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Stocks are shares of ownership in a company. When you buy stocks of a publicly listed company, you become a stockholder or
shareholder of a company. In other words, you become a part-owner of that company.
As a part-owner, you participate in the companys growth and future profits. Conversely, you may also lose if the company
suffers a loss or performs below market expectations.
The number of stocks you acquire will determine how big or small your ownership is. As you acquire more stocks, your
ownership stake in the company becomes greater.
Other terms for stocks are shares or equities.
In Filipino, stocks are called sapi, which means to join or to partake.
Stocks are classified according to types and classes, depending on the characteristics and earnings potential.
According to RIGHTS
a. Common stock It is a security usually purchased for participation in the profits and control of ownership and
management of the company. A common stockholder exercises control through voting rights during annual or special
stockholders meetings, but can only claim rights to the companys assets and earnings when preferred shareholders are already
paid in full.
Most of the issues traded in the local stock market are common stocks. Common stocks are also known as ordinary shares.
b. Preferred stock It is a security whereby the holder has a higher claim on the assets and earnings of the company.
In terms of dividend payment and liquidation, preferred shareholders have priority over common shareholders. Though preferred
stockholders do not have voting rights, they are entitled toreceive dividends before any dividends are paid to the common
Preferred stocks usually have a specified limited rate of return or dividend and a specified limited redemption and liquidation
Preferred stocks are also known as preference shares.
According to OWNERSHIP
Common shares may further be classified into:

Class A These are stocks that can be exclusively traded by Filipino investors.


Class B These are stocks that can be bought and sold by both Filipino and foreign investors.

Both classes have the same privilege and receive the same amount of dividends. Such classification of common shares is done to
monitor the equity ownership of both local and foreign investors.
According to SECTORS
Stocks listed and traded on the PSE are classified into six (6) sectors:

Financials Sector includes companies engaged in banking, investments, and finance.

Industrial Sector includes companies involved in the following:
a. Electricity, Energy, Power, and Water
b. Food, Beverage, and Tobacco
c. Construction, Infrastructure, and Allied Services
d. Chemicals
e. Diversified Industrials
3. Holding Firms Sector includes companies or firms that control or manage partial or complete interest in another company
or other companies. Usually, these companies do not produce goods or services itself; rather, its purpose is to own shares of other
4. Property Sector includes companies involved in land and property development
5. Services Sector includes companies involved in the following:
a. Media
b. Telecommunications
c. Information Technology
d. Transportation Services
e. Hotel and Leisure
f. Education
g. Diversified Services


Mining and Oil Sector includes companies engaged in mineral extraction, oil exploration, extraction and production

Though there is no formal definition or criteria to classify a stock according to its characteristics, analysts generally describe
stocks as:
a. Blue Chip stocks are shares of well-established and financially sound companies that have demonstrated their ability to
pay dividends in both good and bad times. They also exhibit more modest but dependable returns and are relatively of lower
b. Income stocks are shares of those companies with good dividend payment history due to steady profits. Since they are
stable, income stocks generally have a lower level of volatility.
c. Growth stocks also called glamour stocks, are shares of corporations whose earnings are expected to grow at an aboveaverage rate relative to the market. A growth stock does not usually issue dividends as earnings are reinvested in capital projects.
d. Defensive stocks are shares that provide regular dividends and stable earnings, regardless of the overall condition of the
stock market. Defensive stocks remain stable under difficult economic conditions. Generally, these are stocks of food, oil, and
utilities companies, which are characterized by steady demand amidst hard times.
e. Cyclical stocks are those sensitive to business conditions or cycles strongly tied with the economys performance. These
companies produce or offer services that are low in demand during slowdown and increase when business peaks.
f. Speculative stocks are those that rise quickly when economic growth is strong and falls rapidly when growth is slowing
down. A speculative stock is considered very risky because of its volatility. It increases or decreases rapidly depending on the
economic conditions.
Getting started in the stock market is a simple process.

Choose your STOCKBROKER.

At present, there are more than a hundred stockbrokerage companies to choose from.
When you choose a stockbroker, you need to consider the type of service you will require and who will best suit your needs. You
should remember that your stockbroker is your financial agent that will help you make your invested money grow. Stockbrokers
are also classified as traditional or online based on the services that they offer.
Traditional brokers are those who assign a licensed salesman to handle your account and take your orders via written instruction
or through a phone call. Online brokers, on the other hand, are those whose main interface with their customer is through the
The full listing of stockbrokers is available in the PSE website

Open a TRADING ACCOUNT with your chosen stockbroker.

The next step is to formally open a trading account. Similar to the process in opening a bank account, representatives of the
chosen stockbrokerage company will require you to fill out a Customer Account Information Form or CAIF. Accomplish this
along with the other requirements such as:
o Two (2) valid IDs;
o Specimen signature cards, and;
o Proof of billing.

Discuss with your stockbroker the stocks you wish to BUY or SELL.

After opening a trading account, you can now start discussing with your stockbroker the stocks you wish to buy (or sell).


Give ORDERS to the stockbrokers.

Placing an order to buy or sell a stock can be done by making a telephone call or sending an SMS to your stockbroker. Orders can
also be placed directly online via the Internet.



Once your order has been carried out, your stockbroker will give you a
confirmation invoice showing the details of your transaction.

Deliver/Pay before SETTLEMENT DATE.

The delivery or payment should be before the settlement date. For traditional
stockbrokers, settlement of transactions is usually done after three (3)
working days from the transaction or T+3. For online stockbrokers,
settlement of all transactions is done on the transaction date.

Receive PAYMENT.


There are two ways to make your money grow in the stock market:
1. Through an increase in stock price or capital appreciation
Capital appreciation is an increase in the market price of your stock. It is the difference between the amount you paid when
buying shares and the current market price of the stock. However, if the company does not perform as expected, the stock price
may go down below your purchase price.
You cannot really earn from stock price appreciation unless you sell your shares. Otherwise it is only a book value gain, which
means it is not yet converted to cash, and current price may change depending on market forces.
For example, if you buy a share of stock at Php100.00, and it rises to Php110.00, your capital appreciation or gain is Php10.00.
Keep in mind that you only realize your gain of Php10.00 minus applicable charges, if you sell at Php110.00. If you choose to
hold it and it further increases to Php150.00, your capital gain would be Php50.00. However, if your stock decreases to
Php100.00, and you decide to sell it at that price, then your capital gain is zero.
2. Through dividends declared by the company
Dividends are paid out to shareholders, representing earnings of the company that are not going to be reinvested in their
business. There are two types of dividends: cash and stock dividends.
A cash dividend represents earnings declared by the company for every share of stock. So, if the company declares a dividend of
25 centavos per share, a stockholder with 10,000 shares will receive a cash dividend of (Php2,500.00 minus tax of 10% for
individual Filipino investors)(Php0.25 x 10,000) in cash.
Stock dividends are additional shares given to shareholders at no cost. If the company declares a 25 percent stock dividend, a
stockholder with 10,000 shares will be entitled to an additional 2,500 shares of stock. These shares can be sold anytime after the
shares have been issued.
How can I post a buy or sell order?
Placing an order to buy or sell stocks to your stockbroker can be done in three ways: over the phone (call or text message),
online, and face-to-face (walk-in).

Over the phone (call or text message)

The most traditional way to post a buy or sell order is by making a telephone call to your stockbroker and get firsthand advice
from him.
You may also post orders through text messaging, which may be arranged with a trader of a full service stockbrokerage house.
Note that there are certain risks involved including the possibility of your order not being received on time and accurately, or not
being received at all by the trader.


Investors with online trading accounts post their buy or sell order via the Internet using the online trading platform of an online
stockbroker. With a few simple clicks, you may buy or sell stocks without the need to speak to your stockbroker. Online trading
allows faster posting of orders and settlement at a lower commission rate.

Face-to-face (walk-in)

Some stockbrokers have their own investors trading lounges where you can monitor stock price fluctuations through viewing
facilities and at the same time, personally post a buy or sell order through a trader.
PSE Investors' Primer
This basic and easy-to-understand stock investing primer is principally intended for interested individuals and first-time
investors. The main objective of this literature is to orient people about the stock market and to guide them on how investing in
stocks can further secure one's financial future by becoming a successful investor.
What basic information do I need to provide my stockbroker when posting an order?
When posting an order, you must tell your stockbroker the name of the listed company or the symbol of the stock to be bought or
sold, the price you are willing to buy or sell a specific stock and lastly, the number of shares to be traded.
Buy or Sell
Choose BUY to purchase shares or SELL to dispose shares.
Number of Shares
Indicate the number of shares to trademust be a whole number bigger than zero. All buying and selling orders are subject to a
minimum number of shares as prescribed by the board lot table instituted by the PSE. Prices in the market may fluctuate
according to the set intervals based on the price level of the shares. See the NEW PSE Board Lot Table.
Stock Symbol
State the name of the listed company or the symbol of the stock to be bought or sold. Go to Stock Symbol Lookup.
Indicate the highest price you are willing to buy or lowest price you are willing to sell the stock to be bought or sold. Price may
be specified or based on the market depending on the type of order you want to post.
Order Type based on Price
The most common order types based on price are market (prevailing market price) and limit (specified price) orders. See Order
Order Type based on Expiration/Validity
Traders have access to many different types of orders classified according to validity such as Day, Good Till Cancelled (GTC),
Good Till Date (GTD) and Good Till Week (GTW).
What are the different types of stock trading orders?
All stock trades consist of at least two ordersone buy and one sell orderusually with one order to enter the trade, and one or
more orders to exit the trade.
A single order is either a buy order or a sell order. An order can be used either to enter a trade or to exit a trade. If a trade is
entered with a buy order, then it will be exited with a sell order, and vice versa. For example, if a trader expected the market's
price to go up, the simplest trade would consist of one buy order to enter the trade, and one sell order to exit the trade.
Conversely, if a trader expected the market's price to go down, the simplest trade would consist of one sell order to enter the
trade, and one buy order to exit the trade.
Traders have access to many different types of orders according to price and validity, which they can use in various combinations
to execute their clients trades. With this, a stockbrokers commission may depend on which type of order an investor prefers to
The following explanations will explain each of the order types, and how these orders are used in stock trading.

ORDER TYPES (according to price)

1. Market Order
Market Order is the buying or selling of stocks without a specified price, or immediately at the prevailing market price when the
order is executed, whatever the price may be.
Market order is the simplest and quickest way to get your order completed. It is often subject to the lowest commission since
this is the easiest to execute.
For example, if stock ABCs current market price is Php2,500.00 per share, the investor should be willing to buy or sell at this
price level. Although being practiced in some other markets, this type of order is rarely used in the local equities market.
2. Limit Order
Limit Order is entered with a specified price known as the limit price. This allows investors to buy or sell at their desired buying
or selling price levels.
The primary difference between a market order and a limit order is that the stockbroker cannot guarantee that the former will be
executed at a specific price.
For example, stock ABCs current market price is Php2,500.00 per share. If the investor thinks that this price level is too
expensive, he may post a lower bid or buying price of Php2,450.00 per share. This means that his order will only be matched if
stock ABCs market price reaches Php2,450.00 per share or if when there are available sellers at Php2,450.00 per share.
3. Market on Opening/Closing Order
Market on Opening/Closing Order is accepted only during pre-open and pre-close periods and executed at the opening/closing
price of the instrument.
4. Market-to-Limit Order
Market-to-Limit Order is an order entered for immediate execution at the best price with whatever volume available and
remaining quantity will be queued as a limit order.
5. Stop Order (Stop Loss/Stop Limit)
Stop Orders are triggered when a specified price limit is reached. It becomes a market order as soon as its trigger price limit is
reached. There are two (2) kinds of stop orders:
a. Stop Loss Order
A Stop Loss Order stays inactive and is not displayed in the market until a trade occurs at the orders trigger price. It is
immediately treated as a Market Order when the order is triggered. It specifies only the trigger price.
b. Stop Limit Order
A Stop Limit Order is the same as the stop loss order wherein it also stays inactive and is not displayed to the market until a trade
occurs at the orders trigger price. Instead of specifying only one price, a stop limit order specifies two prices: the trigger price
and the limit price, which must exceed the limit price.
ORDER VALIDITY TYPES (according to time/validity)
a. Day Order (DAY)
Day Order is valid until the end of the trading day only. If the investors buying or selling order is not matched during the day,
this will automatically be cancelled and will have to be reposted by/for the investor on the next trading day.
b. Good Till Cancelled (GTC)
Good Till Cancelled is valid until cancelled by the investor or trader or until it has reached the set expiration date of the security.
c. Good Till Date (GTD)
Another most frequently used limit order is the Good Till Date which is valid until the date specified by the investor.
d. Good Till Week (GTW)
Good Till Week is a type of limit order which is valid for seven (7) calendar days. If unmatched within seven (7) calendar days,
the buy or sell order will automatically be cancelled and will have to be reposted by the investor though his trader or through his
online trading account.
e. Sliding Validity (SLIDING)
Sliding Validity Order is valid for 360 calendar days from the time it is posted.


Fill-and-Kill (FAK)

The Fill-and-Kill (FAK) Order, also referred to as Execute-and-Eliminate Order, is valid upon execution. Fill-and-Kill orders
require the stockbroker to instantly execute a trade at the quoted market price. If the stockbroker is not capable of doing so, the
order is immediately discarded.
The following volume qualifiers to the Order types are accepted by the Trading System:

Minimum-Quantity Order

Minimum-Quantity Orders must be executed immediately to the extent of the specified minimum quantity, with any remaining
unexecuted portion being added to the Order book, and shall only apply to Limit or Market-to-Limit Order.

Iceberg Order

Iceberg Orders, also referred to as disclosed quantity orders, are orders which are successively entered in the Central Order
Book, and disclosed to the market at specified tranches. Disclosed quantity shall not be less than the specified percentage set by
the Exchange.
How much is the minimum amount of investment?
Trading of stocks is done by board lot or round lot system. The Board Lot Table determines the minimum number of shares one
can purchase or sell at a specific price range. Therefore, the minimum amount needed to invest in stocks varies and will depend
on the market price of the security as well as its corresponding board lot.
Prices of stocks move through a scale of set price fluctuations. Prices are thus adjusted along these fluctuations at a time.
Transactions which are beyond the prescribed number of maximum fluctuations from the last sale price are not allowed.







In the Philippines, the only operating stock exchange is the PSE.
The PSE has two (2) trading floors in Ayala Center, Makati City and Ortigas Center, Pasig Citywhere trading participants trade
daily except Saturdays, Sundays, legal holidays and days when the Central Bank Clearing Office is closed.
The trading schedule has morning and afternoon sessions. The morning session is from 9:30a.m. to noon, while the afternoon
session starts from 1:30p.m. until 3:30p.m including a 10-minute run-off period. The actual placing of orders can start 30 minutes
before the market opens or at 9:00a.m.
The PSE has extended the trading hours beginning January 2012, in a bid to attract more investors and prepare for cross-border
trading with neighboring Southeast Asian nations.
Market Phases
9:00 a.m.

9:30 a.m.
12:00 n.n.
1:30 p.m.
3:15 p.m.
3:20 p.m.
3:30 p.m.

Market Open
Market Recess
Market Resume
Run-off / Trading At Last
Market Close

Investors may post a buy or sell order even after the trading period. However, this order will only be entered and matched through
the PSEs new trading system known as the PSEtrade, the next trading day.

A stock exchange is an organized marketplace or facility that brings buyers and sellers together and facilitates the sale and
purchase of stocks.
The only stock exchange operating in the country is the Philippine Stock Exchange, Inc. (PSE). It makes sure that trading
transactions are done in an efficient, orderly, fair, and transparent manner. It enforces rules and regulations that its publicly listed
companies and trading participants must strictly abide by. In this way, the PSE fulfills its function as the guardian of the
Philippine stock market.
Investors, also referred to as stockholders or shareholders, are those who own shares of stock of a publicly listed company. They
are accorded certain privileges like the right to fair and equal treatment, the right to vote and exercise related rights, and the right
to receive dividends and other benefits due to stockholders. They are classified as either retail or institutional, and local or
A stockbroker or trading participant is licensed by the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) and is entitled to trade at the
Exchange. They act as an agent between a buyer and seller of stocks in the market. For their services as stockbrokers, they
receive from their clients either a buying or a selling commission.
The PSE originally issued 184 trading rights. To date, the PSE has 133 active stockbrokerage houses.
The representatives (licensed salesmen) of these accredited stockbrokers convene daily, at certain specified hours, on the trading
floor of the exchange, where they sell and buy shares of stocks for the account of their clients. They execute orders in the market
to the greatest possible advantage of their customers, by buying at the lowest possible price or by selling at the highest possible
There are two (2) types of stockbrokers:
Traditional those who assign a licensed salesman to handle your account and to take your orders via a written instruction or
a phone call
Online those whose main interface is the internet where clients execute their orders and access market information online.

Listed companies, also called issuers, are those whose shares of stock are traded on the Exchange. These companies qualified
with the stringent listing and reportorial requirements of the PSE, and have gone through initial public offering (IPO) or listing by
way of introduction.
As of August 2011, the PSE there are 249 listed companies in the PSE. These are classified into six different sectors: Financials,
Industrial, Holding Firms, Property, Services, and Mining and Oil.
Securities Clearing Corporation of the Philippines (SCCP)
The SCCP is a wholly owned subsidiary of the Exchange. It was established to ensure the orderly settlement of equity trades
executed at the PSE. The SCCP uses the Central Clearing and Central Settlement (CCCS) system purchased from the Capital
Markets Co. (CAPCO) of Belgium.
SCCP is responsible for establishing the cash and securities liabilities and entitlements of its clearing members, synchronizing the
settlement of funds and the transfer of securities based on the delivery-versus-payment model or multilateral net settlement;
guaranteeing the settlement of trades in the event of a trading participants trade default in order to ensure the finality and
irrevocability of all Exchange trades through its fails management procedures; implementing appropriate risk management
measures in order to mitigate risks inherent in the clearing and settlement of Exchange trades and the maintenance and
administration of the Clearing and Trade Guarantee Fund (CTGF).
Philippine Depository and Trust Corp. (PDTC)
The PDTC acts as securities depository or custodian of listed shares of stock that are traded at the PSE. It was organized to
establish a central depository in the Philippines and to implement scripless trading.
The PDTC performs book-entry transfer of securities:

From sellers to buyers accounts during settlement of Exchange trades;

From one PDTC participant to another per client instruction, and;
From lenders to borrowers account for loan transactions.

The PSE has three (3) accredited banking institutions where trading participants make and receive payments for stock
The settlement banks accept deposits of funds for payment of securities bought, confirm payments of due clearing obligations to
SCCP, debit buyers cash account and credit sellers cash account during settlement, and receive and/or return cash collateral put
up by clearing members to cover their daily trade negative exposures.
The stock transfer agent is considered the official keeper of the corporate shareholder records. The stock transfer agents
provide the issuer or the listed company with a list of holders of its securities. They effect transfer of beneficial ownership and
process corporate actions like stock or cash dividends, stock rights, stock splits, and collation of proxy forms.
The Basic Settlement Process
The settlement process refers to the completion of a PSE trade effected by the delivery and payment of the securities on
settlement date.
For traditional stockbrokers, settlement of all transactions, either buying or selling is usually done after three (3) trading days
from the transaction date or T+3. This means that the buyer must pay for the costs of the transaction to his stockbroker within
three (3) trading days after the trade was done. Similarly, the seller will receive the proceeds of the sale from the stockbroker after
the third day from the transaction date.
As such, cleared funds must be deposited in the clearing members cash settlement account in the settlement bank and securities
must be made available in the clearing members securities accounts in the central depositorys system not later than 12:00 noon
of settlement date. If securities are not delivered by the selling clearing member, the clearing house will not release the
corresponding cash entitlement to him, and vice versa. Late deliveries are imposed a monetary fine/penalty by the clearing
For online stockbrokers, settlement of all transactions is done on the transaction date. To buy shares of stock, you will need to
fund your account prior to any purchase. In the same manner, the proceeds of your sale will be credited to your account not later
than three (3) working days from the transaction date.


The Securities Clearing Corporation of the Philippines (SCCP or Clearinghouse) is a wholly-owned subsidiary of The
Philippine Stock Exchange, Inc. (PSE) and is under the regulatory supervision of the Philippine Securities and Exchange
Commission (SEC). SCCP serves as a clearing and settlement agency for all Trades executed in the Exchange.
SCCP is located at the 2/F Philippine Stock Exchange Plaza, Ayala Triangle, Ayala Avenue, Makati City, 1226 Philippines.
To deliver high quality systems for the settlement of eligible trades on a Delivery versus Payment (DVP) basis, ensuring the
finality and irrevocability of these trades; and for the administration of appropriate risk management functions to forestall any
untoward event that may affect the settlement process.

Role of SCCP in the Stock Market

SCCP is responsible for establishing the cash and securities liabilities and entitlements of its Clearing Members, synchronizing
the settlement of funds and the transfer of securities based on the Delivery-versus-Payment Model 3 or Multilateral Net
Settlement; guaranteeing the settlement of trades in the event of a trading participants trade default in order to ensure the finality
and irrevocability of all Exchange trades through its Fails Management procedures; implementing appropriate risk management
measures in order to mitigate risks inherent in the clearing and settlement of Exchange trades and the maintenance and
administration of the Clearing and Trade Guarantee Fund (CTGF).
SCCP as the Central Counterparty
Upon uploading of the PSE Trades into SCCPs Central Clearing and Central Settlement (CCCS) system, multilateral netting
takes place, and Novation of the original PSE Trade contracts occurs. The Securities settlement instructions are netted
multilaterally into a net receipt or delivery position in a given Security for each Clearing Member. All Cash debits and credits
from these Securities Settlement instructions are also netted into a single net cash position for each Clearing Member. On
Settlement Date, book-entry settlement instructions will be created for each net position to facilitate movements from the net
delivering Clearing Members to the net receiving Clearing Members. As a result of Novation, SCCP becomes a Central
Counterparty (CCP) to all matched trades executed at the Philippine Stock Exchange. As a CCP, SCCP assumes the role of a
Seller to all Buying Clearing Members and the Buyer to all Selling Clearing Members. Thus, SCCP as the Central Counterparty
takes the buyers credit risks and assumes the sellers delivery risks, thereby addressing settlement concerns for market
The Settlement Process
The settlement process refers to the completion of a PSE trade effected by the delivery of the Security element and the payment
of such Security on settlement date. The settlement of trades in listed securities takes place three days after the transaction date or
on T+3 on a Delivery-versus-Payment Multilateral Net Settlement basis. As such, cleared funds must be deposited in the Clearing
Members Cash Settlement Account in the settlement bank and securities must be made available in the Clearing Members
securities accounts in the central depositorys system not later than 12:00 noon of settlement date. If securities are not delivered
by the Selling Clearing Member, the Clearinghouse will not release the corresponding Cash entitlement to him, and vice versa.
Late deliveries are imposed a monetary fine/penalty by the Clearinghouse.
Mark-to-Market Collateral Deposit System
Since equities trades executed in the Exchange are settled three (3) business days after Trade Date (T+3), there exists at any given
time three (3) days worth of unsettled trades. Since the market price of the stocks subject of the Trades can fluctuate, price or
market risk exists, where, if any of the counterparties to the Trade fails to make deliveries for Securities sold or pay for purchases
made, SCCP as the Central Counterparty is exposed to losses due to fluctuation in market prices that may occur during the period
where Trades have not yet been settled.
To address market/price risks, SCCP performs a daily revaluation called mark-to-market. SCCP computes for the exposure on
each of the three (3) days worth of unsettled trades by comparing the Contract Price of each traded Stock against its Market
Value (based on the Closing Price), netting out the Buy and Sell trades per Stock. The computed exposure of each of the three
days' unsettled trades is then netted out against each other to arrive at a net exposure which shall be the basis for the amount of
the collateral to be required from the Clearing Member. We currently impose 100% collateralization. Acceptable collaterals are
cash and securities which comprise the PSE index, plus PSE shares. Securities accepted as collateral are however, subjected to 20
percent haircut. Alternatively, the Clearing Member may do an Early Delivery of the securities which caused the negative

Clearing and Trade Guaranty Fund

SCCP has established a Clearing and Trade Guaranty Fund (CTGF or Clearing Fund) to assist the SCCP in meeting its
obligations as a Central Counterparty. The CTGF may only be used if SCCP is unable to meet its obligations as Central
Counterparty by reason of defaults by its Clearing Members, and shall be utilized as a last resort. The Clearing Fund is comprised
of the contribution of the Philippine Stock Exchange, Inc., contributions of the Clearing Members, Reserve Fund of the
Clearinghouse and interest income from the investments of the Clearing Fund.
The Electronic Board, the center of attraction inside the trading floor of the Exchange, displays all current stock prices, volume,
and other relevant information. All prices shown on the electronic board are intraday values.
At present, the PSE maintains two trading floorsone in Pasig City and another in its head office in Makati City. Under the
"one-price, one-market" system, the electronic boards in these two trading floors display identical trading transactions.
So what do the numbers and columns on the board mean? Though most are easily understandable, some may be confusing for a
stock market newbie.
Here is a review of the common numbers in the stock quotes and what they mean.

NAME displays the stock symbol of the listed company

OPEN displays the opening price of the stock for the day
BID displays the highest buying price in the market
ASK displays the lowest selling price in the market
HIGH displays the highest price traded for the period
LOW displays the lowest price traded for the period
CLOSE displays the closing price of the trading day
L/T or last traded price refers to the price at which the stock was last traded; also referred to as the current market value of the
VOL or volume refers to the total number of stocks transacted in the stock market during a given period of time
The stock market is very volatile, which can be very intimidating to a novice investor. That is why investors must always monitor
or keep track of their investments, which means being able to read or interpret the daily stock quotesa list of prices of stocks at
one point within the trading day.

In the past, stocks were quoted in fractions, but now, most exchanges use decimals. Stock quotes are updated regularly during the
trading day. Based on these numbers, investors can make decisions on whether to buy or sell, or hold the stocks.
Stock quotes and charts are often found in the financial section of a newspaper, financial magazine or online. These charts
provide details on the trends and stock prices of companies that trade stocks in the public trading markets, and the chart is
organized in a standardized format of ten (10) columns for easy reading. Here is how to read the basic stock quotes:

The name of the listed company.
A unique alphabetic name which identifies the stocks of a listed company. Go to Stock Symbol Lookup
The highest price that a buyer is willing and able to purchase for a share of stock at a particular time, also called the buyers

The lowest price that a seller is willing and able to offer for sale for a share of stock, also called the sellers price".
The opening price of the stock for the day.
The highest traded price of a stock during a specific trading period.
The lowest traded price of a stock during a specific trading period.
The closing price of the trading day
Comes in the form of a triangle or arrow head pointing either up or down, which indicates whether the stocks is trading higher or
lower than the previous days closing price. The colors of the stock ticker symbols indicate the trading trends.
Sometimes, the change of direction is indicated by plus or minus symbols. In this case, plus equates to up and minus equates to

The total number of shares traded during a given period of time.
The amount of transactions in peso terms traded on a particular period. This indicates how much money is turned over from the
trading of stocks.
The Philippine Stock Exchange Composite Index (PSEi), formerly called Phisix, is a fixed basket of thirty (30) common
stocks of listed companies, carefully selected to represent the general movement of the stock market. In other words, it is the
benchmark measuring the performance of the Philippine stock market.
The selection of these companies is based on a specific set of criteria. Under the revised policy on index management, companies
should meet three (3) criteria to qualify under the PSEi:
1. The companys free float level must be at least 12%.
2. The company must rank among the top 25% in terms of median daily value in nine out of the twelve-month period in review.
3. Ranking of TOP 30 qualified companies based on full market capitalization.
As a regulator, how does the PSE protect the rights of the investing public?
The PSE and Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) have put in place several safeguards that promote transparent, fair, and
organized buying and selling of stocks where every investor, big or small alike, are protected from fraud, manipulative trading
practices, and erring stockbrokers.
Some of the investor protection initiatives of the PSE are, but are not limited to the following:

Self-Regulatory Organization Status

The PSE is a Self-Regulatory Organization

(SRO) as granted by the SEC in June 1998. As such, the PSE acts as the police of the stock market and it is the SRO status that
empowers it to formulate marketplace rules, and impose penalties or sanctions to market participants who will not comply with
these rules.

Customer First Policy

The PSE regularly monitors and audits the operations of stockbrokers. It ensures that business and trading practices of
stockbrokers conform with the laws stipulated in the Securities Regulation Code of the Philippines, including the Customer First

Policy, whereby stockbrokers orders must always surrender priority to their clients.

Risk Based Capital Adequacy

The Risk Based Capital Adequacy is a PSE regulation which ensures that stockbrokers have enough capital to cover its exposure
to risks. It also ensures that stockbrokers are financially sound or liquid enough to promptly settle claims and other obligations to

Disclosure Rules

Since timely and reliable company disclosures are essential components of a fair and efficient market, the PSE also sees to it that
listed companies promptly disclose factual and truthful information only.

10-Minute Rule

The PSE requires that material information that which may affect a listed companys share price positively or negatively, are
disclosed within 10 minutes after its occurrence.

Selective Disclosure Rule

Disclosures must also be done first to the PSE so that it will cascade information to every investor and general public through its
communication channels and not to a selected group of individuals only.

PSE Electronic Disclosure Generation Technology or PSE EDGE

The PSE Electronic Disclosure Generation Technology or PSE EDGE is a state-of-the-art, fully automated system that facilitates
the efficient processing, validation, submission, distribution, and analysis of time-sensitive disclosure reports submitted to the
Exchange. The new disclosure system, which was acquired from the Korea Exchange and replaces the PSE Online Disclosure
System (ODiSy), is equipped with a variety of features to further standardize the disclosure reporting process of PSEs listed
companies, improve investors disclosure searching and viewing experience, and enhance overall issuer transparency in the

Capital Markets Integrity Corporation (CMIC)

CMIC was established for the primary purpose of reinforcing the confidence of the investing public in capital market institutions
and promoting a more active and vibrant market participation. Accordingly, CMIC acts as the independent audit, surveillance and
compliance arm of the Exchange.
As a self-regulatory organization, CMIC's primary mandate is to maintain the integrity of the market and minimize the risk of the
investing public by ensuring that the TPs adhere to all pertinent rules, regulations, and code of conduct of CMIC and the
Exchange, as well as all related legislative and regulatory requirements.

Total Market Surveillance (TMS)

To further enhance investor confidence, the CMIC oversees the market through a world-class and sophisticated surveillance
system called TMS, which was developed by the Korea Exchange. TMS is equipped with the critical elements of the surveillance
process and provides a robust monitoring and warning mechanism. It is designed to safeguard the integrity of the stock market
from fraud, manipulation, and breaches of marketplace rules. The CMIC conducts investigation of unusual price and volume
movements to identify and sanction trading participants, issuers or investors who might have committed unfair market practices.

Securities Investor Protection Fund (SIPF)

Another tool created for the protection of investors is the Securities Investors Protection Fund, Inc. or SIPF. The SIPF, which is
comparable to the Philippine Deposit Insurance Corp. providing insurance for bank deposits, seeks to build and enhance
investors confidence in the market and is envisioned to protect the investing public from extraordinary losses, other than the
ordinary market fluctuations, arising as a result of fraud, failure of business, or judicial insolvency of PSE-accredited
Protection to investors is automatic upon the opening of an account with a PSE-accredited stockbroker and given by way of
compensation for trade-related obligations of stockbrokers to its customers.
These safeguards, along with other investor protection initiatives of the PSE, serve to protect the health of the equities market and
the integrity of capital formation process, making investing in the Philippine stock market secure.
The PSE continues to perform its functions and duties under the law in ensuring that the market operates in an orderly, efficient,
and transparent manner, and that investors are properly protected.

All investors must be fully aware of their basic legal rights as articulated in existing laws, rules, and regulations issued by the
government entities and the Exchange.
The PSE has been promoting shareholder activism to encourage shareholders to exercise their rights connected with their
investment transactions. Outline below is a summary of such rights. It covers the different phases of investment and includes preinvestment phase up to termination of the investment.
It is important to note that the rights presented in this section are simply a collation from relevant legal issuances. The basis for
any liability in connection with investment transactions shall still be the specific law, rule, and regulation.
Every inventor should be given fair and equal treatment in terms of opportunities in terms of opportunities offers and access to
Every investor should be given complete, accurate and timely information to allow them to make informed decisions about their
Every investor should be given the right to participate in the management of the business by voting on important decisions such
as who should be the directors and what major activities the business should undertake.
Every investor should be allowed to exercise rights of absolute ownership over his account and may be subjected to limitations
only with express consent.
Every investor can expect the Board, management, brokers and agents to perform their duties and responsibilities in accordance
with a corporate culture of integrity, honesty and compliance with the spirit as well as the letter of the law.
Every investor should be able to rely on completeness, accuracy, reliability, relevance, and timeliness of accounting and financial
statements as certified by independent auditors.
Every investor has the right to know that in case a problem arises concerning his/her account, he/she has access to officers,
managers, and agents of brokerage firms and receive prompt attention.
Every investor should be able to rely that stocks traded in the stock exchange is reflective of how the market values the company.
Every investor should be able to rely on these institutions, their functions and duties under the law in ensuring that the market
operates in an orderly, efficient, and transparent manner and that investors are adequately protected.
Every investor should have a share of the profits of the company and enjoy other benefits as part-owner of the company.