 below. "Bach (1974).Ex.

Beethoven black to not eitherpassage. with fingeringsin the excerptsattributedto the latter. context which are convinced within are considered based on musical considerations.pp. the fourth fingerto crossthe fifth (from a blackkey to a white andfrom a white.convey the characterand are a way to generatedynamics.pp.pp. and261. white a Ex. 5-6. p. againfrom a white to a black key.250. Although thisýmethodof fingering is not includedin Czerny's list of rules above. (1839E).16 ii. ii. enable scales and fluently (as discussed in to the trills the clues starting provide as well as note as of executed but Newman fingerings help that the agrees adds composer's chapter). --o3"-I* ii ui ii ii I -r iHmu tI Modem scholars such as Bamberger and Hiebert insist that Beethoven's fingerings must be in They fingerings his they the that occur. 39 and43. he indicatesthat the fourth finger shouldcrossthe fifth from a " leave did fingerings for key. Newman 2'Bamberger (1988). asks above).Starkehadpublisheda shortenedversionof Beethoven'sOp. 8. show metrical stress. 13/ii/5.p. 290.accents Beethoven's fingerings Hiebert be that to agrees and adds also articulation. 8. clarify the previous " emphasisof particular rhythmic groupings. repeatedly sparingly practice. ex. In his WienerPiano-ForteSchule.to anotherwhite key).9 OP. In bar 77 from the secondmovement he in finger 31 Starke's (b.in Op.he neverthelesscontinuesto use it for (see he 3. 34 andCzerny(1846). 238 . from time to time. in In etc. The Variationson "Es war einmalcin alter Mann" (Wo066/ix/8-9) is another instancewhere Beethovenusesthis type of fingering:the fourth finger crossesthe fifth. continuedto usethe old systemof vaultingthe third finger over the fourth. specifies shouldcross sonata of the fourth from a white to a black key (ex.249. that the third this shortened version).16).Althoughturningthethumbunderthe fingerswasthe preferredmethodof fingering. Hiebert(1985-1986). 7/iv/68-69. Bamberger believes that his fingerings help define phrase structure. 242.245.76-79. 12Czerny (1976). 28. Similarly.Beethoven.

8.the movementof the armwill give the impressionof legato.andonein whichBeethoven'sfingering is believedto contributeto the crescendo.Hiebert(1985-1986).pp.wherebythecrescendois createdby the fingers(seethe discussionon tonalcontrol in chapter5). when as and of combination (ex. smooth role of enable " Czerny'sfingeringis exactlythe sameasBeethoven'sin bars61-62. his decision 120-121 in 16-117 Op. (1976). with Although the doublenotesarenot physicallyconnected. 8. Beethoven'sfingeringis not includedin TheArt because Czernymust haveconsideredhis suggestionto be better.pp. Beethoven employs a consistent pattern of fingering.3 THE FINGERING OF REPEATED OR SIMILAR FIGURES I in certain passages. lol/Hi/248-250.he dynamics.he usesa intervals 4-1.11 above)will generatea forward push in following bar.13 She in his for fingerings The that this ex. Shecorrectly observesthat it was commonpracticein the nineteenth fingerings learn indicate to to which were easy uniform and easyfor the fingers to century issues. In both cases. ratherthanby the armasimpliedby Beethoven'sfingering.17). However. in Art (see 3.Czernywould still expecta similarmusicalresult. above). is 5-2 Even the the casewith the semiquaver vary. Op. in fingering in bars 59-60 in fingering Beethoven's to the order avoid consecutive slightly alters bar 60 (seeCzemy'srule (3) above). 2/3/iv/269 and in.such as the successionof double fourths in Op.Thetrio from Op. 14Bamberger 239 .2/l/iii/59-62 is a much-discussed case. 78/ii/I to use a consistent pattern of and motif fingering is further proof of the importance of maintaining a quiet hand position. 9-10. Although a differentset of fingering is offered. her fingering Czerny's Hiebert these to on and goes with on criticize agrees memorize. argues which quest passage of ignores fines be Czemy fingering legato long to to clarify the played. 3.Barnbergerconcludesthat Beethoven'sconsecutive 5-1 fingeringof the doublefourthsin bar 60 (seeex. towards thefortissimo thus the the a generating crescendo whole arm. 250-254.

althoughdesirable.17 e-I%aI d2x I . 111. 9R [I Rlýý Atl 1ý6 E Eý It is thereforeperplexingthat the ffigering for the secondinversionof a tonic major seventhin Op. wide rangingor extendedpassages[keep] the samefingeringas much as possible"" fingering he impression that throughout.. (1988).19) . II. pattern Ex.18). A-ii *L 14 t:::l ..4 OR. 117 288. 212. Ex.18 His instructionaccompanying a sketchof a diminished-seventh arpeggioon B (ex.-.Ex. Her translation.. 8. 8. Seealso GrundmannandMies (1966). 8. Perhapshis letter of 1817to Czemycouldprovide someanswers."in long.shouldbe varied. Ll M4114T. follows "i. 106/i/96-97shouldbe inconsistent(ex. and 240 . few fingere'.19 / . Newman p. 8.p.p. someunknownreason(possiblya scribalerror). in brackets imply this that which e. 8. lN j 071 3.AI i II gz:: . The description. thus disruptingthe consistent1-2-3-4 had been he using. with only a clarification "Rosenblum(1988). he fingers virtually the last note of the sketch2 insteadof the expected3.He asksfor all the fingersto be trainedand advisesCzernythat pearl-likeruns. He is true to his word for the expects uniform gives but for the whole arpeggio.

avoid placing on other the pattern regular. 8. the irregular fingering in Op. of and sets provides exercisesof for a repeatedmotivic pattern in his Piano Forte School. as Newman and Bamberger point out..2 the to climax. 2'Bamberger 241 . According to Bamberger. 2/l/iii/60-62 is necessaryto implement the irregular " We have in dynamic how Beethoven 8. Beethoven sometimeschoosesto use irregular fingering in repeated or similar figures to obtain a different effect. a suspicion which is confirmed by the latter's fingerings in the in his fingering Czerny School Forte Piano two the studies. (1976). p. 252.andin such too as passages finger Admittedly he that over another.such as n. Sometimes. In one set.p. implies that Czerny prefers to use the same 'fingering for repeated motives. they to were pearls e. All passagesderived from dominant-seventhanddiminished-seventharpeggiosin the Piano "Anderson(1961).there may be interpretive or technical considerations.pp.he wasreferringnot only to tonal colour (seep. as shown in ex. Beethoven's caution. keys. Newman(1988). 71.20 below. 2/2/i in fingering to the thumb the the on of avoid octave passages placing changes I keys. 159)but alsoto uniformity in fingering: In certain passages. ii. In addition.t---pF -- I shouldlike him alsoto useall his fingersnow andthen. with only sound. is black is The to the thumb fingering so as modified. also seen section emphasize slurring and black Op. so speak.-f. 743. as but have like like few fingers) to occasionally a a pearr' we or a different kind ofjewelry. mentionedabove. " This letter also demonstrates that in spite of his annotation accompanying the sketch of the diminished-seventharpeggio mentioned above. suchpassages so may shp one like if "played (i. 28ý-289.

slithering conclusion at " Nevertheless. 2. -'Newman 242 . ). L D +-1--6-! . -a 1z3 ! -1 -- 5113. with sort 115and 118(ex. identified the style".0 P.20 SI1 LIZO UAI 'i ( 4113 -1 4x 14 1. pp. a. aIý. it L1 It. Ex. 2. aIILI 0i 6ý- Id 5 ur irt-L-1 --t7tt7ý-- ---I 1F . Chopin Beethoven's later fingering in Wo039/114.23) indicatesthat the first systemof fingeringcanalsobe usedto obtaina 292-293. 8.-ýý !I -- V.j -. 41 '23 4 41 ..4 CHROMATIC llý 7: 1 E-. Beethovenoffers two ways of fingering a chromatic scaleýeghu-dngon B flat.3 I C 043 r.1t7.1--p- I I. 14 2. 8. .5 1 as SCALE In an early sketch.11 ýý PEEiEý 14F*ý Iq 1!.1-.24- is ILi- '3 Forte School are also given consistentfingerings throughout. fingerings are where so as to avoid placing the thumb on them alternative (ex. (1988). The first is to finger every note while the secondmakes use of finger sliding (ex. -0.22). 1 -1 0: 1j3.21). S 1e311 aI I . . 8. 8.21 III 2. However.ý 5 nLII1 I ýIpIv! 113 -1 1-1 of 32t -& ).-00 ------ ks 8. l gill 4 31 1 iii1 - 0ý 161 :). 8. Czerny again provides black keys involved. ' Ex. 8.22 ýtA-Itill 21 31 -2 A lk -5 IIzI- +- 5 Newmanobservesthatthechromaticscalewith thefingerslidingis markedwith a slurandarrives legato finger "super the that the sEdingenablesa not unlikethe velvety.0 ts.Ex. 151 4.3 s I 'I ýý 01 4H .

helistsfour waysof fingeringa chromaticscale(includingthe onechosenby Beethoven. favours fingering but heavily the which relies above).23 The piano part only. 243 . % %. Ex.smoothlegato. At - 2. index the as shown in ex. 8. 49 andii. 8. Ex. p. 8. f 8. As is the casewith chromaticscales. In his Piano Forte School. pp. 30-31. If :1If! .1-1-1 II M P-I ---7-.5 PASSAGESIN THIRDS in thirds. i.24 I KO I V. on thecombinationofthe thumband shown " finger.Czernyspecifiesfour waysof fingeringpassages by disadvantages the offered each: and explaining advantages "Czemy (1839E). 8. ç7 L 7--k3 1ý ______Fi =- III CVZV-q Sý Jbi -0 The fingeringof the chromaticscalein ex. _liL'o6iu mi11 -: j- pl 1 WP.23aboveis the onemostcommonlyrecommended in nineteenth-century treatises.-. E-.24.but Czemyis lessthan enthusiasticaboutit. % 2.

26) This is suitable mainly for the right hand in passageswhich require an emphasison the first note Czemy it is in beat (played C thumb).26 cavil 0 nt314 -0 [Ctj3 ý' -).this fingeringcannotbe employedin keyswith morethan two sharpsor flats.left hand:3-1-3-1-3-1-3-1(ex. In-otherkeys. will enablethe handsto remaintranquilandthe notesto beplayedwith equalpowerandrapidity. the thumbmaybe used(ex.. Ex. 8.if the accentednote is a blackkey. 244 . The right handfingeringfor an be for for 2-4-1-3-1-3inB flat 2-4 1-3-1-3-1-3-2. pp.25 :n 11 He commentsthat this fingering. 36-37. the that elaborates with applicable onlý crotchet of each black keys. third should example. However. (b) right hand: 2-4-2-4-2-4-2-4. Otherwise. if lower be the the thumbmay placedon notes they are on white keys. major.(a) right hand: 1-3-1-3-1-3-1-3.27).which is applicableto thirds in C major only. while ascending the left handit is 3-1-4-2-3-1-3-1 3-1-4-2-3-1-3. left hand: 4-2-4-2-4-2-4-2 Although this fingering will also maintain a quiet handposition.30 "Ibid. fi. be because thumb the on cannot placed major. (c) right hand: 1-3-2-4-1-3-2-4 (accent on the thumb). I recommended. II- -2. 8.25) Ex.left hand:5-3-4-2-3-1 Accordingto Czerny. 8. Czerny believesit is more difficult is inconvenient It also and therefore not to play a passage which requires much power.3 (d) right hand: 1-3-2-4-3-5. 8. left hand: 4-2-3-1-4-2-3-1 (ex. 8.the second finger shouldbe used(in combinationwith the fourth finger).

28b) is suitable for fingering triplets or when the samekey is to be struck three times.28d) is usedto repeat an even number of notes. than the only example of rather of example. 81a/iii. "Starke (1819-1821). 8.the first methodwasprobablypreferredby both Czemy and Beethoven.Czerny'sthird example(ex. 1 .2 . 8.6.21 EL141 ZK.1 4 *1 1%% [LI4] --* 'A aI -- I' Czerny(1846). Czerny's Op. "Czemy (1839E). notes. 8. When the key is to be struck twice. The first way (ex. to Czerny'sexplanationsabove.p. 31/l/ii/10 thus beusedinthe ascendingthirds and apassage weight major.. Unfortunately.28c).H. 61. Beethoven 3-1.28b Ex.29). I (ex. 33 Ex. 32 8. I 11. 8. 8. 56. 28/ii/9 different supports suggestion monotones.28c *12. 8. Czerny " Similarly. of using repeated fmgers. 8. In the ascendingbassfigure at the beginningof Op. 8.6 THE FINGERING OF REPEATED MONOTONES. 1-3-1-3-1-3 that the should of specifies combination recommends inC lending 74. Czerny fists three main ways of fingering repeatedmonotones. 8-28c)is not asclearbecauseit lists four I The fingering Beethoven's first like two.i43 Ofthe four wayslistedinthe PianoForteSchool. the third type of fingering may be employed (ex. 245 - Z. p.27 Ll. of0p.28a Ep'"I ) Wkil 4Z-11 r-r--" III1 I AIIII IM 1111 I -- I_I I [RI41 ý6!%1 II Ex. etc. The second(ex. p. such as 2. all ofwhich makesuseofdifferent fingers.Ex. ii.4.

Ex. 8.29
1 11 1%I

Czerny suggestsusing the same finger occasionally, especially in portato passagesor if it is
impossibleto employ different fingers (ex. 8.30)."
Ex. 8.30
55

3"
II

b-IA3 c

8.7 SLIDING FROM, ONE KEY TO ANOTHER ON THE SAME FINGER

Although Czerny prefers not to bse the samefinger successively,this is sometimesunavoidable.
In such situations,he recommendsthat the finger slide from a black key down to a white because
it is more difficult to slide from one white key to another. The latter, in his opinion, should be
35
legato.
be
in
to
played
used only contrapuntal passages
j
Beethoven was also familiar with this technique. In the bassof Op. III A/12 and 14, he asks for
the fifth finger to slide from a black key to a white one. A shnilar finger action is intended in his
flat
(see
B
beginning
8.22
in
on
ex.
above)
which the third and the
scale
sketch of a chromatic
fourth fingers slide from black keys down to white ones. Sometimes,he usesthe samefinger to
instances
five
is
key
The
in
his
from
technique
to
this
where
another.
used
one white
piano
slide
in
Starke's
(ex.
8.3
1),
Op.
bar
2/l/iii/60,
Op.
24
Op.
28/ii/70
shortened
version
or
sonatas 81a/i/5, Op. 81a/iii/53 and 61-62, and Op. II 0/iii/1 07 - all endorseCzerny's guideline above in
that they occur in legato polyphonic passages.

(1839E), ii, p. 120.
34Czemy
H,pp. 159-160.
311bid.,
246

Ex. 8.31

Incidentally,Beethovenalsousesthe 1-1fingeringin Op. 81a/i/5 andin Op. 81a/iii/146-147even
thoughit is impossibleto slidefrom a white key to a black one.

8.8 GLISSAADO
Czemy statesthat octave glissando played legato, is applicable only in C major and is generally
In
fifth
in
to
the
execute
order
an
ascending
octave
passages.
glissando,
effective only quick
finger should be slightly bent, with the thumb following on its fleshy surface. The reversetakes
leads
by
fingers
The
be
descending
in
the
thumb
the
gliding
on
glissando:
nail.
must
stiff,
place a
but the hand and the arm should remain relaxed and flexible.36 The context in which this type of
is
by
Czemy,
Beethoven's
described
Op.
be
53/Hi/
to
remarkably
similar
as
used,
can
glissando
465-475 (ex. 8.32), so it is nýtural that Czerny should recommend this technique there.37
Beethoven's seriesof 1-5 fingering, and the fact that Czemy sight-read the manuscript of this
himself
in
1804,
Beethoven
have
intended
that
to
the
strongly
suggest
composer
may
an
sonata

here.
octaveglissando
Ex. 8.32

tgggw

4- 111

-F-5

ý= ii

=i 190

LI

Ii5

ii, pp. 29-30.
311bid.,
37Czemy(1846),
57.
p.
247

.5

8.9 THE IIBEBUNG" EFFECT"

Regardingthe scherzoof Beethoven'sSonatafor 'cello andpianoOp. 69 (ex. 8.33), Czemy's
oft-quotedcommentregardingthe performanceof a slur bindingtwo notesof the samepitch
(frequentlyreferred to as bebung).remains controversial. The 4-3 fingering below is by
Beethoven.
Ex. 8.33
mo"o

30

fl

III
:9111

I1

'.

-LRr

1,

jr--

0-

-I

Ir

L---1

F?N--= -1

1L-4, -P V11;

'''I"l

11

1 r,

v11-4,

vn P

is

I

:ýiV F-- R --mmleii.,

I

III

I

I

Tic

1HI. 1
-0

Czernywrites in TheArt:
The ties in the right handand the fingeringplacedover them,here
signifysomethingwholly peculiar. Thus,the secondnoteis repeated
in an audiblemannerwith the 3' finger, so that it soundsnearlyas
follows:-

II

that is, the first note (with the 4' finger) very tenuto,andthe other
(with the 3d finger) smartly detachedand lessmarked: and so
The
finger
4'
therefore
elsewhere.
must
glideasideandmakewayfor
the third."
"Newmanobjectsto the misuseof the term bebungandproposesthe name"repeated-note
describe
Beethoven
indicates
the
to
situation
where
peculiar
slur"
a 4-3 fingeringover what
See
Newman
(1988),
be
two
tied
to
notes.
pp. 295-297. Bebungis usedhereasthe
appears
term is generallyunderstoodto describethis notation.
"Czemy (1846),p. 88. Punctuationanditalicizationoriginal.
248

Schnabel,Tovey,Newman,andBarker acceptCzerny'sadvice,but othersconsiderthe bebung
Badura-Skoda).
Bamberger
Bamberger
(Schenker,
tied
and
agreeswith Schenker's
notes
as
implications.
believe
They
tied
the
two
that the
that
notes
carry
psychological
explanation
feel
"restlessness"
help
Badura-Skoda
the
the
required
of
passage.
performers
would
notation
but
he
believes
having
it
be
for
direction
to
the
this
effect,
a
psychological
a
alsosees notationas
for
legato
in
Drake,
his
1972
book,
Badurathe
to
a
effect.
note
agrees
with
sustain
performer
Skoda. However,two decadeslater,he changeshis mind. He is now of the opinionthat the 4-3
fingeringin Op. I 10/iii, for example,is insertedto conveythe "speakingqualityof the passage".
The secondnote, therefore,hasto be played. Badura-Skodaalso wrongly reasonsthat since
Czemyhadnot studiedOp. 69 with Beethoven,this techniquemaynot havebeentaughtby the
40
had
Czerny
fact,
in
Thayer
1816,
In
that
this
played
reveals
composition
at
a
concert
composer.
"
by
graced the presenceof the composer.
Czerny's suggestionfor the second note of the 'lie" to be sounded can be produced on early
innovative
Beethoven
did
follow
As
composer,
an
not
always
nineteenth-century pianos.
traditional rules. In an interesting early sketch, dating from 1793, Beethoven asks for the third
finger to lie acrossthe fourth uritil the latter withdraws and the third takes its place (ex. 8.34).
Ex. 8.34


wý41
1)

...

ý%

W"I "

AA-

QUICI
-1. Cýnf%

GAVýr

ýSTiL
- Cln

Sj!;, InLý

-.
)b 1 %Uý4
-

6
lit
,.
r, 6jTVj-jt

I tiI

V1

LM Sý
.
ji

4-

p
C.-S. Z-ý% oà

3

a-

This .fingeringis not a precursorof the bebungbecauseboththe secondmonotone(d' in b. 2 and
first
The
d2
is
by
6)
b.
in
to
tied
the
second
note.
also
accompanied
not
a sf mark,
are
e2
be
it
In
bebung
in
has
the
that
the
struck.
addition,
none
of
should
piano
sonatas a
confirn-dng
double fingeringover the first of the two "tied" notes,becausethere is insufficienttime to

(1935),ii, p. 808;Beethoven(1931), H,pp. 68-69andifi, p. 216; Newman
4OBeethoven
(1988),pp. 295-299;Barker (1996),p. 295; Beethoven(1972),pp. 64-72;Bamberger(1976),
(1994),
Drake
125-126;
(1972),
21;
Badura-Skoda
(1988),
Drake
246-249;
pp.
p.
and
pp.
pp.
84-88. Seealsothe discussionby GrundmannandMies (1966),pp. 126-131.
47hayer(1969),p. 641.
249

his
directed
by
bars
In
3-4,
finger,
fourth
to
the
the
annotation
sketch
shown
as
above.
withdraw
the repeated s areto be playedby two different fingers(the secondandthe third), but which
29
finger shouldbe usedto play the following d. If the fourth finger is used,d' will be detached
C2

from the note in the next bar. Alternatively,Beethovenmight haveenvisageda legatoline by
&
fourth
fingers
finger,
it
fifth
the
tl-drd
to playthenextnote,
the
and
cross
the
while
with
playing
(see
Beethoven
8.2
This
to
section
technique
above).
sketchraisesmany
not unfamiliar
a
his
beginning
Eke
it
but
that
ti-ils
the
of
sketches
mentioned
chapter,
many
at
of
shows,
questions,
he did not alwaysadhereto convention.Therefore,the bebung,probablythe resultfrom oneof
his manyexperimentswith fingeringandtechnique,mustbe treatedasa specialcase,andnot a
tie.
Beethovenmust have intendedthe secondnote of the bebungto be sounded,becausehe
finger
different
'lied"
Such
indicates
over
each
second
careful and
note.
a
conscientiously
been
if
have
"tie"
be
fingerings
the
to
necessary
would
not
was
playedaccordingto
consistent
did
he
Why
trouble
to
the
two
take
notate
semiquavers
also
whenonequaver
convention.
normal
he
to
trying
All
that
these
notatea mannerof playingwhich was
was
suggest
suffice?
would
different,perhapsthe slurringof a monotone(with the secondnotejoinedto the first, but to be
in
Op.
I
10/iii/5
125
(ex.
8.35
Since
8.36
less
the
and
slurs
and
ex.
strongly).
respectively)
played
it is likely that eachpair of semiquavers
is to
do not extendto the followingpair of serniquavers,
be slightly detachedfrom its neighbour. Although the secondnote in eachpair of serniquavers
is weakerthanthe first, this articulationmustnot hinderthe overallphrasingof the passage.In
be
below,
8.36
8.35
semiquavers
must
carefullygradedto'create.the
eachpair of
and
exs.
by
indicated
Beethoven.
In
Op.
diminuendo
106/iii/
(ex.
165
8.37),
bebungs
the
a
and
crescendo
begins
bars
Here,
three
the
the
which
earlier.
of
crescendo
onemustguardagainst
peak
are at
losingthe intensityat this climaxasa resultof the secondnote of the slurbeingweaker.

250

Ex. 8.35
kltýlo

I-

-1'.

R±L-t

r, %

*

r-,

i

i4lliý
If
-RiI

kq -1,

rs_

r%Tar
--aw-%N
rr% r-. ý

III-III
f"
i=ý
i=ý
L-4
tm±
6--".
,ýýP
g--=
1-=ý=1
lb
-- tý- -1

pv

mMI-II

-A

kQnu

0
I

ýAAt44
.

K 4(I
'11

IM

it

xnr.
":

fJ

1-%Lno

-

S
r,

1

01

UIZS(--

q-)
:

Ex. 8.36

v H,

os

Be

v"rrrrrr.
ýe
-

36

--

E--l

UIII

I

-1

,

__-n

ýlPt

/-\. 1vaaa3;
3

P=4=4

i-

i

P.

.

It t
PM

PIE

r=EýEýLf
-=-ý

II

I-FVIIIIIII

-

-

-j

I- iIII

12
ra
PC i- A

rFIý-

--

1v
14
W
0-0

D mi

-

to t ti ,

t4EEý r4=4 I ý, ýmr 1111d L-7ý-'"' V=ý
I

.

L1
Iý-.

LI

.H
II

LI

251

'I

I

Ex. 8.37
"0"

P" p

ýli I,

II-

;I

-i

-C= --ý-

cresc.
02

tutte ie ,, a,

A

54

i

-ýý
b;

0,
lit

t- tr 7"]

.4,_,

i-

IIýIiii
f

cresc.

4
r7l

r4.TI
I; ý-i D-[ý;
-;-Z41-13

j

4-3

la-

5

As

I

r:

If--,

dO

=
-t=:
i

ib

j

iii!

.,

I

5ý-,
#t

pillt

una corda.
.II

i-

ý1ý2

252

(*)

he In to uniform prefers use generally contrast. Czemy. using Although it is more common to slide from a black key down to a white. where possible. It is also very eighteenth-century using likely that Czerny's description ofplaying the bebung. be be His based may may motives on technical considerationsor of repeated those of a more expressivenature. was already repetition.. his fingerings of numerouspassagesare not unlike Czerny's. decision irregular. AlthoughCzerny practice. therefore. The latter's fingeringwRlalsoavoidBeethoven'sconsecutive 253 . Czernyprefersto usethe fingers. While Beethoven may not have beenas fastidious as Czerny in following a strict set of rules. Of passagesin thirds on white keys. is exactly how Beethovenwould have expected it to be played. their they choice of of repeatedmotives. This idea of training technical known by he Beethoven through to the time of course. They avoid.usingeconomical I I is executedaccuratelyandfluently.they prefer using the pattern 1-3-1-3 or 3-1-3-1. placing the thumb on black keys.8.Theyemphasizethe importanceof maintaininga "quiet" hand body hand and movements. They also encourage fingers different Finger is repeated monotones.Czerny was also a progressiveman. they occasionally slide in key from finger to polyphonic passages. for example. evenness of playing as well as .Czernysharesmany.of Beethoven'sviewsregardingthebasicplayingpositionand the fundamental rulesof fingering. Beethoven's fingering such passages. prepared the necessary"training materiar'for this idea to be put into in fingering differ However. in which the secondnote is slightly audible.10 SUMMARY' Onthewhole. when playing sliding used sparingly. Their suggestedfingeringsof scalic based fingers the thumb the under are often on passing and crossinga longer finger over passages the thumb. While Beethoven'sfingeringin Op. was competence twenty. to develop strength and agility in the fingers througlý repetition.They evenoccasionallyresort to another one white a fingering long finger the a of vaulting over a shorter one. to train are octave passages and patterns.whichdealwith a variety that passagework intended finger in trills. Although heavily influencedby his teacher. fingering in black key to the thumb so as alternative avoid provides an piacing on a sometimes fingering.andchoosingcorrectfingeringto ensure position. 211/iii/59-62suggeststhe useof the arm to createthe crescendo. Czemy'sstudies.

Czerny also disagreeswith Beethovenon the bestfingeringof chromaticscale. 254 . In conclusion. / II. is Czerny. or simply becauseof a different personal preference. either becauseBeethoven's^fingeringis that of cases with small number old-fashioned.chooses mainly insteadto recommendthe fingeringwhich relieson the partnershipof the thumbandthe index finger. Beethovenprefersthe fingeringwhichuses finger. Czerny's choice of fingering largely reflects that of Beethoven. It is only in a very he disagrees his teacher. another taboo in Czerny's rulebook. the third the thumb who and ratherdismissiveof this fingering.fingering in bars 61-62.

'Czerny(1846).but there is a possibility that Beethovenadoptedthe new indicationsin an earlierwork. 31/2 (composedin 1801-1802).Beethovenemployedthe termssenzasordino to indicatethat the dampersshouldbe raised. 66. it is impossibleto determinewhetherthe markingswere insertedby Beethovenhimselfor by Nageli the Swiss ' publisher. 'Rosenblum(1988).he declares. 255 . iii.p. As of an accomplishedpianist. All the other pedals. functions. iii. Capitalizationoriginal. In addition to these. 65. 118. disdain to avail will In his compositionsbefore1802. Czerny buff (also known in the the the use of occasional as or muffle piano pedal) recommends ' tremolando passages. 'Ibid. p. 2. Indicationsfor the foot pedalare found in the first edition of the PianoSonataOp.2. Beethoven indicates only two in his compositions - the damper and the una corda.CHAPTER 9: PEDALLING Of the numerouspedalsavailableon early nineteenth-century pianos.Op.but with the holographlost. p.and con sordino when the dampersshould be returned to the ' Beethoven knee-levers. it has not been indicated in his compositions.are "childish toys of which a solid Player 2 himself '.. he asked for the dampers to be raised with the knee during a'series of repeated known believes be Newman by for damper the this to earliest request any composer chords. ' Beethoven have Czerny's We that testimony also usedthe pedal extensively. p. In a sketch of 1790-1792. The indicationsPed and 0 first appearedin the autographof the "Kreutzer" Sonata. 57. 'Newman(1988).' As will be seenin section 9.evenwhen control. the damper pedal is given a prominent role in the piano sonatas. Even as a young composer. p. 57. 6Czemy(1846).p. 47 (composedbetween1802-1803). Beethoven knew the precise carrying out a variety ICzerny(1839E).Beethovenalready realized the potential of the pedal. Czemy the that this was caseonlywhen expliins meant originalposition. II.

pedal pedal positionwhere (bb.- L. 256 .53/iii.IKjI - IIý-I-II r.11TI Hf --F 1 -I fl 1 I-I all Lip! i 14 It II -! =A . is in bars 222-223.p. VJLP. the the and should released.II-II19 -t 1( 14 FtfV I L-1 :I =1 t--l I C: Jý In 11 6ý4 1 -f I -I 1 ki . 9. quaver rest and penultimate on alwaysreleased harmony half bar. KennethDrakepointsout that Ex. pedal markingthe exact effect wished be depressed In Op. of autograph moved of the other corrections Trake (1972). m -= ar IIgo IvI -.in his He directions. he to was very meticulous create. M tz r-7-LTT r-ý r. is 57/i/218-221. 9.1). ML iI ----t it M. Beethovenchangedthe crotchetrestin bar 113to two quaverrests ' Rosenblum the the to on second sign precisely quaver pedal release rest. --v L-1 I- r-I II:: rý= r. the the changes where at every pedal releasedon the while lastquaverbeforethe introductionof the new harmony(ex. 219 before 221) the the changeof harmony.-1f141' - in theautographof Op. 151.- :3-11V4 11 r1v- ý--l 11 II cr. alsonotices soas place Beethoven in beginning this the the movement.1 71F13 Ii-il. --:l 4p -.

27/2/iii. are always accompanied staccatoquavers senzasordino. Since 9. of choosing continuation markings in his The Very two analogous markings pedal passages are also consistent.pp. "SeeStowell(1994).(1988).in bass bar last 8 first beginning from indication the to the the the serniquaver of note at of pedal the following bar. pedal! for Op.pp. the only of second one chords pedalled seventh level is.pp. 122. 27/2/iii.p.Barker(1996).bar 163is markedcon sordino. "In the autograph. by Martin the of apply principle pedalling. 24. 266-267.to'sirriilar passagesin his other works? The answerto this last because. "GrundmannandMies (1966). as pedal carry composer's " Beethoven's has been Hughes. dynamic (that bars four the same share p). This must is an instancewhere Grundmannand Mies' caution againstthe employmentof the pedal in justified. however. be Czerny the of affim-native as surely mentioned above. which encouraged deducedfrom his markings. 257 .1 THE SIGNIFICANCE OF BEETHOVEN'S PEDAL MARKINGS Whilethenumerousinvestigationsinto Beethoven'spedallingin the secondhalf of the twentieth functions. is without pedalmarkings passages (1988). be timbre the two to preceding a provide whichareunpedalled.that one could usethe pedal indiscriminately. 27-28.he decidedagainstthe initial ideaof startingnew pedal descending instead have for the to themwithout the the scale.pp. in bars is 163-166 (ex. by in the of opening motif example. $Rosenblum 9Kochevitsky(1962). of the two arpeggiateddiminished'2 Op. by Kochevitsky. 236-237. In bars57 and 174. Goldstein. must recallsthat question Beethovendid not confinepedallingsolelyto passages with pedalmarkings.GoldsteinandBarker? Shouldwe refrainfrom pedallingpassages whichdo not " by Grundmann Mies? Or the suggested as markings. and shouldwe.Thisdoesnot mean. the aim of the pedalin bars 165-166 also all from different bars. 9.asproposed only when pedalling notate unanswered. 104-105. often.2).p. important led have their to of clear understanding many a questionsremain century differ from Beethoven Did they the norm.

Dussek. pedalremains the exs.Ex. the contemporary practice. oppositeendsof is There below). An exampleis the (ex. dominant by a common note over causing excessive and Hummel's standard. pedalling published addedpedalmarkings. another similarity pedallingof ex. chords even on rests. and later device by in last fifteen bars Beethoven dynamic the the adopted a range.3 both In the throughchangesat the two harmony.4.are two of the most in Even the the pedallingof alternatingtonic the century. 9. 9.are not extravagantwhen comparedwith Clementi.16 (see 53/iii the Op.sometimesallow the resonanceto decaynaturallyat the endof movementsby not indicatinga releasesign. of Beethoven'sOp. 9.7.Goldsteinand Barker. Op.2. 1798. Beethovendid not indicate from in different As 2. Hummel. early nineteenth of pedal uses common bass (thus harmonies blurring). like in found be the of and compositions also Beethoven.Thesespecial depart from because the they normalpracticeof changingthepedalwith only are unusual effects depressed 9. he published about of which version revised in his Op. and pedallingarpeggiatedpassagesto help increasethe resonance. Sustaininga bassnote with the pedalwhile the left handplaysanother line. between 9. lengthy 37/3/iii/1-31 (ex. 53/iii andClementi'sOp.2 In contrastto the view held by Kochevitsky. is further evidenceof hisboldnessin usingthepedalto achievecolouristiceffects.4). in The 9.3). Cramer. They. shown section were which pedallings only depressing the tonic through the at end ofmovements.can pedal of practice Clementi. 37/3/iii: the openingthemesof thesetwo movements 258 . 34/2/i/125-130 in Clementi's 1807.

-. -I... It& -!..- P= r----ý 1ý.. 69 114 Lai ii01 rý- '_ft-1- FWiLLIIr1I =19 Piano . I III IIIIIIIII- i-I gp 1-1293 I_ ii93 -I qr I-I !! 93 i-I ep I 319- 1 7--13 A .I P-11 ft-gm%-JUT hP ýL . -. 1-1 -I*- hII 1' 1? -- .-. r -.-...ýý- J1JI.... go. .- . Ped -wiihout al LJfIIJII__ -.. ý. :1iiýi Qi j1 1-7ýj E-=l 1iQ .-- J. - r-j--1--I IIII . nut 4 -6. 7 --T "7* 7. L_L l-_ III391 0- -. -. . I -d&- 4- - -P 1 2 -..4 FINALFt 5:: o op 094--q-19#. Lt! --. are alwaysaccompanied Ex. re.... Pod Fe d: W W. ten 4. : .1 k-. IT IL_1_IIIrvI II-IJII-iJ i-_I 0.. -I - 'IT... . aca'0451..iI- -1 -..r191 1 19 lu 10 - --- I..40- M. . zi. - Alu t .. ý 3! 0 =1 iiý..1 --i ---- I TJJ I 1 II"I L-AL- E:. 9. pedl in .3 a -I . i !9 - L-T4 I.! =i- i 4ý . Rl r- --r.... -CT 7 944 -I r. . . btfgo. 7 -riIii-el IIIfI-I -Lý- ii II I III 7... -"W.. --jtý .* .vII-T1W1 _I-_"_I__1_ -. 1i0'Lj l II.t7 1 -1 =1 f100ýii1 4- ii.1 II'k é=I - .by the pedal. 9.ý! ten ['t1 rzzmiý H 44 o'-ft.... .. lest I td to. -ýII-.*-. II - ml -. =1 II t-- I'I-I-'1-i 'IT 259 t7t! .. III liii I'- 1--t73zýý -iI IJ-H 1T1 i 111i et --IT 7-': ' -'T.64 -4 J -ig -- 'I! Ex. a 69: ý -cr 90 If. 'Open Pedal 'Presto el -- 4--4 ii--i iii -! .ýi .

for example.iE.that is. 63. by in the the chord. 9. 109 beginning the to the two of movement end of movements of the or allegro) lingering from instances. - I "i . p. Without thehelpof thepedalto connectlargeleapsin Op.Beethoven'sexploitationof the pedalto help achievelegato. 9. resonance structuralelements. increases both In the the elementof resonance a soft chord second). Beethoven In surprise springsanother an abruptmodulationto speed. for specialeffectswill be discussed. Czernyalso usesthe pedal to achievelegato.5 f f)IIITIM A. "--IIIIaII-iIn ?-KZ AIA. 57/i/238from adagioto p1h first (the Op. 109. In his Piano Forte School.2 THE FUNCTIONS OF THE DAMPER PEDAL In this section.Beethoven legato from bar have been beginning the to to the end of achieve one able not of the next. would Sometimes. the tonic minor (ex.to enhancedynamic highlight important increase to the to a of passage. 260 Cý AI-IrJ. 101MY14-16.5). ensuingfortissimo accompanied entry of change a at characterand surprise by introducing Op.he showsandexplainshow this canbe done.9.6).and contrasts. 9-5). the the ex. as correspondto Beethoven's same exactly (comparewith ex. the 9.Theseprinciples will also be comparedwith Czerny's instructionsin his Piano Forte Schooland TheArt.he usesthe pedalto link two contrastingsections(Op.6 Beethoven's. by depressing the pedalat the same " it is first (ex.RI'T IV I IIF'% vil 1ý 6----4 r-r-I k1j ý-L Ii1 11 tfý I-I- 11 :ý2v I- "Czemy(I 839E). Ex. His techniqueis the time as chordandreleasing when next chord struck indications for in 9. The damperpedalcanassistin connectingnoteswhen this cannotbe achievedwith the fingers.

261 . \V uh %ý6r N. the on example minim chords and necessary. 79/i/67-74. 54.8) andOp.. 57/ii/96-97 (ex.91-98and 111-118aretwo 14 Czemy(1846). 9. A favouriteeffect. Althoughhedoesnot insertanypedalmarkingsin Op. 53/Hi/251-284and287-312(ex. dotted for in is bars 1.6 In slow movements.--I 64 U cc . 111.usedfrequentlyby both BeethovenandCzerny. Ex. thepedalcanalsobeusedto sustainlong-heldchordsor passages with slowin by Op. v4 6tt ZIA. pedal markings and as shown moving 8la/ii/37-42. Beethoven's Op.7) harmonies.Czemy'sadviceto usethepedalin suitableplacesin thismovementto helpsustainthe harmonies"is within the style. 7. 9.p.10above). 31/2/ii(seeex. 1444 vU c 01 .is to createthe impressionof bass damper left hand by the the the textures with note sustaining pedal while playsanother richer fine.7 u Qn ý k-R ýý d I 74 ýl ý.Ex.3 5. some pedalling Therefore. V . 9. 9. Op.

! "W.. a--6--= I L-=M-L--= F ILIF =--L--= FE h'' r9I a1 W 8 F IF II-- r. ir p f 1 6-. -g-t . AU -U ýw III IýI dlý S 5 jP LI Mýt=- -4 iiHii0iiWiiHI I ir ii -r a -I I' PPP I II IH.: r..Ex. 9... . pPi 1'III -A[: I 2 8 II 'I-11 --L&-- 2 . 52. 9.. effect similar (ex. h-. Op. I.-Hýi E7ý i E7ý-ý p- P. -I6.:: --. 2 1 6--. this the passage no pedal marking.whilethe notes Ex. --.4ii r- i 9-- 4 ii-! ýf ýý 4.!n F instanceswhereBeethovenemploysthe pedalin this manner. 2 a -V I 6-. All the low bassnotesin bars 170.ý .4ý-. -. "Ibid. 262 A P 9Jj' 2 4 a a II II I -'-rl I (e r r- 'M ýf =k . i 6-6--.: Eli! P--j i -i ii rl - r- . Czemyundoubtedlyvisualizesa " has Although dynamic in 31/l/i/170-193.. 31/l/i/170-193 Beethoven's bass in to the offers vital what clues as of markings intentionmightbe. 9...9) Op.4i C- ý r- r--=- .--q:.9 a 2 VIIF Z=.11 14 I '712 -f- 2 I I i'l .174 and 178aremarkedf. P.

Similarly. 9..8 shownabove).. - -Air em --------------------------------------------------- - 1.. This confirmsthat the threelow bassnotesmarked f shouldbe sustainedwith the pedal..indicatingthat Czemymusthavelearnedthis pedaflingtechniquefrom histeacher.. octaves. dynamic 31/2/i/21-41.. remarkablysimilarto next octaves.. 9. as Op. Czemy declaresthat the pedal must be depressedat exactly the same in is be bass Otherwise... .. which note as moment for be dry. With this in mind.. highlight that to the contrasts. "Czemy (I 839E)..... It before be immediately be the then of each quaver must resumedwith the released not 16 here (and his in is instruction 9. ... this to the theywin the sustained: case..10) the the the this same as also example effect achieve Piano Forte School... (ex.. the to throughout the thepedalmust octaves order sustained and short remain last bar.. 78/ii/57-63 and 116-122and Op. 31 70-193 the must obviously accepted as reflecting suggestedpedallingof of the composer.. "Czemy (1846).... 263 . 58-59.immediatelyfollowing themare markedp.. 9. I ---------------- ---- 4- __ . Li I +* Lr .iii....11).. from is 9... 53. pp. Beethoven'spedalmarkingsin similarcontexts(includingex.thuscreatinga richer texture.10) Czerny's pedalling ex.. In bar... 106/i/I7-23 and 176-197(ex.... Ex.+ .... in Beethovenoften usesthe pedalto differentiatebetweenalternatingloud andsofl passages. recornmends only pedal employs " be theforte passages should pedafled. * S: : :ý...p..10 An- Alý -da- d9.Czemy He inOp... Czerny'spedaltechniqueto In following Beethoven's..Czerny's be WWI intention Op.

. ............ III me Idim Thepedalcanalsobeusedto increasethe powerof a crescendo.. 264 ... I 1 40.....6ý: 7w 1ýý ....... f . .4 ýýAt ly 9ý5 !V - 'Ra- Iya p 190.. piano " intensify leading be function Another to theff...Is. 106/i/403-405(ex..... 106/1/91 the the same and major chords and and majorchords he 27/2/ifi......... ... m ýl * 1-efill L-: c. 9..... 9... . a I P... i rim f 2YFFF .. . advises sonatas...12 L 44 lum v-W -l 1 -1 v f -4 ý" in C He but in Variations 32 in last the that.. cresc. 9....12)..........the minor.. ... ....aswitnessBeethoven'smarking in Op.0....... ......Ex.... 70. Czerny'sexamplefor this type of pedallingis found not in the Ex. P..... to the crescendo used should of the pedal pedal by is to enhanceaccentuation... asshown Beethoven'spedalindicationswhichaccompanythe C E6 in 93 bars 323 from in 325 Op. [ .. in immediately the theme two the opening chords and quaver con sordino sforzando afler these on "Ibid.'wv f 0p... In the carefullyandconsistentlymarkssenzasordino autographof movement.11 -j (9) 6 . Op............ the two variations.0"do.......

P.p. 48. and Op. application. 21 57. 3.36 be depressed direct first the Both that the pedal on composers note/chord of the above). until maintaining same resonance pedal pattern sustaining arpeggio. 9. loud and soft passages. 113. He also asksfor the sf B6s in Op.33-34. 265 .'9 eventhough Beethovenleft no such indications.. in The Art. Czemyappearsto haveoverlookedthis functionin his Piano Forte School. in 57/i/123-132. By in both the the the rests. 31/2/Hi and the trifl passagetowards the end of Op.13) also bears a striking resemblanceto that of Beethoven's Op..especially if it is chordal or arpeggiated. Although he usesthe pedal to emphasizeaccentuation.they are sharingthe idea that fullness of harmony is not restricted to loud passagesonly.26 is the first pianosonatawhereBeethovenrequeststhe useof the damperpedal.is frequently recommended. 57/iii/176-204 (see ex.54 211bid. 36.126-127. which popular and common Czerny describesasharmoniouspedaHing. 2/3/i/218-223. 26/iii/33-34 to be pedafled. is one of the most in This the the early nineteenth of pedal uses century. Examples of Beethoven's pedal indications in the piano sonatasshow that he too usesthe pedal (Op. consonant 53/H?2are only someofthe many instanceswhere he suggeststhe useof "harmonious pedalling". harmony the arpeggiated to enrich 8la/iiV29-30. Increasing the fullness of a passage. 100p. They also support Czemy's counselofchanging the pedal when a different harmony is introduced. 21Op. and 193-195) and chordal passages(Op. 2. Seealsop. rI- 191bid. Op. harmony. Czerny's pedalling of the first four bars of an arpeggiatedpassagein his Piano Forte School (ex.218-233 and 228-232. pedal of a piano SonataS.even in Beethoven's early 20 for he duration to As term the this the the refers use of explains. Czerny(1846). and pp.122-123.is by Czerny throughout this The two these quavers movement confirmed of pedalling quavers. 106/i/1-4).

36 above). 109/iii/203 to tonic as the on...he may wish for the resonance in Op. 81a/iii/1 30-137. 53/iii/98-113. or loud. are anotherfavourite with him. 26/iv/1 (ex. II I/i/157-158. Op. Vo Pedalling through rests.Ex. G.Ii . and Op. -- Q L'1. and chord of only Although all the examplesquoted thus far have a soft dynamic.. 53/iii/98-113. he always changesthe pedal with the harmony. Occasionally. linger 31/2/i/226-228 Op. i b-i pI- b iajj r alp1 -1 I kit L-.Pl i ýE i. (ex. Beethoven doesnot restrict these 266 . 55-158 I 101ii/I and such as one ofonly which consist Op. and allowing the resonance to die away naturally at the end of frequently by Beethoven. 9. 9. -H. exploited special effects are achieving movements. both In two types. -I. 9. 3. The dynamic may be soft. Interminable pedal markings at the ends of movements 66-169 harmony. as in Op. or may even cover the whole dynamic range. Op. the resonancefrom the chords/notes is prolonged through the rests.15).ý 6- i-M i 1.14). 57/iii/176-191 (seeex. ao. 1 tý)! ý% j -io 1 ý0! EJOO .-1 i LHM iý -I LTh L--JZN--L-ld L. ! "aid '10 f±: ý VA >j1 "I SIILorz: _______ + Hill . In Op. Op.13 llý ri i goIiw _rllm Wm. Op. 40 n i4) . 106/i/I 33-137.

.. 9.. and range. 57/iii/353-361.. 11 . i-S i14 ad --. IYD 267 t- 11 decrese. (ex. .-1 . precise rather Ex. 5ý. rests. -- - -44 ý f-ý i.14 I ý-47ý Ex. in F Op. Op. iIIi-. 9. I- -! mm.16 5ý1ý8 r Gir7: ýý FE r-L-1 I 45 ýiiiii-i)- Iýý:: :]. 9. I12 24 2 4 .16) bar 529 from Beethoven be to the end of where markspedalling canalso seen its inversions (some C the of themstaccato)acrossthe wholedynamic through majorchordand full the the tonic to the through resonance of and allows chord vibrate at end. . Thesetwoeffects 0/iii/209-213 II the ending exuberant minor and of'Op. :14-6 i0 ýEýap . . do i-I-. 1. 5 Glý) -tv. 53/iii 9. By pedallingthroughstaccatochords.15 4t -W FU '1 pwýj ý =h--.he makesit clearthat his aimhereis for a massof sound Czemy's than explanationof suchpedallingsat the endof movements articulation.instances include finale Other flat A thefortissimo to majorarpeggio effectssolely softpassages.!. Fý Ex.

^-. p. ) ý--a. Czemy (1846).L . 26/iv (see 9. not above).17 Andante J dint: 0< 01. 63.is dissipate by itself. would Ex. 268 . -M- -e- + . AlthoughCzemydoes be linger indeýinitely to the allowed should on resondnce at the endof the not elaboratewhether based is there possibility. C smorzando. p. His Op. 7/iv the the pedalling regarding of advice of areno pedal 9. p.exceptthathisnotationoftenomitstherelease Beethoven's Czemy to this the principle earlypianosonataswherethere also appUes end. also anda " Op.. a very strong for have Beethoven that wished suchan effect.18 (9 M 0 ae- vv 2'Czerny(18 39E). i . 39. is however. 40. I 0/l/ii (presumably he last "gently the the end of at effect means murmuring" visualizesa five bars)throughthecombinationofthe damperpedalandthe unacorda. iii. 9. r--. 24 2'Ibid. two movements. This passage. indications.18)" is in accordancewith Beethoven'sstyle. This depressed the the to end as chord at sounds the pedal remain Ex. on existingexamplesmentionedabove.14 He decrescendo the topp. signat last four bars (ex. In the the tosoftpassages. the sameeffectasBeethovenwouldhaveintended. 9. harmony to the allowed where resonance confined with only one from Forte for foRowing Piano School (ex. of unlike ex.17). H 40 -I. example asks ` long last "so is distinctV'. he 9.with its arpeggiatedtonic chord few last bars is Op.N2 cI..

. W-fý i-i !11F: .... pedalling also provides (such Rondo link it Op... 26/iii..19 (S) a --.. A4 4ps- a F. highlighting dynamic contrasts and increasing the resonanceof a important Beethoven to with a means underline structural passage.. enthusiastically composers/performers "almost it but be insists Czerny the that was always necessary" pedal must tremolandopassages. :ýa... 61. -0 v1-r 0* 34 -ý 84 .. 27 Czemy(1839E)......I I-'----- ..2 4___ ILIA 2 4 4-: lig so-inpre -ý -ýt .. iii.. march-like character to one of repose. unexpected move to a of arrival coincides with diminished chord in Op. the contrast emphasize a very soft.19) marks not only the change from a strong.... bars (ex. p dim..... 4 -... 9..... in his advice regarding the use of the damper and the una corda in the unexpectedmodulation 16 5. 57/ii/96 is also accompanied by a pedal marking. is the Czerny of pedal emphasizing use structural ofthe asreflected also aware chord.... second pedal at a strong. of Op.. In 30-34 the the the of same movement sonata... in discussed (as to the characterof a motif. 53/iii).. The harmonic is identical bar in 89 beginning beginning in bar instead but 9.... the to tremolando the passages addition changedwith 261bid. Vsý 2 1........ enhance a on p. 7/iv/ 15 Ex. energetic 9. the the the submediant.... p....ý -. melodious motif... " in Op. to or a modulation and between helps the to 276-279.. change sections or movements introduction In Op. 39. p.. it also flattened Similarly. -dP6 3 611P 7't. the themes He theme to to main as colour of employs elements... and pedal and idea. Beethoven diminished to the as a subdon-dnant of a resolution in features... 101/iii/87-90 highlight the of an unexpected chord..In addition to aiding legato. 260). to that the passage progression of in bar in bar 96. introduces 16.. 269 ...91 pp 7::ý 4 b7 f * As the pedal undoubtedlyadds a different character to the sound... Beethoven In harmony. nineteenth-century different In with experimented colouristic effects.

. 9. 9.rl I li L-I. 109/iii/105-107and 112(ex.hich Czemy has in the "soft undulating effect of the Eolian Harp.indicatespedal indicationsin tremolando-likepassages.5 -w II tl ýt li Lýllis11 1ý Ii ýp r.20 1 [ 2. 9.21a n !ýk11 41 lh-L W. 9. ýl 9-v h==Z. t-F-14 . Beethoven changes the pedal with the harmony. for example Op. It is.- Pal -* rd .21 a). In all these three sonatas.w al ml ii- I ---- I I-i1. dissonant notes. a succession chords.. fl 4+ im 1--T--F--r--T-i -j-A ON EEJ OR I -t -. or of very distant MUSiC. pt 41 Lh I" Pvc-F111' ! Fl P.1 i9i- is 1--l- fIa10H- -1-M 1 Ida I {T 0i1011 IwI 10 lp II iI I Ia -4w IIIIII ýo-A Pd. -- - ýIi . result achieve of would similar to of 28W. without a common bass note n-dndwhen pedalling (ex. however. 106/ii/I 13-115and Op.-9 h:1rI ---i --Ih I 41 -1 -I! -1 it U2 'V00 sa"ll.I I'l IIIIIIII . confmning Czemy 1) s assertion. iý iI I- - ie t "Ibid.AIIit i 1w ýý1 rl 111-fF.t* T.4 pe. H 11 j! a-w ý-Wwm 'A P allLIAaI 4im 4.20). 106/iii/44 (ex.IIII !1i. -+ -I 1111w. 9. PIE. '' IF.F. surprising that he does not pedal the whole The b) blurring (ex. "it' it-4 P. rI Ex..L--i I. 9. C-4) Af i Rp.such as Op. P-6 -4. . Another special effect which Beethoven employs is the blurring ofsoft.11. P6. inPFqF I! ru-T-[. 270 . Aý . dissonant through of soft. Ex.It ppit "I It I.21 bar 129 the be this to same effect.22). 1 = 01 III!:4R 7-i -i .

59. I IV -1 111 ... is also basedon the sameprinciple..I 1ý ý tnr. harmonic blurrings (the be discussed follow below). W-H Iý 0sim 05h ... iii. 1- 11 Ex. G followed 0/iii/ 114-116 by in Op..... all the rest is merely by way of " Beethoven's in The the numerous pedalling..-- - i Z73i ....Ex.10 above).. and harmony. Beethoven's beginning 9. .. p. (ex.. Czemy's fundamentalrule is for the 29 harmony is long depressed is This because tear the "[c] the to as only as same. p. iii. 271 .. 63. and remain pedal distinct playing must always be considered as the Rule. the as as notes static.. ri.. Capitalizationoriginal.. As this the rule will also above. 7/iv/155-157 (see ex.. passing clear various from Czemy's recommendedpedalling in Op.....23). 3. .. 9... II the with minor arpeggio.... "Ibid...21b ii Mll IM tv Ilm nII WLR P Itopl'Ili p -it IIIrIIIrI1 .I.. 9. some of of which are quoted majority exception". examples is for it the pedal to remain depressedthrough permissible treble was weaker on early pianos.... I -LI' ib1 H lap _1ii 1 iýI b"CF+-I i sl 5-1 11S ki1: 11 . =X Apart from occasionalspecialeffects which involve blurring. harmony long in in left hand is is the This the treble..22 Lento. pedalling (including in fmally two the treble) over the same non-harmony notes melody a chords. "Ibid.

24)presenta muchlargerscale Therecitativepassages of blurring causedby numerousnon-harmonynotes in the treble.Ex. ýRo* il ý411. & t&hU rcth VOSO Aý c-rtt( . 31Czemy 272 . ALýý F-IJi-. 'i rr ff [Z. . 9.24 Lo*--Op (a 1) -:I IJ cm Qqms-ý%Ot Q. j1p 4-4 = -- CM= 6 Zi mi r'"r. Beethoven'spedalling will beginning bass the the chord.whilethe soft dynamicwill sustain help reducethe harshnessof the.23 oisýtsso tQnv 6p 11 u 1.aolent . 4u Kuoýý * (1846).31 Ex.31/2/i/143-148and 153-159(ex. 9. 53.dissonance. %'.l in Op.-- 01%M %k liorzt.X. 9.p. %'%.a fact confinnedby Czemy. The wash of soundin thesetwo passagesis intentional. announced at of eachrecitative.1".

. p.% F "I F-.I ... iii..In spiteof the V6/4 ...... ..it alsoblursthe alternatingtonicanddominantharmonies....... II P5 III ---------- 01 OR . ...19 above)and Op.01- %-.. 7/iii/3-4 (seeex..24 " be depressed he for bars. for example./ --...In bars13-23.. for Op.. --------------------..... PL- ----------- ------------IF espress: -.............25...... Jkq lof-t II--I. 87nol«Z: influence....... 5...... 33 Czemy(1839E).....not only sustainsthe low bass.takenfrom his two may pedal above)... .. Ex. it is sometimespermissiblefor the pedal to be sustainedthrough two harmoniesin a soft passage..Beethovenfurther 32 Ibid.. . 60. ... 101/ii/30-34 Beethoven's (ex... states treatise. ....25 .... p..asheexplains....According to Czerny.no pedalchangeis requiredhalf-waythrough bar 7 (at the introductionof a different " This is further harmony)because. of evidence 53/iii. 273 .. 9... 53...the octaveEs in the basshaveto besustained.... 9...... .......... that the the In ex.....Li -- I! E1.V1 -I harmonyin Op.. -I 4 Fý im Fý A1ýI... -f 0 1- II -T-T-1 --I- AF... 9.......... see example. 38...11 -i!!! ý-ý... T-7 -.. The pedalin the openingRondothemeof Op.. -0 -------------..

9. allowed of pedal as should anessential signifies " by Czemy..p.' occurs. ------ ILLU 1$I /14! I 3 I . 53. . mr-t= 10-" .27).1 yizp pin V-=ý# _________ l. Most of Beethoven's harmonic blurring occur in soft passages.-- ýF. 59. -i '1L4dJ-JLJ ý7. M - ------'- 11 10. II 0/iii/4 help dissonance. 2 .as in Op. (9) F-4 iIi! 1 AVP ol ýi (n I 4'l H! p "-6-4 - ýý esp If 14 1 H fl II / ON NI II /1. shouldbe raised. 1ý IIý m 6zr. '0' fall "" The function be it feature to the that again.p. he Strict (ex. is fully recognised of this movement Ex.that is.26 Rondo Allegretto moderato 0 0". treble and bass. Rowland'stranslation.J L-47. 14Stowell "Czerny (1846). c2eb. by 9. to the 5 the the reduce effect corda of employs una and (1994). Sometimes. That tonic tonic the and minor or alternating major varies effect he fully intendeda wash of soundfrom two harmoniesis confirmedby his annotationat the beginningof the autographto Op.26). I LLLJ LLtt II 1- 2 R 190. 9.between dominant (ex. a cautionagainstusingthe split pedalmechanism:"Nb. 57. Wherever 'ped.--/ -LLLJ "1 ý 1 -.the whole damping. 274 .

.. 106/i/34-38 and 176-197. When theme in the the entersfortissimo and only soft passages. the the norm always passages. Andante 3 I Ll.Ex. 9. harmony 57/i/218-223. the reduce 275 . Such 321-328). apart but heard. is found in bars 55 168 (ex.29) to (ex. (bb.28). where tonic pedalled. pre fenuto Ta in loud is Op.-the blurring of the tonic and don-dnantharmonies. 9. blurring.26 above. is there takes the harmony one exception. "II =wwýý IV I A-ý r' XL I-I --1 I L.. and the theme of Op. loud in bars 313blurring the announcement of a very opening material of allowing extensive he increase But in the the 9. 9. 1w W. again shows 320 restraint presumably instrument. 53/iii. As shown in ex. dando -ILA AW--ILL p- I una corda u LU seM. 2r'1i . is quite noticeable. Rp :Dýý .. r plA adagio Recitativo F- S-. - ritar w. mainly is Beethoven liberty However. resonance. bars on an early even subsequent in bars fromthe Cs 313 317. -V tutte le corde dimin. be help bass to the lighter and may touch on necessary A notes. - cantabile 10.1L M_flPIT1 * Adagio 4f FA11 ý uw. Frrxrlý- . such as with pedal change Op.27 Adagio ma non troppo S- I- r-=I. be the to to treble "muddinessý'of the allow weaker and penetrating sound.an inherent part of the theme's identity. W. W.

. Ii-I ýlt:q 04 ý:4 . TVda ý la .28 n i.. es in most print. Markt b. 9.. 104) manquent dans id. Bar 321: pp p.. 9. (s.. frhien sie. orig. iEý il i14! -1 FN ý1 -1. ororig.4 i5. 104). 321. 6) iIIl4M-I-.. 1041 NuL in orig. pp. orig. autogr. MAN: pp. nnt ineutoor. ann. p. 314-321 d.9 di . A. (but *)Signes S. aber Fußn. -' - C_ý 2%ZZZIW Im de dyn.-6-14 . 314-327 as in autogr.noch Orig-Aleig- 276 .1V' ff 16)l t- - r --. apr. ni danz autoir. Zeichen T. *)Dyn. -' . *)Dyn. T. wr 1 fl IpýF 31 - 6. sämtl. - It { 112z1.29 ==== --- -11--L- f ___ 1JT-rrHiii . weder in Eigenschr. fooLn. in Orig. 1. Drucken.1--wI Ex. ni id. t* lk & p- PZIZI . Mes. comme danz presque 0.. ed.Ex. ed. ed. 314-327 noch Eigenschr.impr. (v. wie in fast a.

30 HII1 J"i! I-- 0 r. X)IM 04-1 . is different from the qbove examplesof harmonicblurring. is insistently if the the dynamicis p. as is the case at of every sounded even note in Op.Shouldit be takenliterally.. Beethoven'sdirection.: r. 9.A(CDIi Ag I H The much-discussed caseof Op. stronglysuggests that he intendsthe pedal he has for Since harmonies. 79/i/67-74. however. 4 --4 -4.27above).but with changes. 27/2/i. -IIv /-% . but different harmonies in in than two those are not announced more with no closesuccession or (Op.togetherwith thepredon-driantly soft dynamicthroughoutthe first movementof Op. 27/2. Ex. 9. L04 4t -t -ir i_IIIF -* :ý0 chJ Ju _ t.26above).asdictated movement? by the changein harmony? The harmonicblurringsfound in the otherpiano sonatasare in passages wherea low bassnote is sustainedby thepedalwith changesof harmonyaboveit (asin Op. that is.30). depressthe pedalthroughoutthe be Or the should pedal usedthroughoutthe movement.1. seeex. II 0/iii/5. blur be the to never asked to used a wholemovementto bepedalled 277 . 53/iii. seeex.91-98and 111-118(ex. .AnotherinstancewhereBeethovenavoidspedallingthroughtwo harmoniesis wherethelow bass beginning bar. 9. Beethoven'sdirectionfor the dampersto beraisedthroughoutthemovement hasraisedmanyquestions. 9.

bý JI-se t. bigger into the andmore resonantpianosafter Beethoven's taking Nevertheless.. of original ofharmopies of the intendedby Beethoven.but in such a mannerthat no cessationof the soundmay be " holy. his unacceptable on themorepowerfulpianos 27/2/i and pedalmarkings departure from beginning blurring is This the the the 1830s. 37/ii. strisa sordivio e sempre rp ___________________ I-MA 3ý 3i 1 I ': --f-- . with the of eachphrase.is for "the damperpedal to be employedanew.?--I 4-t2 M: 1:10 ýi ' =6ii '-#Tý -. for the fmgcrsto do so. or emphasize contrast.as from Op..to sustaina low bassnote while the dynamic line. in passages accepts with a accompanied the note it dissonant (Op. for large did Czerny's he theme the duration of or sections.at each importantchangeof harmony. 9.the extensiveblurring that resultedfrom Beethoven'sinstruction in Op.theprinciplesof pedalling.therefore...intended he be depressed for is that the to there pedal possibility a strong without anychanges. 9.. band connectmovements left playsanother Ibid. to to sections. the theme the Beethoven through entire of slow movement that pedalled recollection 37 (ex. Largo.I- WèII -_____ I -..even account by Czerny. 107-108. the requestingthatthepedalbere-taken"at each Czernyalsooffers sameadvice in V blurring he bass by Although the base. Czerny'ssolution. 278 . become had in 37/ii Op. to sustainslow-movingharmonies. 9. t. Lý-- by for 27/2/i Op.. Ldxovem.. .31 2. The numerouschord have the the bass in confused on painfully more of the resonant pianos sounded would changes 1830s.. -1 C.J 'J '-- -r . # .. I. dd -. 311bid. for theme a andcelestial the sound must whole observed: Ex. pp. p. 53/iii) those harmonies with and a succession of soft. distant like harmony".22 above). have in deep theearlynineteenth taught still roots death. chords above changing (seeex. Op.as legato it is impossible damper to the obtain Both when physically pedal use composers century.. 49.31) corroboratesthe latter's pedalindicationsin this concerto.

to increasethe resonanceof decay highlight the to to a natural at end of allow movements.that is. used as a special effect. 27/2/i and Op.The damperpedal both is alsousedfor colouristicpurposes(asin tremolandopassages). 279 . However. to remarkably similar rests are which passages Severalof Czemy's instructions in TheArtalso reaffirm Beethoven'spedalmarkings.for instance. 57/iii/176-204.In manyoftheseinstances. Beethoven's be be true to of reflection a can thus considered 64. BeethovenandCzemyobservethe acceptedfundamentalrule of pedalling..modulationsor a changeof mood/character.63. the can successfully a result. 106/i beginning the Czerny's the of and at markings pedal of the pedal. technique to pedalling virtually original Beethoven's. and arpeggiatedpassages. 37/ii). which would result in suchextensive blurring asto makethe passageindistincton the increasinglyresonantpianosafter the latter's death. intentions. 27/2/iii. to changethe be blurring As Czemy harmony. this. 106/iv are also the sameas Beethoven'spiano sonatas.with the exception of the "clearf 'pedalling he suggestsfor Op. from Beethoven's the sonatas. importantstructuralelements. 311bid. he by indications both the Beethoven's damper the use the requesting of una corda and reinforces four bars in first Op. and pp. 53/iii).herejectsBeethoven'slengthypedallingthroughdifferentharmonieswith frequentchangesin the bass(Op. to piano pedallingof arpeggiated passages similar is by Beethoven's followed Op. largo of Op.to strengthena crescendo. In Op.includingwherethe pedalshouldbe depressedandreleasedto sustaina bassnote in his Czerny's Piano Forte School Sorne legato.53. 49. bass the with changing of passages over a note and the (Op. 1101/iii. 27/2/i. as marked by Beethoven. examples on pedalling to of are and achieve for instance.This is the only instancewhereCzemyknowingly ignores Beethoven'spracticeand his Czerny's from is identical Apart intention. Op. with pedal blurring in for in harmony Beethoven's the the treble of passing notes over request one accepts harmonies blurring loiv bass 31/2/i) (Op. in the theffchords of motif opening and the pedalling in the last ten the pcdalling of bars of Op.to intensify an accent or sforzando. Czerny also requests that the pedal be depressedfrom the largo to the beginning of the allegro section in Op. 31/2/i. 31/2/i. " Czerny's remarks on the pedalling of Beethoven's.

If Beethovenhad associateduna corda with a soft dynamic. dynamic than the contrast tone colour rather una corda and tutte le corde. Again. the una corda 39Anderson(1961). excerpts the of appears and una corda while Although he does not mention the gradual shifting from one string to three and vice versa. the indication the at only of next section. 101/iii must alwaysbe played with this pedal. All Op. Similarly.64 and 67. as exploited well as op.poi una corda four bars later. a3 cordein the next as well throughout secondmovement. with provides a sharp a new Beethoven's first decision from indicate le tranquil.hesoonmadeuseofthis in Piano Concerto Third in Indications for the the the this of same year. these Op. The-changingcolours obtainedas a result of a in from his late three. tutte chordal corde contrast in bar 27 shows that the two pedals are used to highlight the different moods. his WhenBeethovenwaspresentedwith the "tensionwith one string" effecton Erard in 1803. 106/iii. 106/iii instances 101/iii. Czerny (I 839E). aware of in the Beethoven uses una corda sparingly. 41 280 . in indication II 0/fii the The Art. gradual Op. p. IoCzerny(1846). 106/iii Op. he introduces the the crescendo of appearance wite corde at detached idea This a sentimental and accompaniment melody. to vice versa. pp. and are also used string one shift piano sonatas.9. In bar 27. 64-65. this an exarnple as uses cffect. three and of una corda are namely faithfully observedby Czerny. 110/iii. G le in thepp bar the 59. In his letter of 1802to Nikolaus Zmeskall. generally soft passages.Beethoven had askedfor it to be madeavailable. through and tutte the minor corde chord of use maintains beginning is introduced in bar 60 (ex.a pianowith four pedalsof whichthe una corda wasone. he is " in in he it his Piano Forle School. iii. asks next una corda also employed pedalare due the as epoi Ire cordeat bar 54. He instructs that Op. from is to three full in the string to the one and shifting vice gradual versa. in " Op. i.he would havdreqtiested lengthy first (bb. to the section. pp. 82. he dimin.he praises Walter's pianos but expressesa wish for the maker to includethe devicewhich enablesthe 39 instrumentS. performance pedal he in his for inserted be the where to piano concerto.and as a device to alter the The between level. le 8-12).3 THE UNA CORDAPEDAL Evenbeforethe unacordabecamea standardpedalon VienneseandGermanpianos. bar. and due. 63.

Op. 106/iv and Op. p.1 4 pp 1- 1- a* Iya * 5 W. chordal or polyphonic Op. in Czerny's opinion.32 0) 11 -. una ce Jdim. 1 EiEEý -1 Ica ---I -1 43 9ý5. 109/ii/83-104. 1 :0.. He alsowarnsthat the pedalshouldbe usedsparinglyandnot stronglyemphasized " All of thesepointsarein accordancewith Beethoven's in everysoft passage. -.in arpeggiated " wl&h resemblearpeggios. 281 . 44Ibid.9.iii. In addition. is by Czemy. iii. asa meansof providinga difTerenttimbre. The una corda. crese. 109/ii) and to obtain a different tonal colour in fugal sections (Op. LW! 3 2 (ID tuffe le corde I dimin.. confirm Czerny's advice.in combinationwith the damperpedal.43 How does this compareto slow-moving Beethoven's practice? His frequent request for the una corda in soft. 106/iii/1-26 and Op. Thethird andfourth barsin his accompanying chordsandpassages 411bid. I 10/iii). Czernyalsosuggestsusingthe unacorda.. may be usedeffectively in delicate. una corda Tl P.32). own usageof the una corda. 9. serve only to such as passages. melodious passages with harmonies.-F= P Me 111 kI - Eýý #3 1-5 -ea The useof the una corda in soft legatopassages. 101/iii. 64. 65. p. Ex. especiallyoneswith a polyphonic texture. 43 Ibid. -el ý F= - 2- It j. 9- ii =1 i"J llý i 0elm- 4 3ý owl F- I-. Beethovenusesthis pedal to highlight the contrast between a calm passageand an energeticor lively one (suchasOp.

Beethoven's for As be likely of to compositions accuraterepresentations are most "Czemy (1846). jii f--4-- -i ff I. own of in for indications.33) in the Piano Forte School. accordancewith Beethoven's played tl-dssecondmovement. Beethoven's the restof of movement second in be the to with una corda. Indicationsfor the damperpedalshowthat it is to be changedon the lastsemiquaverprior to the introductionof a new harmony.33 leg-ato. carefullypreserved Ex. . I I i 2d i . 9. example. for example. 282 .34. by Czerny as shown ex.. thepp passages Op.IFIi -*1. pp. the the closely scalic a a resembles passage and accompaniment bars Concerto: Fourth Piano 47-50 (ex.1vIII in Piano Forte School the the Czerny's corda una is area truerecord of It clearthat explanations for in Czemy's this using pedal compositions which suggestions Beethoven's practice.90 do 0- :Ji --" do i0ii-=1 -00 do lla-&Illlil Ex. 57 and 59.illustration (ex.are directionfound at the beginningof the movement. .34 t9 1i 1i. 57/ii/33-48'45 do not containsuch example intentions. f5i iag i -a IIaimii ti r cýI1 fl ri:: ai=-: =ý G).34).a practice in in his 9. P. 9. with the arpcggiatcd in figure from bass in the treble. 53/iii andOp. 9. like 9.

before the would probably approved of una corda published he for it be 280. but by the the this was enthusiastically explored pedal was rangeof effectsoffered development. resonant more on Art. 2-3). Czerny's The School Forte Piano and remarks on pedalling remain publication of the faithful the to composer's practice. 2-3. on 4' Beethoven There is denying Czemy that the a pupil of yet was not no quickly. 4'Brownand Sadie(1989).p. in by 1790s.p. would through or surprising a pupil either Beethoven's himself did Czerny technique. very advancing . Czerny abides by the same general principles as Beethoven in the way they both employ the damperpedal and the una corda. be that. 57. 10/l/ii. to was on p.. the influencedby the changingtastesof in He 1790s.have being Beethoven 1803. the would use una corda).pp. enthusiastic madeavailableon employedsince.p. perhaps contact performance. 353. Czerny also accepts intolerable indications those would Beethoven's which cause an except wash of sound pedal all in lapse In between the later time the spite of considerable short. (1994). of pianos. 48Stowell 283 . " a melodioussectionwith polyphonicwriting (which is the type of passageBeethoven be therefore safelyadopted. Czerny's the of experimentation and the period ofthe early end or no means climax instructionfrom the violinistKrumpholz.can 9. SeealsoRowland(2001). his direct pedal specifically not any case.4 CZERNY'S AUTHORITY ON PEDALLING CONSIDERED The resultsof this studyclearlycontradictRobert Winter's claim that Czerny'sviewpointwas 47 Rowland'sdoubt regardingCzemy'sauthority I 840S.who wasalsoa goodfriendofBeethoven(seepp.as mentioned Walter's pianos. in boy Beethoven's have the advantageous starting an point young mannerof given would in in And if technique. Czemy'sdirectionfor this pedalto be usedin the lasttwenty-two barsof Op. essentially 46Ibid. have him from 1800 learn. Beethoven to provided would with ample onwards opportunity with It his have been from if instruction teacher's playing. with pedal acquaint not as as eager As has been shown throughout this chapter. the argues whenpedaltechniquewas this subjectshouldalso reviewed. 40.

Hans Billow 185 (1830-1894) Ninth Symphony. p. My father lacked 2 feared it. the and experience from 1822 to 1823. 218. When Liszt was ten years old. the and continuethe performing century.CHAPTER 10: THE PIANO SONATAS IN THE HANDS OF FRANZ LISZT AND HANS VON BULOW Czemy'seffortsto preservetheperformingtraditionof Beethoven'smusicareindeedverynoble. like his teacher Czemy. 284 . held Beethoven in very high esteem.without anyone being able to guide me in it. far did how Liszt Billow However. do Czerny to confronting me with such a challenge". author as 'Wilfiams (1990).1 LISZT'S APPROACH TO BEETHOVEN'S PIANO SONATAS Liszt. all Beethoven's piano sonataswere in his repertoire. of most celebrated ofthat pupils a glimpse performers 1886)alsoworkedtirelesslyto promotethe compositionsof Beethoven. )However. By the time Liszt was twenty. 106. and were eminent study of an interpretation Beethoven's influential teachers of and whose music was and conductors pianists. p.especiallythe latepiano his he In 1. Op. 315. However. it (1802-1866). p. He had a hunger to understandeverything literature. 3CZeMy(1956). He admitted that he played it "very badly. 2Walker(1985). but with passion . His writings and editionsof the pianossonatasare informativeand offer later generationsof Czerny's One Franz Liszt (1811 tradition. he even attempted to play the "Hammerklavier" Sonata. the encouraged pupil von sonatasand ' large-scale Liszt Beethoven's Billow in-depth begin to sonatas. Czerny instilled the understandingof Beethoven's style in the young Liszt' in later life foundation for he Liszt formed this as continually sought to understand a useful and Beethoven's late piano sonatas. nineteenth of tradition which Czernytried so hardto preserve? 10. 274. Liszt was not content to be simply able to play well. in half They their the the own editions of piano sonatas also Prepared second widely respected. Joseph d'Ortigue it. be intended or the a reEgion music.

a satisfactory unfamiliar Thus if Wilhelm the the this markings expression on score.. Plato. changing when meant even solution.studyingHomer. he experimentedwith differentarticulationin orderto achievethe desiredeffectandalsowith waysto makethe music Lenz wrote: coherent. In his to a cadenzas and quest to understandan notes. he said:"It is markedlegato.Chateaubriand. At the passage(in the dominant)in E flat at the endof the first movement. "It is verydifficult".naturaIly in the .Liszt worked evenmorefeverishly. 285 . Hugo.Such captivatingand moving intense his he Once the and profound of study a result of were music. would on meditating " four five hours for day.Mozart. and as manner mind and restless both for four hours Lamartine. 49 and 282.pp. 61bid. he Boiste time. on amateur a recalledthat when von Liszt was facedwith Weber'sSonataNo. he in In thirds. he would go and ask him for his own " heard had Those Liszt he by touched the sheer who written. play were of what all explanation beauty.sixths. "This passage". Hummel. Lamartine. saidLiszt.Bach.but perhapsit would be betterto makeit is It " He also marked leggermente. understood performances throughhis the characterof themusic. sound The first part hetried out againandagainin the mostdifferentways.herein the centrifugalfigure" (13 bars beforetheend). in March 1832. Liszt in 1828. flat "we key accordinglyshan'tmakestaccato. 51bid. practise exercises addition. Russia'n Lenz called pianist. Beethoven. 2 in A flat for the first time. and staccato? pianissimo in experimented all possibleways. and Weberand Byron. p.whichwould main ofA be too affected.friend.not yet legato.octaves. ' lunatic hospitals. "but still moredifficult the coda.tremolos. he (1809-1883). repeated in Liszt he found experiment various ways would until of piece music.andhow to pull the wholething together.pp. also order to understand playing. we'll makeit 4Wifliams (1990). hearing he After Paganini asylums and even visit would prisons. them.. for which it is too thin. the Bible. critic andmusicologistrevealsthat Liszt would reada dictionaryin the "samevoracious bringing investigative did he inquiring bear' the to same a poet.hewouldthenattemptto communicatethýisunderstanding in inspiration literature his found In He and environment. Locke. 4 1.in the secondsection. Then.magic and fife that he brought into his performances. and reading upon at a as when upon believed he had enteredinto the author's thought. everyemotion. 50-51.

. or expression notes wrote any adding or et omitting in 1836: musicale In supportof my opinionI appealto thejudgementof all thosewho have heardhim playthe greatBeethovensonata[Op. 78. not one added note was a scorein and hand). Liszt continued to develop.hadhe heardit in his grave. solved a mannerwhich would a riew pianist. PerhapsCzerny instilled this respect for Beethoven's scoresin Liszt in the early 1820s.1. Czerny was told by Beethovento play his music the way he had in fresh Czerny's few lesson decades it. "Ibid... 37-38. but when he did his if he be faithful them.. P. p. for 106 first in Liszt When the the time played publicat the score. who never had the opportunity of hearing Beethoven himself in his piano sonatas and concertos. impressed Berlioz (1803-1869) by Hector the youngvirtuoso pianist's twenty-five..and Liszt may haveapproachedBeethoven'slate piano sonatasin a similarway. from best them they and are of exceptional are able renderings to study theseworks. 286 .if Liszt were in the mood to enthralhis audience. completely understand eventually Sonata. havemadethe composer. (I Not ornitted.thrill with pride followed. 106]. His performancesof Beethoven's works in Vienna in 1839 were so convincing that his ýIlgemeine interpretation was hailed as a model. After his successfulperformance of the "Hammerklavier" Sonata in 1836. a correct view and to Nevertheless.4rt. Liszt's interest. to the could.he would not hesitateto take 71bid.not a singlealterationmadeto what wasindicatedin the text. performance so chose.pp. was ageof He for by from the the also showed great sonata.2. often capableof so multifarious an interpretation. "Hanunerklavier" Op. respect of composer refraining understanding Berlioz in Revuq Gazette the marks. Italicizationoriginal. later he still memory was a which a when wrote notated The. Heinrich Adami (1807-1865) wrote in the Theaterzeitung (4 December): For younger listeners in particular. 115.The text hasbeencompressed. not idea from its inflexion true meaning. thus swim spiccato. 91bid. joy. he remainedconstantlyat the level of the composer'sinspiration! As was discussedin section 3.7 between the two waters. Liszt. ' for form themselves.In or changed weakened or an an the Adagio above all .that sublimepoem has been Sphinx for almost every the the of riddle now which until it has in Oedipus.

. German a carefully. Charles HaI16 (1819-1895). to the tasteless embellishments compositions of and the tempi.Op. passion.. impressed by in 1840. 187. elegance. compared that it could interpreting different the into their music. musical boundless he However. in Bonn Festival a student and music enthusiast.andadded " Bach. Two yearslater. Weber.Liszt's playing was he because distortedthe expression. simplicityof expression. Beethoven's expression marks his Liszt Beethoven telling that one of pupils considered witnessed composer and chorus-master difference frompiano large frompianissimo the different tojorte be while was soto very piano " North between South distance be to the and poles. p. Ibid. 27 No. who remarked 12 Liszt insisted imagined". his be that also the pupils observe work could not reading of In 1883.. Beethoven Symphony Fifth Beethoven's to the Liszt strictly according original that conducted observed Liszt's Moscheles and energetic spirited performance of with satisfied also was score. always on a performancewhich reached if a pupil played a sonata it had be delicate by Chopin If to played.all grace.libertieswith the music. intelligence. p.eventhat of his idol Beethoven. He in Hamburg by Liszt the was sensitivityshown given attendeda concert by Liszt in the first two movementsof the "Moonlight"' Sonata.at other wasunsatisfactory frivolous Beethoven. admiration7'. Siegfried Ochs (1858-1929).. 218. 2: "His marvellous. inspirational. "Ibid. a piece fancy. "Ibid. Carl Reinecke(1824-1910). that scrupulously and a and grander pianist. Sometimes. p. Schorn in Karl 1845. 145. Boldness. were with exquisite the soul of the composition. Liszt's works were later again of In performances years. (1818-? law ). 62 1. blended feeling keenest bravura the always with poetic and were and virtuosity unsurpassed humour. Mikhail Glinka (1804-1857)had a similar experience. by the the composer and at the never player's but restrained rubato at places marked 101bid. Piano Fifth was present a Beethoven's finer Liszt "adhered to the text. 'o in last Liszt liberties the the took by the rhythmic movementof sonata. 13 287 . p. a compelling wasastonished weretherewhenappropriate. and faithftil Beethoven's At the to the text. German Also Concerto.stretched it times. the composers of when styles took Liszt always account insisted Liszt by Beethoven. Chopin.a pianist.

11). vivid account sounds". He lesson Liszt first his during Handel recalled how Liszt taught him the with by importance of accentuation: I found at this first lesson that he was very fond of strong accents in he talked so much about to phrases. through performance a pianist in flat followed Ballade A by fugue in Chopin's E had Mason major a minor played accentuation. from Liszt lessons been taking wrote "plumbed so deeply [into] the depths of art and the mysteries of harmony" that "under his fingers " by A William Mason (1829-1908). When he wrote to me later about my own piano method. with Liszt's own Rhapsodies. the Ile same phraseswith an accentuated. he expressed the strongest approval of the exercises on accentuation. bring it the learned I to same out effect. in 1853. 14 288 .. when occasions Play it like this. flood light in let From that one of upon me.Caroline Boissier. would haveprovidedhim with a very good startingpoint. accentuation. a which elastic movement. p. 161bid. extracting a large variety of tonal colour and by both Czerny " Beethoven (see5. in developed my playing. but he never did. where appropriate. where was includingBeethoven.. also the of style sensitivity and piece of character harmonies and. he said on one of the from it "Don't he the that chair: me pushed play way." Evidently I had beenplaying aheadin a steady. gave and sat way. where was experience I I in that that eradicated played. and Ibid. p. 342-343. an aspect of playing is derived from in Liszt's the The not only playing an understanding of expression above). and mark off periods and order have he that that supposed might one would abuse strong accentuation it. Liszt's lessonswith Czerny leading differentiate the he to taught characteristic styles of various composers.andHummel(seep. 47. pp. the piano rendersup unaccustomed brought life how Liszt his demonstrates to from America.Bach.uniforrn down. whose daughter Val6rie had in her diary that when Liszt played. but his the through to the the composer.. much piece every almost appropriate.However. While I was playing to him for the first time.Clementi. he was in 1832.stilted.he would encouragehis pupil to play with "careless " in if the bravura7'even that was not specificallynotated score. 552. "Ibid. Liszt treated the piano as if it were an orchestra.1 and encouraged section emotions. and unmusical an was mechanical.

's When Czerny auditioned for Beethovenin 1801. preferred pianos a lighter always damping English French than the system effective and a more and pianos.p. 19 Anton Walter (1752-'1826)'and Johann Andreas Streicher (1761-1833) were the two most prominent piano makersin Vienna at the time. consideredStreicher's other makers. In November Streicher's.i. English Viennese French were pianos of and majority pianos (including Beethoven's Broadwood and Erard) were triple strung throughout to give them more resonance. pp. touch which all my andwhich I havealways elasticityof tried to impartto my pupils-" From Liszt's editingsof Beethoven'spianosonatas. accentuation of melodic notes and values. Beethoven certainly preferred Walter's dated letter Nikolaus Zmeskall. 2OAnderson 289 . The frames of Viennese.rhythmic groupings. Beethoven a over pianos by Walter buy he his have though to even a piano could willingness a piano free of expressed 2' however. however. (1956). In Bonn.syncopation. Beethoven had played on Stein's pianos. he noticed a Walter piano in the composer's room. 306. In his is in line with that of Beethoven short. he had and a grand piano grand with an piano presented The Viennese Viennese had the early nineteenth-century pianos. which were and 10. p. While the action bichord-strung. 19Czemy (1961). Beethoven From 1809 from onwards.6 Czemy section above.noteswith long note interest. charge 171bid.2 THE CHOICE OF PIANOS The rapid developmentofthe piano throughout the nineteenthcentury meantthat the instruments Billow different.English and French pianos. At the beginning of the nineteenth century. IsThayer(1969). were made of wood.has lasted life.dissonance. Although Beethoven was to were all and rather available in 1803 Broadwood Erard in 1818.He addedaccentsin numerousplacesto highlight the beginningof phrases.. 105. Liszt Beethoven. 287-288.it is clearthat he consideredaccentuation to be a very importantelementin performance. in discussed 5. to 1802.p. 82.

Streicher's. Beethoven best. 300 i. satisfactory. would very impairment. on the whole. Viennese iron pianos Streicher even used a system of Therefore. 686. on other in In 1796. fully he Since the tonal deaf the qualities of appreciate andcould not alreadyquite is based Erard it is English the the the essentially which on actionon model. Although be the not own a piano made rented pianosto " for Beethovenwasdissatisfiedwith the relativelydeep full them. Jahrbuch der Tonkunst the the be them. the a sweeter melting tones and a range of Strcicher's pianos.especiallythose madeby Streicher (see also pp.this 23 (1797-1863). the nineteenthcentury. 140.the pianohadto berepairedagain. was instrument.pp.66). the of thump on piano Matthdus alias Andr6 Stein (1776-1842) was given the task of completely overhauling Beethoven'sBroadwoodpianoin 1824. pp. 2'Cole(1998).did by he his Streicher. Anderson and p. his in in bars 1835 but.Two yearslater. 64 . and 21See pp. was unhappywith had Broadwood had have He he the the likely to complaint about that same piano. 2'Clive(2001). (1995). piano makers to inrrease-the stronger heaviness of their hammers and dampers. Walter's by Streicher us an sound offers pianos. instrumentsandwas ofpraises it. those than played onwards were more resonant in Sebastian Erard. powerful which were more robust and Soft. 11-12. Paris. Streicher Unfortunately. Streicher's brother-in-law hearing As his because a result. Erard to the heavy the alter touch asked and even piano result on and 22 Beethoven Broadwood he By time the from the far received was piano. 58 and351. had hand. louder forced for demand the pianos and However. writer on von achieved expression could Wien und Prag describes the player who prefers Streicher's instruments as those who seek 24 for the "nourishment Soul"). Czemy also preferred Viennesepianos. Stein Andreas Karl time by AndWs son by Walter first decade by Beethoven towards those the favoured the and The pianos end of of insight into his ideals. for than were more suitable virtuosic playing. (1752-183 1) Pierre the and At the sametime. as well as to strengthen the soundboard structure. Czerny frames.p. 24Kon-d6s 290 . tone. 292 (1961). mostprominentmakers ii. 1830s the the pianos which to used use wooden makers preferred by Beethoven.

Beethoven. the the they time convey character their of successfully pieces. Mfldebrandt (1988). rather. larger Viennese than that the on much pianosavailableto was majesticones.and the string tensionwas increasedin order to makethe instrumentmorepowerful.thedynamicrangeahdthe range larger. adjustments following section.Erard (1794-1855)werealsoconstantlylooking for new waysto strengthenhis pianos.SteinwayandB6sendorfer. However.a rangewhich.In theprocess. wooden powerful Although Beethoven used the piano when composing. made on overstrung. played Bechstein. These B6sendorfer Steinway.theinfluenceofErard. including and pianosweremuchmore endeavour" Beethoven frame Liszt. he had alwaysfavouredpianosby Erard. more could as of be discussed in be these had tempo the to to and pedalling. to to than the available and some pianos extent.thicker stringswere used. his became As Liszt the to tones progressively a result. the more mellow English and Parisianpianos did not satisfy him either. 291 . of " Chickering. As a in justified larger Bfilow the Liszt using were and more powerful pianos and particularly result.durableandresonant. his compositions were not baýsedon the derived from his ideas the sound world of his imagination. 140-142.the framesof the pianowere enlargedand strengthened. could vary pianist available of tones and expressionrangingfrom very soft ghostly or celestial-liketonesto very powerful. StreicherandBroadwoodbeganto wane by Steinway and other companieswhich embracedthe new and was gradually replaced iron frame by BOlow those one-piece pianos such as technology.Althoughhepreferredthe tonalflexibility andthe timbre felt it his duty "worthy he industrial to Bechstein the encourage other and respectable pianos. be to double-escapement rapid repetition of notes producedaswell as whichallowed mechanism device in by Erard 1822. Theseinstrumentshada Bechsteinand136sendorfer. keys' touch. were tones of specific pianos. to the the a player's patented responsiveness enhanced the hammersbecame From the 1830s. Fromthemid-nineteenth century.pp. heavier. Apart from the last few yearsof his life whenLiszt was introducedto overstrungpianosby Steinway. However. His frustration with the limitations of the early nineteenth-century Viennese pianos are well known. and will especially made.

Op. 90.Theysharedthe workloadandBalow was Op. togetherwith SigmundLebert. adding nuances and also aremoreextensive difficult (including for ways ofpractising passages). 596. someof his Czemy in his ideas. -'7Beethoven 292 . 10. he inserted Besides Liszt's. 81a. 27. metronomemarkingsat the new edition.Op.1 njlý V H-I" . I 11. 31/3. Billow's he Czerny's to that references comments show echo still cornments Czerny's the the thoughts performance of on piano sonatas.a yearafter Simrockbegan inserted his Liszt In Czcrny's edition. Billow recommends using Czerny's in bar 10 from last the to the awkward passage practise exercise rhythmic movement preliminary " lack Billow. 78. Although Billow's edition was published towards the end of the nineteenthcentury.either through aware of certainly was the latter's writings and editions. 13. 65) is notatedan octavelower thanBOlow's.1). 109.nuances. andOp. Op. Op. those of a sense pulse.Op.Op. Billow"s cditings fingerings.accents. Op. 53. than accents.10. Czemy'sexercisein TheArt (p. 57. To like Czerny (ex. p. publishing beginning of movements. ii. 79. 10.3 A REVIEW OF LISZT'S AND VON BULOW'S EDITIONS Liszt's editionof Beethoven'spianosonataswaspublishedin 1857. I 10.suggeststhat they usethe metronomein their practiceto helpthem " flexibility BUlow the Although tempo to virtues expounds of this using problem. or through Liszt. 106.ii. Op. 26. Op.and fingering. (1894). p.111 and 112). Opp. 3 1. Op. BUlow. 476. who and of Ex. Op. In 1894. overcome 2Teethoven(1894). I a r4 (seepp. metronomemarkings comments eachsonata to convey the openingtempoaswell as fluctuationsof tempowithin the movementandpedal markings. 106 Beethoven Op. Op.publishedaneditionof the sonatas. for 54. the of editing responsible Op. 101.

Czerny.: t53 Tr BfIlow also cautions againstaltering passageswhich Beethoven had to compromisebecauseof the limited range on his then five.2). Billow insertspedalmarkingsin Op. ____ 4. wasmentionedin section2.that the performershouldalwaysmaintainthe expression enhance 28As throughout a pieceor movement. 293 . the warning out of reverence and deferenceto the composer. Czerny to the group of secondsubject suggestsusing ritardando. 04 #. 29Czerny(1846). 57/i/17-22. 53/i " 35. 75).. . ii. 10.2. do! let# i II ýH ---o 9ýý -.2). Ex.to five-and-a-half-octave piano. 506. p. IgIbid. In Op. overaHtempoandmood Czemyalsofollowedthisprinciple.2 c3o) POCO rilardando. In the four barsleading in bar Op. reproach Balow's caution stemsfrom his admiration for the imaginativevariantswhich Beethoventhought 30 of as alternatives.Billow insertspocoritardando in bars33-34 (ex.2 i. p.however. Their reasons. up Similarly.he the of a passage. the barswith thefortissimochordsin order to increasethe resonanceof the passage.Billow accentsthe e6s in the bassasCzernydid in his Hastinger11andCockseditions(seep.- go-i i 2e "ti ýb ff III p - J4J LAW" P'l 44-ý-. a warning emphasizedby Czerny in The Art (see section 3. 56. "Pfeiffer (1894). ) 4. after his issued by Beethoven. alsowarns. ý 1 -ý 1. 98). are different.2 .I j I" IFlega dolee e molto* e 4. 5ý n+R =0 decrese. decres-c. . 10. 31/3/iv/20-34. ! .SomeofBillow's editingsaresimilartoCzerny'ssuggestions earlier in the century. ýý.2.This is in line with Czerny'sWesseleditionandhis advicein TheArt (seep. W- Iit 4 1 (d Z 152. 35. iI. p.

his In their and resonant edition of Op. doublings 10. made as outlined markingswere Czemy's.suchas octave recommends Ex. or to modify Beethoven'spedal late in to the the nineteenth-century suit pianos which were.WhenCzemywaspreparinghis editionsof the pianosonatasandthe commentson performance in The. 41 1 go 9: '.3). with somemodifications However.to adopt a slower tempo.would declares: Billow 106.in his Regarding first be the the metronome marking of appropriate.3 ýýI. 57. the stands oppositionto Carl principal of 294 . Billow's aim was not to preservethe teachingsof Czemybut to presentan effectiveway of playingthe sonatas.whichcoincideessentially withthe character in decided Editor the theme.Many of Billow's how decision be his the sonatas on should own played. more movement opinion. Op.Billow's approachwas ratherdifferent. Lz 3 do ---iaia p. 106.Art. His suggestionsto commentsreflect thicken the texture of a passage. In the of somecases. more previous in bass bars 130-134 (ex. 1 I F=F::: 9 777 Beethoven'smetronomemarkingsof Op.Billow proposesa differentmarkingwhich. of In hismetronomicmarkings. Although he respectedCzernyfor his firsthand knowledgeof Beethoven'sperformingtradition. 10. Billow powerful section. hewastryingto recordBeethoven'sperformanceidealsasheremembered themalbeit into take to accountthe relativelymoreresonantpianofrom the 1830s.

500). 295 . ii.0.0-0 etc. p.-E-fij-9 it. 563.. in his capacity as the first and contemporary interpreter latest Beethoven's pianoforte-works. deservesto be consulted as an of 6= if infaHible Czemy's 138. who.. even not a whoHy one.ii. he decides 53. tempo authority.4 tIt. p. Part IV of the Pianoforte Method." Since the heavierkey action on the pianosof BUlow's day also doesnot permit playingthe in last Op.. 10.: if . "Beethoven(1894). the to simplifyit andoffersthefollowing movement of glissando octave (ex. 106." He also permitsthe performer to take a slower tempo than that suggestedby Beethovenin the third movementof this sonataif a very sonorouspiano is used. ii. I - . i-vý tj . 577.on his Erard.4): as alternative passage Ex. On one of our best modem concert-grands and suchan one (a substitute for the orchestra. 582. " - b--6-6-d r ý: Liszt retainedtheglissandoin his editionbecause. 10. so little in harmony with the ponderous energy of the theme. 33 Ibid. and for too rapid even such divisions of this movement as are apparently capableof considerable acceleration. L. In his opinion. 32 Ibid.Czerny (in his "Kunst desVortrage'. _ is for it a proper execution of this sonata the Czerny as were) requisite _ " have blurring tempo would a confusing and effect. may be justified in a senseby the lack of sonority in the Vienna pianos then in vogue. In the secondmovementof Op. this tempowill not only 80 but suggestsa slightlyslower tempo: bring to the out the animatedcharacterof this movementbut alsomakeit more performer enable distinct.this mannerof playingwasstill possible.BUlowacknowledgesBeethoven'smetronomemarkingof 66. rI 4v . p. Op. TP pp .

5. bars in 10 1324 and and offers 1313 as an He suggeststhe pattern alternative. Liszt's choice of fingeringin Op. to solution " In in his (ex.ThiswasalsoCzemy'sadvicein TheArt (seeex. /1 /ii. Liszt accentsthe a 61in the alto part of bars be accented. (1857). His preferred was replaced of but in bars 12 74 he 76.5) the trio sectionof this movement.18above). in Op. however. Czemyalsorecommends " In the fourth movementof Op.Liszt marksthe first 22/iii/12-13 edition. Czemy 179. p. Ex. 10. the Beethoven passages where from of one and in 1324 Liszt's is BUlow in 1313 fingering two minds. 3'Beethoven p. Liszt different Op.Czerny's influenceis also evident in Liszt's edition of the piano sonatas. with edition. in Liszt's Balow's dynamic the 3. 22. 178.. 46. 57/i/53-54 57-58 in to thd and are marks also similar articulation editing markings and Czerny's Hastinger 11edition (see ex. 31 finger leggieraniente prefers a of in the pattern passages few is Beethoven inserts fingerings. -141bid. 10.29 of and editions and retained are above) ex.31 above). 3. (1846). ii.7/iv/68-69and76-77wherebythe fifth finger crossesoverthe fourth is identical Liszt Czemy's fingering 3. suggested ex.5 crese. (see Czemy's also uses above). 12-13to highlightthedissonance. p. This Czerny.9 for Op. In TheArt. 57/i/25-32 (as shown in BUlow Liszt. this noteto beat in the bassof bar 39 with an sf marking. in bass the two-note staccato Czerny's articulation of slurs and of Op. 296 .

Comparethis in 9. 3Teethoven 297 I . 53/iii been by Rondo Liszt.. time. Allegretto moderato. above. 53/iii (ex. ii. shown was as chapter pedallingwith inherent is Rondo (see blurring the 273-274).suchastherecitative have Op. did keen he the of Although was not extensive not try to changethe on Rondo does into BUlow's in the Op. Beethoven's ex. 10. theme the element of an that pedal pp. pedal harmony the at the beginningof Op.6) BUlow alsoencourages pedalchangewith in order to reducetheblurringon themoreresonantlatenineteenth-century pianos. p. he 27/2/i.6 Rondo.lorW -*-. account extensive 36 bassnote aspart of the theme. (1894). both In 31/2/i in Op. (J .26 is discussed As in Czerny 9. with reveals blurring Op. edition prolong only one the at a marking passages. irJ _____ II riLh r- ____ O-Mý blwýý I- III 01 Jill r-_ -II - 405. 10. first the the merely expresses the of viewing pedalling.Specialeffectswhich involveblurringofdifferent harmonieswith the pedal. Ex. theme take regarding comment not pedal markings importance he Instead. theme the of shortened and passages harmony in Liszt's Similarly. 53/iii.

IlCzerny(1846). Czernyheldthe view that it was importantto learnthe pianosonatasaccordingto the order that they werepublished in order to increasethe performer'sunderstanding of Beethoven'sdevelopmentasa composer. BUlow "Liszt's in Op. 614. on the other hand. as the fruits of his teaching". arrangedthe sonatasin his edition in order of difficulty.whichis not lessgrand.Beethoven(1857). 106 BOlow himselfcould introduce the"touching up" which reveals and of movement had for his Balow fancy them. even though the editionsof Liszt and Balow still displaysome elementsof Czerny'steaching. take teacheranddedicatedhis editionof the great respect should the piano sonatasto "FranzLiszt.Liszt's performancesof Beethoven'smusiccouldeither be faithful to thetext or it couldcontainsomeadditions. beginningwith op.As wasdiscussedin section10." Liszt. of overriding extent even of more sometimes the throughout nineteenthcenturyalsocontributedto a changing pianos and resonant powerful "Beethoven(1894).p.ii. 106/iv/3 recommends octaves"(ex.7 As aneditor. However. work a certaindegree. Beethoven's The development to the markings.1above.to the up however from Haydn. A commentby Bolow regardingthe last Liszt Op. On the whole. Insteadof the notatedsingle introducing 88. crescendo add his own edition." 1 Ex.7)in orderto notes he had learnedfrom Liszt.Liszt. 298 . 556. 10. He classifiesBeethoven'scompositionsinto threestylisticperiods: he (about 1803) in his 28' to adhered. p. in brilliancy to the an effect passage.andfrom that time until hisdeath(in 1827)heagaintook a new direction. 49/2 and ending with Op. 106. Mozart then until abouthis 90' work and styleof (from 1803to 1815)he fully displayedhis true peculiarity.p.thoughit differsmateriallyfrom the two former. 32.Liszt's approachto Beethoven'spianosonataswasdifferent.hadnot alteredthis bar to includethe octaves. 10.the emphasisis on the preferencesof the editors rather than authenticity.

impression lasting as generations on sucha 299 .in be Czerny's Beethoven's that the spite piano sonatas should of played so way perceptionon his did Beethoven's to performing styles. writings and editings not make record untiringefforts had future he hoped.

CONCLUSION Carl Czernywasundoubtedlyan importantwitnessto the characterandmannerof Beethoven's is. to some extent reminiscent of Mozart's and Hummel's playing.whereverpossible Legato. Czernysometimesrecommendsa light. but ideals by individual training the the musical and personality. in Hummel. However. They insistedon the useof tempoflexibility and in dynamic full to the markings articulation order and convey of rangeof a carefulobservance definitions headings Czerny's the tempo of main and their speed expressionof a piece. when produceda varietyof tonalcolours movements unnecessary and by varyingfingerpressure. expressive power. embrace virtuosity also adopted sheer legato Beethoven the hybrid energetic. result spirit sometimes and grace could performer. not only madethe instrumentsturdierandmoreresonant. learned Czemy is The theproperplayingpostureandthe of most tradition? answer probably: from Beethoven. evenand"pearly" touch in passagework. how Czemy's is based The treatise this much of piano question really on style. The speedsdenotedby the former's Beethoven's for the of slow movements pianosonatasarewithin the style. of of with a Mozart.the useof thicker stringsand better hammercoveringsandso on. of characterised many styles in hybrids The in Mozart's this of styles. definition Hummel's of as or of assai shared The improvementsmadeto the constructionof the piano. advances and a piano range offereda wider 300 .it also larger These in dynamic tonal compass of colours. implicationswere broadly the sameas Beethoven's. the thumb the they and avoided placing on a passage. performing it. sincethere was not one universal performing style in the early nineteenthcentury.in their opinion. They body hand playing. Even the performance of of a pupil playing of neatness the clarity and Beethoven's piano compositions.wasthe normaltouch. Czerny also instead Beethoven's "very" "enough" "rather". his he to Clementi to approach performance re-think and eventually abandoned playing caused Czerny to and refined manner a more cantabile ofplaying. Whenfingering fiflh finger black keys.Theytrainedthe left handto beasagileasthe right. metronomemarkings Many of the principlesof pedalling and its techniqueas expoundedin Czerny'sPiano Forte Schoolcanalsobe tracedbackto Beethoven. Both hand to men position encouraged pianists avoid most advantageous . combining playing style.

Sometimes. octave glissando abandon a practicewhich Czemy and and Liszt. was note. he had by Czemy.however. in and fingering repeated patterns. the still should turn. editions ofthe piano sonatas. 53. notated. over the fingers or crossinga 301 . to the sonatas to piano with made.one-piece the emergence had far he by Czerny. perfom-dng his (1846) than 4rt in The. main-note adopting was gradually fingerings in his School. also preferred to use uniform were is specifically notated.changes of performance frame iron Bechstein Steinwaywhich pianos such as and of overstrung. arpeggios. resources order modify piano had damper he Beethoven Although that the is pedal employed recognised Pedalling anexample. disposal. Czerny Fingerings modemised. the were make greater changeswhich were used dip Billow key heavier that meant preferreda slowertempothan The sonorouspianoswith a in Op. increased by blurring. specifically and unlessa suffix during the this transition confused state and of affairs starts. and slower have resulted it his the the trill Czerny starting note about of 1830s. Thismay significantly were he published begun by Wagner. his Forte in his Piano which sometimes contradict is clearly recorded it trills that He should end with all a suffix. hand. the through resonancecreated the in order to create specialeffects Viennesepianosin the 1830sand 1840smade extensiveuse of this techniquedifficult and Beethoven's The trend of curtailing pedalmarkingswhichcaused sometimes. and whether should also changed mind the begin Czemy that the teaching trill In 1828. to adaptor exploited and welcomed technologywere incorporate in the these to technique new sonic of changes. his Billow.evenundesirable. on upper a with end have by But is 1830s. whether or not also emphasized written guidelines. slower other setsofmark-ings. irregular. Between for 1820s trend from the trend a the speeds. styles. din-iinished-sevenths dominant-seventh figures. had the to Beethoven. for Beethoven's On the the markings metronome sonatas which piano whole. to than that by Billow. Although in the fingerings other were often on such passages. Czerny. most of his In Czemy finger longer the thumb. Beethoven's fingering (where long finger the to of a vaults over a system old Czemy occasionally resorted shorter based fingerings the the his thumb modem system ofpassing on under were one). Czemy trill the the should not one. Liszt Billow Liszt blurring were and pupil and with continued considerable increasingly their the by that. Czerny beyond be and could not preserved keep to Czemy from changes up-to-date with contemporary also made other Apart pedalling. at with powerful pianos accepted and progressivemen nature had Beethoven's However.

and many of the remarks in The Art. SomeofCzerny'sdecisions. His seen. Beethoven's In the Cockseditionof the trio of the F minor sonata retained normally (Op. Czerny's wish to preservethe "correct" mode of performing Beethoven's piano music resulted in numerous editions of the latter's piano sonatas. however. Czerny's editorial markings in these editions display a certain consistencyfrom the late 1820sto the 1850sand are therefore reliable.Czemychangedthe composer'sfingeringin orderto avoidusingthesame fingers consecutively. Inaddition. 2/l/iii). understanding by be Beethoven important to the one considered of most aspectsof pianoplaying. marks. highly Czerny doing. this doesnot meanthat Czerny approval. AlthoughBeethovenwasoneof the pioneersin the trainingof fingerdexterity.so the editorial markings late edition was published soon after the in it. but Czerny's treatise as a concepts regarding the comprehensive interpretation of classical compositions.Whendiscussingtheperformance was in The he Art. as we bear He interested in to this. the bravura styleof playing. This is not as Piano Forte School.wereinfluencedby personalpreference. pedalling and the classifications and descriptions of 302 . the them suggestions correspond also and of ideas in his The Art in the the Haslinger 11edition from are same as editorial ofthe markings some Beethoven's This 1820s. death. his intentions. Czernyexpressedhis fingering fingering to this and suggested a whichusedthecombinationof thethumband objection the indexfinger. sometimes By especially overtlymelodiouspassages. in part at least.fingerings. probably reflect the composer's ideas and. Another source which anticipates some of the ideas in the Piano Forte School is Czerny's edition of MOIler's Grosse Fortepiano-Schule (1825). WhileCzemyobservedmostof Beethoven'sarticulation lengthened he Beethoven's in slurs.ofcourse. with which not meet style in display for its interested the ofvirtuosity only own sake. Many his in in The Art Piano to Forte School. the spirit of a piecewas.rhetoricalexpressionin favourof a smooth so legato line. have Czerny placed still more emphasison the attainmentof such skills.Beethovenwould finger a chromaticscaleby alternatingthe thumb and the third finger. to chose sacrifice articulate.The useof an alternativefingering in this awkwardpassageof double fourthswaslaterconfirmedin TheArt.a was also witness studies numerous did Beethoven's However. Beethoven's sonatas piano constantly emphasizedthe importance of of Conveying the communicating character and of a piece. of course.

Czemy'seditorialmarkings. and a thirty of years within decisive departurefrom his performingstyle had alreadybegun.but themajorityof histeachingsarea loyal recordof that performancetradition. areinvaluablein giving usaninsightinto certainofBeethoven's habits of thought. basedon hisrecollectionsofBeethoven'steachingandperformances. only reliablewitness ideals from his long intentions Beethoven's writings and performance editings and as muchabout from departed had he this tradition. We can learn In short. was more Liszt andto a largerextent. had the sonatas sonatas) to of Balow meanings led interpretations to technology the construction of piano This togetherwith effective of new in but the early nineteenth-century entrenched Beethovenworks which were not necessarily performingstyleof the composer. (especially late for the discover the themselves. But death.this interpretation However.especiallythosewhich appearedin morethanoneof his editionsovera periodoftime. Czemy obviously modified some of the principles he had learnedfrom Beethoven. Czerny's largely departurebecameincreasingly while marked. in bear the where areas mind as we 303 .dynamicandarticulationmarkingswerealreadyestablishedby the mid-I 820s. On the whole. Beethoven's the gradualmodification of aestheticoutlook. With eachgeneration. have Beethoven's is Czemy Carl the of we style.

p. 4 1. 245. 8. 30. iii. ii. B.3 Bach (1974). Ex. 255.. 2. p. iii. 2.20 Dussek (1807). Ex. pp. 67.17 Hummel (1829). Ex. 2. p. CHAPTER 2 Ex. 2. p. Ex. iii. 2. iii.14 Ibid. Ex. 2. treatise)..23 Dussek (1807).. 155.2 Ibid.4 Hummel (1829).8 Bach (1974). 304 . 63. 2. 2.12 Ibid. 56. Ex. p.18 Ibid. 2. p.19 Cramer (1819). 8.p. p. 2. fii. variations).156 and 160. iii. 2. ii. Ex. Ex. Ex.. New Variations [bb. U. Ex. 2. 2. 12. 2. p. 11.15 Ibid. 28. 2.1b Czemy (I 839E). Ex.1a Hummel (1829). p. p. EXAMPLES indicatesthat no bar numbershavebeengiven in the original. 28-34] of var. Ex. 90-9 1. Ex. Ex. p.SOURCES OF MUSICAL N. 19. (Euvre 64/iv/[308-31 I].16 Ibid. p. Ex. Ex. 160. Ex. 2. Ex. 2.10 Bach (1974). iii. p. Ex. Ex. 63. ii. p.7 Ibid. 2.24 Hummel (1829).5 Ibid. 61. 2.13 Czemy (I 839E). Ex. p. Introduction and Variations [bb. 50. Ex.9 Clementi (180 1). 8.11 Cramer (cl 820. pp.but. 2.22 Cramer (1820. 10. 1-19] of var. iii. p. Ex.6 Czemy (1839E). 11. 18. 2.21 Hummel (1829). 12. Ex. 2.. (Euvre 64/ii/[104-106]. 2. for the sakeof have I addedthemto the musicalexamples. p. Ex. p. p. clarity. 2. 2.25 Ibid. 2.

p.22b Czerny (1970). p. 21. Op. iii. Beethoven (1828-1840?). Beethoven (cl835-1880). i.21 Ibid. 101/iii/[ 1-20]. Op. 3. Ex. p. 57/i/f 105-108]. Op. p. p. p.26 Beethoven (1971). 57/i/[35-39]. 3. Ex. Op. p. 14. Beethoven (0835-1880). 57/iii/[68-97].28 Dussek (1807). p.27 Czemy (I 839E). i. 3.20 Beethoven (1856-1868). 34. Beethoven (cl835-1880). Ex. p. 2. Op. 57/i/[3 5-39]. Op. p. Op. ii. p. 8la/iii/[1-4]. 15. p. Ex. ii. 3. 3. 3. 3. Beethoven (1828-1840?). 3. 7/iv/[68-69] and [76-77]. 2. Op. ii. i.12 Ex. Op.3 Beethoven (1895). 340...4 Beethoven (cl 835-1880). Op.6 Ex. 101/iii/[ 1-22]. Ex. (Euvre 64/iv/[ 117-120]. Op.. Ex.16 Ex. Ex.2 Beethoven (cl 835-1880).13 Beethoven (1980). 16. 3. 7/iv/[151-159]. 23. 2. p.23 Beethoven (1828-1840?). 3. Op.7 Beethoven (1998).11 Ex. Ex. 24.15 Beethoven (1852-1854). 3.5 Ex.25 Beethoven (1856-1868).18 305 . Op. 3. pp. 7. 3. 5.19 Beethoven (1971). 6 1. Op. 18. 34/2/iii/[104-107]. 26/i/[85-102]. 2/l/iii/[59-63). Czemy (1970). p. 7/iv/[76] and [83]. Ex. Ex. 11. ii. 57/ii/[8-16]. 57/iii/[133-137]. 3. ii. Op. Ex. p. 26. Op. 20. p.10 Ex. ii. 3. 21. Ex. 3. 2/l/iii/59-63. p.22a I bid. Op. Ex. 2. 3. Op. p. p. ii.8 Ibid. 2.26 Clementi (c1807). Op. i. 19. 3.1 Ex. i. Ibid. Op. 3. 57/ii/[33-42]. p. Beethoven (1828-1840?). 57/ii/[32-43]. 3. Op. 57/iii/[108-117]. 109/iii/[203]. 3. 57/i/[14-18]. Beethoven Op. 57/i/[205-208]. CHAPTER 3 Ex. Op.14 Beethoven (197 1). ii. Op. p. Ex. 13-14. 29. p. 3. 3. 49. Ex. 3. 2/1/iii/[59-63]. Ex.9 Czemy (1970). 57/i/[14-18]. Ex. Ex. 57/ii/[ 13-14].Ex. 6. 31/3/iv/[20-24]. p. 333. 23. Beethoven Op. 28-29. 3. 337. p. 22.24 Beethoven (1971). Op. Ex. 3. 26/i/[86-102]. p. p..17 Ex. p. 331. Op. Beethoven Op. 3. Ex. 10. 57/ii/[33-42]. pp. Beethoven (1828-1840?). p.

Ex. 20-21. 27. i.29 Beethoven(1828-1840? ).. Op. 57/i/[122-134].. 57/iii/[74-97].34 Beethoven(1852-1854). 90/ii/278-290. 57/i/[149-161].32 Beethoven(1856-1868). 57/iii/[172-192]. 335. Ex. Ibid. 27/2/i/31-36. ii. Ex. 2/2/i/48-58. Op. Ex.. ii. Ex.9 Ibid.42 Beethoven(1856-1868). 55/Ei/[381-385]. 140-141. 3.ii. 57/i/[134-135]. 57/Hi/[173-195]. p. ii. Ex. Ex. 4.6 Ex. 57/iii/[76-96].p. 30.Op. 346. p. Ex. 3. Ex. 334-335. ii.35 Beethoven(1828-1840? ). ii. Op.. Op. 57/i/[122-143]. p. p.Op. III /i/ 127-132. Op... p. 57/i/[92-95]. 4. 334.39 Beethoven(1852-1854). 4. 31/3/iv/307-324. 3.Ex. Ex. 3. 7-8.37 Beethoven(1856-1868). 32-33. 23. i. Ex.27 Beethoven(1828-1840? ).28 Beethoven(1856-1868).H.. 23.Op. Op. 2/3/i/249-252. ii. Op. 4.p.Op. Ex. ii. Op.41 Ibid. p. i. Op. Op.p.3 306 . p. Ex. 3. 55/iii/[372-385]. p. i. pp. 30. 4. 2/2/i/220-227. Op. Ex. 215. Op. Ex. 57/i/[236-238].pp. 4. Op.p.p. 3. pp. ii. 57/i/[25-32]. Op..4 Beethoven (1980).40a Ibid.Op. 3. 2. 333. Ex. 3. 38.Op. 3.1 Cocks (1853). Op. Op.33 Ibid. Op. 3.40b Ibid. Op. 4.. 23.13 Ibid. 3. 1061ii/163-168.12 Ibid. 3. Ex. 197. p. 3. 4. ii. 12.Op. p. 54. 57/i/[238-239]. 4.10 Ibid. Ex.5 Ibid.36 Beethoven(1971). CHAPTER4 Ex. 4. 4.. ii. Ex. p.p. Op. p. p. 210. Ex. 57/iii/[175-192]. 3. 315. p. Ibid. Ex. 3. 90/i/53-56.30 Beethoven(1856-1868).. Maelzel's Chart Ex.H. Ibid. Op. 4. 344.38 Beethoven(cl835-1880). Ex.31 Beethoven(1828-1840? ).. p. Op.7 1bid. Ex.. 31/2/ii/54-60. p. 101/ii/49-52.2 Ex. Op. 3. 57/i/[147-151]. 4. p. 13. p. 57/i/[15-24]. Op. 244. 3. Ex. pp. Albrecht (1996). p. 57/i/[53-54].p. 3.8 Ibid. Ex.11 Ibid..pp. 57/iii/[ 176-191]. 4. 8. 72.. 250.

H. 5. p.21 Ibid.ii. iv. Op. 3 [bb. p. Op.. p. p. 27/l/iii/5-8.. 1-5]. Op. p. 4. 5. 5.12 Ibid. 14/1/iii/47-5 1. 4. 57/i/92-93. p. Op.ii. 81a/i/1-4. 27/l/iii/25-26 andiv/1-2. ii. II 0/ii/21-40. Ex. Op... 53.fi.ii. Ex. i. p.p. Etude no. 131/ii/[189-1981. Ibid. pp. 5.17 Ibid. 31/1/iii/[ 1-5]. 4. 16 [bb. Op. 26. 4..8 Ibid.ii. 5. 90/i/104-113. Ex. 5.. Op. p. 28 1. 196.3 Ex. II 1/i/l 18.15 Ex. p. 1-2]. p. Ibid. 223. III /i/ 17-23.10 Cramer/Shedlock(1893). 5.Op.. Ex.4 Ex. i. Etude no. 5.22 Ibid. Beethoven (1980). 1-5]. p.. 42. Ex. Op.ii. Ex. 135. Ibid. 22/iv/I 1-14. 2. Beethoven (1980). 5. 30.. 109/ii/l 20-125.6 Ex.p. i. 125/iv/8-16. Ex. Ex. Op. Etude no. i. Ex. 106/i/l93-208. 4. ii. Op. p.ii.Ex. 233. p. p.16 Ex.17 Czemy (1970). i. 198. Ibid. Op. Ex. 1-15].15 Ibid. 4. 31/3/i/176-183. 6. Op. p. Ex. Op. 5.. 21 [bb.18 Ibid. 5. Ex.14 Ibid.H. 109/iii/I . 5.5 Beethoven (1955). Ex. 101/iii/214-226. p. Ex. p. Op. iii.19 Ibid. 179. 124. 4.20 Ibid. 63. 297. CHAPTER 5 Ex. p. Etude no..16 Beethoven (1980). Op. 27/2/iii/76-87. 135. ý08. p.. Ex.11 Ibid. 4.14 Ibid. 257. p. 4.13 Ibid. 7 [bb.. 5. Op.26 Ibid. 14. 3 10. p. 10/3/ii/44-48. 240.25 Beethoven(1980).24 Beethoven(1999). Op.. 7/ii/59-64. 1-5]. 279. Ex. p. i. 76. p.9 Ex.H.p. 5.. 239. p. 5. 4. 54/i/132-138. Etude no. Ex.18 307 . 12. Op.7 Ibid. Ex.p. 6 [bb. 315. 4.Op. 5. ii. Ex. 7-11]. 82-83. 5... Ex. 173. Czemy (1839E).. 4.23 Ibid.. Op. 4. I [bb.16. p. 5.. Beethoven (1980).1 Ex. Beethoven Op. Ex. i. 8. 31/3/ii/162-171.2 Ex. Op. Etude no.

p. Op. 81. 6. Op. 6. Op. Ibid. 6. 71. Op. 2/3/i/27-41. Ibid.3 Ibid. 106/iv/8-9. Ex. p. 31/3/iv/273-276. p. 45. Ex. i. Ex.. 109/iii/106-109.24 Ibid. 6. Op. 6. Op. Op. Ex. 7/iii/1-4. Beethoven Op.12 Ex. 45. 53/iii/442-451. Op. 31/2/fii/167-180. p. ii. 223. 6.. 2 [bb. p. p. 35.20 Beethoven(1993). p. Ex.1 Ex. p. p.. Ex. ii. Op.. 6. Ex.22 Czemy (1970). 6. Ibid. 1-5]. 6. 142. 6. Ex. i. U. Beethoven(1971). 31/3/i/[174-177]. Beethoven Op.13a Ex. 46. 4.18 Ibid.. 5. 5. Etude no.9 Ex. 6. p. 82.19 Beethoven (1895). 117. 53/ii/I -2. p. L p. Ibid. 5. 6. 46. i. ii. Ibid.22 Beethoven (1980).... ii. Op. 93. Ex. p. p. 6. p.16 Ibid. Op. i. p... Ex.. Ex.8 Ex. Beethoven(1980). 6. Ex. 256-257. Op.5 Ex.21 Ex. 6...17 Ibid. p.15 Beethoven(1980).. 2/3/i/46-55. i. 5. 53/i/l 12-117. 26/i/[69-84]. 48.4 Ibid. Op. i. Czemy (1970).11 Ex. Ex. 14/2/ii/5-8. 22/ii/1-3.19 Ibid. CHAPTER 6 Ex. ii. p. 57/ii/1-8. p. Op. p. pp. 10/3/iv/41-45. Op.6a Czemy (1970). 5. p. 31/2/iii/215-224. i. Op. 101/ii/[46-54]. 29. 6. 57/i/[1-4]. Beethoven(1980). p. 84. 7/ii/25-28. 24 [bb. ii. 31/l/iii/132-134.21 Beethoven (1998). 286. 24. Etude no. 1.14 308 .2 Beethoven(1980).Ex. Op. 234. Ex. 5. 1-3]. p. 6. 6. ii. Op.. 44. Ibid. p. Ex. Ex. Op.13b Beethoven(1980). p. 7/iv/[150-155].23 Ibid.23 Ibid. 57/i/[1-13]. 117. 10/ii/39-46.. Ex. Ex. 16.10 Ex. 202. i. Ex. Op. Op. Op. Op. Beethoven Op. 6. 6. 7/ii/50-51. Op. 6. p. 90/ii/[23-40]. p. 9. 6. 300. 102. II 0/iii/6-7. 27/l/i/3-4. ii. p. Ex. Op.. 26/i/205-212.7 Cramer/Shedlock(1893). i. ii. 6. 184. 6. ii. i. 6.6b Ibid. 146. p.20 Ibid. 5. p. Op.

p.. p. Ex. 73-74. 174. 81.i. 7..Op.Op. Ex. ii. 2/2/iv/27. p. p. 32.. ii. 27.5 Ibid. i. 7. Ex. 136. Ex. 7. L p. Ex. 31/2/ii/1-7.BeethovenOp. 82. Ex. pp.6 Beethoven(1980). 7.19 Ibid. 176. Ex. 171.25 Ibid. 14. Op. Op. Ex.. 7. 7. 7. Ex. 10/3/i/[53-55].p. Op.. 7. 9. 132. 7/ii/13-15. p.25 Czemy(c] 828). Ex.20 Ibid.12 Czemy(1970).. 7.11 Czemy(I 839E). 6. 7/ii/37-41.i. 161. p. Op.. p. 7.17 Ibid. Op.. p.9 Ibid. ii. 7. 31/l/ii/1-3. Czemy(c1828).1a Bach(1974). 7. p. 7. Ex.BeethovenOp. p. -45]. 5. 31/1/ii/33. i. Ex. 133.ii. Beethoven(1980).i.7 Ibid.24 Ibid.18 Czerny(1839E). 36.13 Ex. Op. 96.16 Beethoven(1980). fi. Ibid.8 Ibid. Ex. 36. p. i.23 Ibid. p.p. p. i. p.. i.p. Ex. p. Ex. p. Ex. 7/i/108-111. i. Ex. 7.24 Ibid.26 Czemy(1839E). 7..Op.2 Beethoven(1980). Ex. II I/ii/72-73.. p. preface. 193.i. ii. 322. 22/i/10-11.Op. p. 7. p. Op. 6...i. 7. Ex. 138. 7. 7. Ex. 7. 175. 148.. ii. p.26 CHAPTER 7 Ex. 7. I 10.i. 7.15 309 . Ex.10 Ibid. Ex. 7. 7. p. Ex. 12.22 Czemy(1839E). 7.3 Ibid. Ex.4 Bach(1974). 2/2/i/220-226. I 11. p..14 Ex. 13/i/51-55. Ex. 6. 10/l/i/9-15. 31/2/iii/[43 44.p. p. i. 7. Ex.21 Czemy(1838). Op. 7. 25.1b Ibid. 7.27 Ibid. Czerny(1970). 172.Ex. Ex.

63. Sketch Kafka 88v. 7.. 209. 8. 23. 208. 7. Op. p. 2/2/i/84-9 1. Op. Ibid. E x.. p.. Ex.. 250. Beethoven Op. Starke (1819-182 1). ii. s. Hiebert (1985-1986). 7.Ex. Ibid.34b Ibid. Ex. 7.. p. Op. 3 10.3 Ibid. 205. 209..7 Ibid. Ex. 63. 298. Wo039/95-96.BeethovenOp.33 Ibid.2 Ibid. p. Beethoven(1980). p. 78/ii/I 16-118.5 Ex. p. Hiebert (1985-1986). 15. Beethoven (1980). 28/iv/[205]. 119/7/1-2. 207. 7.14 Ex. Op. ii. Sketch Kafka 40v. 8. Ibid. Sketch Kafka 40r. p. Ex. 8. Ex. 8.1 Rosenblum(1988). 8.1Ob Ex. 165.12a Ex.4 Ex. 15 Ex. ii.13 Ex. 17 310 . 8. Ex. Sketch Kafka 139v.9 Ibid.. 19. 325-326.Op. Ex. 53/iii/473-494. Ibid.29a Rosenblum(1988). Sketch Kafka 88r. g. Sketch Kessler 23v. II 0/ii/65-72. Ex. ii. Ex. Op.31 Ex. 24. p.12b Ex. 491.p.p. 8. 7. 8. 8. Ex. 8. 8. 118. Wo039/1-18. Op. p.34a Drake (1972). 7. p. III AV106-121.6 Ibid. i. 204. 230. 24. Op.32 Newman(1988). 8.. ii. 250. p. p. 8. Op.p..Wo039/7-8.p.. Ex. Ex. p. Beethoven (1980).. p. p. Ex. ii. 7. 204. 106/i/96-97. 57. Ex. p. 8. 208. pp.20 Czemy (1839E).19 Grundmann and Mies (1966). 8. 8. ii. 8. 8. 28/iv/[208].p.BeethovenW6040/59-60. II I/i/27-29. 117. p. Starke (1819-182 1). Sketch Kafka 89v. p. Op..18 Beethoven (1980).1Oa Ex. 8. Sketch Fischhof 4r. p.11 Ex. 194. Ex.. Ibid. p. 168. 489. ii.30 Winter (1977). p.29b Ibid.8 Ibid. CHAPTER 8 Ex. Ex.H. p. 208. 28/ii/["3 I "].28 Winter (1977). 2/2/i/[84-91 ]. 7. Ex.16 Czerny (1970). BeethovenWo04O/74-75. 8. p. p. ii.

p. 27/2/iii/163-166. p. 8. 106/i/l 6-25.23 Hiebert(1985-1986). Clementi (c 1807). Ex. Op. Op. ii. Ex. ii. H. 62. 9. ii.. Ex. 28/ii/["24-25'1. 8. 9.36 Ibid. 8. ii.8 Beethoven (1980). H. ii. 8. 34/2/i/[ 115-131]. Ex. p. p. 106/i/402-405. 254.29 Starke(1819-1821). Ex. 9. Ex. ii. Ex. p. 9. I 11.35 Beethoven(1980). 57/ii/96-97. ii. 8.26 Ibid. 8. 109/ii/I -4. Ex.SketchKafka 39v. 25.30 Czerny(1839E). p. Ex. Op. 8. 78. 118. 37/3/iii/[1-38]. Op.34 Rosenblum(1988). 9. fi. p. I 10/iii/125-127. 9.ii. p.Wo039/113-119. 58.37 Ibid.5 Ex. 227. 149. p.. 8. Op. Op. p. 276.SketchKafka 39v.7 311 . 8. 106/iii/156-167. Ex.25 Ibid.28 Ibid.Ex. ii. 9. p. Op.9 Ibid. p. 143.2 Ex.14 Beethoven (1980). p. Ex.ii.. 9.10 Czemy (1839E). 9.4 Ex. 9. i. 8.22 Newman(1988). Op.. p.21 Ibid. ii. Clementi (1798). 8. 31/l/i/168-196.p. Ex. 9. 109/i/97-99 and Op. Op.1 Ex. 300. 57/i/218-223. Ex. 8. I 11. Czemy (1839E). 8. 53/iii/462-469..12 Ibid. II 0/iii/5-6.. 120. Op.. 239. 36. 9. Ex. p. CHAPTER 9 Ex.p. 9.27 Ibid. 69/ii/[1-8]. p. 20-21. p.13 Czemy (1839E). ii. i. Ex. 8. 35.pp. ii. Ex. iii. p. 233. ii. 8. Ex. Op. Ex. 26/iv/1 64-169. 261. Ex. iii.33 Czemy(1970). Op. fi. Ex.BeethovenOp. 30. Op. 8.32 Beethoven(1980). iH. 305.Op.11 Beethoven (1980). 56. 56. Ex. 8.6 Beethoven (1980).. 78. p. 206.. p. p. p.. Ex. Ex. Ibid. Ibid. Ex. 292. p. p. Op. 8. p.3 Ex. 53/iii/251-258. 9. p. Beethoven (1980).ii. 37. 63.31 Starke(1819-1821). Op. p.24 Czerny(1839E).Op. 28/ii/[9].

. 596. Beethoven (1980). Ibid. Ex. 9. 53/i/[30-40]. 113.p. p. p. p..4 Beethoven (1894). Op. Ibid. Ex... ii.33 Czerny (1839E).. 10. ii.21b Ibid. 9. 614. 63.30 Ex. iii. 49. ii. ii. Op. 9. 246. p.. 421.26 Beethoven (1980). 6 1. 171. ii.. Op. Ex. Beethoven (1894). 103. 9. Op. 9. Ex..29 Ibid.1 Ex. p.. Op. Op. 53/iii/528-543.Ex.34 Beethoven (1996). 390. 106/iv/[388-391]. 53/iii/[ 1-22]. 10. 65.18 Beethoven (1980). ii. Ex.6 Beethoven (1857). ii. Ex. 9. p. 106/iii/44-46. 405. i. 448. 304. p. 285. 531HV311-325. ii. Op. ii. Op. 9. Op. Ibid. 9. iii. 9. Op. Ex. p. Op. Ex.. iii. Op. Ex. I 10/iii/l 14-116. 109/iii/202-203. 106/iv/[ 10]. p. p. 9. Ibid.31 CHAPTER10 Ex. p. Beethoven Op. 10. ii. 9. Op. p. Op. Ex. 9.. p. 252. 9. Ex. 9. 215. 60. p. iii..25 Czemy (1839E). 9. p. U.24 Ibid.16 Ibid. p. p.. 9.21a Ex. 9. 178. 371ii/[1-8].. Op.15 Ex. H. Ex.28 Ibid. 109/iii/104-107. 106/iii/57-63. Ex. 300. Op. II 0/iii/ 1-5. 79/i/67-75. ii.17 Czemy (1839E). Op. 53/iii/55-62. H. Ex.20 Ibid. 10. Op. 9.ii. p. p. 119.7 Ibid. p. p.2 Ex. Band 3. 9. 101/ii/28-36. iii. 10. 104. p. Op. p. 53/iii/1-24. Ex. 47. ii. 58/ii/47-51. ii. 9.23 Beethoven (1980). Ex.27 Ex. 7/iv/1 80-183. p.19 Ibid.22 Czemy (1839E). 95. 31/2/i/143-149. 290. p. 57/i/[130-136]. ii. 10.. 106/iii/l 29-13 1.32 Ibid. Czemy (1970). 97. 10.3 Ex.5 312 . Ibid. Op. ii. Op. Ex. Op. 9. Op. ii. Ex. p. Ex. Ibid. 53/iii/[465-475]. 22/iii/[9-14]. p. 33.

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