VIETNAM NATIONAL UNIVERSITY, HANOI University of languages and international studies

FALCULTY OF ENGLISH LANGUAGE TEACHER EDUCATION

NGUYEN THI THANH HUONG

4th YEAR STUDENTS’ CLASSROOM MANAGEMENT SKILLS DURING THEIR TEACHING PRACTICUM AT FELTE, ULIS-VNU: DIFFICULTIES, CAUSES AND SOLUTIONS

submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of bachelor of arts (TEFL)

SUPERVISOR: NGUYEN MINH HUE, M.A

Hanoi, May, 2010

ACCEPTANCE

I hereby state that I: Nguyen Thi Thanh Huong, 061E1, being a candidate for the degree of Bachelor of Arts (TEFL) accept the requirements of the College relating to the retention and use of Bachelor’s Graduation Paper deposited in the library. In terms of these conditions, I agree that the origin of my paper deposited in the library should be accessible for the purposes of study and research, in accordance with the normal conditions established by the librarian for the care, loan or reproduction of the paper. Signature

Date: 05/05/2010

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

On the completion of this work, I wish to express my deepest gratitude to my supervisor, Ms Nguyen Minh Hue, who gave me the benefit of her wisdom, advice and patience, who made valuable suggestions and careful critical comments that helped me to carry out this study. I am also indebted to the 4 supervising teachers of English Division 1, Faculty of English Language Teacher Education, University of Languages and International Studies, Vietnam National University for agreeing to participate in my paper. Finally, I want to express my love and gratitude to my beloved friends and family for supporting me wholeheartedly.

ABSTRACT

For teachers, ensuring teaching effectiveness is of great momentum. In order to do that, they need to perform many functions such as lecturing, supervising, facilitating and managing. Among them, being a manager is a very basic role since it lays foundation for effective teaching and learning to take place. However, being a classroom manager is not an easy task, especially for the novice like student teachers. As one of the first attempts to explore the student teachers’ classroom management skills during their teaching practicum at the college level, the paper sheds light on their difficulties as well as the causes and solutions for such problems. For the accomplishment of such purpose, the author adopted both qualitative and quantitative methods of interviews, questionnaires and observations with the participation of eight fourth year trainee teachers and 4 supervising teachers at the Faculty of English Language Teacher Education, University of Languages and International Studies, Vietnam National University. The most remarkable finding of the research is time management was the most challenging skill for the trainee teachers during their teaching practice. Other problems such as giving and checking instructions, motivating students, dealing with disruptive behaviors and monitoring also caused them a hard time. Besides, causes of and solutions to such problems as perceived by the teacher trainee themselves and as suggested by their supervising teachers are also presented. The paper is, therefore, expected to serve as a reference for both novice and experienced teachers in mastering classroom management skills.

LIST OF FIGURES

Figure 1 – Classification of Classroom Time Figure 2 – Maximized Academic Learning Time Figure 3 - QUILT Framework Figure 4 - Helping Students Who Respond Incorrectly Figure 5 - Feedback Content Figure 6 - Types of Learners Behaviors Figure 7 - The level of difficulty and frequency of classroom management problems Figure 8 – Bloom’s taxonomy

TABLE OF CONTENTS Acknowledgements Abstract List of figures Chapter 1 - INTRODUCTION 1.1. Statement of the problem and rationale for the study………………….…....1 1.2. Aims and objectives of the study…………………………………….……...4 1.3. Scope of the study………………………………………………………..….5 1.4. Expected outcomes and significance of the study…….……………….……5 1.5. Overview of the rest of the paper…………………………………….……..7 Chapter 2 - LITERATURE REVIEW 2.1. Perceptions of classroom management……………………………….……..8 2.2. Elements of classroom management………………………………….……11 2.2.1. Time management………………………………………………....11 2.2.2. Space management………………………………………………...16 2.2.2.1. Students’ seating arrangement……………………………19 2.2.2.2. Teachers’ using blackboard………………………………20 2.2.2.3. Teachers’ position and movement………………………..21 2.2.2.4. Teachers’ non-verbal communication……………………24 2.2.2.4.1. Eye contact………………………………………24 2.2.2.4.2. Voice projection…………………………………25 2.2.3. Instruction giving and checking……………………………….…..26 2.2.4. Comprehension checking……………………………………….…30 2.2.5. Monitoring……………………………………………….….….....33

2.2.6. Disruptive behavior management……………………………….35 2.2.7. Feedback ………………………………………………………..37 2.2.8. Student motivation……………………………………………....44 2.3. Related studies 2.3.1. Related studies on classroom management……………………..49 2.3.2. Related studies on classroom management skills in……………52 teaching practice Chapter 3 – METHODOLOGY 3.1. Subjects and setting……………………………………………………..54 3.2. Data collection methods and procedures………………………………..56 3.3. Data analysis…………………………………………………………….64 Chapter 4 – RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
4.1. Teacher trainees’ perceptions of their classroom management……….65

problems during the teaching practicum 4.2. Classroom management problems student teachers encountered………68 during their teaching practicum, causes and solutions 4.2.1. Time management……………………………………………..68 4.2.2. Instruction giving and checking……………………………….73 4.2.3. Checking for understanding…………………………………...79 4.2.4. Monitoring………………………….………………………….85 4.2.5. Dealing with disruptive behaviors…….……………………….87 Chapter 5 – CONCLUSION 5.1. Major findings of the research……………………………………….....93 5.2. Contributions of the research……………………………….…………..98

5.3. Limitations of the research…………………………………………….100 5.4. Suggestions for further studies………………………………………...100 APPENDIX REFEENCES

Chapter 1 - INTRODUCTION The first chapter presents the problem and the rationale of the study, together with the aims, objectives and scope of the whole paper. Particularly, the research questions are identified to work as clear guidelines for the whole research. 1.1. Statement of the problem and rationale for the study Numerous studies have shown that teachers are one of the most important factors affecting students’ academic achievement. For instance, as a result of their study involving 60,000 students, Wright, Horn, and Sanders (1997, cited in Marzano, Marzano & Pickering, 2006, p.1) noted the following: “The results of this study will document that the most important factor affecting student learning is the teacher ... Effective teachers appear to be effective with students of all achievement levels regardless of the levels of heterogeneity in their classes. If the teacher is ineffective, students under that teacher’s tutelage will achieve inadequate progress a c a d e m i c a l l y , regardless of how similar or different they are regarding their academic achievement.” Mean while, Marzano et al. (2006, p.3) pointed out that effective teachers perform many functions, which can be categorized into three major roles: “(1) making wise choice about the most effective instructional strategies to employ, (2) designing classroom curriculum to facilitate students learning, and (3) making effective use of classroom management techniques.” They put emphasis on the fact that no single role by itself can entirely ensure the academic success of the students. If any

one of the three roles is missing, students will encounter difficulty in learning. Among them, effective classroom management is proved to be the basis for the other two roles to take place. For example, when students are lacking in disciplines, and there are no apparent rules and procedures to guide behavior, chaos will become the norms. In this case, no matter how skillful the teacher is at the use of cooperative learning and graphic organizers, at “constructing and arranging learning activities that present new knowledge in different formats ... and different media” (Marzano et al. 2006, p.4), students most likely to learn much less than they should and little improvement is made. On the contrary, well-managed classrooms provide a favorable environment for teaching and learning to flourish. Holding the same viewpoint on the critical role of classroom management in effective teaching and learning, Emmer, Sanford, Clements and Martin (1982) stated “At all public school grade levels, effective classroom management has been recognized as a crucial element in effective teaching. If a teacher cannot obtain students’ cooperation and involve them in instructional activities, it is unlikely that effective teaching will take place . . . In addition, poor management wastes class time, reduces students’ time on task and detracts from the quality of the learning environment.” (p.13) Brophy and Evertson (1976, cited in Vo, 2009) also claimed that in almost all surveys regarding the teacher effectiveness, classroom management skills are of great importance in determining teaching success no matter what criteria are applied.

In other words, classroom manager is one of the most crucial roles the teacher performs in a classroom. However, classroom management is currently considered a topic of enduring concern for teachers, administrators, and the public. In the “Handbook of Classroom Management: Research, Practice and Contemporary Issues” by Evertson and Weinstein (2006), how to manage the classroom effectively consistently ranks as the first or second most serious educational problem in the eyes of the general public, and beginning teachers consistently rank it as their most pressing concern during their early teaching years. In fact, according to the findings of recent interviews conducted by the researcher among teachers of English Division 1 at the FELTE, ULIS - VNU, not only novice teachers but also the experienced who have been teaching for more than 7 years have difficulty managing the classroom. The most prominent problems reported are time management, student motivation and questioning/eliciting. Therefore, this important managerial mission can be a bigger challenge to teacher trainees who have not gained enough knowledge and experience anticipating and dealing with problems happening during a lesson. Despite the fact that classroom management has always been a primary concern for teachers in general and beginning teachers in particular, the systematic study of effective classroom management is a relatively recent issue in the field of language research. To be more accurate, there was little research and development of theory on the topic until the 1950s with the first high-profile, large-scale study of classroom management carried out by Kounin (1970, cited by Marzano et al. 2006). Given that, it is still a neglected issue according to Wright (2005, cited in Vo, 2009). Furthermore, there has been little attention paid to the classroom management problems encountered by teacher trainees and no previous research

on the issue among teacher trainees who have their teaching practicum at the college degree is carried out. All in all, the critical role of classroom management in teaching and learning, the difficulties of teachers in general and the novice in particular in applying appropriate managerial strategies and the shortage of research in the issue have driven the researcher to conduct a study on “4th Year Students’ Classroom Management Skills during Their Teaching Practicum at the Faculty of English Language Teacher Education (FELTE), University of Languages and International Studies, Vietnam National University (ULIS-VNU): Difficulties, Causes and Solutions” 1.2. Aims and objectives of the study First, the research is conducted with a view to finding out the difficulties fourth year students at FELTE, ULIS-VNU have in managing classroom as perceived by them during their teaching practicum at the FELTE, ED, ULIS-VNU. Then, the researcher expects to identify the types of classroom management problems they confront during their teaching practicum. Causes of and solutions to such problems as perceived by the students themselves and as suggested by their supervising teachers are also what the researcher aims at. In short, the above-mentioned aims and objectives can be summarized into the following questions: 1. What types of classroom management issues do fourth year students at FELTE, ULIS-VNU perceive as their problems? 2. What types of classroom management problems do fourth year students at FELTE, ULIS-VNU encounter during their teaching practicum?

3. What are the causes of such problems as perceived by those students and as suggested by their supervising teachers? 4. What are solutions to such problems as suggested by those students and their supervising teachers? 1.3. Scope of the study It is the first time student teachers at ULIS-VNU in particular and at teacher training colleges and universities in Hanoi in general have been allocated to have their teaching practicum at a college degree. Therefore, the researcher specifically aims at discovering the classroom management problems 20 student teachers from FELTE, ULIS-VNU face during their five-week teaching practicum at different first year groups at the English Division 1, FELTE, ULIS-VNU. Second, classroom management is a large issue that requires much time and human resources to study. Within the framework of a graduation paper and the specific characteristics of ULIS students and teachers as well as their learning and teaching curriculum, it is impossible to cover all aspects of the issue. Therefore, only the classroom elements proposed by To et al (2008) are studied. Lastly, due to the assigned curriculum from the college authorities, only classroom management problems in speaking, reading and listening classes among the teacher trainees are recorded and investigated. 1.4. Expected outcomes and significance of the study When conducting the paper, the researcher expects to find out the types of classroom management issues the studied subjects consider their weaknesses before starting any teaching sessions. Such difficulties will be put into comparison

with the ones they encounter during their teaching sessions, reflecting whether they are aware of and have any solutions to the issues. Suggested opinions from their supervising teachers on why the student teachers have such problems and how to overcome them are also collected. The findings of the study on the classroom management problems fourth year students encountered during their teaching practicum are anticipated to lay the foundation for them to create a well-managed class that facilitates teaching and learning. To be more specific, findings for question one, two and three promise to raise the student teachers’ awareness of their difficulties in classroom management. Then, the solutions suggested by the students themselves, by their supervising teachers and from books, articles and magazines are anticipated to serve as good references for teacher trainees to develop and enhance their classroom management skills. However, benefits gained from findings of the study are not restricted to the student teachers only. Newly recruited and novice lecturers who have no or little experience working with college and university students can find numerous valuable classroom management lessons and techniques in the paper. Even teachers at other education degrees will find the study a worthy reference source to read since the issues discussed are the most commonly met in almost all Vietnamese English as a Foreign Language classrooms. Besides, experienced teachers at ULISVNU in particular and experienced teachers in general, may base on the findings of the paper to offer novice teachers more timely and appropriate advice and assistance when they know more about the problems trainee and novice teachers encounter in managing the classroom. Finally, findings of the paper promise to be a good source of reference for the English Language Teaching Methodology Group

when making changes and amendments to the courses to help better prepare the students for their future teaching profession. 1.5. An overview of the rest of the paper The rest of the paper includes the five following chapters: Chapter 2 - Literature Review - provides the background of the study, including the definitions and description of key concepts and related studies. Chapter 3 - Methodology - describes the participants and the context of English teaching and learning of the studied objects, instruments of the study, as well as the procedure employed to carry out the research. Chapter 4 - Findings analyses and discusses the findings that the researcher found out from the data collected according to the four research questions. Chapter 5 - Conclusion - summarizes the main issues discussed in the paper, the limitations of the research and recommendations and suggestions for further studies. Following this chapter are the References and Appendices.

Chapter 2 - LITERATURE REVIEW The second chapter sheds light on the literature of the study, specifically the definitions of key terms and a number of studies related to the research topic. 2.1. Perceptions of classroom management Although the fundamental importance of classroom management in teaching and learning has been universally recognized, it is still a relatively recent phenomenon in language classroom research. As explained by Evertson and Weinstein (2006) part of the reason lies in the fact that the term classroom management has acquired “considerable surplus meaning” (p.4). Different experts hold different views about the issue. Under the light of psychological principles, Bagley (1907) interpreted classroom management as a means of “slowly transforming the child from a little savage into a creature of law and order, fit for the life of civilized society” (p.35, as cited in Emerson & Weinstein, 2006, p.19). His assumption was based on the belief that school serves as preparation for democratic citizenship so management principles should not be restricted to short-term efficiency only but be considered in terms of the ultimate goal of education. This viewpoint is further supported by Brown (1952) as he emphasized Christian values of school as preparation for a civilized life. Classroom management studies of the 1950s and 1960s were also noted by Withall and Lewis (1963, as cited in Emerson & Weinstein, 2006, p.25) to be under the influence of educational psychology that emphasizes teacher characteristics and instructional methods; of the mental health movement that focuses on causes of anxiety or other hindrances to motivation; and of social psychology that revolves

around leadership style, social climate, decision-making processes and pattern of participation. In other words, management in this sense, was quite generic and moralistic. On the other hand, the term classroom management is described as the task of maintaining order, of ensuring that classroom lessons run smoothly despite disruptive behaviors by students. For instance, as pointed out by McCaslin and Good (1998), classroom management is often considered a means of managing students’ behaviors - getting them to respond quickly to teacher demands, needs, and goals (as cited in as cited in Emertson & Weinstein, 2006, p.4). Similarly, in The New Teacher’s Companion: Practical Wisdom for Succeeding in the Classroom (2009), Cunningham argued that teachers cannot teach and few students can learn if all students are not aware of the rules for behaviors that apply to them. Teaching and learning will be thriving if clear expectations and consequences that address and eliminate problems are established from the outset. Nonetheless, “classroom management is a multifaceted endeavor that is far more complex than establishing rules, rewards, and penalties to control students’ behavior” (Emertson & Weinstein, 2006, p.5). Therefore, the phenomenon is perceived in a broader sense. According to McLeod, Fisher & Hoover (2003), classroom life involves planning the curriculum, organizing routine procedures, gathering resources, arranging the environment to maximize efficiency, monitoring student progress, and anticipating, preventing and solving problems. Therefore, the three key elements of classroom management are managing time and classroom space, student behavior and instructional strategies. Van Deventer & Kruger (2003) asserted that classroom management is about planning, organizing and monitoring activities and procedures that allow for

effective teaching and learning to take place. Holding the same view, Brophy (1996, as cited in Vo, 2009, p.15) offered the definition that classroom management refers to actions taken to create and maintain a learning environment and elaborated a number of factors that must be accomplished in order to fulfill such a task, namely arranging physical environment, setting up rules and procedures, maintaining attention and engagement. Whereas, Smith & Laslett (2002, p.3-12) claimed that a classroom management consists of four rules: “get them in” which refers to the seating of the students and the greeting as well as the starting of the lesson; “get them out” that deals with the concluding and dismissing of the lesson; “get on with it” which mentions the content of the lesson and the manner of the teacher; and “get on with them” that discusses the issue of maintaining control in a lesson. These rules are to ensure that an environment in which instruction and learning can occur is established and maintained. In brief, different educators and researchers have different opinions about what classroom management is, hence the various ways of classifying classroom management. However, they intersect at one point, which is classroom management refers to actions taken to create and maintain a favorable teaching and learning environment, and to deal with all the arising problems that may prevent effective teaching and learning from taking place. For the sake of clarity and consistency, the term classroom management will be referred to under the light of this perception. Besides, since one of the biggest aims of study is to investigate the classroom management problems fourth year students encounter during their teaching practice at FELTE, ULIS-VNU, a checklist that covers as many classroom management issues as possible is required. More importantly, the factors in the

checklist should be relevant to the specific classroom setting, characteristics and teaching as well as learning habits of teachers and students at ULIS-VNU. Therefore, the checklist proposed by To (2008) for the assessment of the microteaching sessions of the student teachers is chosen as the framework for the researcher to investigate the issue. This checklist includes not only the classroom management components mentioned above such as managing time and space, managing students’ attention and engagement and giving instructions but also many others. They are classified into the following six groups: • Managing time • Managing classroom space • Giving and checking instructions • Checking understanding • Monitoring • Dealing with disruptive students • Giving feedback • Motivating students 2.2. Elements of classroom management 2.2.1. Time management Time management, “the art of arranging, organizing, scheduling and budgeting one’s time for the purpose of generating more effective work and productivity” (“What is Time Management”, n.d.) is considered one of the skills essential for the success in both school and real life. McLeod, Fisher and Hoover (2003) exemplified that students need time to digest, practice, review, rehearse and apply the new learning and to relate it with practical situations. Therefore, teachers

who manage time efficiently give students the best opportunity to learn and are more likely to achieve curricular goals. In other words, the wise use of time is an important factor in assisting students to accomplish learning goals and making the classroom a pleasant place for both teachers and students. “Until we can manage time, we can manage nothing else” (Drucker, 1954, as cited in McLeod, Fisher & Hoover, 2003, p.20). However, time management in the context of classroom research is relatively different from that in everyday life. Generally, time is understood as a metric - a unit of measurement and time management is referred to personal time management, the ability to use one’s time wisely to accomplish a certain task or goal. The issue in relation to schooling is much more complex since how the teacher spends time is normally determined by school rules, regulations and daily schedules and he/she not only needs to control his own time but to manage other types as well. Wong and Wong (1998, as cited in McLeod, Fisher & Hoover, 2003, p.20) claimed that there are four types of school-day time as listed below: • Allocated time: the total time for teacher instruction and student learning • Instructional time: the time teachers are actively teaching • Engaged time: the time students are involved in a task • Academic learning time: the time teachers can prove that students learned the content or mastered the skill

In this sense, allocated time sets the boundary for instructional time and engaged time to take place. However, the relationship between academic learning time with others is not clearly identified. Many other researchers also categorized classroom time into four groups which are allocated time, scheduled time, engaged time and academic learning time (Caldwell, Huitt, and Graeber, 1982; Berliner, 1984, as cited in “Chapter 2”, n.d). • Allocated time: the time the teacher actually spends teaching • Scheduled time: the official designated amount of time for the students to learn • Engaged time: the time the students actually spend learning • Academic learning time: the proportion of engaged time the learners spend actively engaged in tasks that are likely to produce learning outcomes at a high level of success. From this perspective, scheduled time sets the upper limit for allocated time. Engaged time is a subset of allocated time while academic learning time is a subset of engaged time. The relationships between different variables are clearly illustrated on the graphs.

Figure 1 – Classification of Classroom Time From Chapter 2: Using Time Effectively - The Secret to Successful Learning. (n.d) from http:// education.calumet.purdue.edu/vockell/edpsybook/edpsy2/edpsy2_intro

On reflection, it could be seen that these two ways of defining classroom time share many things in common. First, they both include engaged time, the time students are involved in a task. Second, though given different terminologies, instructional time in the former and allocated time in the latter refer to the time teachers are actively teaching. More importantly, academic learning time in both cases is defined as the amount of time students are successfully achieving a certain learning topic. Many studies have demonstrated that academic learning time is the most useful predictor of success (eg., Berliner, 1978, as cited in Huitt, 2006). Huitt (2006) elaborated that a high level of academic learning time means that students are covering important tested content; students are actively involved in learning most of the class period and students are successful on most tasks they are assigned. In other words, academic learning time is the most appropriate time variable educators and teachers need to focus on to reach an ideal situation in which all scheduled time is allocated to the topic of learning; the student is

engaged during all the allocated time; and the student is performing at a high rate of success during all the engaged time (Berliner, 1990).

Figure 2 – Maximized Academic Learning Time From Chapter 2: Using Time Effectively - The Secret to Successful Learning. (n.d) from http:// education.calumet.purdue.edu/vockell/edpsybook/edpsy2/edpsy2_intro

Although there is little conflict between two ways of classification, the latter proves to be more specific and to indicate clearer relation between different elements. Therefore, the four time variables, namely allocated time, scheduled time, engaged time and academic learning time proposed by Caldwell, Huitt, and Graeber, 1982; Berliner, 1984 would be applied consistently throughout the paper. 2.2.2. Space management Numerous research and studies have shown that classroom space is another key issue that teachers as well as educators need to pay attention to. Elaborating the

influence of classroom space on the teaching and learning process, McLeod, Fisher and Hoover (2003) stated as follows: “But time is not the only issue; classroom space affects your instructional program directly as well. Teachers try to make every inch of classroom space count in order to have a rich and inviting classroom environment because they know that the richness of students’ experiences are enhanced or diminished by their surroundings. The organization of space also affects the way students behave and move around the classroom, as well as how much attention they pay to instruction.” (p.3) Parlin (2009) also emphasized that the impact of classroom arrangement is too important to leave to chance. Whether the teacher wishes to increase group interaction with lots of small-group activities or lectures most of the time, the room arrangement can help or hinder. Nonetheless, different researchers have different opinions on the various elements of classroom space. Wright (2005, as cited in Vo, 2009, p.17) argued that classroom space entails student grouping, uses of classroom wall, movement and population density. Cunmings (2000) also proposed a list of components that make up classroom space. They are: • The quarter system: teacher talk, whole-group interaction, small-group work, independent work • Teaching to the communication standard of active listening • Teacher talk and eye contact • Classroom distractions

• Seating arrangement • Working independently and working in groups Another standpoint is attributed to McLeod, Fisher and Hoover (2003) as they asserted that the different aspects of classroom space are taking inventory of the furniture and equipment, arranging student seating, placing the students’ and teacher’s desk, placing visual displays and creating traffic pattern. Whereas, Savage and Savage (2010) were more concerned with arranging the students’ and teacher’s desk, arranging the teacher’s and students’ action zone, creating the traffic pattern and teacher’s proximity and movement. In brief, different views on the components of classroom space have been proposed. However, they all overlap at one point. Classroom space should not be understood as merely the physical organization of the room such as the position of the students’ and teacher’s desks or visual displays. It should also entail the movement of as well as interactions between different entities occupying it, the teacher’s voice or proximity for example. In other words, “the size and shape of the room, the location of doors and windows, and the movement of individuals within that space combine to form the spatial dimension of a classroom” (Savage & Savage, 2010, p.67) For the sake of clarity and relevance, the researcher decided to investigate the components that appear in most of the theories about classroom space and in the checklist proposed by To (2008) to assess the teaching performance of student teachers. They are listed as follows: • Students’ seating arrangement

• Using blackboard • Teachers’ position and movement • Teacher’s non-verbal communication 2.2.2.1. Students’ seating arrangement The single most important decision influencing the physical classroom management is the students’ seating arrangement. Numerous studies by Weinstein (1979, as cited in Savage & Savage, p.68), Becker (1981, as cited in Savage & Savage, 2010, p.68) or Marzano & Brown (2009) explored that attending to seating arrangement can encourage or discourage students’ discussion and interaction. Effective seating arrangement of desks, chairs or visual displays enhances students’ ability to perceive and interpret information presented and delivered via different teaching tools around them. Generally speaking, the student seating arrangement depends upon various factors like the class size, the characteristics of the students or the nature of the instructional activities. Particularly, it accords closely with the students’ proximity to the teacher. Researchers have explored that there is “a spot in the classroom where students are most attentive and involved in classroom interactions” which is called the action zone (Adam & Biddle, 1970, as cited in Savage & Savage, 2010, p.72). This area consists of those seats nearest the basic teaching position. If the primary teaching position of the teacher is at the front of the classroom, then the action zone is those seats that form a “T” across the front of the classroom and down the center. Students seating within this area tend to be more motivated and actively involved in classroom interactions and activities. The reason uncovered by Dykman and Reis (1979, as cited in Savage & Savage, 2010, p.72) is that students

instinctively choose locations that support themselves best. That is why; students who extrude low self-esteem normally sit on the periphery of the classroom to distance themselves from the threat posed by the teacher. Mastering the knowledge of the action zone assists the teacher a great deal in constructing the physical environment. For instance, teachers may assign those with behavioral and academic difficulties to seat in the action zone. In this way, they will receive more of the teacher’s attention, instruction and feedback, which may help increase their feeling of confidence and competence. Therefore, there is no fixed or best seating arrangement in the classroom. However, some seating arrangements are used more often and more popularly than others. Savage and Savage (2010) listed out three of them, namely rows, clusters, and circular or semicircular patterns. In the specific context of the classrooms in FELTD, ULIS where the student teachers conduct their practicum, the pattern is the traditional orderly rows where two or three students share one table. The advantages of such arrangement are that the teacher can see many students, move freely around and easily gain the students’ attention. However, there is little space for peer interaction. In order to design appropriate instructional activities, it is necessary teachers bear in mind the characteristics, the advantages and disadvantages of each pattern. 2.2.2.2. Teachers’ using blackboard Blackboard is always considered one of the most basic and useful teaching resources for the teachers. A well-organized blackboard not only assists the teacher in delivering knowledge and information but serves as a source of stimulation and

motivation for the students as well. Emphasizing the importance of blackboards in the classroom, Sasson (2007) stated: “What you write is just as important as how well you organize the blackboard. It helps center the class and brings the lesson in focus. The blackboard is the most visually centered piece of equipment available teacher.” From Sasson’s viewpoint, what to write and how to write are the two aspects of blackboard using. To be more specific, what is presented on the blackboard could be the date and the agenda - a list of goals to be achieved at the end of the day, the main points of the lesson as well as the minor points and supporting details. In order to do this, the teacher is advised to divide the board into different sections with the large parts for the main contents and small boxes for details and examples. This theory is further supported by Gower, Phillips and Walters (1995) and Scrivener (2005) as they classified the content of the blackboard into four groups that are allocated into different areas of the board. They are permanent or reference material and main language items of the lesson; material for the development of different phases of the lesson; impromptu work; and notes and reminders. In other words, it is suggested that teachers keep different kinds of information to separate sections of the board. Besides, these researchers advise teachers to pay attention to their writing position and writing time as well. 2.2.2.3. Teacher’s position and movement Where teachers position themselves at different phases of the lesson is of great importance if we examine its effects on the students (“Teacher Positioning in the

Classroom”, 2005). Whether the teacher is standing, seated or crouching in front of, to the side or of behind the students transmits different messages to the students. It tells them: • what type of activity it is; • what your role is; • what the students’ role is expected to be; • who the teacher is attending to and not attending to; • whether the teacher expects the students to talk to him/her or not (Gower, Phillips, & Walters, 1995, p.24) In general, teachers establish various positions accordingly to the aims and purposes of different activities in progress. There are times when they want to capture the attention of all the students, others when they want to address certain groups or individuals and also when they want to be invisible in the classroom. In other words, teachers should take care of their physical positions during the following lesson stages (“Classroom Management”, n.d): • Language presentation and instruction giving: these are the two phases in which teachers need to be the focus of all students’ attention; therefore standing is the best position. • Reading activities: when the students are reading, there is no need to attract their attention so much so sitting and occasional supervising are enough. • Activation control: when students are beginning to conduct a certain activity or task, the teacher can lose control and supervise from afar. The teacher should

lengthen their proximity to the students or be preferably seated. However, he/she needs to intervene immediately when needed. • Controlled practice: the teacher should only supervise the students’ working occasionally; otherwise they should be given freedom to focus on the activity. • Checking work in progress: teachers should move from one group to another in order to check their progress as well as provide immediate assistance without interrupting them. Furthermore, where teachers position themselves should be put in close relation with where the students are seated. As previously presented, there is always a spot in the classroom where the students are most attentive and involved in the instructional activities. This action zone is in close proximity to the teacher’s position in the class. As a result, teachers are recommended to remain as close to the students as possible. In fact, numerous studies emphasized the importance of teachers’ proximity to students. For example, research findings by Weinstein (1979, as cited in Savage & Savage, 2010, p. 73) indicated that the further students are seated from the teacher, the lower grades they get. Their participation and positive learning attitudes also decline as the distance between the teacher and the students increases (Smith, 1987, as cited in Savage & Savage, 2010, p.74). They explained that as the distance between teachers and students increases, it becomes more difficult for the teacher to monitor the students. This lack of monitoring does not provide students with immediate feedback, explanation or guiding that facilitate their understanding. The distance factor may also attribute to the lack of teacher-student contact that could contribute to positive interpersonal interactions and feelings. In addition, students tend to be more alert and involved in learning when the teacher is physically close. Consequently, the academic learning time is increased, which could be translated into higher achievement of the learning goals.

2.2.2.4. Teacher’s non-verbal communication 2.2.2.4.1. Eye contact Numerous studies have shown that eye contact is one of the teacher’s most effective teaching tools. First, effective eye-contact assists students’ learning. In a normal classroom setting, people retain only about 10 percent of what they hear in a lesson; 20 percent of what they see, but 50 percent of what they both see and hear (Cummings, 2000, p.36). Consequently, if the students do not maintain eye contact with the teacher and vice versa, they miss considerable learning opportunities. Second, good eye contact is essential in establishing rapport. Gower, Phillips and Walters (1995) in Teaching Practice Handbook, pointed out that a teacher who never or rarely looks students in the eye extrudes lack of confidence and gives students the sense of insecurity. In fact, the more eye contact teachers have with students, the more likely they are to feel connected and liked (Horn, 1997, as cited in Cummings, 2000, p.36). Furthermore, Gower, Phiilips and Walters (1995) advised teachers to look at the students to notice their reactions and to be in touch with the mood of the class, “Do they understand?”, “Would it be a good idea to change the direction or the pace of the lesson?” or “Does anyone want to contribute or ask questions?” for example (p.9). In general, eye contact will vary at different stages of a lesson and also in different types of lessons. Gower, Phillips and Walters (1995) stated that the more eye contact the teacher maintains with the students, the more teacher-centered the lesson is. Therefore, in activity that students are supposed to work or interact in pairs or in groups, teachers should avoid or reduce the level of teacher-student eye contact. They also specified many cases in which eye contact can be used as follows:

• to make sure that the students have comprehended the learning topic, have understood what they are supposed to do and know what is going on. • to indicate who is to speak when calling one student after another to repeat something or answer a question. A nod is usually accompanied in this case. • to encourage students’ contribution when teachers are asking questions or eliciting ideas. Teachers can base on the facial expression of the students to decide who are willing to speak out. • to signal that teachers are taking notice of the student who is talking. • to hold the attention of students not being addressed and to encourage them to listen to those doing the talking. Teachers may dart their glance around the classroom to show the students that you are aware of what is going on. • to ensure that everyone is involved, especially when the group is working together. 2.2.2.4.2. Voice projection Besides eye contact, the voice is another important teaching asset. Soothing and pleasant voice used appropriately attracts the students and makes them interested in listening attentively. Meanwhile, they will respond inappropriately when they feel that the teacher’s voice is uncontrolled, patronizing, monotonous or weak (“How a Teacher’s Voice Affects Pupils’ Behavior, 2005). Technically, Martin and Darnley (2004, as cited in “How a Teacher’s Voice Affects Pupils’ Behavior, 2005) argued: “The teaching voice should have a firm flow supported by a centered breath, a developed resonance that allows the voice to be projected without strain or effort, and a pitch range that is appropriate to the individual voice, combined with the flexibility to vary tone and inflection.” (p.1)

It is also noteworthy the teacher should project his/her voice accordingly to activity, class size, the room or the characteristics of the students. In Winning Strategies for Classroom Management, Cummings (2000, p.17) stated that when talking to individuals, pairs and groups, it is suggested that teachers should act naturally like talking to one or two people by reducing the volume, lower the pitch and narrow the range. In contrast, when addressing a large class, the teacher should increase the volume, widen the voice range and raise the pitch as well.

2.2.3. Instruction giving and checking The success of various stages of a lesson depends largely on the teacher’s ability to give clear instructions - “the directions that are given to introduce learning task which entails some measure of independent student activity” (Ur, 1996, as cited in Vo, 2009, p.19). If the students understand the instructions clearly, they will carry out the task planned by the teacher. In contrast, if the instructions are misunderstood, the activity will be conducted in a disorganized and inefficient way. Thus, it is essential that teachers should give effective instructions and check whether the students have understood what they are supposed to do. In order to give and check instructions, Gower, Phillips and Walters (1995) suggested that the teacher should: • First attract the students’ attention. By making sure that the students are attentive, teachers can save time explaining the instructions again and again. • Use simple language and short expressions. To be more specific, teachers should use language at a lower level than the language being taught and avoid using long and complicated expressions which not only slow down the lesson but also

confuse the students. Besides, a firm directive manner is necessary in making language practice efficient. • Be consistent, which means using the same set of words for the same instruction. This technique is particularly important and useful in teaching low-level classes. Some common instructions are: Listen, Try again, Look at the board, Stand up, Turn to page...,... • Use visual or written clues. Studies have shown that the more senses are involved in the learning process, the more likely the learners are to remember and understand the lesson. Teachers can support instructions with visual or written clues such as real objects, pictures or written pieces of paper. • Demonstrate. Normally, showing the students what to do is more effective than telling them what to do. If possible, teachers can show the students what to do by giving a demonstration or an example. • Break the instructions down. If the activity is complicated and involves a lot of instructions and explanation, it is advisable teachers should give simple instructions in segments and check understanding as they go along. Or, they may give some of the instructions and allow time for them to be carried out before moving on to the next step. • Be decisive. Teachers may use a signal, like the words Right or Listen, which students will learn to recognize as a cue for an instruction. It is important that the students should know when to begin an activity or when to stop. • Check that students understand the instructions, especially the complicated ones. Whereas, Scrivener (2005) proposed five steps towards efficient instruction giving

1. Teachers should become aware of their own instruction-giving, which can be done by listening to themselves, recording themselves or asking others to watch and give feedback. 2. During the first few phases of teaching, it is necessary for newly-qualified teachers to prepare detailed instructions. They should analyze the instructions beforehand to include only essential information in simple, clear language and in sensible consequence. They should use short sentences, one for each key information and should not say things that are visible and obvious. 3. In class, they need to make sure that students are listening while they are giving instructions. This can be achieved by creating a silence beforehand and making eye contact with as many students as possible. 4. They should demonstrate rather than explain whenever possible. 5. It is also important to check whether students have understood what to do and not to assume that everyone will automatically comprehend what was delivered. Teachers should get concrete evidence from the students that they know what is required. One simple way of achieving this is to call one or two to tell you what they have to do. Though these authors have different opinions on how to give efficient instructions, they all agree on the following points. First, it is essential that every student should be attentive when the teacher delivers instructions. Second, instructions sent out should be short, concise and powerful so that students can easily comprehend and remember. Also, demonstrating to the students what they are supposed to do is more effective than telling them what to do. Besides, it is essential for the teacher to check the students’ understanding of the instructions.

Supporting these principles, researchers proposed different models of instruction giving and checking. One of them is by Nguyen et al (2003, as cited in To, Nguyen, Nguyen, Nguyen and Luong, 2009) in ELT Methodology II - Course Book. They are: “Step-by-step” or “feed-in approach”: the teacher gives students one instruction at a time, not a list of instructions all together. Breaking down instructions into small, separate steps to help students to understand them completely, especially when there is a lot of information in instructions and the teacher wants students to understand every word. Demonstrate it “model” it or “show-don’t-tell”: the teacher does not talk about what students must do: instead he/she shows them what to do by giving a demonstration. A demonstration is easier to understand than an explanation and reduces teacher talking time. Say-Do-Check: The teacher follows 3 steps for each instruction. First, he/she says the instruction, then he/she gets the students to do it, then he/she checks that they’ve done it correctly before going on to the next instruction. Using Say-Do-Check the teacher can tell straight away if students have not understood anything and can take action to make sure that they understand it. Student recall: Having given instructions in English, the teacher checks that the students understand everything by saying “tell me what you have to do in Vietnamese” or “say it again in Vietnamese”. Asking students to recall what they will do in Vietnamese is helpful at lower levels as they may not fully

understand the instructions. It makes them remember what they have to do and allows the teacher to check that they understand what to do. (p.16-17)

Teachers should base on the specific activities or tasks to apply one or a combination of different models above. 2.2.4. Comprehension checking According to Fisher and Frey (2007), check for understanding is an important step in the teaching and learning procedure. By asking or encouraging students to share how they understand the lesson, teachers may know what they are getting out of the lesson. Mistakes and misconceptions, therefore, can be identified and dealt with. Besides, the act of comprehension checking can improve students’ learning and provides them with a model of good study skills. When students reflect their comprehension of a certain learning point, they are more aware of what they have mastered and have more control over their learning, which in return results in higher level of motivation. Also, when successful students share with the class the various ways that they employ to master something, less successful students can accumulate numerous tips and advice. In general, researchers agreed that teachers rely mostly on questions to check comprehension (e.g. Gabrielatos, 1997; Bond, 2007; Fisher & Frey, 2007). How to construct effective questions is, therefore, of great momentum in the comprehension checking process. Fisher and Frey (2007) emphasized that check for understanding through questions should not be thought of as a simple two-step process of questioning and answering but a complex progression. In fact, they recommended teachers employ the questioning process of five steps called

Questioning and Understanding to Improve Learning and Thinking (QUILT) proposed by Walsh and Sattes (2005, as cited in Fisher & Frey, 2007, p.37-40). QUILT Framework
Stage 1: Prepare the Question. Identify instructional purpose

• Determine content focus • Select cognitive level • Consider wording and syntax
Stage 2: Present the Question • Indicate response format • Ask the question • Select respondent Stage 3: Prompt Student Responses • Pause after asking question • Assist nonrespondent • Pause following student response Stage 4: Process Student Responses • Provide appropriate feedback • Expand and use correct responses • Elicit student reactions and questions Stage 5: Reflect on Questioning Practice • Analyze questions • Map respondent selection • Evaluate student response patterns • Examine teacher and student reactions

Figure 3 - QUILT Framework From Checking for Understanding - Formative Assessment Techniques for Your Classroom (p. 38) by Fisher. D. and Frey. N., 2007. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.

The first step is to formulate the question with teachers determining the purpose of the question itself. Generally, questions can serve the purpose of information recognition, information recalling and application recalling. After formulating the question, teachers need to determine the format of the desired response and the responders. Is it a question to be answered by an individual student or a group of students? After the question is delivered, the students need time to process the answer, which is referred to as “wait time” (Rowe, 1986, as cited in Fisher & Frey, 2007, p. 39). Normally, teachers should wait about three to five seconds to allow learners time to digest information and formulate a response. This “wait time” technique is particularly essential in an EFL classroom where many students need to translate the questions and answers back and forth from the target language to their mother tongue and vice versa. If the students cannot give the answer, teachers are then advised to assist students. Once the students propose an answer, it is necessary teachers response with feedback, praise or correction for example. The final step involves analyzing the techniques used as well as the content of the students’ answers. Besides, Walsh and Sattes presented some strategies for teachers to help students who respond incorrectly (p.89, as cited in Fisher & Frey, 2007, p.41). These strategies are summarized in the following figure.

Helping Students Who Respond Incorrectly Cue: Use symbols, words, or phrases to help students recall. Clue: Use overt reminders such as “Start with . . .” Probe: Look for reasoning behind an incorrect response or ask for clarity when the response is incomplete. Rephrase: Pose the same question in different words. Redirect: Pose the same question to a different student. Hold accountable later: Later in the lesson, check back with the student who responded incorrectly to make sure that he or she has the correct answer.

Figure 4 - Helping Students Who Respond Incorrectly From Checking for Understanding - Formative Assessment Techniques for Your Classroom (p. 41) by Fisher. D. and Frey. N., 2007. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.

Within the limited context of the paper, the issue refers to the activity of teachers checking students’ understanding in speaking, listening and reading lessons only. 2.2.5. Monitoring Concerning the teacher’s activities during students’ pair and group work, Pollard (2008) stated that teachers should quietly let the students get on with the task. However, this does not mean ignoring them and letting the task disintegrate. They

should go around, monitoring the activities of the students. In this way, teachers can offer help when needed, answer the students’ questions, note down students’ mistakes and examples of good work for later feedback and let them know that time is closing in. Acknowledging the importance of teachers’ monitoring, Gower et al (1995) also emphasized that when students are engaged in a task, teachers should listen and watch what they are doing. The aims of this activity is to make sure the students are clear about and actively involved in what they are required to do, to assess how well they are doing the task and to evaluate particular language strengths and weaknesses. Particularly, in the context of language classroom, teachers’ supervising is of great importance in ensuring that students are truly communicating in the target language and are under no temptation to refer back to their mother tongue. To help teachers monitor the class effectively, Gower et al also suggested some tips on how to monitor groupwork, pairwork and individuals. • Monitoring groupwork 1. Stand back. Once the teacher sets up the activity, he/she should allow a short time for the students to get on with it. By standing back, the teacher is enabled to see which groups seem to be working well and which are having problems. 2. Quickly check. Teachers should go around, supervising to check that students have all understood what they have to do. If one group is not clear about the instructions, teachers should stop them and explain to them again. If most of the students are confused, then teachers are recommended to deliver the instructions again to the whole class. 3. Spread attention. Teachers should not concentrate their attention on one group only otherwise the members in that group will feel cramped by teachers’

presence. Besides, if attention is not well distributed, the neglected ones will start drifting away from the task. Teachers, therefore, should make themselves easily accessible so that every group can be supervised and assisted when necessary. 4. Provide encouragement. Very often, the groups may lose interest in the activity and be distracted by private talks. At that time, teachers should move around to get them going on the right track. Their enthusiasm will motivate and give the students confidence. • Monitoring pairwork. Most of what teachers need to consider when monitoring groupwork can be applied to pairwork. However, teachers should remember that in pairwork it is easier for them to dominate half of the activity for the time they show the students what the activity is about. • Monitoring individuals. 1. Teachers should make sure that every student receives their attention and assistance before they move around. 2. Teachers should be discreet in their approach (not too loud or too disruptive). 3. Teachers should also consider the effect of their approach in monitoring individuals, whether they dot around the class unpredictably or move from one to another. In general, teachers should base on the specific types of activities as well as the classroom setting and students’ characteristics to employ the most appropriate monitoring strategies. 2.2.6. Disruptive behavior management

Disruptive behavior was defined by Race and Pickford (2007) as any behavior that interferes with the teachers’ ability to teach and other students’ ability to learn. Common disruptive behavior of students in the classroom is meant by some classroom situations such as: if some students are chatting when teachers and other peers are practising speaking; some arriving late for class or leaving early; inappropriate demanding individual attention; constantly interrupting, being inattentive. In short, McKeachie (1994, as cited in Race & Pickford, 2007, p.82) categorized disruptive behaviors into the following patterns: • angry and aggressive students; • attention seekers and those who dominate discussions; • inattentive or unprepared students; • flattering students; • discouraged and defeated students; • students with a million excuses; • students who want the truth or the right answer Researchers have been trying to discover why students misbehave in the class. One of them is Cummings (2000) as the author argued that the students misbehave in the class is because they may be under physical, emotional or intellectual threats. Some examples of the different types of threats are listed as follows: • Intellectual threats: having to work in a group, hearing an announcement of a pop quiz, receiving unclear instructions, being called upon to answer in front of the class, fearing failure in a certain subject, being distracted by other students, having their grades posted publicly, being afraid of reading aloud in the class.

• Emotional threats: negative language, bullying, intimidation and other forms of put-downs, fear of being disciplined by an adult in front of peers, boyfriend or girlfriend troubles, coping with family trauma, fearing of family reaction to poor grades. • Physical threats: fear of pushing, shoving and tripping in the hall, fear of having caught up in a fight, fear of having personal items stolen, feeling tired or not feeling well. These threats are often exposed in the form of frustration, lack of cooperation and low motivation. Fortunately, many of these threats can be minimized or eliminated. For instance, in order to deal with intellectual stressors, Cummings (1997) suggested that teachers could provide students with a choice of working alone or with a group to alleviate the fear of small group work; minimize test anxiety by announcing when the test will be and the type of test to expect or let students know the grade is based on the content of the answers, not mechanics, spelling or penmanship. The bottom-line is teachers understand why students misbehave and have some precautions rather than solutions to the problem. 2.2.7. Feedback Giving feedback is one of the most fundamental responsibilities of a teacher. Formative feedback gives information to teachers and students about how students are doing compared to the learning goals. If done well, feedback can exert profound influence on the students (Brookhart, 2008), the power of which lies in its addressing both cognitive and motivational factors at the same time. The

cognitive factor is good feedback providing students with information of where they are in their learning and what to do next. Once students understand what they are required to do and why, they have the feeling of being in control over their learning, which is meant by the motivational factor. Before investigating different aspects of the issue, it is crucial the term feedback be explained. Feedback was defined by Ur (1996, as cited in Vo, 2009, p.20) as “information that given to the learner about his or her performance of a learning task… Feedback has two main distinguishable components: assessment and correction.” Harmer (2006, as cited in Vo, 2009, p.20) also supported this theory by stating: “feedback encompasses not only correcting students but also offering them an assessment of how well they have done”. In other words, these two authors both agreed that feedback consists of two components: correction and assessment of the students’ performance. In addition, its two most popular modes in the classroom are oral feedback and written feedback (To et al, 2008, p.21-22; Gower et al, 1995, p.169-170). Within the specific context where the student teachers are allocated to be in charge of reading, speaking and listening skills only, the type of feedback investigated in the paper is oral feedback. 2.2.4.1. What to correct The first question teachers should ask themselves about the issue is what to correct. Brookhart (2008) believed that the content of the teacher’s feedback should involve choices about focus, comparison and valence. Regarding the choice of focus, four levels of feedback is distinguished by Hattie & Timperley (2007, as cited in Brookhart, 2008, p.20-21): feedback about the task,

feedback about the processing of the task, feedback about self-regulation and feedback about the self as a person. Feedback about the task refers to information about errors - whether something is correct or not, about the depth or quality of the work that is based on certain criteria. One example is “the thesis statement in writing as well as in speaking should tell the listeners your opinion about the issue, whether you approve of it or not”. Feedback about the process of the task includes information about how they approached the task, information about the comparison between what they did with how they did and information about possible alternative strategies as well. For instance, the teacher may comment on a student’s piece of writing like “Refutation is one way to emphasize your point. What else could you do to make convincing arguments?”. Meanwhile, self-regulation feedback draws connections between students’ work and their intentional efforts, “it is good of you to have interactions with the audience while presenting” for example. Whereas, feedback about the self as a person includes personal comments from the teachers. Generally, it is not a good idea to use this type of feedback since it does not contain information that can be used for further learning. Choosing the content of the teacher’s feedback also involves the choice of comparison. Brookhart (2008, p.22-23) listed out three types of feedback comparison, namely criterion-referencing, self-referencing and norm-referencing. Criterion-referencing feedback is feedback comparing the students to a learning target, which helps students decide what their next learning goal is. For example, “Your voice is very soothing, yet lacks emphasis” implies that you should have stress on certain syllables and words. Self-referencing feedback, meanwhile, gives information about the process or methods the students use. This type of feedback is particularly necessary for struggling students who need to realize that they make progress. Whereas, norm-referencing compares the performance of one student to

that of others, which is not strongly recommended since it may create negative competition among the students. Lastly, feedback should be positive. Being “positive” does not mean being diplomatically happy or only saying good things about the students’ performance. Being positive means demonstrating how good a student’ work is compared to the criteria and how the strong points of the student’s performance show his/ her ability. Being positive means pointing out where further improvements are needed and suggestions for correction. In other words, good feedback is not only about the good point of the students’ performance but the area that needs to be improved as well. Feedback Content Can Vary In... - On the work itself 1. Focus - On the process the student used to do the work - On the student’s self-regulation - On the student personally - To criteria for good work (criterion-referencing) 2. Comparison - To other students (norm-referencing) - To students’ past performance (self-referencing) - Comments on the good points 3. Valence - Comments on the points that need further improvement In These Ways...

Figure 5 - Feedback Content

2.2.4.2. How to correct

Several researchers and authors have suggested various techniques for correcting errors in general and spoken ones in particular. One of them is Nguyen et al (2003, p.21-23) with the seven techniques for oral feedback. They are: finger correction, question mark, alternatives, blackboard prompt, student-to-student correction, modeling, and delayed correction. Teachers may base on the specific learning goals and types of learning activity to choose the most appropriate one. 2.2.4.3. Who to correct Concerning the question of who to correct, Gower et al (2008) asserted that in many cases, the student is able to correct the mistakes by himself or herself, either completely unprompted or under the assistance of the teacher and the peers. As a result, not only the teacher but also the students participate in the feedback session which is dominant by self-correction, student-student correction or teacher correction (Gower et al, 2008, p.167). • Self-correction Teachers are recommended to let the students correct themselves first. In order to do this, students will have to learn to become articulate and critical as well as to learn how to monitor themselves. Sometimes, they need the assistance of the teacher and the peers to be more aware of the problem and how to deal with it. • Student-student correction When the students do not know how to correct themselves, teachers should not immediately provide feedback but let other students be involved in the session.

This strategy makes the learning more cooperative, reduces the student’s dependence on the teacher, increases the amount of time students listen to each other and creates chances for good students to help others. • Teacher correction If neither self-correction nor peer correction proves to be effective then the teacher should give his/her own comments on the performance. No matter how the teacher has done the correction, it is essential that he/she should ask the student who made the mistake to say the correct version. The teacher can do this with gesture or say something like “Ok, again. The whole thing.” 2.2.4.4. How much to correct Probably the hardest decision to make about feedback is the amount to deliver. Bookhart (2008) emphasized that judging the right amount of feedback to provide entails considerations on the following simultaneously: • The topic in general and the learning targets in particular. For example, if the students are learning about non-verbal communication in presentation then comments on how the students make eye contact or hold their hands should be more emphasized than those on ideas or pronunciation. • Typical developmental learning progressions for those topics or targets. This requires the teacher to dig deep into his/her knowledge of the topic (what else should they know?) and his/her teaching experience with the topic (what typically comes next?).

• The individual students. For instance, for some students, correction and feedback on one point would suffice whereas others can handle more. It is also noteworthy that teachers pay attention to the phenomenon of overcorrection. Gower et al (1995) explained that over-correction is when the more the teacher tries to correct something, the worse the student gets. It is not effective for the teacher to fix everything they see or to try to make everything perfect in one go. Instead, it is worth spending time correcting some items only then moving on to others on the next section. Correction of major errors that most students make is best considered since it could be done quickly and students will be more interested in receiving comments related to them. For real learning, what makes difference is a usable amount of information that gives students a clear understanding of what to do next on the points they see they need to work on. Therefore, teachers may consider employing the Goldilocks principle of “Not too much, not too little, but just right” (Bookhart, 2008, p.13). 2.2.4.5. When to correct The general principal of gauging the timing of feedback proposed by Bookhart (2008) is to put yourself in the position of the students. To be more specific, feedback needs to come when students are still mindful of the lesson. It needs to come when the students are still thinking of the learning goal as a learning goal something they still need to work on, not something they already did. Particularly, it needs to come when they still have some reasons to work on the learning target. Teachers should consider these things to choose the most appropriate time to deliver their feedback so that students can benefit and learn most.

In short, in order to give effective feedback, teachers should take into consideration the issues of what to correct, how to correct, who to correct, how much to correct and when to correct. 2.2.8. Student motivation 2.2.8.1. Perception of motivation Motivation has been widely accepted as one of the most crucial factors that affects the teaching and learning process. Dǒrnyei (1998, as cited in Wang, 2008, p. 31) stressed that “motivation provides the primary impetus to initiate learning foreign language and later the driving force to sustain the long and often tedious learning process”. Without sufficient motivation, even individuals with the most remarkable abilities cannot accomplish long-term goals, and neither are appropriate curricula and good teaching enough to ensure students achievement. Whereas, high motivation can make up for considerable deficiencies both in one’s language aptitude and learning conditions. The issue is defined in different ways by different researchers. Gardner and Lambert (1972, as cited in Narayanan, 2006) referred motivation to the extent to which an individual strives to do something because of a desire to do so or the satisfaction experienced in the activity. Meanwhile, Ellis (2000, as cited in To et al, 2008, p.28) perceived motivation as “the attitude and affective states that influence the degree of effort that learners make to learn an L2”. Whereas, Corbin (2008, as cited in Kirby & McDonald, 2009, p.5) described motivation as “an emotional reaction in which the learner sees a benefit, reward, or the potential for a positive reward in a task.” These authors, though perceiving motivation in different ways,

intersect at one point, at which motivation is the driving force that pushes individuals to achieve something. Normally, motivation can be manifested through different student behaviors. Louisell and Descamp (1992, as cited in Coetzee et al, 2008, p. 104) summarized these behaviors in the following table: Type of Behaviors 1. Attention Description This is defined as any instance when the learner chooses to focus on the instructional activity rather than 2. Time on task 3. Effort on non-instructional activity. Evidence of this behavior is provided when the learner spends sufficient time engaging in the learning activity. This is demonstrated when the learner works intensively, investing the energy and ability required to 4. Feeling tone 5. Extension do the task at hand. This is evident when the learner appears happy, selfconfident and eager in the learning situation. Examples of this include situations in which the learner goes beyond the standards required by the particular 6. Performance activity. When the learner masters the task, performance has been demonstrated.

Figure 6 - Types of Learners Behaviors

2.2.8.2. Classification of motivation

Generally, motivation could be classified into intrinsic and extrinsic motivation. According to Bainbridge (n.d., as cited in Vo, 2009, p.21): Extrinsic motivation refers to motivation that comes from outside an individual. The motivating factors are external, or outside, rewards such as money or grades. These rewards provide satisfaction and pleasure that the task itself may not provide, whereas, intrinsic motivation comes from inside each individual. Wang (2008) supported this theory by claiming that intrinsic motivation deals with behavior performed for its own sake, in order to experience the joy and pleasure of doing a particular activity while extrinsic motivation refers to those driven by external factors such as parental pressure, social expectations or academic expectations. Wang (2006, as cited in Vo, 2009, p.22) was also concerned with intrinsic and extrinsic motivation when stating that “motivation is a complex phenomenon and is made up of many components internal and external. The second language learners who either intrinsically or extrinsically meet their need in learning the language will be positively motivated to learn.” In most classroom, both extrinsic and intrinsic motivation exist, however, according to Spaulding (1992, as cited in Coetzee et al, 2008, p.103), classroom practices mainly promote extrinsic motivation. 2.2.8.3. Factors influencing student motivation There are many factors determining the student motivation in learning. Some of the most influential ones proposed by Corbin (2008, as cited in Kirby & McDonald,

2009, p.5) are relevance, control and choice, challenge, social interaction, anticipated sense of success, need, and novelty. Motivation for learning increases when the learner feels that the instruction is related to their personal needs and goals which are perceived as meaningful. Similarly, students feel motivated when they can connect with and apply the learned knowledge to their own life and experiences. They also respond well when they are in control of their learning process, which could be achieved by teachers who let the students have some control over issues such as the choices of assignments or subject or sharing with them some minor managerial tasks like checking attendance or collecting homework. Young learners like to be challenged, especially when it involves the anticipated sense of success. Yet, teachers should make sure that students should have some experiences of success so that they are more likely to be engaged in learning, to feel more confident and to persist when challenges occur. Social interaction in pair work, small group work or large group work is also very helpful since students can exchange ideas and learn from each other. Learners may also be more receptive and open to new ideas when they have the chance to talk in groups, to brainstorm and solve a problem together. Besides, students find it intriguing and stimulating to access new or unusual information. To engage students’ interest and imagination, teachers can periodically interject unusual or “out of the mainstream” information related to the content being studied (Marzano & Brown, 2009, p.194). 2.2.8.4. Strategies to increase student motivation

In order to help teachers with the issue, researchers have proposed several strategies to increase student motivation in learning. One example is the ten ways suggested by Stipek (1988, as cited in Coetzee et al, 2008, p.105) and Hunter (1982, as cited in Coetzee et al, 2008, p.105). They are: 1. Make the learning task challenging. 2. Place less emphasis on testing and grades. 3. Provide assistance without overprotecting. 4. Move from extrinsic to intrinsic rewards. 5. Use praise appropriately. 6. Have high expectations of each learner. 7. Provide knowledge of results. 8. Promote successful learning for all class members. 9. Increase the learners’ perception that they control the learning situation. 10. Change the classroom goal-reward structure (move from competitive to cooperative/ individual goal-reward structure). Arends (1998, as cited in Coetzee et al, 2008, p.105) added the following strategies: • Attend to alterable factors. • Avoid overemphasizing external motivation. • Create learning situations with positive feeling tones. • Build on learners’ interest and intrinsic values. • Structure learning to accomplish flow. • Use knowledge of results and do not excuse failure. • Attend to learners’ needs, especially their need for self-determination.

• Facilitate group development and cohesion. Meanwhile, Marzano and Brown (2009) recommended the use game-based learning tasks and activities, the use of physical movement that increases students’ energy and ability to concentrate, teacher’s demonstrating enthusiasm when teaching as well as the opportunities for students to talk about themselves. It is essential that teachers should base on the specific learning context and student characteristics to employ the appropriate strategies. 2.3. Related studies 2.3.1. Related studies on classroom management Although classroom management has always been recognized as crucial for teachers, the systematic study of effective management is a relatively recent phenomenon. In “Handbook of Classroom Management: Research, Practice and Contemporary Issues” (2006), Emertson and Weinstein cited: “For the first two thirds of the 20th century, the managerial advice in teacher education textbooks was mostly confined to common sense (“arrange for smooth-flowing traffic patterns and places for students to store personal belongings”) and aphorisms presented as wisdom of practice (“don’t smile until Christmas”). Citations were infrequent and mostly to theorists or other textbooks. “(p.19)

One remarkable example of these early studies is that of William Chandler Bagley (1907, as cited in Evertson & Weinstein, 2006, p.19). Holding the belief that school is to prepare children for a civilized life, management principles in school, in his view, should be considered for this purpose. Collecting data from his own observations of teachers he considered efficient and successful, textbooks on classroom management, his personal experience as a teacher and some general psychological principles, he proposed a set of management principles that are useful in the shaping and changing behavior of the students. It was not until the 1950s that the first “high-profile, large-scale, systematic” study of classroom management was done by Jacob Kounin (1970, as cited in Marzano, Marzano & Pickering, 2006, p.5). In this study, he analyzed videotapes of 49 first and second grade classrooms and coded the behavior of students and teachers. The findings showed that there are four critical dimensions of effective classroom management, namely withitness, smoothness and momentum during lesson presentations, letting students know what behavior is expected of them at certain time and variety and challenge in the seatwork assigned to students. Of the four dimensions, withitness which involves a keen awareness of disruptive or potentially disruptive behavior particularly emphasized. It was believed to be the one that distinguishes the excellent classroom managers from the average or below-average classroom managers. Later, Brophy and Evertson (1976, as cited in Marzano et al, 2006, p. 5) published the results of one of the major studies of classroom management up to that point. Although the treatise investigated different teaching behaviors, classroom management emerged as one of the critical aspects of effective teaching and much of what they found related to the issue supported the earlier findings of Kounin.

The crucial importance of classroom management in teaching and learning was further emphasized in later studies. For instance, with the view to identifying teacher actions associated with student on-task behavior and disruptive behavior, a series of four comprehensive studies with the participation of a large number of elementary and junior high school teachers was conducted at the Research and Development Center for Teacher Education in Austin, Texas. The findings showed that early attention to classroom management promises better-run classroom. Another example is a comprehensive study by Margaret Wang, Geneva Haertel, and Herbert Walberg (1993, as cited in Emertson & Weinstein, 2006, p.6). These researchers combined the results of three previous studies: one involved a content analysis of 86 chapters from research reviews, 44 handbook chapters, 20 government reports and 11 journal articles, another involved a survey of 134 educators, and one involved an analysis of 91 major research syntheses. The result of this massive review was that classroom management was rated first among various teaching variables in terms of its impact on student achievement. Turning to the 21st century, the aim and focus of classroom management research shifted gradually to specific management strategies. Marzano et al (2006) noted that one major study had been conducted by Jere Brophy. With the aim of identifying management strategies to deal with different types of students, Brophy collected data based on in-depth interviews with and observations of 98 teachers regarded as effective managers and average managers. One finding of the paper was that effective managers tended to employ different strategies to deal with different types of students whereas average teachers were inclined to use the same techniques. It is noteworthy that may books and studies have been published to address specifics of classroom management, yet the focus of these publications is more on managing student behavior and maintaining rules and procedures than on

other aspects (e.g. Cummings, 2000; Corrie, 2002; McLeod et al, 2003; Brookfield, 2006; Tauber, 2007) 2.3.2. Related studies on classroom management skills in teaching practice Teaching practice is a crucial stage in any teacher training programs since it provides student teachers with an opportunity to gain first-hand experience in working with a particular group of students. Acknowledging this importance, researchers have conducted numerous studies on the issue. However, most of the studies revolve around the effects of teaching practicum on the student teachers’ teaching efficacy, the cooperation between student teachers and their mentors or the evaluation of the teaching practice (Abdullah, 2003; Lind, 2005; Hu, 2006; Yilmaz & Cavas, 2008). Very few papers focused on challenges and difficulties student teachers encountered in managing classroom during teaching practicum, one of which is by Kyriacou and Stephen. In 1999, Kyriacou and Stephen (as cited in Vo, 2009, p.23) carried a research to discover teacher trainees’ concerns during teaching practice. The findings were: not being regarded as a real teacher; dealing with disruptive behavior; becoming a disciplinarian; getting the teaching right; getting the planning right; teaching about sensitive issues; coping with a heavy workload; having too little preparatory teaching practice; and being assessed. These nine areas of concern were then classified into three categories, namely taking responsibility, developing confidence and creating an orderly classroom - an aspect of classroom management. In the same year, Orr, Thompson and Thompson also published a paper on pre-service teachers’ perceived success of classroom management strategies. The purposes of the research is to determine types of behaviors pre-service teachers viewed as inappropriate and to examine the

perceived success of classroom management, success of classroom management strategies reported by pre-service teachers. Another treatise is attributed to Kher, Lacina-Gifford and Yandell (2000) when they also aimed at identifying pre-service teachers’ knowledge about effective and ineffective classroom management strategies for defiant behaviors. There are few studies focusing on difficulties of student teachers in classroom management during the teaching practice and even fewer papers on the issue of classroom management skills among language student teachers during the practicum in the area and in Vietnam. The most noticeable research is the one undertaken by Vo (2009) in Vietnam. With the aim of discovering student teachers’ difficulties in classroom management during their six-week practicum at a high school, Vo conducted interviews with and observation of thirteen teacher trainees. The most significant finding of the paper is that time management was the most challenging skills for student teachers during the practicum followed by student motivation and space management. In short, researchers have conducted a number studies on the issue of classroom management. However, there are relatively very few on the pre-service teachers’ classroom management skills in EFL classroom during teaching practicum. Particularly in Vietnam, there has not been any related to the difficulties and challenges teacher trainees encounter in managing classroom during the teaching practice at a college level. The paper is, therefore, conducted to fill that gap.

Chapter 3 - METHODOLOGY The objectives of the paper are to discover the causes of and solutions to the classroom management problems that student teachers encounter during their teaching practicum at FELTE, ULIS-VNU, which are summarized into the four research questions. This chapter aims at finding answers to these questions by elaborating on the participants and setting, justifying the research instruments as well as describing in details the procedures of collecting and analyzing data. 3.1. Participants and setting The process of data collection involved the participation of both student teachers and lecturers at FELTE, ULIS-VNU. 3.1.1. Student teachers The population of the research is 20 fourth year students at FELTE, ULIS-VNU who were allocated to conduct their teaching practicum at several first year groups. They are two mainstreamers and 18 fast-track program students. • Before participating in the teaching practicum, the two mainstreamers took seven courses in English Language Skills and five courses in English Language Teaching. Notably, during the English Language Teaching courses, they participated in the activity called Micro-Teaching in which they took turns to act as mock teachers delivering a short lesson to their peers who were mock high school students.

• For the 18 fast-track program students, prior to the teaching practicum, they underwent six courses in English Language Skills, one course in Advanced English and five courses in English Language Teaching. In the English Language Teaching courses, they also had the Micro-Teaching activity but in the last course, they were recommended to choose FELTE, ULIS-VNU freshmen as their target students. Particularly, in the seventh semester, these 18 students took part in the Tutoring Program in which they themselves developed a curriculum, designed lessons to teach Speaking, Reading and Listening skills to the first and second year students of ULIS-VNU. To some extent, they had had experience in working with college students in an academic classroom setting. During the teaching practicum, these 20 teacher trainees were divided into 10 pairs and each pair was assigned to be in charge of one of the three skills - Listening, Reading and Speaking at several first year groups. These groups vary among students with various characteristics from different training groups: teacher training, interpreter/translator training and double major training. Under the allocation of the English Division 1 at FELTE, ULIS-VNU, these student teachers worked with their classes for 5 weeks and practiced teaching a specific skill for no less than 5 periods of 50 minutes in total. During their teaching session, one teacher who had previously worked with the students supervised and gave evaluation on the performance of the students on a given checklist. Due to the time allocation of the whole department, most of the speaking lessons took place at the same time and so did reading and listening ones. Therefore, the researcher decided to choose randomly one pair for each listening and reading skill

and two pairs for speaking skill. In total, there are 8 participants including five fast-track and one mainstream students involved in the data collection process. Although there were only 8 out of 20 pre-service teachers participating in the study, data collected from the questionnaires and interview sessions along with data from the videotaped lessons during 3 weeks help increase the reliability and validity of the ultimate findings. In addition to the students of the groups that the student teachers conducted their teaching sessions can be considered indirect participants since how these students act and behave determines how the direct participants - 8 teacher trainees react and response. Thus, it is important for the researcher to inform the students of the research and ask them to be in the most natural state so that the teacher trainees can demonstrate their classroom management skills. 3.1.2. Supervising teachers In order to get a more critical look at the issue, the participation of the supervising teachers of the teacher trainees were included. These teachers who have been teaching English Language Skills for a few years supervised and evaluated the teacher trainee’s performance. Working along with the four chosen pairs of preservice teachers, four supervising teachers were invited to join an interview session after the third week’s teaching practicum. 3.2. Data collection methods and procedure

For a collection of sufficient reliable and valid data for the research, interviews and classroom observation as methods of the qualitative and quantitative approaches were fully employed. 3.2.1. Questionnaire 3.2.1.1. Justification for the use of questionnaire Questionnaire was defined by Brown (2001, as cited in Mackey & Gass, 2005, p. 92) as “any written instruments that present respondents with a series of questions or statements to which they are to react either by writing out their answers or selecting them among existing ones.” The questionnaire is one of the most common methods of collecting data for its numerous advantages. According to Mackey and Gass (2005), compared to the use of individual interviews, using questionnaires is much more economical and practical since questionnaires can reveal data on attitudes and opinions from a large group of participant and can “elicit longitudinal information from learners in a short period of time”. Besides, questionnaires can be administered in many forms such as via emails, by phone or in person, which allows the researcher a great deal of flexibility. Taking into account the researcher’s aim of identifying the classroom management skills student teachers perceived as problematic and the problems they encountered during their teaching practicum along with the busy schedule of the researcher and the participants, the use of questionnaires fits in perfectly. 3.2.1.2. Questionnaire design

The questionnaire used to collect data in the paper was adapted from the one designed by Vo (2009). The purpose of the questionnaire is to seek answers to the first two research questions: • What types of classroom management issues do fourth year students at FELTE, ULIS-VNU perceive as their problems? • What types of classroom management problems do fourth year students at FELTE, ULIS-VNU encounter during their teaching practicum? In order to answer the question, the questionnaire is divided into two big questions. The first one aimed at finding out the difficulty level of different classroom management skills as perceived by the student teachers. The other dealt with the frequency they encountered problems with such skills during their teaching practicum. These questions were designed in the form of closed-item ones that “involve a greater uniformity of measurement and therefore greater reliability”. (Mackey & Gass, 2005, p.93). 3.2.1.3. Questionnaire procedure The questionnaire was delivered to 8 participants after they had finished their third teaching practice session. The researcher’s purpose was to involve the participants when they had enough time to realize and reflect on their strengths and weaknesses in managing the classroom. The questionnaire was in printed form and delivered directly to the student teachers. 3.2.2. Observation 3.2.2.1. Justification for the use of observation

As previously presented, classroom management is about maintaining a favorable teaching and learning environment, about dealing with all the arising problems that may prevent effective teaching and learning from taking place. In other words, classroom management is a process happening throughout the lesson, which requires “the view from both the insider - the student teachers and outsider - the researcher” (Vo, 2009, p.28). Besides, there are different components and elements that are made up of classroom management. In order to study the classroom management problems teacher trainees confront during their teaching practicum at FELTE, ULIS-VNU, a research instrument “generating data which involve the researcher immersing [him or herself] in a research setting, and systematically observing dimensions of that setting, interactions, relationships, actions, events, and so on, within it” (Mason, 1996, as cited in Mackey & Gass, 2005, p.175) is most appropriate. As a result, observation that allows the researcher to “study the processes of education in naturalistic settings, provides more detailed and precise evidence than other data sources, and stimulates change and verifies that the change occurred” (Waxman (n.d), as cited in Vo, 2009, p.28) was chosen. Particularly, through constant observations, the researcher can gain deeper and multilayered understanding of the participants and their context (Mackey & Gass, 2005, p.176). These features coincide exactly with the researcher’s intention of getting insight into the teacher’s trainees’ problems in classroom management. 3.2.2.2. Observation scheme What happens in a classroom is always hard to predict and unexpected problems occur all the time. Thus, highly-structured observations in which the data are recorded according to rigid checklists and rating scales are not a good choice. At

the other end of the scale, unstructured observations in which the researcher relies on the notes of detailed descriptions of the phenomenon may prevent the researcher from concentrating on the certain issue being studied. To illustrate, classroom management issues such as time management, student motivation or giving feedback should be paid more attention to rather than such factors as setting of the lesson or the lesson plan. Therefore, the researcher decided to employ structured observation which can “facilitate the recording of details such as when, where, and how often certain types of phenomena occur, allowing the researcher to compare behaviors across research contexts in a principled manner” (Mackey & Gass, 2005, p.175). To be more specific, during the observation, the researcher utilized a checklist of different classroom management elements to note down all the related information and data. 3.2.2.3. Observation procedure In order to observe the teaching sessions of the 8 participants in 3 weeks, the researcher asked for permission from the supervising teachers and from the student teachers to observe their classes. To make sure the presence of the researcher does not create any pressure on the teacher trainees and her students and not interfere with any class activity, the researcher attended classes as a non-participant and tried not to attract any attention to her. As there are numerous ongoings and unexpected problems in a lesson, as well as many phenomena that cannot be recognized and interpreted easily at once, the researcher also asked for and was granted the permission to videotape all the lessons of the 8 participants. In this way, the researcher could watch the videotapes again to gain more insights into the matter studied.

The data collected from observation help answer the question: What types of classroom management problems do fourth year students at ED, ULIS-VNU encounter during their teaching practicum? 3.2.3. Interviews 3.2.3.1. Justification for the use of interviews Survey questionnaire and classroom observation are effective tools for the research on investigating the difficulties fourth year students encounter in classroom management during their teaching sessions. However, there are phenomena that cannot be investigated directly or cannot be interpreted no matter how many times they are observed. Similarly, there are cases when the researcher has to ask for further explanation and/or information when the previously mentioned data are unclear. In this case, interviews should be included as one of the research instruments. Discussing the advantages of interviews, Mackey and Gass (2005) wrote: “...Interviews can allow researchers to investigate phenomena that are not directly observable, such as learners’ self-reported perceptions or attitudes. Also, because interviews are interactive researchers can elicit additional data if initial answers are vague, incomplete, off-topic, or not specific enough...” (p.173) These features are in great accordance with the intentions of the researcher since the ultimate goal of the interviews was to follow up and provide an insight into the

classroom management problems student teachers had during the teaching sessions as perceived by themselves and as suggested by their supervisors. Moreover, causes of and solutions to such problems from the suggestions of the teacher trainees and the supervisors were discovered as well. 3.2.3.2. Interview design All the interviews utilized are semi-structured, since it is believed that semiconstructed interviews provide the interviewers with a great deal of flexibility while offering the interviewees adequate power and control over the course of the interview (Mackey & Gass, 2005, p.173). The language used in the interviews is Vietnamese to ensure the highest level of question comprehension and self expression of the interviewees. In addition, all the interviews were conducted faceto-face and were recorded for further interpretation and investigation. The interviews were carried out after the participants had finished their third teaching practice session. It was the time when the student teachers began to recognize their strengths and weakness in classroom management. There are two different versions for two groups of direct participants: student teachers and their supervisors. Through the interviews for the student teachers, the researcher aims at elaborating on the causes of and solutions to the classroom management they reported to encounter in the survey questionnaires. The design of this interview was adapted from the Interview Schedule in “Graduation Paper: Classroom Management Skills among Fourth Year Students (English Department, ULIS-VNU) During Their Teaching Practice” by Vo, T.T. (2009). The other version of the interviews is for the supervising teachers. Data and information collected from these interviews were the supervising teachers’ evaluation of the teacher trainees’

performance during the 3 teaching sessions; their explanation on the causes of and solutions for any of the difficulties the trainees encountered in managing the class. The design of this interview version is correspondingly divided into two parts. 3.2.3.2. Interview procedure Before the teaching practicum started, the researcher contacted all the teacher trainees and the supervising teachers to ask for their permission to conduct interviews with them. After the third teaching round, the researcher made an appointment with the trainees and their supervisors to carry out the interviews. Since each mentoring teacher had a checklist to evaluate each student teacher’s performance in each session so they relied on that checklist to answer the researchers’ questions. Meanwhile, the pre-service teachers, after teaching three sessions, began to recognize clearly their strengths and weaknesses in managing the classroom. The data collected from the interviews help answer the two questions: • What are the causes of such problems as perceived by those students and as suggested by their supervising teachers? • What are solutions to such problems as suggested by those students and their supervising teachers? 3.3. Data analysis First, the answers of the participants in the questionnaires were converted into numbers and calculated. These coded data were then illustrated in charts and

graphs, which demonstrated the level of difficulty of each classroom management skill and the frequency of classroom management problems the student teachers encountered during their teaching practice. Meanwhile, the researcher’ observation notes were analyzed to discover the most noticeable problems. Based on the videos, the problems that could not be ruled out from the questionnaires and could not be found from the researcher’ notes were presented in text form. Whereas, all the recorded interviews were transcribed and the ideas were synthesized to find out the causes and solutions to the teacher trainees’ classroom management problems. Finally, the collected data was classified according to the four research questions. In general, the data gathered from the pre-service teachers are to answer part of the four research questions, whereas the supervising teachers’ responses would help to add further information to the last three questions. ***** In summary, this chapter has justified the methodology applied in this paper by elaborating on the groups of participants involved in the process of data collection, namely the student teachers, their mentors and the students from 4 classes. Next, the triangulation data collection method was also justified and described in details. Such justifications of the methodology would help make way for the analysis of the collected data in the next chapter.

Chapter 4 - RESULTS AND DISCUSSION In the previous chapter, the methodology employed in the study has been clarified with descriptions and justifications of the choice of participants, the instruments as well as the process of collecting and analyzing data. In this chapter, the collected data will be analyzed and discussed. 4.1. Teacher trainees’ perceptions of their classroom management problems during the teaching practicum The answer to the first research question was collected through the first question of the questionnaires. In this questionnaire, respondents were required to rate the difficulty level of each classroom management skill. The data were illustrated by figure 7. In general, all the rated skills can be divided into two groups based on the difficulty level with 5 points for “very difficult”, 4 points for “difficult”, 3 points for “neutral”, 2 points for “easy” and 1 point for “very easy”. The upper ranking group consists of time management at 32 points, followed by checking understanding and motivating students with 30 points for each. The next positions go to giving instructions, using non-verbal communication, giving feedback and dealing with disruptive behaviors at correspondingly 29, 27, 26 and 25 points. Only one point less than dealing with students’ misbehavior is using blackboard. On the lower half, keeping eye-contact sits at the top position. Ranking at the bottom of the scale

are using voice, monitoring, forming group and positioning and moving at consecutively 18, 17, 16 and 15. The most striking feature of the chart is that time management was considered the most difficult skill while positioning and moving the least challenging. Moreover,
40

30

20

10

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 Frequency Difficulty level

most of the skills ranking low at the difficulty scale are the sub-skills of the space management skill, namely forming groups, positioning and moving, using blackboard, keeping eye-contact and using voice.
Figure 7 - The level of difficulty and frequency of classroom management problems

1-Managing time 2-Forming groups 3-Positioning & moving 4-Using non-verbal communication 5-Using blackboard 6-Keeping eye-contact

7-Using voice 8- Giving & checking instructions 9-Checking understanding 10-Monitoring 11-Dealing with students’ behavior 12-Giving feedback 13-Motivating students

The researcher also asked the participants to rate the frequency they encountered classroom management problems during the teaching practice. In the questionnaire, the frequency was ranging from never to usually. To make it easier to interpret the result, these frequencies were then converted into points, namely 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5, correspondingly to never, rarely, sometimes, often and always. The findings were presented on the line chart. As shown on the chart, problems with checking for understanding, motivating students, using non-verbal communication and using eye-contact occurred most frequently. Using blackboard, dealing with students’ behavior and giving feedback were rated next on the frequency of problem encounter. The management aspects that student teachers did not often have difficulty in are forming groups, positioning and moving, using voice and monitoring. It is noteworthy that the problems reported to occur most frequently are related to the skills classified as difficult based on the data collected from question 1, namely time management, checking understanding, motivating students, giving and checking instructions and using non-verbal communication. Similarly, problems with skills considered less challenging such as forming groups, positioning and moving were reported to occur less frequently. In brief, the skills of managing time, checking understanding, motivating students, giving and checking instructions and using non-verbal communication were perceived to be most challenging by the studied teacher trainees during their practicum. The research of Vo (2009) also discovered that 4th year students at FELTE, ULIS-VNU reported managing time, motivating students and giving and checking instructions to be most difficult during their teaching practice at a high school. However, Vo did not study the comprehension checking skill. Therefore, the paper is anticipated to shine more light on the issue.

4.2. Classroom management problems, causes and solutions This part is dedicated to elaborate on the classroom management problems the studied student teachers encountered during their teaching practicum as pointed out by their mentors and as observed by the author. The causes and solutions to such problems as perceived by the trainee teachers themselves and as suggested by their supervising teachers are also presented in details. In general, the trainee teachers had difficulty in time management; instruction giving and checking; comprehension checking; monitoring and dealing with disruptive behaviors. Though there is still room for further improvement, the other skills of arranging students’ seating, using blackboard; positioning and moving; projecting voice; giving feedback and motivating students were assessed by the mentoring teachers and observed by the researcher as “ok” or “without big problems”. 4.2.1. Time management 4.2.1.1. Problems 4.2.1.1.1. Exceeding time limit As observed by the author and pointed out by the supervising teachers, exceeding time limit is the most serious problem student teachers were faced with during their teaching practice. In fact, this problem occurred in nearly 83.3% of all the lessons videotaped and was reported by 75% of the student teachers during the post-teaching interviews. The major trend is the participants did not seem to be aware that they were running out of time, which leads to the following reactions and behaviors.

They cut down on the follow-up activities or the summaries of the lesson. Video 15, 17, 21 and 23 show very clearly that in order to finish the lesson on time, the teacher trainees stopped the activities right after the main practice. They even dismissed the students without summarizing the main contents or checking whether the students had understood the lesson and had any questions. Meanwhile, all the supervising teachers emphasized that having a short summary at the end of each lesson is very important since it helps students remember the contents of the lesson more clearly and systematically. Also, “checking whether the students have anything unclear enables teachers to provide immediate correction and explanation” (supervising teacher C). They also reduced the amount of time allocated for the while-tasks. For example, in the last listening activity filmed in video 1, the teacher just gave out the answers without eliciting the students’ explanations. Video 5 also depicts that the teacher did not have enough time to call some groups to deliver their presentations so she moved on to another activity right after letting students have some time discussing among themselves in separate groups. Similarly, the teacher in video 12 did not have enough time to have some groups to give their presentations so she just called one group to do the task. It is noteworthy that the amount of time cut down on these activities is mostly the students’ talking time when the students are showing the teachers how successful they are in achieving the goals of the activities. In other words, by cutting down on the students’ talking time in the while-tasks, the studied student teachers cut down on the amount of engaged time, which in turn results in the decrease in the amount of academic learning time. Meanwhile, maximizing academic learning time when the learners spend actively being engaged in tasks that are likely to produce learning outcomes at a high level of

success is one of the goals that teachers are supposed to aim at (Caldwell, Huitt, and Graeber, 1982; Berliner, 1984, as cited in “Chapter 2”, n.d; McLeod et al 2003). In some cases, the student teachers even left out a main activity of the lesson. For instance, the teacher in video 16 had to omit the last speaking activities since the two previous ones took up too much time. Similarly, the teacher in video 24 just stopped the lesson after two reading activities without having enough time to carry out the last one. As a result, these teachers failed to achieve the learning goals set out in the lesson plans. In brief, regarding the problem of exceeding time, the student teachers were not really aware that they were running out of time until the last few minutes. Consequently, they often had reactions that were considered inappropriate by their supervising teachers. 4.2.1.1.2. Dividing time illogically Another problem the teacher trainees encountered when managing time in the class is dividing time illogically. Logical time division refers to the effective time allocation for each part of the lesson (Vo, 2009). As pointed out by the mentoring teachers and observed by the author, the teacher trainees often had the following weaknesses. First, they allocated time inappropriately between different activities in a task. For instance, the teacher in video 13 spent nearly 12 minutes on the pre-task but only 5

minutes on the main task which includes both the time for students to do a reading exercise of 600 words and the correction. Also, they divided time illogically between different activities in the lesson. The most obvious mistake is that they spent “too much time on the warm-up activities while having no or little time left for the follow-up discussion” (supervising teacher B). In fact, this problem is featured in 87.5% of all the lessons videotaped. Normally, they spent more than 20% of the time of the whole lesson on the warmups. Most noticeably, the teacher trainees did not seem too aware of this problem since none of them reported on this issue in the interviews. 4.2.1.2. Causes Both the student teachers and their mentors proposed many reasons explaining for the above-mentioned problems. First, the teachers often estimated inaccurately the students’ ability which refers to the fact that teacher trainees did not have sufficient knowledge of the students’ academic competence. As a result, the activities designed or the type and amount of information transmitted to the students did not really suit them. In fact, all the mentors pointed out that the student teachers did overestimate the students’ ability and 75% of them reported the same problem during the interviews. As a result, they tended to plan too many activities in a lesson, introduced too much knowledge to the students at a time or spent little time for students to carry out a task that they considered easy. That’s why, they had to spend much time explaining the subject matters again to the students or allocated more time on a certain activity, which results in the violation of time of others.

Discussing this issue, Kagan (1992, as cited in Vo, 2009, p. 41), also stated that pre-service teachers have “inadequate knowledge of pupils and classroom procedure”. Moreover, the teacher trainees often wasted much time on noninstructional activities as cleaning the board, checking attendance or delivering handouts. The videos show that they normally spent about 20% of the lesson time carrying out such tasks. 4.2.1.3. Solutions Respondents to the interviews proposed many workable solutions to the problems with time management. First, all of the student teachers agreed that when time was running out, it is advisable that the teachers should focus on the main activities of the lesson and skip or omit the ones that are not as important such as the followups or the transition parts between activities. Student interviewee B emphasized that “teachers should set priority and concentrate on the tasks more related to the learning goals of the lesson”. The supervising teachers also suggested that teachers might be flexible in cutting down on such activities as follow-ups or lead-ins when time was running out. However, they believed that the best solution to the problem is to have a detailed and thorough lesson plan. In this lesson plan, student teachers should anticipate all the unexpected problems that may occur including the situation of exceeding time. To be more specific, they should plan more activities with different purposes and duration than needed so that they can choose the most appropriate one in the situation of lacking time. Also, they can have some optional activities in reserve. Besides, a detailed and thorough lesson plan can assist the student teachers in allocating the time for each activity more logically. With all the activities mapped out in the lesson plan, student teachers can put them into consideration to decide the time allocated on each activity on the basic of its

content, its level of difficulty, its purposes, the student levels and the classroom settings as well. Emphasizing the importance of having a detailed lesson plan, Harmer (2001, as cited in Vo, p.42) stated that a thorough lesson plan helps teachers manage class better as when planning lesson plans teachers have to anticipate unexpected problems. Finally, the mentors suggested that the student teachers let the students “take responsibility for some certain non-instructional tasks” (mentor C) like checking attendance, delivering handouts or cleaning the board. In this way, the student teachers can save a lot of time and students will feel more engaged and motivated in the learning. 4.2.2. Instruction giving and checking 4.2.2.1. Problems The most common problem of the participants related to the skill of giving instruction discovered by the author is lengthy and complicated instructions. When interviewed, 87.5% of the teacher trainees were reported to give lengthy and complicated instructions by their supervising teachers while 75% of them confessed they encountered such a problem. For example, in a reading activity filmed in video 2, the teacher gave out the following instructions: “Now the topic today is about human body and health so I have a quiz about body parts like hair, nose, eye, ok? And now let’s take an example. If I a chosen one. Đầu tiên chị sẽ lấy ví dụ nhé. Nào giả dụ bây giờ chị sẽ phát cho mỗi người một tờ. And you, all of you will read it in silence. Don’t let others know the content of the paper. For example, in this not “you use this thing to write”. What’s the part that you use to write? Your part in the body. Hand, ok? So if I were her, I will stand in front of the class. I can use words,

I can use movement. Non-verbal or verbal. Có thể dùng lời, hoặc dùng động tác uốn éo. For example, in this case, I can do like this and you can guess it. But there is one rule, one golden rule. Don’t just state the sentence in here. Không được lặp lại chính xác cụm từ này. Em có thể dùng words, giả dụ như là... Does it sound easy to you?” The teacher in video 3 also encountered the same problem when giving instruction to a speaking activity. The instructions go as follows. “I have here telephone calls and actually it is the situation when someone is calling someone else. And we have the caller for C, and receiver for R. And in each telephone call, we need a caller and we need a receiver. It is very easy because our class has already been divided into two sides. So one side will be either the caller or the receiver. Let’s take situation no 1. Ok, this is how we are going to practice. In these pieces of paper, I have what the caller will say in the telephone call and theses are what the receiver will talk. And I will deliver each of you from one side, from this side one piece of paper so. And this side, each of you also one. You are the callers and you are the receivers. Then after that you will have three minutes to prepare depending on these details on these papers. 3 minutes to prepare what you are going to say. After 3 minutes, I will pick randomly one from each side. Ok? And of course you will have a caller and a receiver. Are you clear about what you are going to do? Yes, ok!” Another example is the instructions of the teacher in video 7 given to students on a listening lesson.

“The rule of the game is like this. Pay attention to the rule of the game. You will be lining in a line, you will be queuing in a line. One after another. Ok! So I’ll be number one, you number two <pointing at one student>, T number 3 <pointing at one student>, so in a line. And four groups, ok? I’ll give you a set of abbreviations. Something like this “ban dag lam ji?”. Are you used to this kind of text messages? Ok, so that’s Vietnamese. And now we will play a game with English abbreviations. So each of the groups will have a set of abbreviations. And I will be, you will be queuing in a line. So the two of you, the two at the last, the two last person will be in charge of finding the abbreviations. I will pronounce the word, for example I will pronounce the word and the two last people standing at the last of the queue will find out the abbreviation for the word I have pronounced, ok? And then you will have to pass the word to each person. For example, number 2 pass to number 3, number 3 pass to number 2, number 2 pass to number 1 and number 1 has to go here <referring to the blackboard> to stick the word on the paper. Understand that? Ok, so don’t worry. If you don’t understand, we will have an example, ok?” All of these lengthy instructions have some features in common. First, they are often in the form of long sentences with most words in the full forms, “I will pronounce the word, for example I will pronounce the word and the two last people standing at the last of the queue will find out the abbreviation for the word I have pronounced, ok?” or “In these pieces of paper, I have what the caller will say in the telephone call and theses are what the receiver will talk.” for example. Meanwhile, supervising D argued that teachers should avoid using long sentences in giving instructions. Instructions should be in short and powerful imperatives which not only show the authority of the teachers but also help students remember.

Also, these instructions contain a lot of obvious information that does not need to be included. For instance, “I have here telephone calls and actually it is the situation when someone is calling someone else.” In addition, these instructions are not really well-organized. The student teachers repeated himself many times, which is unfortunately not for the sake of emphasis and when they did not finish explaining about one thing, they moved on to another and then come back to the previous after all. For example, “I have here telephone calls and actually it is the situation when someone is calling someone else. And we have the caller for C, and receiver for R. And in each telephone call, we need a caller and we need a receiver.” Another problem teacher trainees have with giving instructions during their teaching practicum is they spent too much time explaining to the students what they were required to do. In the interviews, 62.5% the interviewees stated that they sometimes wasted a lot of time instructing the students. As observed by the author, they spent an average of one-fifth of the total time of an activity giving instructions. In many cases, the amount of time spent on instructions was greater. For example, it took the teacher in video 14 nearly 9 minutes to give instructions and demonstrate the activity while the main activity only lasted for 3 minutes. Or, the teacher in video 5 wasted 7 minutes instructing the students to do a discussion activity. The bottom-line is, the more the teachers explained, the more confused the students seemed to be. Moreover, the teacher trainees also have the problem of giving instructions at appropriate times. For most of the cases, the teachers gave instruction after they passed the handouts so the students concentrated on reading the handouts more. In other cases, the teachers gave more instructions when the students were almost

finished the activity so they had already conducted the task in a different way from the teachers’ expectation. Lastly, in many cases, the student teachers forgot to check whether the students had understood what they are supposed to do after giving instructions or they just raised such questions as “Ok?”, “Are you clear?” or “Got it” to answer by themselves or just for the sake of asking. In fact, 62.5% of them admitted to have had such a problem. 4.2.2.2. Causes and solutions The most common reason suggested by the teacher trainees themselves and their supervising teachers for the problems they have with giving and checking instruction is the lack of preparation. When interviewed, 87.5% of the participants stated that actually they had not paid appropriate attention to the issue. Before the class, they mostly specified what to do in each activity without planning what to say in the instructions of that activity. Also, they did not have a clear knowledge of the students’ language proficiency so it took them much time to explain to the students the unnecessary things they assumed to be difficult. The solution is to have a detailed script of what the teachers should say and do to instruct students. In this way, they can plan the most effective instructions which satisfy the following criteria. First and foremost, the instructions should be short and concise. Supervising teacher C emphasized that teachers should avoid long sentences with too many indicators of who is speaking and who is listening, “I will” or “You will” for example. Instead, the instructions could be in the form of short phrases or expressions or imperatives. Supervising teacher E also advocated

this idea when she elaborated that short phrases or imperatives not only help students understand and remember the instructions better but also indicate the teacher’s authority in the class. Besides, it is advisable that teachers should use signpost words “first”, “second” to help distinguish between different steps in the task and to repeat key information if necessary. Second, teachers should use visuals or written cues to aid students’ understanding. Mentors A and B both argued that when students can hear and see what they are required to do they will remember and understand the instructions much more quickly. In a well-equipped classroom, teachers may show the instructions on the PowerPoint slides. Otherwise, they may consider having the instructions written out on pieces of papers. Third, mentors A advised that if possible, the teachers show the class what to do by modeling or demonstrating. They can demonstrate the activity themselves or ask the students to join in under their guidance. Normally, the students comprehend the instructions better when they can see what they have to do. Furthermore, it is of great importance to deliver the instructions at appropriate time. The teachers need to make sure that when they give instructions all the students are attentive. They can do this by using signals like “listen” accompanied by a clap of their hands to signal to the students for the students’ attention. Supervising teacher D added that if the activity consists of different steps with different instructions, teachers should break the instructions into segments to deliver one by one or they can give only some of the instructions and allow time for them to be conducted before moving on to another. For example, if the activity requires reading before discussion or changing the seats before a role-play, it is better to give the instructions and make changes before going on to assign the roles and give further instructions about what they are supposed to say or do.

Another important point teachers should bear in mind is they need to check whether the students have understood the instructions or not. Mentoring teacher D said that “don’t assume anything” and it is not enough for the teachers to ask such questions as “Have you understood?” or “Clear?” These questions, in her opinion, are “imposing” and normally students will answer “yes” for fear of losing face. A better way of checking instructions is to ask the students to re-explain to you what they are required to do. If the students forget some part of the instructions, teachers can assist them with some cues or re-explanation. 4.2.3. Checking understanding 4.2.3.1. Problems From the observation of the researcher, when posing questions, teacher trainees did not allow their students appropriate time to digest the information and formulate the answer. In 66.7% of all the lessons videotaped, students were given no more than one second to respond to questions posed by the teachers. Such observation is supported by Stahl’s findings in “Using “Wait Time” and “Think Time” Skillfully in the Classroom” (2005). Stahl estimated that a teacher normally pauses on an average of 0.7 to 1.4 seconds after his/her questions before allowing the students to respond. Meanwhile, Rowe (1986, as cited in Fisher & Frey, 2007, p.39) proved that three to five seconds is the most ideal amount of wait time during which students can take in information and form the response. Due to the lack of wait time, the students could only recall short information or they gave no answer at all instead of giving detailed and insightful answers. To illustrate his point in a speaking lesson, teacher trainee D asked the students to express their opinions about the issue of the conflict between parents and teenagers in a reading text. She did not wait more than two seconds to call the first student to answer. Due to the

lack of time to brainstorm, of background knowledge and of language input, the student’ answer was “I think there is a conflict between Bill and his father. Bill wants to become a ballet dancer but his father wants him to be a boxer.” which is merely the short summary of the reading text. Similarly, other students could only give very short and poorly supported opinions. The bottom-line is when students cannot answer teachers’ questions or cannot give satisfactory answers, they often feel discouraged and hesitant to raise their voice again. In fact, as observed by the researcher, the first student called to answer the aforementioned question seemed to become quite shy and inactive in other activities after the “incident” happened. Another problem student teachers encountered when checking the students’ understanding is the lack of authentic questions which are defined by Fisher and Frey (2007) as “questions that engage students in deeper thinking and not merely prompt them to recall information that they have read or been told” (p.42). From the observation of the researcher, student teachers often failed to put ‘good’ questions. Mostly, they posed display questions such as “What does...mean?”, “When do we use ...?” or “What is next?” which only required the students to recall the information or knowledge that they had just been taught. Also, they tended to overuse Yes/No questions that are not likely to elicit a true or helpful response. In 50% of all the speaking lessons videotaped, teacher trainees used such questions as “Do you understand?”, “Clear?”, “Ok?” or “Got it?” to check whether the students had understood the instructions or guidelines of an activity. While, they raised questions like “Do you know the meaning of...?”, “Do you know what does... stand for?” or “Do you know what does... mean?” to check students’ understanding of new vocabulary in 50% of all the reading lessons filmed. However, according to Burden (2003, as cited in Bond, 2007, p.19) and supervising teacher C, students are afraid of making mistakes and losing their face

so for such questions they often give the answer “Yes” even though they may not thoroughly understand the point. The teacher trainees, therefore, could not know what the students were really getting out of the lesson. Besides, the student teachers often failed to call on different students when raising questions. As observed by the researcher, they mostly concentrated on the action zone where the students are most active and attentive (Adam & Biddle, as cited in Savage & Savage, 2010). Yet, students seating in that spot are just the minority. When the teachers focused only on that area they could not assure that the majority of the students have understood the contents of the lesson. Moreover, the students who are not called upon will have the feeling of being ignored, which results in a decrease in their learning motivation and an increase in disruptive behaviors such as having private talks or falling to sleep. They are also less engaged in thinking. In fact, as observed by the researchers, students who were rarely called upon seemed to be quite sleepy and bored. 4.2.3.2. Causes and solutions When interviewed, all the teacher trainees reported that they were constantly under time pressure. During the class time, they were “always in a rush to conduct and complete all the planned activities” so they tried to “speed up and cut down on unimportant activities” (teacher trainee H). In the researcher’s viewpoint, student teachers might assume that it was unnecessary to wait for a while after posing the questions to the students so they often cut down on the wait time to save time for other activities. Such a false assumption may be attributed to the students’ lack of awareness of the importance of the wait time. According to Jones and Jones (2004, as cited in Bond, 2007, p.20) to answer a question, average learners need to complete four mental steps in their mind. The students must first hear the question

and decide whether they understand it or not. Second, they must recall the information from their memories needed for the answer. Then they consider whether their answer will be accepted and lastly they must anticipate the teacher’s reactions to their answer. Understanding this process, teacher trainees in particular and teachers in general should allow the student sufficient wait time after posing a question. In fact, Rowe (1986, as cited in Bond, 2007, p.20) proved that when teachers increase the amount of wait time, the length and correctness of the students’ responses increase while the number of “I don’t know” answer decreases The responses reflect deeper thinking and the number of students volunteering to answer greatly increases. After studying the student teachers’ lesson plans, the researcher could conclude that the reason they could not generate authentic questions is because they did not write out the questions in the lesson plan. Normally, they produced them extemporaneously during the lesson. This lack of preparation led to vague questions that did not engage students in high quality thinking and reflection. The suggested solution is that student teachers should plan carefully what they need to ask the students to check their comprehension. When designing the questions, supervising teacher D suggested that they should consider employing an organization structure such as Bloom’s (1956) taxonomy. This taxonomy presents different ways of classifying information and knowledge, from which different questions directed at gathering a specific type are listed. Teacher trainees may use this taxonomy to develop questions representing the range of knowledge taught in the classroom. Besides, supervising teacher D advised them to have a balance between display questions and referential questions that require the students to provide information, express opinions or give explanation.

Level Knowledge: recall data or information

Key Words

Prompts

Define, describe, identify, know, Where is ... label, list, match, name, outline, What did ... recall, recognize, reproduce, Who was ... select, state When did ... How many ... Locate it in the story ... Point to the ...

Comprehension: understand Comprehend, convert, defend, the meaning, translation, distinguish, estimate, explain, interpolation and extend, generalize, give interpretation of instructions examples of, infer, interpret, and problems paraphrase, predict, rewrite, summarize, translate

Tell me in your own words ... What does it mean ... Give me an example of ... Describe what ... Illustrate the part of the story that ... Make a map of ... What is the main idea of ... Application: use a concept Apply, change, compute, What would happen to you if . . . in a new situation or construct, demonstrate, discover, Would you have done the same unprompted use of an manipulate, modify, operate, as . . . abstraction predict, prepare, produce, relate, If you were there, would you . . . show, solve, use How would you solve the problem . . . In the library, find information about . . . Analysis: Separate material or concepts into component parts so that its organizational structure may be understood. Analyze, break down, compare, contrast, diagram, deconstruct, differentiate, discriminate, distinguish, identify, illustrate, infer, outline, relate, select, separate What things would you have used . . . What other ways could . . . What things are similar/different? What part of this story was the most exciting? What things couldn’t have happened in real life? What kind of person is . . . What caused _______ to act the way he/she did?

Level Synthesis: Build a structure or pattern from diverse elements. Put parts together to form a whole, with emphasis on creating a new meaning or structure.

Key Words Categorize, combine, compile, compose, create, devise, design, explain, generate, modify, organize, plan, rearrange, reconstruct, relate, reorganize, revise, rewrite, summarize, tell, write

Prompts What would it be like if . . . What would it be like to live . . . Design a . . . Pretend you are a . . . What would have happened if . . . Why/why not? Use your imagination to draw a picture of . . . Add a new item on your own . . . Tell/write a different ending . . . Would you recommend this book? Why or why not? Select the best . . . Why is it the best? What do you think will happen to . . . Why do you think that? Could this story really have happened? Which character would you most like to meet? Was _____ good or bad? Why? Did you like the story? Why?

Evaluation: Make Appraise, compare, conclude, judgments about the value contrast, criticize, critique, of ideas or materials. defend, describe, discriminate, evaluate, explain, interpret, justify, relate, summarize, support

Figure 8 - Bloom’s Taxonomy
From Checking for Understanding - Formative Assessment Techniques for Your Classroom (p. 44-45) by Fisher. D. and Frey. N., 2007. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.

One of the reasons why student teachers called mostly students in the action zone to answer their questions is, as explained by student teacher H, they were more “attracted” to those students than others. Students in this spot were normally more active and involved in the activities. As a result, student teachers tended to focus more on these students. Whereas, supervising teacher D advised the teacher trainees to call upon a variety of students. According to her, the elements of

surprise and uncertainty help maintain the students’ attention during the whole lesson. The teacher trainees can do this by extending their viewing range to include as many students as possible in the “calling range” and call upon them randomly. One tip is that they should not preface a question with a student’s name, “Hoa, can you tell the class how you understand this sentence?” for example. The moment, teachers call a student’s name, other students tend to stop thinking since they are convinced that that person will answer the question, not them. Instead, teachers should pose the question to the whole class first then call upon some certain students if no one volunteers to answer. In this way, more students are engaged in thinking since they do not know upon whom the teacher will call. 4.2.4. Monitoring 4.2.4.1. Problem The most noticeable monitoring problem the teacher trainees were faced with is that students are likely use their mother tongue instead of English in group-work. The issue is much more serious in speaking classes when all the student teachers were observed to be unsuccessful in making the students discuss in English. Whenever the students were under supervision they used English but when the teachers moved away they immediately tuned to their native language Vietnamese. From the observation of the researchers, the problem occurred in every speaking lesson and in listening and reading lessons as well whenever there involved pair or group discussion. 4.2.4.2. Causes and solutions

In order to encourage the students to use English more, it is necessary that student teachers should understand why the students often refer back to their mother tongue in discussion. According to mentors A, B, D some of the reasons are: • Because the students do not have the sufficient input of knowledge and language to express themselves in English so it is easier for them to tune to their mother tongue. • Because the students are afraid to make mistakes in front of the whole class. • Because the students may not feel comfortable when speaking English and their use of native language is still their instinct in discussion. • Because students follow each other to use Vietnamese. These teachers also suggested some solutions to the problem. First, teachers should move around to supervise the class more frequently so that the groups do not have the chance to switch back to Vietnamese. If necessary, assign someone in the group to be the “language monitor” (mentor D) whose task is to make sure English is used in the group. Second, it is of great momentum to create a learning environment where it is natural to use English, not special or frightening. In fact, in “Leaning Teaching”, Scrivener (2005) recommended the same thing when dealing with students’ using a lot of their mother tongue in class with specific ideas to consider: • Use lots of listening materials for bathing in English. • Put English-language posters on the walls. • Have short, clearly demarcated sections of the lesson when English is the first language, at other times, other languages are possible.

• Discuss the purposes of the activity or task with the students to make them realize and understand why it is important to use English. • Respond positively to every effort to use English. • Spend a lot of time on fluency practice without correction. Besides, mentors may consider providing students with some input of the language and knowledge of the subject matter so they are not at a loss for words or ideas. 4.2.5. Dealing with disruptive behaviors 4.2.5.1. Problems During the interviews, the types of misbehaviors reported by the interviewees are noisy students, domineering students and challengers to teachers’ authority. In their opinion, noisy students are those who held side conversations while doing group work or listening to the teacher lecturing or who used mobile phones or suddenly made loud noises in class. 37.5% of the student teachers admitted that they failed to deal with such behavior. At first, the teachers tried to quiet the class by saying “Silent, please!” or use hand signals, which proved to be quite effective. Yet, the next times, students seemed to grow “resistant” (teacher trainee A) to such methods. Meanwhile, challengers to teachers’ authority are “uncooperative ones” (teacher trainee D) who made the habit of disagreeing with or questioned what the teachers said. They also challenged the teachers’ authority implicitly like remaining silent during groupwork, not trying to do a task at 100% of their capability or not raising

their voice while they knew the answer. Although only 25% of the teachers are confronted with such disruptive behaviors, all of them were at a loss what to do. Domineering students were meant by those who were most talkative in the group, who always wanted to share their ideas and opinions at the expense of others’. Normally, “these students were not aware that their behaviors were annoying and disruptive” (mentor B). 100% of the teachers had no idea about how to manage such behaviors. Majority of the students were quite shy and hesitant in raising their voice. If the student teachers had not called upon the domineering students, there would not have been many interactions between teachers and students. 4.2.5.2. Causes Suggested by the mentoring teachers, the main reason why such misbehaviors occurred is the teacher trainees did not show the students their position and authority in the class. First year students, explained by supervising teacher A, are very sensitive to teachers’ actions and behaviors. They can sense “whether the teachers are confident or skillful enough in teaching and managing the classroom”. Therefore, some of the teachers’ behaviors such as “lack of eye contact”, “lack of confidence”, and “lack of contact withes students outside the classroom” may attribute to the students’ lack of respect and discipline. In fact, these behaviors were also proposed by Scrivener (2005) as the reasons why teachers cannot show their presence in class. Lack of sufficient eye contact and attention. In general, the teacher trainees had very good eye contact when they tried to cover as many students in their viewing range as possible. However, when a student or a group of students are talking or

delivering a speech, they tended to “focus mainly on these individuals while ignoring the rest of the class” (supervising teacher B). In this way, they could not notice the signs of unrest in the class and the students who were going to commit disruptive behaviors might feel that they were unlikely to be caught. Therefore, teachers should sometimes take a glance at the rest of the class to maintain discipline and signal them to pay attention to the speaking ones. Lack of confidence. Students “show more respect and have more trust in teachers who appear to be confident of themselves and the subject matter they are teaching” (supervising teacher B). They can normally sense whether the teachers are confident or not by judging the teachers’ voice, posture, gestures or the way they answer the students’ questions. Therefore, experienced teachers who may not know the subject thoroughly but know how to disguise that fact effectively still manage to turn the lecture into “a shared learning journey” (Scrivener, 2005, p. 85). However, teacher trainees are not experienced and skillful enough in “disguising their lack of confidence” (supervising teacher E), which results in the lack of trust in and respect from the students for them. Lack of contact with students outside the classroom. Different from those who had their practicum at high schools, teacher trainees at English Division 1, FELTE, ULIS-VNU, were not required to be met up with the students often. Most of them met the students only once a week during the teaching periods and had little contact with them outside the classroom. Even the form teacher practice content of publishing an e-magazine did not involve much face-to-face communication since “most of the work can be done online or via emails” (student teacher E). In addition , the teacher trainees themselves neither felt it necessary nor could manage time to hang out with the students to get to know them better. “The students are

mostly from different provinces and they often go home right after Friday’s last period so we could not make it to get together.” explained teacher trainee G. Only teacher A and D reported to have correspondence with some students via emails for a few times. As a result, teachers did not have an opportunity to build up a close relationship with large groups of students. For them, teacher trainees were simply those who came to their class at a certain time of the week, which resulted in the lack of trust and understanding. Students find it hard to cooperate with those who do not show interest in and care for them. 4.2.5.3. Solutions When dealing with noisy students, supervising teachers B and C both suggested that student teachers should avoid direct confrontation and approaches that lead to the students losing face or student challenging the teacher’s authority like reprimand. Sharing the same opinion, Scrivener (2005) elaborated on the strategy with some techniques as follows. • Stop talking in mid-sentence and look in a non-aggressive way at the student making the noise. Peer pressure may quieten them. • Try speaking more quietly, which causes the noisy students to become more obvious in contrast and other students may ask them to quieten down. • Make direct eye-contact with the students so that they know they are watched. • Direct a question to the area where the noisy students are sitting to focus attention on that area of the class. • Try physically moving to the area of the room where the students are and continue to lead the class while standing next to them.

• If you hear a students make an interesting comment, you could respond to it, thereby encouraging comments from other students. • Consider legitimizing the chatting by breaking the class into mini-discussion groups. Similarly, the best way to deal with those who challenge teachers’ authority is not to get furious or approach them in a manner that creates more opportunities for them to question the teacher’s authority. If the disruptive behavior is minor such as anonymous complaint of the assigned workload, “teachers may pretend that nothing is going on to maintain the flow of the lesson” (student teacher A). If the students disagree with everything the teachers say, they should consider “recognizing the students’ opinions, and turning the argument between them and the students into a class discussion so that frictions can be minimized” (supervising teacher D). If the misbehaviors are serious, it is advisable that teachers should arrange a meeting to discuss the issues with the students out of the class time. In brief, supervising teacher D emphasized that teachers should always try to discover the main reasons behind the students’ misbehaviors before imposing any ideas or punishments on them. Lastly, managing domineering students requires teachers to be very tactful. Explained by mentoring teacher B, the fact that they constantly raise their voice means they are interested in the lesson. If the teachers do not find solutions to “calm down” these students, others will feel bored and discouraged for not having the chance to raise their voice and for not being paid proper attention to. Shy students who are always hesitant in expressing their opinions will become more hesitant when comparing themselves with domineering students. However, teachers should be aware that most of the time the domineering students “do not

recognize that by dominating most of the talking they are affecting and hindering the contributions and learning of others” (mentoring teacher A). Therefore, teachers should not approach the issue by ignoring these students since “they will feel hurt and embarrassed and will very probably turn into silent students or challengers to teachers’ authority” (student teacher A). The best way to deal with domineering students, as suggested by mentoring teacher B and C, by student teacher A and also by Scrivener (2005), is to ask these students to become the monitor of the group whose main task is to ensure that everyone has a chance to speak up and raise their voice. In this way, domineering students have to reduce their talking time and can help teachers encourage other members to talk more. In class discussion, teachers should not make much eye contact with or direct much attention to where the domineering students are seated but to other places to indicate that they are expecting other students to raise their opinions. If the student “persists in dominating the discussion, summarize their point and ask others to speak, or indicate that you are ready to move on by starting to prepare for the next activity” (Scrivener, 2005, p.89). ***** In summary, the whole chapter has provided consecutively answers to each of the research questions via a thorough analysis and discussion of the collected data. The major findings would be summarized in details in the conclusion as the final chapter of the study.

Chapter 5 - CONCLUSION The previous chapters have thoroughly elaborated on the introductions, literature review as well as the implementation and results of the research. Finally, this concluding chapter will summarize and evaluate the outcomes of the whole paper by summing up and discussing the findings, presenting the contributions along with the limitations of the paper, and putting forwards suggestions for further studies. 5.1. Major findings of the research On the whole, the research performs as a fairly comprehensive study on the causes of and solutions to the problems student teachers met with during their teaching practice in English Division 1, FELTE, ULIS-VNU. Through in-depth analysis and discussion of data collected from questionnaires, interviews and classroom observation, key findings concerning the research questions were revealed as follows. First, from their own perspective, student teachers participating in the study rated time management, giving and checking instructions, using non-verbal communication, using blackboard, checking comprehension, motivating students, giving feedback and dealing with misbehaviors as difficult management skills. Meanwhile, the skills of forming groups, positioning and moving around, keeping eye-contact, using voice and monitoring were considered less challenging. The participants also reported that during the practicum, they had problems with the skills considered difficult more often than the less challenging ones.

However, from the observation of the researcher and the mentoring teachers, during the practicum, they did not encounter serious problems with some of the skills they reported they had. To be more specific, they did quite a good job in giving feedback, in motivating the students and in managing classroom space which includes forming groups, using blackboard, using non-verbal communication, projecting voice, keeping eye-contact as well as positioning and moving around. Among these skills, using blackboard, establishing non-verbal communication, giving feedback and motivating students had been regarded as problematic to them. In fact, as observed by the researchers as well as the mentoring teachers, the skills they have problems with most were time management, giving and checking instructions, checking understanding, monitoring and dealing with disruptive behaviors. Except for the overestimation of their monitoring ability, all the teacher trainees participating in the research seemed to be aware of their weaknesses in managing the classroom. To be more specific, they were not successful in managing the classroom time when 75% of them in 83.3% of the lessons videotaped exceeded the time limit. The major trend is that they were not aware that the time was up until the last minutes, which led to many “inappropriate reactions” such as cutting down on the students’ talking time, skipping the summary of the lessons or omitting a main activity. They also allocated time illogically among different activities in a task and among different tasks in a lesson. Regarding, the skills of giving and checking instructions, the student teachers’ most serious problem was giving lengthy and complicated instructions. When interviewed, 87.5% of the teacher trainees were reported to encounter that problem by their supervising teachers while 75% of them confessed they did. In addition, 62.5% of the student teachers stated that they sometimes wasted much time instructing the students. As

observed by the researcher, they spent an average of one-fifth of the total time of an activity on giving instructions. They also made the mistake of delivering the instructions at inappropriate time when the students were not attentive enough, when they were busy conducting a task or when they almost finished an activity. As a result, it took them extra time to explain the instructions to the students. In many cases, they even forgot to check whether the students had understood what they were required to do or just raised the checking questions to be answered by themselves and for questioning only. The teacher trainees did not master the skill of comprehension checking either. First, they made the mistake of not allowing the students sufficient wait time to respond. Normally, the learners need three to five seconds to digest information and formulate the answer. However, in 66.7% of the lessons filmed, the allocated time was no more than two seconds, which resulted in the fact that the students could only recall short information or could not answer at all. Another problem student teachers met with when checking the students’ understanding is the lack of good questions that engaged students in highquality thinking. They tended to overuse display and Yes/No questions. Such types of questions only require the students to recall information and cannot elicit a true or accurate response. Besides, they had the tendency to call upon students in the action zone while ignoring those in other spots. Dealing with disruptive behaviors also caused trouble to the teacher trainees when they were not successful in controlling noisy students, challengers to teachers’ authority and domineering students. Particularly, the skill of monitoring which were considered “not challenging” by the student teachers proved to be quite problematic to them. The most noticeable problem is that the students use their mother tongue instead of English in group-work. From the observation of the researcher, the problem occurred in every speaking lesson, listening and reading lessons as well whenever there involved pair or group discussion.

The causes to these problems were also identified by the teacher trainees themselves and by their mentors. Each problem is caused by different factors. However, they still share some causes. The first cause is the lack of preparation. The most typical example is the student teachers’ lack of practice and preparation for giving instructions. When interviewed, 87.5% of the participants stated that they actually had not paid appropriate attention to the issue. Before the class, they mostly specified what to do in each activity without planning what instructions to give for that activity. As a result, many of them gave lengthy and complicated instructions and wasted much time explaining the instructions to the students. Similarly, they did not write out the questions used to check students’ understanding when planning the lesson. Normally, they produced them extemporaneously during the lesson. This lack of preparation led to vague questions that did not engage students in high quality thinking and reflection. To solve the problem, the suggested solution from the supervising teachers is to have a detailed and thorough lesson plan, in which student teachers should anticipate all the unexpected problems that may occur including the situation of exceeding time. To be more specific, they should plan more activities with different purposes and time allocation than needed so that they can choose the most appropriate one in case of lacking time. Also, a detailed and thorough lesson plan can assist the student teachers in allocating the time for each activity more logically. With all the activities mapped out in the lesson plan, student teachers can put them into consideration to decide the necessary time spent on each activity. The decision is based on its level of difficulty and purposes, the student levels and the classroom settings as well. The lesson plan may as well include a detailed script of what the teachers should say and do to instruct students and what they need to ask the students to check their comprehension. Inadequate understanding of and

contact with the students is another reason leading to many classroom management problems. For instance, due to the student teachers’ lack of sufficient knowledge of the students’ language proficiency, the activities designed or the type and amount of information transmitted to the students did not really suit them. In fact, all the mentors pointed out that the student teachers did overestimate the students’ ability and 75% of them reported the same problem during the interviews. As a result, they tended to plan too many activities in a lesson, to introduce too much knowledge to the students at a time or to spend little time for students to carry out a task that they considered easy. That’s why, they had to spend much time re-explaining the subject matters to the students or allocated more time on a certain activity, which results in the violation of time of others. Similarly, the lack of understanding of and contact with the students restricted the teacher trainees’ opportunity to build up a close relationship with large groups of students. For them, teacher trainees were simply those who came to their class at a certain time of the week, which resulted in the lack of trust and understanding. Students find it hard to cooperate with those who do not show interest in and care for them. Therefore, student teachers in particular and novice teachers are recommended to study the student carefully and try to have more contact with them so that the teacher-student relationship can be strengthened. In this way, it becomes easier for the teacher to plan the lesson activities and manage the students’ behaviors. Compared to the findings of Vo (2009), the teacher trainees having their practicum at the high school were also confronted with problems of exceeding time limit, dividing time illogically and spending too much time giving instructions. Another similarity in the findings of the two studies is that lack of practice and preparation was the common cause for many classroom management problems. For instance, Vo pointed out that student teachers’ lack of careful preparation for and thorough

practice of giving instructions led to their lengthy and complicated instructions in class. Therefore, in Vo’s research, the same solution of having a detailed lesson plan was recommended. However, those having their practicum at high schools were not as skillful as the student teachers having their practicum at English Division 1, FELTE, ULIS - VNU in using the blackboard, forming groups, giving feedback and motivating students. Particularly, the latter student teachers were assessed in a more thorough way when the components of using non-verbal communication, monitoring, dealing with disruptive behaviors and checking comprehension were also included in the checklist. Therefore, the findings of this paper promise to provide a complete and comprehensive look at the student teachers’ classroom management skills. 5.2. Contributions of the research In general, the findings of the research could be considerably helpful for student teachers, their mentors as well as their English Language Teaching (ELT) lecturers. As for the student teachers, the research helps them recognize their problems in managing the classroom. These problems are: • Exceeding time limit, dividing the time illogically; • Giving lengthy and complicated instructions, spending too much time instructing the students, delivering instructions at inappropriate time, forgetting to check instructions; • Failing to allocate sufficient wait time, failing to make authentic questions, failing to call upon different students; • Failing to control the students’ use of mother tongue in pair and group-work;

• Failing to deal with noisy students, challengers to teachers’ authority, and domineering students. Realizing their difficulties and problems helps these pre-service teachers improve and perfect their classroom management skills that will in return facilitate their future teaching career. Also, the solutions suggested by the student teachers themselves, by their supervising teachers and from books, articles, magazines are expected to serve as good references for those who are going to do the teaching practicum. Regarding the mentors, understanding the difficulties student teachers have in managing the classroom, they can offer more timely and appropriate advice and assistance. To be more specific, mentors should raise the students awareness of having a detailed and carefully prepared lesson plan that may help reduce problems with time management, giving and checking instructions and checking students’ comprehension and the awareness of getting to know the students better in terms of their language proficiency, their characters as well as their needs and expectations to help prevent problems from misbehaviors. Besides, mentors can provide teacher trainees with tips and suggestions to help them perfect their classroom management skills. Lastly, findings of the paper are also expected to be a good source of reference for the ELT group when making changes and amendments to the course to help students achieve better classroom management skills and to facilitate their future teaching career. 5.3. Limitations of the research

To some extent, the paper depicts a clear picture of the classroom management difficulties teacher trainees encountered during their teaching practice. However, there still exist some limitations. First, the paper was carried out among a limited population of 8 out of 20 preservice teachers having their practicum at English Division 1, FELTE, ULIS-VNU. Though the data collected from survey questionnaires, interviews and classroom observations during 3 weeks’ teaching of these 8 teachers relatively ensure the sufficiency, reliability and validity of the ultimate findings, the researcher really expects to involve more participants. The more participants are involved in the study, the richer the data base is. As a result, more significant and useful findings can be discovered. Another shortcoming is that the paper could not involve students from the classes the pre-service teachers had their practicum. How these students acted and behaved largely affected how the pre-service teachers reacted and responded. Conversely, whether the pre-service teachers had good eye-contact, projected fine voice, gave clear instructions, treated every student fairly or greatly motivated the students to learn could be most accurately assessed and evaluated by the students. However, due to the limit of time, the researcher had to move from class to class to start a new observation session so she could not make full use of the data collected from this source. If the students had had the chance to participate in the study, the researcher believes that the findings would be more accurate and comprehensive. 5.4. Suggestions for further studies

Classroom management is a very broad research area. It offers other researchers large room to conduct further studies in different approaches. They may concentrate on investigating a single element of classroom management such as motivation or comprehension checking. In this way, they are enabled to dig deeper into the issue and discover more hidden problems which cannot be found in a large scale research like this one, the main purpose of which is to provide the student teacher a broad and holistic view of their classroom management skills. Another way is to conduct the research with another target population. Since it is the first time student teachers have been allocated to have their teaching practicum at a college degree, the researcher wants to be the pioneer in investigating the classroom management skills of these teachers. However, pre-service teachers are also allocated to conduct their teaching practice at high schools or secondary schools. Another target population means another set of problems and difficulties and another approach to look at the issue.

INTERVIEW SCHEDULE <Teacher Version>
Xin thầy/cô cho biết đánh giá, nhận xét của mình về kỹ năng quản lý lớp của giáo sinh trong kỳ thực tập vừa qua? Giáo sinh đã mắc phải những lỗi gì hay có những lúng túng gì trong việc quản lý lớp? Xin thầy/cô cho biết thêm nhận định của mình về nguyên nhân của các khó khăn trên cũng như hướng khắc phục.

Classroom Management Issues Time Management Board writing & organization Eye contact Voice projection Posture, gesture & standing and sitting position Wo r k a r r a n g e m e n t <individual, pair and group work> Instruction giving and checking Concept/comprehension checking Guiding, facilitating and monitoring Correction and feedback

Problems/Difficulties

Solutions

Dealing with students’ questions and arising problems Motivating students

Xin cảm ơn sự tham gia của các thầy cô!!!!!

SURVEY QUESTIONNAIRE <Student Version>
Question 1 In your opinion, how difficult is it to practice the following skills? Please give mark (from 1 to 5) to each item. 1= Very easy 2= Easy 3=Neutral 4= Difficult 5= Very difficult
1 2 3 4 5

Skills Managing time Forming pairwork, groupwork Positioning and Moving Using non-verbal cues Using the blackboard Keeping eye contact Using voice Giving and checking instructions Checking for understanding Monitoring Dealing with students’ misbehavior Giving feedback Motivating students

Question 2 How often do you encounter problems with the following skills? Tick the appropriate column.
Problems Managing time Forming pairwork, groupwork Positioning and moving Using non-verbal communication <eye-contact & voice projection> Using the blackboard Keeping eye-contact Using voice Giving and checking instructions Checking for understanding Monitoring Dealing with students’ behavior Giving feedback Motivating students Never Rarely Sometimes Often Usually

Thank you very much!

INTERVIEW SCHEDULE
<Student Version>>
Kỹ năng quản lý lớp Câu hỏi 1. Quản lý thời gian • Bạn có bao giờ bị quá giờ dạy không? Nếu có thì theo bạn nguyên nhân là do đâu? • Khi bị quá giờ dạy, theo bạn nên làm thế nào để khắc phục? • Khi phân chia thời gian cho các hoạt động học bạn cân nhắc những yếu tố gì? Theo bạn yếu tố nào là quan trọng nhất? 2. Quản lý không gian • Bạn thấy sử dụng bảng có khó không? Cụ thể là khó ở điểm nào <chữ viết bảng; cách phân bố, trình bày nội dung bảng>? Nguyên nhân nào khiến bạn gặp khó khăn trong sử dụng bảng? Theo bạn nên làm thế nào để dùng trình bày bảng và viết bảng hợp lý? • Bạn thường phân chia nhóm sinh viên như thế nào? Bạn có gặp khó khăn gì không? Bạn có gợi ý gì để phân chia và quản lý nhóm được hiệu quả? • Khi giảng bài, bạn thấy mình nói đủ to chưa? Theo bạn giọng nói của giáo viên chỉ cần to thôi đã đủ chưa? Bạn có cách nào để sử dụng giọng nói của mình hiệu quả hơn không? • Khi nói hay thuyết giảng bạn có quan sát được hết sinh viên không? Bạn có khó khăn gì trong việc quan sát lớp không? 3. Hướng dẫn làm bài 1. Có trường hợp nào sinh viên không hiểu hướng dẫn của bạn không? Theo bạn nguyên nhân là do đâu? Cách nào để khắc phục và tránh tình trạng đó? 2. Trong trường hợp giáo viên mất quá nhiều thời gian để hướng dẫn sinh viên thì nguyên nhân là gì? Hướng khắc phục? 3. Bạn có bao giờ đưa ra hướng dẫn làm bài vào thời điểm không thích hợp không (ví dụ như lúc lớp học vẫn chưa ổn định, sinh viên còn chưa tập trung hoàn toàn)? Nguyên nhân và hướng khắc phục? 4. Kiểm soát tiến độ làm bài

• Theo bạn, kiểm soát tiến độ làm bài của sinh viên khó nhất ở điểm
nào? • Bạn thường làm cách gì để đảm bảo rằng sinh viên tập trung làm bài tập độc lập, theo cặp hoặc theo nhóm? • Bạn thường làm gì để đảm bảo rằng sinh viên sử dụng tiếng Anh mà không lạm dụng tiếng Việt? • Bạn thường làm gì để sinh viên bắt đầu và kết thúc việc làm bài tập trên lớp?

5. Quản lý sinh viên

• Bạn gặp những khó khăn gì trong việc quản lý sinh viên trên lớp? • Bạn xử lý thế nào với những sinh viên • mất trật tự? • không chú ý nghe giảng hoặc làm bài? • quá nổi trội hơn so với các bạn khác? • chống đối giáo viên? • Bạn thường làm thế nào để đảm bảo sinh viên hiểu bài? làm được
bài? 1. Khi đặt câu hỏi cho sinh viên, bạn dành cho sinh viên bao nhiêu thời gian để trả lời? 1. Bạn làm thế nào khi sinh viên lúng túng không biết trả lời hoặc trả lời chưa đúng?

6. Kiểm tra mức độ hiểu bài

7. Nhận xét, đánh giá

- Bạn thường đưa ra nhận xét về mặt nào của sinh viên (gợi ý: các kỹ
năng..)? - Bạn có nhận xét, góp ý được nhiều cho sinh viên không? Nếu không thì nguyên nhân là gì? Và bạn làm thế nào để khắc phục? - Bạn có tạo điều kiện cho sinh viên tự nhận xét về phần bài của mình và các bạn trong lớp nhận xét chéo cho nhau không?

8. Tạo hứng thú

1. Bạn thường khen sinh viên bằng những câu như thế nào? 2. Theo bạn để duy trì hứng thú trong suốt một giờ học có khó không? Làm thể nào để tạo hứng thú cho sinh viên? 3. Nếu sinh viên không nhiệt tình trong giờ học thì nguyên nhân là do đâu? (gợi ý: mức độ khó của hoạt động, sự đa dạng của các hoạt động, giọng nói của giáo viên…)

OSERVATION SCHEME

Classroom Management Issues Time management Instructions giving Concept/comprehension checking Guiding/facilitating/monitoring Correction and feedback Questions and problem dealing Work arrangement The use of facilities and resources Eye contact Voice projection Standing and positioning Board writing and organization Student motivation

Difficulties/Problems

REFERENCES
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