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Education and National Integration Indian

Dr.C.M.Math*, Dr. N.V. Gudaganavar** and Shri.S.D.Soudagar***

National integration is a multi dimensional concept. It has social, political and
economic dimensions. National integration is the awareness of a common identity
among the citizen of a country. It involves doing away with interstate inter-religious,
inter-linguistic and inter-cultural differences. The challenges of diversity in these
different areas have to be met through education. Education has a major role to play in
inculcating the values of solidarity, integrity, knowledge about literature and culture
through moral science, spiritual/secular education and value education. The role of
education in national integration has been highlighted by various commissions on
education appointed by the Government of India.
*Dr.C.M.Math., Associate professor ,Dept.of Statiatics, KLE,s G H College of Haveri
** Dr N.V.Gudaganavar., Associate Professor ,Dept. Of Statistics, Anjuman Arts Science and
Commerce College, Dharwad
*** Shri.S.D.Soudagar., Associate Professor ,Dept. Of Sociology, Anjuman Arts Science and
Commerce College, Dharwad

Education and National Integration Indian

Dr.C.M.Math*, Dr. N.V. Gudaganavar** and Shri.S.D.Soudagar***

National integration is a multi dimensional concept. It involves many interlocking elements that operate independently to some degree but yet are also
interactive cumulative and generally complementary (Kaur G., 2013). The concept is
also holistic in the sense that an integrated community is often more viable than each
of its constituent parts. National integration is highly complex phenomenon in the
sense that what is integrative on the one hand may be disintegrative on the other. It is
a dynamic construct in the sense that once integrated does not mean always
Objectives of the Study
1) To provide a conceptual dimensions of National Integration.
2) To identify the challenges in the way of National Integration.
3) To articulate the education policy in India towards National Integration.
4) To identify the ways and means of achieving National Integration through
Conceptual Dimensions of National Integration
National integration has social, political and economic dimensions. National
integration is the creation of a feeling of oneness where the diversities are recognised
and respected by inhibiting a sense of nationhood. National integration is the
awareness of a common identity amongst the citizens of a country. It comprehends the
identification of people with nation as a whole and not with sectional identities.
National integration involves doing away with interstate, inter-linguistic, interreligious and inter-cultural differences and fostering a spirit/attitude of tolerance,
respect and an appreciation of the viewpoint of those belonging to other states or other
linguistic, religious and cultural groups. Nehrus statement in this context is relevant.

Political integration has already taken place What I am after is something much
deeper than that emotional integration of the Indian people so that we might be
welded into one and made strong national unit maintaining at the same time all our
wonderful diversity. National integration does not imply similarity or becoming
identical, it is unity in spite of all differences in other words unity in diversity. It
comprehends identification of people with nation as a whole and not with sectional
identities. National integration is the awareness of a common identity amongst the
citizens of a country. It implies that though we belong to different castes, religions and
regions and speak different languages, we recognise the fact that we are all one.
National integration does not imply similarity or becoming identical. It is unity in
spite of all differences. In other words national integration is unity in diversity.
National integration has to grow silently in the minds and hearts of men. Education is
the process to promote it. Education can play a vital role in strengthening emotional
Challenges in the Way of National Integration
India is a country of diversity. Geographically our land is diverse and there are
amazing differences in climate. Diversity is manifested through great varieties in
costume, food habits and social customs. Religious diversity is significant and
indicates through people practicing Hinduism, Islam, Christianity, Buddhism,
Sikhism, Jainism and Zoroastrianism, etc. There are about 1652 languages and
dialects spoken in our country.
These apparent symptoms of diversity led many foreign writers to consider
India not as a country but a conglomeration of many distinct regions. Sir John Sealy
said that India was not a political name but only a geographical expression like
Europe or Africa. Sir John Strachey wrote This is the first and the most essential
thing to learn about India that there is not and never was an India or even any country
of India possessing, according to European ideas, any sort of unity, physical, social or
religious. No Indian nation, no people of India of which we hear so much. Simon
Commission (1930) referred to India as a conglomeration of races and religions.
Challenges in the Way of National Integration
Major challenges in the way of national integration obviously relate to the
language and linguistic chauvinism, the various linguistic groups adhering to their
own linguistic enthusiasm relegates the importance of a common national language

and associate regionalism with their language superiority in administration and in

Second major challenge to national integration related to communalism. The
extremity of religious loyalty comes in the way of national integration. Religious
loyalty is used for social and political gains there by relegating national spirit to
secondary position in peoples attitude.
The third challenge to national integration related to the politics of caste.
Casteism is a divisive force. Positions and opportunities are monopolised by particular
castes in government and party politics.
The fourth challenge to national integration comes from Regionalism which
gives more importance to ones own region than to national interests. This spirit of
regionalism creates parochialism among the people.
Extremism is another challenge to nationalism. It is the act of spreading fear
by threatening the people through illegal means to obtain selfish interests. Extremism
ignores human values.
Role of Education in National Integration
National integration can be fostered through change in attitude and values of
people. Attitudes and values require input at cognitive and effective level which can
be achieved through education. National integration need to be included as an
important component of value education. Education is an instrument or a tool in
developing right attitudes and values at an early age. Education has the capacity to lift
an individuals mind to transcendental height above the humdrum or narrow selfperception of everyday life.
Education Policy for National Integration in India
Way back in 1952-53 the Secondary Education Commission emphasized that
educational system must contribute towards the development of habits, attitudes and
qualities of character which will enable its citizens to bear worthily the responsibility
of democratic citizenship and to face all those fissiparous tendencies which hinder the
emergence of a broad national and secular outlook. The Education Commission
(1964-66) identified the social and national integration as one of the major problems
of national development. National Policy on Education (1986) points out the need for
establishing the national system of education and institutions to promote national
integration. J.S. Varma Committee in 1999 has listed schemes and programmes
related to National Integration and Communal Harmony and incorporation of the

National Integration concepts in educational system. National Council for Educational

Research and Training (NCERT) has also published books on National Integration.
The Indian Constitution has also included integrity in the Preamble of
Constitution by the 42nd Amendment of 1976 and has stressed upon the dire need of
the integration of the masses.
Ways and Means of Development of National Integration
National Integration needs a comprehensive approach through educational
strategy at the national level. There is need for restructuring the school
curriculum/syllabus that promotes National Integration. This could be achieved
through a uniform policy of education across the country. Students should be made
familiar with more than one Indian language apart from their mother tongue. A
scheme of exchange of students between different states should be evolved and direct
contact with people of other states should be established through frequent tours.
Information about eminent scholars, poets and leaders of other states should be
imparted to students. Leaders of different communities and religious groups should be
invited for lecturing on the specific cultures, customs, traditions, etc. Students should
be sensitised about the problems of national calamities faced by people in other states.
Schools and colleges should arrange travel documentaries on variegated culture, flora
and fauna of different states.
National Integration is a complex problem and political integration is only one
part of it. Division on the basis of language, community or region will have serious
repercussions on national unity. There is urgent need for making efforts to bring about
national integration through education system. Restructuring of educational
curriculum and inculcating a sense of national unity among the youth has to be
accomplished through education. Interstate interactions through exchange of students
and teachers and familiarisation of students with more than one Indian language could
be useful in the direction of national integration. There is a need for structural changes
in the educational system in the country and educational administration should have a
national character.

M.S. Gurupreet Kaur (2013): Understanding National Integration and Challenges

in Its Way. Educationia Confab, Vol. 2, No. 9, Sept. 2013.


Vindo Vincent Rajesh (2013): Higher Education as a Tool for National Integration
A Historical Overview. History Workshop.


Surya Narayan Misra (2011): Higher Education and Nation Building in India.
Orissa Review, September-October, 2011.


Sarla A. Sankwani (2012): Education for National Integration.