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UNIT 2

GRAMMAR
1.-ARTICLES
(ARTCULOS)

2.-POSSESSION
(POSESIN)

El artculo determinado "the" es invariable, 2.1.-SAXON GENITIVE


esta nica forma se usa para el masculino, el (GENITIVO SAJN)
femenino, el singular y el plural:
En ingls para expresar posesin o
pertenencia se puede emplear el genitivo sajn.
Examples:
Se forma aadiendo al nombre del poseedor una
"s" precedida de un apstrofo. Para expresar
English
Spanish
posesin tambin puede utilizarse la preposicin
the girl
la chica
"of" (de), como ocurre en espaol. Cuando se
usa el genitivo sajn, el orden de las palabras en
the boy
el chico
la oracin se altera y se coloca el poseedor en
the girls
las chicas
primer lugar seguido del apstrofo y la "s", y a
continuacin el objeto posedo sin artculo.
the boys
los chicos
Examples:
El artculo indefinido para las formas del
masculino, del femenino y del neutro singular es
"a", pero se cambia por "an" delante de "h"
muda y de vocal cuyo sonido no sea [ju:]:

English
the mother of the girl

la madre de la nia

Examples:
English

the girl's mother


the hats of these men

Spanish

a girl

una chica

a boy

un chico

a dog

un perro

an arm

un brazo

an hour

una hora

a human being

un ser humano

los sombreros de estos hombres


these men's hats

La "s" del genitivo, en los siguientes casos, se


omite aunque se conserva el apstrofo :
a) Si el poseedor es un sustantivo en plural
acabado en "s":

El artculo indefinido no tiene plural, y en su


lugar se usan adjetivos indefinidos, la forma
"some" para oraciones afirmativas y "any" para
oraciones negativas e interrogativas:

English

Examples:
English

Spanish

Spanish

these girls' mother

la madre de estas nias

these boys' pens

los bolgrafos de estos nios

Spanish

I have some questions.

Tengo algunas preguntas.

Is there any question?

Hay alguna pregunta?

I don't have any question.

No tengo ninguna pregunta.

He has a question.

(l) tiene una pregunta.

b) Si el poseedor es un sustantivo singular


acabado en "s":
English

Spanish

Moses law

la ley de Moiss

Jess friend

el amigo de Jess

There are some students. Hay algunos estudiantes.


There is a student.

Hay un estudiante.

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Sin embargo, si el poseedor es un sustantivo


Ntese que el adjetivo posesivo en ingls
monoslabo terminado en "s", se conserva la "s" concuerda con el poseedor, indistintamente del
del genitivo:
gnero y nmero del objeto posedo:
Examples:

Examples:
English

English

Spanish

Bess's table

Spanish

her house

su casa (de ella)

her houses

sus casas (de ella)

their house

su casa (de ellos/ as)

their houses

sus casas (de ellos/ as)

our car

nuestro coche

our apples

nuestras manzanas

la mesa de Bess

El genitivo sajn se emplea con nombres


propios, sustantivos que denotan persona,
sustantivos que denotan seres animados, etc.:
Examples:
English

Spanish

Mary's cat

el gato de Mary

my sister's book

el libro de mi hermana

the dog's tail

el rabo del perro

2.3.-POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS
(PRONOMBRES POSESIVOS)
SINGULAR
English

Si el poseedor es un sustantivo compuesto o


bien son varios poseedores, el genitivo se
forma con el ltimo sustantivo:
Examples:

English

Spanish

1st

mine

mo/ a/ os/ as

2nd

yours

tuyo/ a/ os/ as
suyo/ a/ os/ as (de usted)

3rd

his, hers, its

suyo/ a/ os/ as

Spanish

my sister-in-law's car

el coche de mi cuada

Mary and Peter's house

la casa de Mary y Peter

PLURAL
English

2.2.-POSSESSIVE ADJECTIVES
(ADJETIVOS POSESIVOS)
SINGULAR
English

Spanish

1st

ours

nuestro/ a/ os/ as

2nd

yours

vuestro/ a/ os/ as
suyo/ a/ os/ as (de ustedes)

3rd

theirs

suyo/ a/ os/ as

Spanish

1st

my

mi

2nd

your

tu/ su (de usted)

3rd

his, her, its

su/ sus

Ntese que el pronombre posesivo en ingls


concuerda con el poseedor, indistintamente del
gnero y nmero del objeto posedo:
Examples:
English

PLURAL
English

Spanish

Spanish

This car is mine.

Este coche es mo.

1st

our

nuestro/ a/ os/ as

These oranges are mine.

Estas naranjas son mas.

2nd

your

vuestro/ a/ os/ as
su/ sus (de ustedes)

The cat is hers.

El gato es suyo (de ella).

3rd

their

su/ sus

The tables are hers.

Las mesas son suyas (de ella).

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TO HAVE (tener)
Simple present / Question form
English
Spanish

3.-THE VERB TO HAVE


(EL VERBO TO HAVE)
TO HAVE (tener)
Simple present / Affirmative form
English
Spanish
1st S

I have

2nd S you have

3rd S

1st P

he /she /it has

we have

2nd P you have

3rd P

they have

I have not
I havent

have I?

(yo) tengo

(t) tienes
(usted) tiene

2nd S have you?

(t) tienes?
(usted) tiene?

3rd S

has he/ she/ it?

tiene (l/ ella/ *ello)?

1st P

have we?

tenemos (nosotros/ as)?

(nosotros/ as) tenemos

(vosotros/ as) tenis


(ustedes) tienen

(ellos/ as) tienen

2nd P have you ?

tenis (vosotros/ as)?


tienen (ustedes)?

3rd P

tienen (ellos/ as)?

have they?

4.1.-REGULAR PLURALS
(PLURALES REGULARES)
El plural de los nombres en ingls se forma
aadiendo una "s" al singular:
Examples:

(yo) no tengo

3rd S

1st P

(t) no tienes
(usted) no tiene

he /she /it has not


he /she /it hasnt

(l/ ella/ *ello) no tiene

we have not
we havent

(nosotros/ as) no tenemos

3rd P

they have not


they havent

Spanish

plate/ plates

plato/ platos

roof/ roofs

tejado/ tejados

Los nombres que terminan en "s", "ss", "sh",


"x" o "z" forman el plural aadiendo la slaba
"es":
Examples:
English

you have not


2nd P you havent

4.-PLURALS
(PLURALES)

English
you have not
2nd S you havent

tengo yo?

(l/ ella/ *ello) tiene

TO HAVE (tener)
Simple present / Negative form
English
Spanish
1st S

1st S

(vosotros/ as) no tenis


(ustedes) no tienen

Spanish

class/ classes

clase/ clases

box/ boxes

caja/ cajas

watch/ watches

reloj/ relojes

(ellos/ as) no tienen

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Los nombres terminados en "o" precedida de 4.2.-IRREGULAR PLURALS


consonante tambin forman el plural aadiendo (PLURALES IRREGULARES)
la slaba "es". Sin embargo, si la "o" est
precedida por una vocal forman el plural
Existen algunos nombres en ingls cuyo
aadiendo solamente "s":
plural es irregular:
Examples:
English

Examples:
Spanish

potato/ potatoes

patata/ patatas

hero/ heroes

duo/ duos

English

Spanish

ox/ oxen

buey/ bueyes

hroe/ hroes

child/ children

nio/ nios

do/ dos

man/ men

hombre/ hombres

woman/ women

mujer/ mujeres

tooth/ teeth

diente/ dientes

foot/ feet

pie/ pies

mouse/ mice

ratn/ ratones

goose/ geese

ganso/ gansos

person/ people

persona/ personas

Algunos nombres de origen sajn terminados


en "f" o en "fe" cambian la "f" en "v" antes de
aadir la terminacin "es":
Examples:

English

Spanish

calf/ calves

ternera/ terneras

elf/ elves

duende/ duendes

leaf/ leaves

hoja/ hojas

Los nombres terminados en "y" precedida de


consonante al formar el plural cambian aqulla
en "i" antes de aadir la terminacin "es".
Cuando la "y" est precedida por vocal al para
formar el plural simplemente hay que aadir "s":

Hay nombres que siempre se emplean


en plural:

Examples:
English

Examples:
English

Spanish

trousers

pantalones

sweets

caramelos

thanks

gracias

scissors

tijeras

Spanish

sky/ skies

cielo/ cielo

body/ bodies

cuerpo/ cuerpos

boy/ boys

nio/ nios

day/ days

da/ das

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DAILY

SPEAKING

1.-INTRODUCTIONS
(PRESENTACIONES)

Good afternoon!!
It's one o'clock

Good morning!

Alicia:
Alicia:

Good morning!
Buenos das!

Nuria:

Good afternoon!!
Its one oclock.
Buenas tardes!!
Es la una de la tarde.

Nuria:

Nuria, this is my
friend Miguel

Hi, Miguel!

Nice to meet you

CIVILIAN

Alicia:
Alicia:

Nuria, this is my friend Miguel.


Nuria, ste es mi amigo Miguel.

Nuria:
Nuria:

Hi, Miguel!
Hola, Miguel!

Miguel:
Miguel:

Nice to meet you.


Encantado de conocerte.

VOCABULARY

1.-COLOURS
(COLORES)

English

Spanish

English

Spanish

black

negro

green

verde

white

blanco

pink

rosa

purple

violeta

red

rojo
grey

gris

orange

naranja

brown

marrn

blue
yellow

azul
amarillo

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La mayora de los colores son susceptibles 3.-ORDINAL NUMBERS II (6th-25th)


de aparecer junto con adjetivos que denoten su (NMEROS ORDINALES II [6-25])
luminosidad (un color claro, un color oscuro). En
ingls estos adjetivos son "light" (claro) y
"dark" (oscuro):
English
Spanish
Examples:
English

Spanish

light red

rojo claro

dark pink

rosa oscuro

2.-CARDINAL NUMBERS II (30-100)


(NMEROS CARDINALES II [30-100])
30
35
40
45
50
55
60
65
70
75
80
85
90
95
100

thirty
thirty-five
forty
forty-five
fifty
fifty-five
sixty
sixty-five
seventy
seventy-five
eighty
eighty-five
ninety
ninety-five
one hundred

READING

6th

sixth

sexto

7th

seventh

sptimo

8th

eighth

octavo

9th

ninth

noveno

10th

tenth

dcimo

11th

eleventh

undcimo

12th

twelfth

duodcimo

13th

thirteenth

dcimo tercero

14th

fourteenth

dcimo cuarto

15th

fifteenth

dcimo quinto

16th

sixteenth

dcimo sexto

17th

seventeenth

dcimo sptimo

18th

eighteenth

dcimo octavo

19th

nineteenth

dcimo noveno

20th

twentieth

vigsimo

21st

twenty-first

vigsimo primero

22nd

twenty-second

vigsimo segundo

23rd

twenty-third

vigsimo tercero

24th

twenty-fourth

vigsimo cuarto

25th

twenty-fifth

vigsimo quinto

COMPREHENSION

1.-DESCRIPTION
(DESCRIPCIN)

2.-ANSWER THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS.


(CONTESTA LAS SIGUIENTES PREGUNTAS)
1) How old is Pedro?
2) What is Pedro's favourite sport?
3) Who is Beckham?
4) Who are Antonio, Carlos, Juan and Rubn?

This is Miguel's little brother, his


name is Pedro and he is eight years
old. He has lots of toys: a football,
some tennis balls, a yellow bicycle, a
pair of skates and a blue radiocontrolled car. He likes some sports
but his favourite sport is football. His
idol is David Beckham, a Real Madrid
football player. He plays football with
his friends Antonio, Carlos, Juan and
Rubn. Their idol is also Beckham.
Pedro has a football T-shirt but he
hasn't any trainers.

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MILITARY

TERMS

1.-IN THE BARRACKS AND GENERALITIES


(EN EL CUARTEL Y GENERALIDADES)
English

Spanish

barracks

cuartel

main gate

puerta principal

mess

mesn, cantina

lorry

weapon support company compaa de armas de apoyo

rucksack
headquarters battery

batera de plana mayor

armour squadron

escuadrn acorazado

courtyard

patio de armas

crest

metopa [de una unidad]

boot camp

campamento de reclutas

sleeping bag

saco de dormir

rucksack

mochila

lorry

camin

on duty

de servicio

on leave

de permiso

promotion

ascenso

outpost

puesto avanzado

military parade

formacin

march past

desfile

inspection parade

revista

drill parade

ejercicios de orden cerrado

sentry

centinela

base

base

flagpole

mstil de la bandera

dormitory

nave de dormitorio

Navy

Armada

Air Force

Ejrcito del Aire

equipment

equipo

salute

saludar; saludo

salary

sueldo

military parade

2
inspection parade
march past

sentry

drill parade

Air Force

Navy
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salute

MILITARY

Are you on duty


this weekend?

CONVERSATION

Yes, Im the sentry


in the main gate
next Saturday

Full Corporal:
Cabo Primero:

Are you on duty this weekend?


Ests de servicio este fin de semana?

Private:
Soldado:

Yes, Im the sentry in the main gate


next Saturday.
S, soy el centinela de la puerta
principal el prximo sbado.

Full Corporal:
Cabo Primero:

Did you already clean your rifle?


Has limpiado ya tu fusil?

Private:

Yes, tomorrow theres an inspection


parade in the battery.
S, maana hay una revista en la
batera.

Soldado:

Yes, tomorrow
theres an
inspection parade
in the battery

Did you already


clean your rifle?

EXERCISES
1) FILL EACH OF THE FOLLOWING GAPS BY INSERTING 2) WRITE THE SUITABLE GREETING ACCORDING TO THE
THE CORRECT WORD.
WATCHES.
a) Anna: Hello. Good morning!

a) 10:00
a) Good morning

b) Paul: Good _____!


c) Anna: _____ are you?

b) 15:00

d) Paul: Fine, thank _____. And you?

b) ______________________________

e) Anna: _____. Paul, this _____ my boyfriend, John.


f) Paul: Nice to _____ you, John!

c) 20:00
c)

g) John: _____ to _____ _____, Paul!


h) Anna: John is twenty-five _____ old, he _____
a student.

______________________________

d) 23:45 (bed time)


d) ______________________________

i) Paul: That is right! I _____ a student too.

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3) WHAT

d) 13 + 54

ARE THE COLOURS OF THE FOLLOWING


NUMBERS?

d) ______________________________

a) 6
a) Number six is blue.

e) 12 + 15
e) ______________________________

b) 17
b)
__________________.

f) 17 + 10

c) 7
c)
__________________.

f)

d) 1
d)
__________________.

______________________________

g) 9 + 57
g) ______________________________

e) 3
e)
__________________.
f)
f)

h) 25 + 8
h) ______________________________

20
__________________.

5) REWRITE

THE FOLLOWING SENTENCES BY


USING POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS.

g) 29
g)
__________________.

a) Mary's book
a) The book is hers.

h) 1 3
h)
__________________.
b) Peter and Paul's dog
i)
i)

j)
j)

11

b) ______________________________.
__________________.
c) Laura's house
__________________.

c) ______________________________.

k) 15
k)
__________________.

d) My car

4) HOW MUCH DO THESE COUPLES OF NUMBERS ADD UP?


WRITE THE SOLUTIONS BY USING WORDS.

d) ______________________________.

a) 45 + 23

e) Your note book

a) Sixty-eight

e) ______________________________.

b) 13 + 8

f) Michael's ball

b) ______________________________

f) ______________________________.

c) 24 + 10
c)

g) Anna's doll

______________________________

g) ______________________________.
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6) WRITE

SENTENCES BY USING THE NEGATIVE


FORM OF THE VERB TO HAVE : (1) HAVE NOT /
HAS NOT ( FULL FORM ) (2) HAVEN T / HASN T
(ABBREVIATED FORM).

8) ANSWER

a) What is the colour of your tie?


a) My tie es red.

a) Peter / computer.
a) Peter has not a computer.
a) Peter hasnt a computer.

b) What is the colour of the sky?


b) ______________________________

b) Hellen and Michael / newspaper.


b) ______________________________
b) ______________________________

c) What is the colour of the sun?


c) ______________________________

c) Julian / house.
c) ______________________________
c) ______________________________

d) What is the colour of your dog?


d) ______________________________
e) What is the colour of your mothers hair?
e) ______________________________

d) Andrew / girlfriend.
d) ______________________________
d) ______________________________

f) What is the colour of your hair?


f) ______________________________

e) My mother / dog.
e) ______________________________
e) ______________________________

g) What is the colour of the snow?


g) ______________________________

f) I / bag
f) ______________________________
f) ______________________________

THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS.

9) FILL

EACH OF THE FOLLOWING GAPS WITH AN


INDEFINITE ARTICLE (A OR AN FORM).

a) My neighbour is a photographer.

g) Louise / a pair of shoes.


g) ______________________________
g) ______________________________

b) I have _____ very bad night.

7) FILL EACH OF THE FOLLOWING GAPS BY USING THE


SUITABLE POSSESSIVE ADJECTIVE.

c) _____ travel agent gives you information


about hotels.
d) Mr Smith is _____ old man.

a) These are (1 sg) my keys.


e) You are not _____ worker, you are _____
capitalist.

b) That is (3 pl) _______ house


c) This is (3 sg fem) _______ boyfriend, and this
is (3 sg mas.) father.

f) He goes to _____ concert.

d) Those are (1 pl) _______ teachers.

g) I have _____ day off.

e) Those are (1 sg) _______ pencils.


f) That was (2 sg) _______ girlfriend.

h) I had _____ amazing experience last night,


I saw _____ dinosaur.

g) That was (2 pl) _______ class.

10) MATCH

WORDS

1)

TO

8)

WITH WORDS A) TO H).

English terms

Spanish terms

1)

on leave

a)

cuartel

2)

drill parade

b)

escuadrn acorazado

3)

dormitory

c)

de permiso

4)

salute

d)

ascenso

5)

on duty

e)

ejercicios de orden cerrado

6)

armour squadron

f)

saludar o saludo

7)

barracks

g)

nave de dormitorio colectivo

8)

promotion

h)

de servicio

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