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Research Methodology

Paper Solution

oct - 2009

Q.1. Answer the following

1. Define Research and give classification.
Research is the systematic process of collecting and analyzing information
to increase our understanding of the phenomenon under study.
According to Redman Y Mory, Research is a systematized efforts to gain
new knowledge.
Research is classified as follows:

Descriptive Vs Analytical Research

Applied Vs Fundamental Research

Quantitative Vs Qualitative Research

Conceptual Vs Empirical Research

2. What do you mean by variable? List out various types of variable.

Variable is an object or event that can take on more than one form or
value. Variable is a measurable factor that can assume more than one value. Eg:
Age, income, gender, etc.
Types of research are:

Independent variables

Dependent variables

Controlled variables

Intervening variables

Extraneous variables

3. Explain the term Panel.

Group of people with certain qualifications, selected for a specific purpose
and limited time, and usually disbanded thereafter.

4. Explain various types of information.

A. Various types of information are as follows:
1. Facts
2. Quasi Facts
3. Awarness or penetration of information
4. Opinions
5. Attitudes
6. Future action plans
7. Reasons

5. Define scaling and state various types of scale.

Scaling is th branch of measurement that involves the construction of an
instrument that associates qualitative constructs with quantitative metric units.
There are four type of scale:
1. Nominal scale.
2. Ordinal or rank scale.
3. Internal scale.
4. Ratio scale.
6. What is coding?
A. Coding is the procedure of classifying the answers to a question into
meaningful categories. The symbols used to indicate these categories are called
codes. It is necessary to carry out the subsequent operations of tabulating and
analyzing data.
7. What is sampling error?
Sampling error is the gap between sample mean and population mean.
Sampling error occurs because of chance variation in the scientific selection of
sampling units. As a sample size increase sampling error decreases.

Q.2. a) Distinguish between scientific and non-scientific method.

A: The comparison between scientific method and non scientific method is as follow:
(a) Objectively
(b) Degree of Accuracy
(c) Continuing and exhaustive
(a) Objectively
Scientific method is more objective as compare to Non-Scientific
(b) Degree of Accuracy
Scientific method ism more precise as compare to Non- Scientific
(b) Continuing and Exhaustive
Scientific method takes existing knowledge which forms to be
continuous and unending.
b) Explain types of research design.
A: Types of resource design
Research Design

Research Design

Cross sectional

Research Design


1. Exploratory research design
The exploratory research design is focus on the discovery of ideas. Exploration is
particularly useful when researchers useful when researchers lack a clear idea of
the problems they will meet during the study. When the researcher dont know
about the problems & to know the additional information.
The area of investigation may be so new or so vague that a researcher
needs to do an exploration just to learn something about the dilemma facing the
manager important variables may not be known or thoroughly defined hypotheses
for the research may be needed.
An exploratory study is generally based on the secondary data that are
readily available. It dose not have a formal and rigid design as the researcher may
have to change his focus or direction, depending on the availability of new ideas
and relationship among variables.
The design of exploratory studies is characterized by great flexibility and
ad hoc versatility. The researcher is invoked in investigating an area or subject

about which he or she is not sufficiently knowledgeable to have formulated

detailed research questions and to state hypotheses about it. Exploratory dose not
involve probability-sampling plans.
2. Descriptive research design:At the name it self revels that it is essentially a
research to describe some thing. It may also use for
predicting purposes.
->description of phenomena or characteristics associated with subject population.
->estimate of proportion of a population that have these characteristics.
->discovery of association among different variables (correlation study).
Decision makers. Descriptive studies can be divided into two broad
A. cross sectional
B. longitudinal
The studies measure units samples of the population at one point.
A cross sectional studies are carried out once and represent a snapshot of one
point of time. A cross sectional study is concerned with a sample of elements
from a given population.
In multiple cross sectional design only one sample of respondents is drawn
from the target population, and information is obtained from this sample only
In multiple cross sectional design, there are two or more samples of responds,
1. Field study:Includes depth study. Field study involves an-in depth study of
problem. Field studies are ex-post-facto scientific inquires that aim finding the
relation and inter relation among variables in a real world environment setting.
Example; reaction of India men towards branded reaction ready-to-wear suit
Strength: they are close to real life , and they cant be criticized on the ground that
they remote from real setting or are artificial.
Weakness: One of their major weakness is their ex-post facto character. As a
result interrelations among variables are weaker than they are in laboratory
experiments. A there are several variables affecting the response of interest, such
studies find it.
Field Survey: Large sample are a feature of the study field survey require good
knowledge like constructing a questionnaire sampling technique used act. Also it
is obvious that a sample survey needs less time than a census inquiry.
(b) Longitudinal Studies: longitudinal studies are repeated over an extended
period. Longitudinal studies involve panels. Panels are sample respondents who
provide information at regular interval over an extended period of time.
Tow type of panel:1.
True panel :This involves repeat measurement of the same variables.

2. Omnibus panel :In ominous panel too a sample of elements being selected &
maintained but the info collected from the member variable.
Consumer attitude to words chine made product.
3. Causal research design :At name implies a casual design investigate the casual &
effect relationship
between two or more variable.
(A) concomitant variable :A condition for inferring causality that requires that
the extent to which a cause x & effect y occur together as predicted by the hypothesis
under consideration.
(B) Time order of occurrence of variable :The time order of occurrence
condition states that the causing event must occur their before of simultaneously
with the effect it cant occur aster word it is possible for each event in a
relationship to be both a cause & an effect of the other event.
(C) elimination of other possible caudal factor:It means that the factor or variable
being investigated should be the only possible causal explanation in other word
when to or more cause of a given phenomenon have one only one condition is
common then that condition may be regarded as the causal.
Natural experiments
(1) Time series & trend analysis:In a time series design data are obtained from the
same sample or population at successive intervals time series data relate to the same
sample trend data relate to matched sample drawn from the population at successive
(A) the one shot case study :The design is also known as the try out design it is
Simplest & can be shown symbolically as follows.
Where x indicated the exposure a subject or group to an experimental treatment whose
effect is to be observed & o indicates the observation or measurement take on the
subject or group after am experimental treatment.
(B) Multiple time series:Another time series involves the control group
O1 O2 O3
O4 O5 O6
O1 O2 O3
O4 O5 O6
It fails to control history & there may be certain
environmental changes in the later period which may affect the effectiveness of
(2) Cross section designs

In the cross sectional design the effect of different levels of treatment are measure
on several groups at the same time. Symbolically a cross sectional design may be shown
as bellow:
The impact of varying levels of treatment is studied on the basis of the sales of the
product in different territories.
There may be some extraneous factor which may affect the sale in a
particular territory.
3. Combination of cross sectional & time series design:
These design as the name implies, cross sectional
Time-series & cross-sectional design while there can be May variant a more frequently
use design is the ex-post-facto test control group.
2. Controlled experiment
(1) After only with control group
It has been criticized on the ground that it does not concern itself with the pretest.
However, by avoiding the pre-test. The design provides control over the testing &
instrument effect.
(2) Before after with control group.
As the two before measurements, o1&o3&the two after measurements o2 & o4
are made at the same points in time the design is able to control history with the help of
this design, one can measure the effect of treatments in three ways o2-o1,o2-o4
(3) Four groups -six study design
The symbolically the design can be show as follows
The effect of treatment can be measured in several ways such as o2-o1, o4-o2,o0o5,o1-o3&(o1-o2)-(o4-o3) the after measurement can be show in a 2*n matrix as follows.
No.x x
B. measurement taken
No before measurement taken
The difference between the rows must indicate the bases for estimating the testing

Q.2. a) Distinguish between primary data and secondary data.


difference between primary data and secondary data are:

Primary data
1 There are original data gathered by the
researcher for the project at a hand.

2 It is the source which originate in time

3 They are more complete and accurate.

4 It relates specifically to the problem at

5 The main disadvantage is the cost and
time required to collect them.
6 Sources are:
Internal: Personal interview
External: Retailer, customer,
7 It is accumulated to meet up the
research objective of the subsisting
8 It shows latest information.

Secondary data
They are the data already existing in
the file or in other form gathered for any
other project.
It is the source that secure the data
from the original source.
They may be inaccurate. Unsatisfactory
as per situation.
They are called historical data.

5 It is cheaper and fast.

6 Sources are:
Internal: Include company records
External: Libraries, trade associations,
government publications.
7 It was collected to convene the
requirement of various research
8 It lacks aptness.

b) Explain various steps involved in research design.


Steps in the Research Design Process

Step 1: Define the Research Problem

Problem definition is the most critical part of the research process. Research
problem definition involves specifying the information needed by management.
Unless the problem is properly defined, the information produced by the research
process is unlikely to have any value. Coca-Cola Company researchers utilized a
very sound research design to collect information on taste preferences.
Unfortunately for Coca-Cola, taste preferences are only part of what drives the
soft drink purchase decision.
Research problem definition involves four interrelated steps: (1) management
problem / opportunity clarification, (2) situation analysis, (3) model development,
and (4) specification of information requirements.
The basis goal of problem clarification is to ensure that the decision makers
initial description of the management decision is accurate and reflects the
appropriate area of concern for research. If the wrong management problem is

translated into a research problem, the probability of providing management with

useful information is low.
Situation Analysis
The situation analysis focuses on the variables that have produced the stated
management problem or opportunity. The factors that have led to the
problem/opportunity manifestations and the factors that have led to
managements concern should be isolated.
A situation analysis of the retail trade outflow problem revealed, among other
things, that (1) the local population had grown 25 percent over the previous five
years, (2) buying power per capita appeared to be growing at the national rate of
3 percent a year, and (3) local retail sales of nongrocery items had increased
approximately 20 percent over the past five years. Thus, the local retailers sales
are clearly not keeping pace with the potential in the area.
Step 2: Estimate the Value of the Information
A decision maker normally approaches a problem with some information. If the
problem is, say, whether a new product should be introduced, enough
information will normally have been accumulated through past experience with
other decisions concerning the introduction of new products and from various
other sources to allow some preliminary judgments to be formed about the
desirability of introducing the product in question. There will rarely be sufficient
confidence in these judgments that additional information relevant to the decision
would not be accepted if it were available without cost or delay. There might be
enough confidence, however, that there would be an unwillingness to pay very
much or wait very long for the added information.
Step 3: Select the Data Collection Approach
There are three basic data collection approaches in marketing research: (1)
secondary data, (2) survey data, and (3) experimental data. Secondary data
were collected for some purpose other than helping to solve the current problem,
whereas primary data are collected expressly to help solve the problem at hand.
Step 4: Select the Measurement Technique
There are four basic measurement techniques used in marketing research: (1)
questionnaires, (2) attitude scales, (3) observation, and (4) depth interviews and
projective techniques.
P r i m a r y M e a s u r e m e n t Tec h n i q u e s
I. Questionnaire a formalized instrument for asking information directly from a
respondent concerning behavior, demographic characteristics, level of
knowledge, and/or attitudes, beliefs, and feelings.

II. Attitude Scales a formalized instrument for eliciting self-reports of beliefs and
feelings concerning an object(s).
A. Rating Scales require the respondent to place the object being rated at
some point along a numerically valued continuum or in one of a numerically
ordered series of categories.
B. Composite Scales require the respondents to express a degree of belief
concerning various attributes of the object such that the attitude can be inferred
from the pattern of responses.
C. Perceptual maps derive the components or characteristics an individual
uses in comparing similar objects and provide a score for each object on each
D. Conjoint analysis derive the value an individual assigns to various attributes
of a product.
I. Observation the direct examination of behavior, the results of behavior, or
physiological changes.
II. Projective Techniques and Depth Interview designed to gather information
that respondents are either unable or unwilling to provide in response to direct
A. Projective Techniques allow respondents to project or express their own
feelings as a characteristic of someone or something else.
B. Depth Interviews allow individuals to express themselves without any fear of
disapproval, dispute, or advice from the interviewer.
Step 5: Select the Sample
Most marketing studies involve a sample or subgroup of the total population
relevant to the problem, rather than a census of the entire group.
Step 6: Select the Model of Analysis
It is imperative that the researcher select the analytic techniques prior to
collecting the data. Once the analytic techniques are selected, the researcher
should generate fictional responses (dummy data) to the measurement
instrument. These dummy data are then analyzed by the analytic techniques
selected to ensure that the results of this analysis will provide the information
required by the problem at hand.
Step 7: Evaluate the Ethics of the Research
It is essential that marketing researchers restrict their research activities to
practices that are ethically sound. Ethically sound research considers the
interests of the general public, the respondents, the client and the research
profession as well as those of the researcher.

Step 8: Estimate Time and Financial Requirements

The program evaluation review technique (PERT) coupled with the critical path
method (CPM) offers a useful aid for estimating the resources needed for a
project and clarifying the planning and control process. PERT involves dividing
the total research project into its smallest component activities, determining the
sequence in which these activities must be performed, and attaching a time
estimate for each activity. These activities and time estimates are presented in
the form of a flow chart that allow a visual inspection of the overall process. The
time estimates allow one to determine the critical path through the chart that
series of activities whose delay will hold up the completion of the project.
Step 9: Prepare the Research Proposal
The research design process provides the researcher with a blueprint, or guide,
for conducting and controlling the research project. The blueprint is written in the
form of a research proposal. A written research proposal should precede any
research project.

Q.3. a) Explain the term Data. What points should be considered by the
researcher before using secondary data?
Data: Data refers to a collection of natural phenomena descriptors
including the results of experience, observation or experiment, or a set of
premises. This may consist of numbers, words or images, particularly as
measurements or observations of a set of variables.
The points to be considered by the researcher before using secondary data are:

Availability: The first and foremost requirement is that secondary data

must be available for us. At times, one may find that secondary data are
not available on a problem at hand. In such cases there is no alternative
but to take recourse to the collection of primary data.

Relevance: Relevance means that the data available must fit the
requirements of the problem at hand. This would cover several aspects.

The unit of measurements should be the same as that in the

research problem

The concepts used should be the same as are imagined in the


Another pertinent issue is that the data should not be obsolete.

Accuracy: This would not only enable the researcher to get core
comprehensive information but would also indicate the context in which
data have been collected, the procedure followed and the extent of care
exercised in their collection.

Sufficiency: Finally the data should be sufficient. If the data are

inadequate, then compliance with the preceding requirements will be in

b) Explain the field experiments of collecting primary data.

Ans: Field experiments:
Studies which are carried out in the natural environment be that a hospital,
a school, or the street, are known as field studies or field experiments. In field
experiments the researcher is testing hypotheses in a similar way to the way
it would be done in the laboratory. The main difference is that many of the
extraneous variables the researcher would be able to control in the laboratory
are not able to be controlled in the field.
Field experiments are those that are conducted in real world with the
subjects who are unaware of their participation. That is natural setting is the
base of field research experiments.
Merits of Field experiments:
1. Real life conditions: the field experiments are conducted under real life
conditions and not under artificial situations.
2. Wider and large participation: under field experimentation, the setting
allows maximum number of participants so that the findings are put to
more rigorous conditions.
3. There is no need to create artificial conditions: creation of artificial
conditions is a costly affair. It is alike shooting a scene for a film open door
which is more natural and not really costly,.
4. Benefits of variable observations: the units or subjects are not constantly
observed so that each time same results are not repeated. The business
variables are constantly changing. That makes the experimenter to
change his stand each time to the changing conditions as it is impossible
to control them.
Demerits of field experiments:
1. Time consuming exercise: conducting experiments in field setting is a
time consuming affair. The experimenter may not be able to test his
finding in time and report to the user. Time dimension is very important
in business foe time is more than money.
2. Experiments are not widely acceptable: field setting experiments do
not allow standard or conditions rigidly followed. Therefore reliability of
results is doubtful.

3. Field experiments are not possible without quantification: in a dynamic

field like marketing, there are many variables which cannot be
quantified are not subject to accurate measurements in terms of
Q.3. a) Explain the sources available for gathering secondary data.

Sources of secondary data are:

1. Internal data sources:

a. Accounting Records:
Accounting records generate a good deal of
data. As profits are based on sales, sales invoice is a good source. Normally a
sales invoice includes name and address of the customer, items ordered,
quantities and qualities shipped, discount allowed, price charged, total amount of
sales and the data of sales. Such information can be extremely useful in
undertaking a detailed analysis of sales by product, customer, industry,
geographic area, sales territory and sales representative.
b. Sales and marketing reports. These can include such things as:

Type of product/service purchased

Type of end-user/industry segment

Method of payment

Product or product line

Sales territory


Date of purchase

Amount of purchase


Application by product

Location of end-user

c. Internal Expert opinion: Experts working in the company can also be a

good source of internal data. Executives working as product manager, marketing
research managers, public relations personnel and advertising personnel have
specialized knowledge relevant to marketing problem.
d. Miscellaneous reports. These can include such things as inventory
reports, service calls, number (qualifications and compensation) of staff,

production and R&D reports. Also the companys business plan and customer
calls (complaints) log can be useful sources of information.
2. External Data Sources:
a. Government Publications: A large bulk of secondary data useful to a
marketing researcher is found in various government publications. The Registrar
General of India conducts a population census throughout the country every 10
years and brings out demographic data in voluminous reports. The Central
Statistical Organization brings out statistic of national income. The Director of
Commercial Intelligence, Government of India brings out monthly statistics of the
foreign trade of India. Some other official publications included are: Reserved
Bank of India Bulletin, Currency and Finance Report, Agricultural situation in
India, The Indian Labor Journal, etc.
b. Non-Government Publications: There are number of private
organizations which brings out statistics in one form or another on a periodical
basis. Various Industry and Trade Associations are important. Another source of
information is the stock exchange directories, the Market Research and
Statistical Bureau, etc. Besides industry associations several chambers of
commerce are also a source.
c. Syndicated Services: Syndicated services are provided by certain
organizations, which collect and tabulate marketing information on a continuing
basis. Reports based on marketing information collected by such organizations
are sent periodically to clients who are subscribers. Syndicated services are
normally designed to suit the requirements of many individuals or firms. Such
services are particularly useful in the spheres of TV viewing, magazine,
readership and the movement of consumer goods through retail outlets.
d. International Institutions Publication: There are several international
organizations that publish statistics in their respective areas. Some of these
organizations publish data on India among with that of other countries. Bank,
economic reviews, university research reports, journals and articles are all useful
sources to contact.
e. Libraries: There are two types of libraries- public library and private
libraries. Private libraries are those which are maintained by some business
firms. Public libraries are maintained by the government that can be utilized by
any research from general public.
f. Business Firms: Researcher depends on certain business firms for
some necessary information. Business reports are sometimes of great value of

the researchers. Researcher can collect information from bank and insurance
companies on request.
g. Consumer Research Services: Usage and attitude studies, Brand
image and positioning research, New product development research, Advertising
research, Product testing, Simulated test marketing, Market estimation and
forecasting, market modeling, customized panel research, etc.
b) Explain various methods of observation and applicability of observation

Various methods of observation are as follows:

1. Structured-Unstructured observation: Structured observation is used when the

researcher problem has been formulated precisely and the observation have
been told specifically what is to be observed. They may be given a simple form to
record their observations. Unstructured observation implies that observers are
free to observe whatever they think is relevant and important. While structured
observations are free from subjective bias, unstructured observations are subject
to this limitation.
2. Disguised-undisguised: The subjects do not know that they are being
observed in case of disguised observation. In some cases it may be made by the
observer by posing as one of the shoppers who are being observed. It may be
difficult to completely disguise an observation, through this apart; it poses an
ethical question of its desirability when those who are being observed are kept in
the dark.
3. Observation under natural setting laboratory setting: observations in field
studies in their natural setting and are therefore undertaken in extremely realistic
conditions. Sometimes an experimental manipulation may be introduced in a field
study. Observational studies in laboratory settings have certain advantages over
field studies. They enable the collection of data promptly and economically and in
addition, permit the use of more objective measurements.
4. Direct Indirect observation: In direct observation the event or the behavior of
a person is observed as it occurs. In contrast indirect implies that record of past
behavior is observed.
5.Human Mechanical Observation: Another way of classifying observation is
whether they are made manually or by machines. Most of the studies in
marketing research based on human observation wherein trained observers are
required to observe and faithfully record their observation.

In some cases mechanical devices such as eye cameras and audio meters are
used for observation.
Q.4. Write short note
1) Telephone interview.
A: Telephonic interview:Under this method , the researcher establishes
the contact trough telephone. In this interview the investigator ask selective
question and it must be brief, simple to the point and non-confidential.
Telephone interview are easy to administrator and allow data will be
collected quickly at a relatively low cost. The interview can clarify the
Advantages of self administered survey are:
1) It is economical: it is the speediest method of
data collection where up to date information is
got at telephone call without waste of time just
sitting in the office.
2) Unbiased data: normally respondents are more
frank on telephone than in person. They arre
not influenced by family members and friends
as telephone conversion is considered to be
private affair.
3) Best method to elicit information from specific
group: when the respondents are belonging to
higher socio-economic classes, it is really very
difficult to get personal appointment.
4) Quick response is possible: as the respondent
is caught on phone with the prior appointment
the information is available within a few

2) Personal interview:
A: Personal interview:Personal interview is the process of communication where face
to face contact between the investigator and respondent is established. It is the
conservation arrange for the purpose of obtaining views of respondent on the topic
of inters to the interviewer.

1) It is Superior method: Personal interview method is superior to mail and

telephonic interview method because it has two special features of its own:
answer is got only on asking and personal observation.
2) Maximum information is sought: Maximum and accurate information can be
elicited by the investigator because, he can explain each question in person
and this enables the respondents to answer the questions only after
3) Regulation of interview: in personal interview the investigator being an active
participant can control the interview to his advantage and to the convenience
of the respondents by directing, guiding and supervising the respondents.
4) Greater degree of accuracy: the research results can be projected to the
relevant universe or population with greater degree of accuracy because the
researches can procure good deal of information from horses mouth of
different dimensions.
1) It is expensive method: this method works out costly because of varieties of
expenses incurred on sampling, questionnaire, interviewing, recruitingtraining and controlling investigators, paying for their services.
2) More administrative problem: personal interview method involves more
administrative problems because of wider organizational paraphernalia
selection, training and control of personnel both research and non research.
3) Biased information: the investigators may not get accurate and unbiased
information though it is possible to get maximum information. It is likely to be
biased as the investigator plays more active role in explaining ht questions;
he may get answers only to the key questions and the rest he may manage
as per his sweet will and caprice.
4) Time consuming method: it is not only expensive in terms of talent and in
terms of talent and treasure but in terms of time. Survey research is not a
straight jacket formula. Once the research problem is identified the
researcher is to design questionnaire collect the data either higher himself or
his team of investigator analyze the data and interpret.

Q.4. a) Compare Census and Sample Survey.

A. Census:
All items in any field of inquiry constitute a universe or population. A
complete enumeration of all item in the population is known as census inquiry.

When all items are covered high accuracy is obtained.

Detailed information of respondent.

Requires preparation of questionnaire, evaluation, relevance of secondary

data, skilled researcher, deal of time, money and energy

Great deal of difficulty because of resource involved.

A sample survey is a survey where a few number of sample are selected
from universe and they represent the whole population.

As few items are taken, it becomes less expensive

Saves time and energy

The survey of sample would be misleading and conclusion would not be


Researcher has short time which may not prove useful.

b) Explain sampling process.

A: Following are the steps in sampling process

Define target population: Sampling design begins by specifying target population.

Target population is collection of elements that posses the information for which
the researcher is searching.

Identifying sample frame: A Sample frame is a representation of elements in the

target population Eg: Tele phone directory.

Specifying sampling unit: Sampling unit is the basic unit containing elements of
the target population.

Specifying sampling method: It indicates how sample units are selected. One of
the most important decisions is to decide whether the sample will be probability
sample or non probability sample.

Determine sample size; It refers to the no. of elements to be included in the study.

Execute sampling process: After selection of the execution of sampling process is


c) Discuss any one attitude scale.

A: (1)Nominal scale: Nominal scales are more widely used than any other scale for
research in social science. In such a scale the numbers serve as labels to identify persons,
object or events. It simply implies classification of items into two categories. In nominal
scale the only operation involved is counting of number in each group.
It is useful in preliminary or exploratory stage of the research.
It is useful to know broad dimension of certain criteria.
There is no rank order.
NO mathematical operation.
It is unsuitable for determining the relationship.
Q. 5. a) Explain data processing cycle.
b) Explain any one probability and non-probability design.

Probability design:

Simple random sampling: Simple random sampling is the simplest type of

sampling in which we draw a sample of size n in such a way that each of N
members of population has the same chance of being included in the sample.
Most frequently used method for simple random sampling is the random number
table. Other method is not so much practical but it can also be used. Suppose in
a class 100 students are there out of which 10 students needs to be selected
randomly we can select in an order of ID like 6, 16,,96.
Simple Random sampling in practice:
1. When a small sample is needed from the list of sample frame.
2. The cost per interview is practically independent of the location of the
sample item.
Non Probability design
Convenience: Researcher has freedom to choose whomever they find
thus the name is convenience. Sometimes called grab of opportunity sampling
this is the method of choosing items arbitrarily and in an unstructured manner
from the frame. Though almost impossible to treat rigorously it is the method
most comm0only employed in many practical situations. In social science
research, snowball sampling is a similar technique where existing study subjects
are used to recruit more subjects in to sample.

c) What do you mean by Statistical estimation?

Statistical estimation involves the estimation of parameters for a
population from a sample. This can be illustrated best by examples. Suppose a
department store is interested in setting up a branch in the suburbs of a
metropolitan city and would like it to be situated in a locality where the average
income of the inhabitants is more than the national average. It will be too
expensive apart from being extremely time consuming, to contact each
household in that locality to find out its income and then to compute the average
income of households. In such a case a sample of households is chosen, these
households are contacted and the sample average income is computed. This
sample average is then taken as an estimate of the average income of
households in that locality.
Apart from knowing the average household income in the locality the
department store may be interested in knowing the variability of the incomes.
This would give it some idea of the price range of the products it should sell.
Since it does not know the dispersion in the household incomes in the population
it may use the sample standard deviation instead.
In both these examples a sample value has been used as an estimate of
the population parameter. In the first example the sample mean is used as an
estimator of the population mean. In the second example, the sample standard
deviation is used as an estimator of the population standard deviation.
A point estimate is a single number estimate and is the simplest to
calculate. However it will be only by chance that such a point estimate will be the
same as the population parameter. This is because a number of samples of a
given size can be drawn from the same population and these samples will give
different point estimates of a true population parameter. This poses a problem as
to how one can ensure a good estimator.
Q. 5. a) Explain types of question.
A. Types of questions are as follows:
1. Open ended questions: these are questions where respondents are free to
answer in their own words.
2. Close ended question: it present a set of fixed alternative from which
proper alternative can be chosen.
3. Dichotomous: structured questions with only two response answer or

4. Direct and indirect questions: direct question is one which can be asked
and can be answered directly. Question carries a very clear indication
such question can be answered exactly and easily as it is free from
ambiguity. While indirect question are asked indirectly to allow respondent
gazing and perceives the situation differently as per personality
5. Scale type question: Scale type question are very popular in conducting
marketing research. Respondent are given the range of categories in
which to express their opinion. Scale is used to measure level or degree of
attitudes or agreed upon opinion.
6. Descriptive question: Descriptive question can be attended by descriptive
answer. It needs the detailed explanation. At the end of every descriptive
question adequate space has been given to write the answer.
7. Short question: Short question can be answered just by writhing words.
Question may be lengthy but can be answered by one or more words.
8. Rank order list: Here the respondents are asked to rank options from the
most important to the least important option.
9. Check list: Such question involves more option and can be answered by
selecting one or more options.
10. Multichotomous: Such types of questions involves more options may be 5
or more and respondent are asked to select anyone by tick mark. They
are not required to write any word.

b) Prepare a questionnaire on consumer attitude regarding e-banking.


1. Personal Details:
a. Name: _______________________
b. Age: _______
c. Occupation: ________________
2. Do you have a bank account?
3. Which type of bank account do you have?
a. Saving
b. Current
c. Others

4. In which bank do you have an account?

a. SBI
b. BOB
d. Others ________________________
5. Are you aware of E-banking facility provided by your bank?
a. Yes
b. No
6. Do you use e-banking service?
a. Yes
b. No
7. For what purpose do you transact mostly?
a. Personnel
b. Business
c. Others ___________________
8. Do you find e-banking safe and time saving?
a. Yes
b. No
9. What are the transactions you conduct through e-banking
a. Withdrawl
b. Deposit
c. Balance enquiry
d. Others _____________________
10. Do you prefer e-banking rather than traditional banking?
a. Yes
b. No
Q.6. Write notes
1) Audience for research report
A. The first point to be considered while writing a research report is that for whom
the research is going to be prepared. So the language, style, size etc. of the
research report should be according to the audiences. The respondents of the
research report will be of different backgrounds. It is therefore necessary to
understand who can be the possible respondents.

t r






Client: Clients are those persons who refer the research report for solving any
problems in the organization. For e.g.: marketing manager may feel the need of
studying the buying behavior of the customers.
Researcher: The researcher will keep one or two master copies for reference.
This copies can be prepared in technical or classical language of business
General Public: Apart from clients and researchers, the research report can also
be read by the general public. It can be for various reasons, it can be usefull for
students, lecturers, etc.
2) Measures of central tendency
A: The principal measure of central tendency is the arithmetic mean, the median,
and the mode.
The arithmetic mean should be used In case of itervalled or ratio-scaled
data. It is obtained by adding the observation and dividing the sum by the
number of observation.
o In case of a frequency distribution the arithmetic mean is obtained by the
following steps:

The mid-point of each class interval or category is multiplied by

the number of observation the class interval.

The resultant values are summed up.

The total thus obtained is divided by the total number of


o The median I measure of the central item when all the items in a series
are arranged either in ascending or descending order of magnitude.
o The mode is another measure of location of a frequency distribution. It is
the value at the point around which the items are most heavily

3) Format of research report.



Title page



Table of content

List of tables(if any)

List of figure(if any)

Executive summary

Textual Body/Main body

Introduction-about study

Review of related literature

Research Methodology

Data collection and analysis/ interpretation of data

Conclusion and suggestion



Appendix( if any)

Glossary(if any)