Vietnam National University, Hanoi University of Languages and International Studies

Faculty of English Language Teacher Education

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NguyỄN THU THỦY

An investigation into teacher’s instructions in speaking lessons at viet Duc Upper-secondary school

SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF BACHELOR OF ARTS (TEFL) SUPERVISOR: CAO THÚY HỒNG, M.A.

Hanoi, May 2010 ACCEPTANCE

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I hereby state that I: Nguyễn Thu Thủy from 061E11, being a candidate for the degree of Bachelor of Arts (TEFL) accept the requirements of the College relating to the retention and use of Bachelor’s Graduation Paper deposited in the library. In terms of these conditions, I agree that the origin of my paper deposited in the library should be accessible for the purposes of study and research, in accordance with the normal conditions established by the librarian for the care, loan or reproduction of the paper. Signature

Date:................

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

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In order to finish the graduation paper, I owe profound indebtedness to so many people whose great contribution and support I would never forget. My deepest gratitude goes to Ms. Cao Thuy Hong, my supervisor, for her willingness to help me with the early phases and revisions of this thesis. Without her selflessness, and great encouragement, I would not have been able to finish the paper. My gratitude should also be for all of my classmates, Mr. Mai Ngoc Khoi and other academic staff of English Department, College of Foreign Languages, Vietnam National University who I turned to for valuable advice and useful materials. It is a fault if I forget to thank Ms. Nguyen Thi Thu Thuy as well as students and other teachers from Viet Duc upper- secondary schools. Without their patient and willing participation in doing my survey questionnaires, the study could not be accomplished. I also want to thank my family and friends for all their love and support during the time I carried out the research. Without timely support from the listed characters, this paper could not have been completed.

ABSTRACT

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Although giving and checking instructions is not a strange conception to the teachers of English in Vietnam, it is till causing a lot of difficulties in their teaching, due to teacher’s low English proficiency, class size, facilities schedules, using it in class is not a simple duty to the teachers. This study is conducted in an attempt to investigate the current situation of giving and checking instructions in speaking lessons in Viet Duc Upper-secondary School in Hanoi. In order to achieve the desired aims, the researcher has conducted a survey research using questionnaire, interviews and classroom observation. The findings from survey questionnaire, interviews and classroom observation provide the researcher with a comprehensive understanding of the current situation of giving and checking instructions in speaking lessons in Viet Duc Upper-secondary School in Hanoi. After the data analysis procedure, the researcher could work out important findings as follows, i.e. all the techniques including step-by-step, demonstrate it, say-do-check, student recall were reported to be employed with the first one being the most frequently used. The hindrances of giving and checking instructions reported were time constraint, students’ low concentration, finding appropriate vocabulary and structures and insufficient teaching conditions. Solutions were also identified to deal with each problem. The results are a good reflection of the researched issue and have implications to immediate participants and contexts. With careful and detailed investigations, hopefully this study will serve as a useful source of reference for teachers, students and those who concern about this subject matter.
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LIST OF FIGURES
1. 2. 3.

Figure 1: Student’s self-evaluation their English proficiency.......p.45 Figure 2: Level of students’ activeness in speaking lessons..........p.46 Figure 3: Student's attitude towards teacher's instructions...........p.47
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4. 5.

Figure 4: Teachers' attitudes towards teachers' instructions..........p.48 Figure 5: Giving and checking instructions techniques and their frequency (students’ opinions) ......................................................p.49 Figure 6: Giving and checking instructions techniques and their frequency (teachers’ opinions) ......................................................p.51 Figure 7: Languages used in giving and checking instructions (students’ opinions) .......................................................................p.54 Figure 8: Language used to give and check instructions (teachers’ opinions)........................................................................................p.54 Figure 9: Types of sentences used to give and check instructions (students’ opinions) .......................................................................p.55 Figure 10: Types of sentences used to give and check instructions (teachers’ opinions)........................................................................p.56 Figure 11: Level of students’ understanding teacher’s

6.

7.

8.

9.

10.

11.

instructions.....................................................................................p.58
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Figure 12: Reasons why students don’t understand teacher’s instructions.....................................................................................p.59 Figure 13: Hindrances to giving and checking instructions...........p.60

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LIST OF TABLES
1. Table 1: A framework for designing speaking lessons..................p.25
2.

Table 2: Background of the target population...............................p.34
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3.

Table 3: Summary of average English scores of surveyed students..........................................................................................p.35 Table 4: Summary of selected teachers........................................p.36

4.

LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS 1. CAI: Computer Assisted Instruction 2. CLT: Communicative Language Teaching
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3. ED, ULIS, VNU: English Department, University of Languages and International Studies, Vietnam National University
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EFL: English as a Foreign Language TEFL: Teaching English as a Foreign Language TESOL: Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages Association

5. ELT: English Language Teaching
6. 7.

TABLE OF CONTENTS
Acknowledgements…............……………………………………………………i Abstract………………………............………………………………………….ii List of figures..................……………..........………………………………….iii
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List of tables..........................................................................................................iv List of abbreviations ..............................................................................................v

CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION..............................................................1
1.1. 1.2. 1.3. 1.4. 1.5.

Rationale of the study....................................................................1 Aims and objectives ......................................................................2 Scope of the study..........................................................................3 Methods of the study......................................................................4 Design of the study........................................................................5

CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE REVIEW..................................................6 2.1. An overview of teacher’s instructions................................................6 2.1.1. Definition..................................................................................6 2.1.1.1. Definition of instructions.............................................6 2.1.1.2. Teacher’s instructions..................................................7 2.1.2. Some techniques to give and check instructions......................9 2.1.3. Principles of effective instructions..........................................11 2.1.4. Teacher’s instructions in the modern technology era.............15 2.1.5. The importance of teacher’s instructions................................16 2.2. An overview of a speaking lesson...................................................18 2.2.1. An overview of speaking skill................................................18 2.2.1.1. Definition...................................................................18 2.2.1.2. Components of speaking skill....................................19 2.2.2. An overview of a speaking lesson..........................................23 2.2.2.1. Stages of a speaking lesson........................................23 2.2.2.2. Characteristics of a successful speaking lesson.........27
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2.3. Related studies...................................................................................29 CHAPTER 3: METHODOLOGY...........................................................32
3.1.

Research settings...............................................................................32 Students...................................................................................33 3.2.2. Teachers..................................................................................36

3.2. Participants..........................................................................................33
3.2.1.

3.3. Data collection instruments..................................................................37 3.3.1. Questionnaire.........................................................................37 3.3.2. Teacher interview....................................................................39 3.3.3. Classroom observation............................................................40 3.4.
3.4.1.

Data collection procedure.................................................................41 Phase 1: Preparation...............................................................41 3.4.2. Phase 2: Implementation........................................................41 3.4.3. Phase 3: Grouping the data.....................................................43

3.5. Data analysis method and procedure....................................................43 CHAPTER 4: RESULTS AND DISCUSSION........................................45 4.1. The current situation of speaking lessons at Viet Duc high school, Hanoi..................................................................................................45 4.2. Teachers’ perception and students’ attitude towards teacher’s instructions.........................................................................................47 4.3. Techniques employed to give and check instructions........................49 4.4. Languages used to give and check instructions.................................53 4.5. The hindrances teacher might have when giving and checking instructions.........................................................................................57
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4.6 Implications...........................................................................................61 CHAPTER 5: CONCLUSION.....................................................................64 5.1. Summary of the findings......................................................................64 5.2. Limitation............................................................................................65 5.3. Suggestions for further research...........................................................66 REFERENCES APPENDICES

CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION
1.1.

Rationale of the study In the globalization context, English is playing a more and more

significant role. It is the most commonly used language in computers and the Internet. It is also the dominant international language in communications, science, aviation, entertainment, radio and diplomacy. In
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certain fields and professions in society, English proficiency is obligatory. English is so widely spoken that it is referred to as the "lingua franca" of this era. In Vietnam, since the government pursued the economic opendoor policy in 1986, the demand for communicating in English has been growing. Vietnam has witnessed a rapid development of English in technological advancement acquisition, international trading, international affairs and many other areas. As the demand to learn English grows, English has been made a compulsory subject in Vietnam secondary school. Moreover, it has been made one of the six national examinations that students have to pass in order to get the Secondary School Education Certificate. In spite of the great significance of English in the new social context, English teaching, in many ways, failed to help learners communicate effectively. The old textbook used in schools put much concentration on grammar and vocabulary while neglecting the role of communicating English. Fortunately, the situation has changed since the new English textbook for secondary school was recomposed in 2006. The new English textbook has brought about a new teaching approach - the communicative approach to secondary school. The new one covers all four English skills: listening, speaking, reading, and writing. Among those, speaking lesson is a new element compared to the older textbook. However, not all teachers are familiar with teaching speaking skill. From the researcher’s experience and observation, this has caused them a lot of troubles, including techniques for giving and checking instructions in class. Nevertheless, giving and checking good instructions is still an essential element to obtain a successful lesson. Once students are clear about what they are expected to
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do, they will be able to perform the tasks successfully. However, little research has been done on this topic: teacher’s giving and checking instructions. The above-mentioned factors lead the author to conduct the research: “Teacher's instructions in speaking lessons at Viet Duc upper - secondary school”
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. Aims and objectives The study is written with the following objectives: Firstly, this research is carried out to find out the teacher’s attitude

towards giving and checking instructions and students’ towards teacher’s instructions in speaking lessons at Viet Duc Secondary School. Additionally, the study aims at investigating the techniques teachers use to give and check instructions in speaking lessons. Finally, based on the difficulties that teacher might encounter when giving and checking instructions, the study proposes some possible suggestions to help teacher deal with the difficulties in giving and checking instruction. In order to achieve the above mentioned aims, the study has been conducted to answer four research questions as follows:

What is teachers' attitude towards giving and checking instructions in speaking lessons?
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What is students' attitude towards teachers' instructions in speaking lessons? What are the techniques that teacher employed in giving and checking instructions in speaking lessons? What might be the difficulties teachers had when giving and checking instructions?

1.3.

Scope of the study

In every class, a teacher’s instruction is an indispensable part of teaching and learning four skills including listening, speaking, reading, and writing. However, within limitation of a graduation paper, the research only concentrated on teacher’s instructions in speaking lesson. Moreover, within the small scale of the study, the researcher only chose 100 students from grade 10th and 11th and 7 teachers in Viet Duc upper - secondary school. Hopefully, this number of participants is sufficient to provide valuable and reliable information, which is a great contribution to the success of the study. 1.4. Methods of the study

In order to attain the aims of the study, the researcher applied the following methods: As for data collection methods, questionnaires, interview and classroom observation were employed to collect information about teacher’s giving and checking instructions. Specifically, survey questionnaires were completed by 100 students and 7 teachers at Viet Duc high school. Following this, teachers who were teaching English at grade
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tenth and eleventh took part in an interview about giving instructions in speaking lessons. Two classes were observed as representative sample to help the author confirm the data collected from the other two methods. As for data analysis methods, descriptive statistics were used to analyze data from questionnaires. Initially, the author transferred collected data to numerical forms. These numbers were put in charts and tables for better comparison and generalization. Answers to open-ended questions were summarized and classified. Data from interview would be converted into numerical forms and then summarized in tables or charts. The researcher then compiled the data for analysis from class observation by taking data from observation checklists, transcribing data from tape recordings. This data could be analyzed by counting frequency. In the frequency, each type of behavior was arranged in tabular form. Last but not least, other methods as reading reference and resource books, along with mathematical calculation were also employed. 1.5. Design of the study

The study contains five chapters
 

Chapter 1: Introduction Chapter 2: Literature Review

This chapter provided a review on key concepts relating to the research topic such as giving and checking instructions, and speaking skill. It also briefly discussed related studies on teacher’s instructions.

Chapter 3: Methodology
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This chapter covers the research design, the participants of the research, the data collection instruments, the sampling and data collection procedures; and the data analysis method employed in the study.

Chapter 4: Result and Discussion

In this chapter, the data received from the survey questionnaires, interviews and class observation were critically analyzed to obtain a result which would be used in the next chapter

Chapter 5: Recommendation and Conclusion

This chapter summarized the major findings, stated some contributions as well as pointed out the limitation of the study. Suggestions for further study are also put forward. In a nutshell, the first chapter presented the research problems and the rationale for the study. Afterwards, the aims, scope and methods of the study are discussed. This chapter ends with an overview of the rest of the paper. The first chapter acts as a clear outline for the whole paper.

Chapter 2: Literature review 2.1. An overview of teacher’s instructions 2.1.1. Definition 2.1.1.1. Definition of instructions Instruction is a very broad term which can be used in a wide variety of fields such as information technology, law, medical, etc. Oxford
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Advanced Dictionary defined “instruction” as detail information about how to do or use something (p.774). The second definition clarified by The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language (2000), instruction is “an order or an authoritative direction to be obeyed”. In Collins English Dictionary (2003), instruction is defined as “the process or act of imparting knowledge”. In computer science, instruction is a sequence of bits that tells a central processing unit to perform a particular operation and can contain data to be used in the operation (The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, 2000). In medical, instruction is a set of characters, together with one or more addresses, that defines a computer operation and, as a unit, causes the computer to operate accordingly on the indicated quantities; a term associated with software operation (Mosby's Dental Dictionary, 2008) In law, instruction is an explanation of the law governing a case which the judge gives orally to the jury after the attorneys have presented all the evidence and have made final arguments, but before the jury begins deliberations (Hill, 2005). All of these definitions share a common characteristic. They all imply that instruction means information imparted to another thing or person in order to do something. 2.1.1.2. Teacher’s instructions

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Although the critical role of teacher’s instructions in learning and teaching a language is fully recognized, there is no fixed definition of this term. Different experts offer their own different views about defining teacher’s instructions. In pedagogy, some dictionaries also offer the definition for “instruction”. In Oxford Advanced Dictionary, “instruction” is the act of teaching something to somebody. In terms of education, the Babylon Dictionary offers a quite similar definition of instruction, which is the activity that imparts knowledge or skill. Dictionaries usually provide the definition of this term in a general and broad way. In a very rare number of papers carried out to define what instruction is in education, educators and pedagogues have offered their own definitions. Štalmašková et al (2006) provided two definitions of instructions. First of all, instruction is the teaching, education performed by a teacher. The second, instruction is the action, practice, or profession of teaching. In addition, instruction was defined by Huitt, W. (2003) as "the purposeful direction of the learning process" and is one of the major teacher class activities (along with planning and management). According to this definition, it can be understood that instruction is the important activity performed by teacher in class to give out a focused direction for the learning process of students and the lesson for teacher. Penny Ur (1996) in her book A Course in Language Teaching devoted a unit in part I to explanations and instructions. She defined instructions as "the directions that are given to introduce a learning task
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which entails some measure of independent student activity" (p.l6). She also proposed some guidelines for giving effective explanations and instructions. In her definition, two features of instructions are figured out. Firstly, instruction is the direction given by teacher to students and secondly, instruction is given when teacher explains a learning task to students. From the definitions above, instruction can be understood in two senses. In a broad sense, instruction is the common teaching performed by a teacher throughout the whole lesson. In a narrower sense, instruction is the guide the teacher gives to explain an activity or a learning task. With the limited time, ability and experience of the research, the focus of this research is only on the instruction in the narrow sense. General speaking, instructions require a great contribution from the teacher. The teacher should be the active one to give and check instructions in class. Moreover, instructions act as a direction for the whole lesson as well as the learning process. 2.1.2. Some techniques to give and check instructions Nguyen et al. (2003), as cited in To et al, (2008, p.16) suggested there were four different techniques that teachers could employ to instruct their students. “Step – by – step” or “feed – in” approach: Teacher gives the students one instruction at a time, not a list of instructions all together. Breaking down instructions into small, separate steps to help students to understand them completely especially when there is a lot of information in
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instructions or if the activity requires a series of steps and the teacher wants students to understand every word. Demonstrate it, “model” it or “show – don’t – tell”: Good instructions use simple language and are often supported by clear gestures or demonstrations. Teacher does not talk about what students must do, instead, he/she shows them what to do by giving demonstration. With elementary learners, even simple, clear familiar language is not always sufficient to get complex messages across, the learners may need a demonstration of the activity. A demonstration is easier to understand than an explanation and reduce teacher talking time. Frequently, showing what to do is more effective than telling what to do. For instance, the teacher can demonstrate a speaking activity by playing both parts herself or himself, by playing one part and choosing a competent student, to play the other part, or by asking two competent students to do (part of) the activity in front of the class. Say – do – check: The teacher follows 3 steps for each instruction. First, he/she says the instruction, then he/she gets students to do it, then he/she checks that the students have done it correctly before going on to the next instruction. Using say – do – check, the teacher can tell straight away if students have not understood something and can take action to make sure that they understand it. For example, where a change of seating arrangement is required before a role play, it is better to give the instructions and make the change before going to do next. Students recall: If necessary, the teacher can even get learners to translate the instructions into their first language after giving instructions in
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English, saying “Tell me what you have to do in Vietnamese” or “say it again in Vietnamese”. Asking students to recall what they will do in Vietnamese is helpful at lower levels as they may not fully understand the instructions. The general recommendation is to avoid the use of first language as much as possible. Nevertheless, there may be occasions when it is best to explain some complicated or new words and structures for the learners in their first language. It is a more accessible and cost-effective alternative to the sometimes lengthy and difficult target-language explanation. It is crucial that when the teacher has finished explaining, she check the class that they have understood. It is not enough just to ask ‘do you understand?’; learners will sometimes say they do even if they in fact do not, out of politeness or unwillingness to lose face, or because they think they know what they have to do, but have in fact completely misunderstood. It is better to ask them to do something that will show their understanding: to paraphrase in their own words, or to provide further illustration of their own. 2.1.3. Principles of effective instructions Another important point is that the different methods of instruction have been developed based on specific interpretations of concepts and principles of teaching and learning. While it is important to learn and practice the approaches developed by others, it is even more important to understand the concepts and principles upon which they are based.

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If you learn only methods, you'll be tied to your methods, but if you learn principles you can devise your own methods. - Ralph Waldo Emerson1 From the view of Penny Ur (1996), the principles to give and check instructions effectively are: careful preparation, having the class’s attention, presenting information more than once, being brief, illustrating with examples and getting feedback. Gower et al. (1995, p.40) believed that there are seven factors contributing to the principles of giving and checking instructions. As Gower suggested, they are attracting students’ attention, using simple language and short expressions, being consistent, using visual or written clues, demonstrating, breaking instructions down and targeting the instructions. Huitt, W. (1996) in his book: Educational Psychology Interactive considered several principles in giving and checking instructions: 1. Active presentation of information (could be by teacher, computer, another student). 2. Clear organization of instructions. 3. Step-by-step progression from subtopic to subtopic (based on task analysis). 4. Use many examples, visual prompts, and demonstrations (to mediate between concrete and abstract concepts).
Ralph Waldo Emerson (May 25, 1803 – April 27, 1882) was an American essayist, philosopher, and poet, best remembered for leading the new literature movement of the mid19th century. 22
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5. Constant assessment of student understanding (before, during and after the lesson). 6. Alter pace of instruction based on assessment of student understanding (you're teaching students, not content). 7. Effective use of time and maintaining students' attention (appropriate use of classroom management techniques). Among many different principles proposed by different authors, the researcher has found four elements which get the attention of all of these experts. These elements are: Firstly, attract students’ attention Make sure everyone is listening and watching. In ongoing language practice, learner’s attention may sometimes wander away. But if the teacher is explaining something essential, they must attend. This may be the only chance they have to get some vital information. If they miss something, they may find themselves in difficulties later. It can be inferred that, when giving instructions for a group work task, it is advisable to give the instructions before you divide the class into groups or give out materials, not after. Once they are in groups, learner’s attention will be naturally directed to each other rather than to the teacher; and if they have written or pictorial material in their hands, the temptation will be to look at it, which may also distract their concentration in the lesson. Secondly, try to make the instructions easy to understand This principle is much concerning the content of the instructions. This can be achieved by using simple language and short expressions, or
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using language at a lower level then the language being “taught”. Furthermore, formal language often wastes time as well as slows the lesson down. Thus, it involves teacher in more complicated language than the students can easily understand. On the other hand, short instructions are entirely appropriate where the students accept the teacher’s authority. A firm and directive manner is necessary in order to make language practice efficient and to avoid confusion and uncertainty. Another way to make the instructions understandable is presenting the instructions more than once. That is because a repetition or paraphrase of the necessary information may make the instructions more comprehensive. Besides, as learners’ attention wanders occasionally, it is important to give them more than one chance to understand what they have to do. In addition, it helps to represent the information in a different mode. For example, say it and write it up on the board. Thirdly, illustrate the instructions with examples, visual or written clues This principle is much concerning to the form, or appearance of the instructions. Very often a careful theoretical explanation only comes to an audience when made real through an example, or preferably several. The teacher may explain, for instance, the meaning of a word; illustrate the explanation with examples of its use in various contexts; relate these as far as possible to the learners’ own lives and experiences. Similarly, when giving instructions for an activity, it often helps to do a ‘dry run’: teacher actually does the demonstration of the activity with the whole class or a volunteer student will do the demonstration before inviting learners to
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tackle the task on their own. Support instructions with visual clues wherever possible, real objects, pictures, gestures and mime. It is often easier to give instructions written on cards or piece of paper that the teacher has prepared, especially if the teacher wants the students to do different things (as in role play) or if it is important that the students don’t know the instructions given to their partner. Lastly, assure students’ understanding When teachers give instructions, it is important for them to check that the students have understood what they are being asked to do. This can be achieved either by asking a student to explain the activity after the teacher has given the instruction or by getting someone to show the other people in the class how to exercise the work. When students all share the same mother tongue (which the teacher also understands), a member of the class can be asked to translate the instructions as a check that they have understood them. 2.1.4. Teacher’s instructions in the modern technology era Now in the day of modern advanced technology, a wide range of tools for presenting instructional content are available digitally, thus teachers may manipulate size, color contrasts, and other features to develop examples in multiple media and formats. These can be saved for future use and flexibly accessed by different students, depending on their needs and preferences. Digital materials make it possible for the same material to be flexibly presented and accessed—even adapted on a student-to-student basis.
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Computer-assisted instruction is generally defined as an instructional process that uses a computer to assist giving instructions, monitor student growth, and adjust to needed advancements accordingly. Computerassisted instruction (CAI) is an excellent choice for skills practice in any subject. Quality programs are available, and when they are aligned to the needs of students and the curriculum, students can benefit greatly from them. Such programs are generally designed to test for mastery, and therefore allow the teacher greater freedom to give the more abstract, difficult concepts. An additional advantage of CAI is that, because students generally enjoy computer activities, they come to the computer with a positive attitude. In addition, CAI offers immediate feedback. Moreover, CAI is a timesaving strategy for teachers, which provides valuable instruction for the students if quality programs are available. There is the added benefit that while some students are using the computer, others can be receiving personalized instruction from the teacher. Hence, with the help of modern technologies, giving and checking instructions could be easier to do, more effective and attractive to the students. 2.1.5. The importance of teacher’s instructions The instructions take an important role in improving the teacher's control of the classroom and help with achieving lesson planning aims and objectives. They will help to specifically and precisely describe what the learner will or should be able to do, think or say at the end of the lesson. From that, teacher can draw upon previous plans and activities and set the stage for preparing students for future activities and further knowledge acquisition.
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The best activity in the world is a waste of time if the students don’t understand what it is they are supposed to do. (Harmer, 1998, p.4)

As quoted above, it is very important to make students understand what they are required to do. However, sometimes, even though the teachers try to make their words and expressions full of meaning and uncomplicated before a new activity in a lesson, the students do not understand or do the opposite. When teachers can give clear instructions, learners feel more secure in the lesson. It also means learners can begin tasks more quickly, which increases time for learning. Therefore, teacher’s instructions must be precise and clear in order to avoid wasting time and uncertainty (Gower & Walters, 1983). The ultimate goal of instruction is to help people’s learning become easier, quicker, and more enjoyable. Effective instructions are vital for activities to go well, especially activities involving changes of interaction, for example, from individual to pair work. A communicative approach to language teaching requires some quite complicated activities and interactions, and this means the teacher needs to have all the learners’ attention when giving instructions. Students need to be trained to be quiet and listen very carefully. This is especially the case if the teacher is giving instructions in English. Besides, adequate instructions will help teacher a lot when dealing with problem classes such as very large classes, mixed ability classes, etc. Young learners tend to 'mess about' if they are not sure about what they are supposed to be doing. Slow learners especially may need reminding about methods of presentation and ways of tackling problems. In addition, as a matter of fact, more trouble arises from confusion over what to do, rather
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than over blank refusal to do it. The given instructions which are clear, explicit and frequent enough can make sure that all the children know exactly what is required of them. As Lovitt (1977) points out, once students know what we want them to do, they usually do it. In summary, the importance of instructions is shown in four major aspects: achieving the lesson objectives, assisting people to learn more, getting the activities in the lesson go smoothly, and dealing with problematic classes. Instruction is complex and can take many forms. It is a vitally important classroom activity. Under the best conditions it takes many years of experience for most teachers to meet the ideals of instructional practice that they set for themselves. 2.2. An overview of a speaking lesson 2.2.1. An overview of speaking skill 2.2.1.1. Definition There are four key skills when people learn a language: listening, speaking, reading and writing. In language teaching, the four skills are described in terms of their direction. Language generated by the learners (in speech or writing) is referred to as productive. Language directed at the learner (in reading or listening) is called receptive. Speaking is a crucial part of second language learning and teaching. However, many people feel that speaking in a new language is harder than reading, writing, or listening for two reasons. First, unlike reading or writing, speaking happens in real – time: usually the person the speaker is talking to is waiting to speak right
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then. Second, when speaking, people cannot edit and revise what they wish to say, as this can be done if they are writing. Oxford Advanced Dictionary (2006) defined “speaking” as the action of conveying information or expressing one's thoughts and feelings in spoken language. According to Florez (1999), speaking is an interactive process of constructing meaning that involves producing, receiving, and processing information. Its form and meaning are dependent on the context in which it occurs, including the participants themselves, their collective experiences, the physical environment, and the purposes for speaking. It is often spontaneous, open-ended, and evolving. Chaney (1998, p. 13), as cited in Kayi (2006) suggested speaking is "the process of building and sharing meaning through the use of verbal and non-verbal symbols, in a variety of contexts". To sum up, speaking is the most effective way for people to communicate with each other. Speaking is also regarded as the most important skill learners have to acquire. 2.2.1.2. Components of speaking skill According to Florez (1999), speaking requires that learners not only know how to produce specific points of language such as grammar, pronunciation, or vocabulary ("linguistic competence"), but also they can communicate ideas effectively and fluently. Through this statements,
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Florez mentioned about two components of speaking skill including accuracy and fluency. To be more specific, accuracy is the ability to produce correct sentences using correct grammar and vocabulary. Teachers who concentrate on accuracy help their students to produce grammatically correct written and spoken English. On the other hand, fluency is the ability to read, speak, or write easily, smoothly, and expressively so as to produce continuous speech without causing comprehension difficulties or a breakdown of communication. Language teachers who concentrate on fluency help their students to express themselves in fluent English. They pay more attention to meaning and context and are less concerned with grammatical errors (Lingualinks Library, 1999). Accuracy and fluency have had a great impact on the choice of teaching method. Prioritizing which one among two components has been always a big question to educators. In the light of Communicative Language Teaching, it is now very clear that both accuracy and fluency are the goals to pursue in teaching and learning oral communication skills. Therefore, teachers must balance issues of fluency and accuracy depending on the specific needs of learners and the resources of time and materials for instruction. Apart from analyzing speaking skill under accuracy and fluency, different experts offer their own point of view about what speaking skill involves. Hymes (1971) assumes that second language learners need to know not only the linguistic knowledge but also the culturally acceptable ways of interacting with others in different situations and relationships. His
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theory of communicative competence (1971) consists of the interaction of grammatical, psycholinguistic, sociolinguistic, and probabilistic language components. According to Syakur there are at least five components of speaking skill concerned with comprehension, grammar, vocabulary, pronunciation, and fluency (1987, p.3). According to Harmer (2001) in his book: The practice of language teaching, the elements necessary for spoken production are language features (including connected speech, expressive devices, lexis and grammar, negotiation language) and mental/social processing (including language processing, interacting with others, information processing) As summarized by To (2008), components of speaking skill are as followed: Lexis and grammar: spontaneous speech is marked by the use of a number of common lexical, especially to perform certain language function such as agreeing, disagreeing, expressing surprised, approval, etc. Connected speech: i.e. common phenomenon in spoken interactions in which sounds are modified (assimilation), omitted (elision), added (linking r) or weakened (through contractions and stress patterning). Effective speakers thus need to be able not only produce individual phonemes (as I would have gone) but also to use connected speech. Expressive devices: native speakers of English change pitch and stress of particular parts of utterances, or vary volume and speech to convey meanings beyond their words, especially in face-to-face communication. Students need to recognize and deploy some of such
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features and devices in the same way if they are to be effective communicators. Compensating language: Effective speaking benefits from the language of negotiation that we use to seek clarification and to show the structure of what we are saying. Speakers also need to know when and how to take the floor, how to keep a conversation going, how to terminate the conversation, and how to clear up communication breakdown as well as comprehension problems. Language processing: effective speakers need to be able to process language in their own heads and put it into coherent order so that it comes out in forms that are not only comprehensible but also convey the meaning that are intended. One of the main reasons for including speaking activities in language lessons is to help students develop habits of rapid language processing in English. Interacting with others: Most speaking involves interaction with one or more participants. This means that effective speaking involves a good deal of listening and understanding of how the other participants are feeling and a knowledge of how linguistically to take turns or allow others to do so. Real-time information processing: the ability to process the information often tells us the moment we get it. The longer it takes, the less efficient we are. Sociolinguistic knowledge: knowledge of language alone does not adequately prepare learners for effective and appropriate use of the target
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language. Learners must have competence which involves knowing what is expected socially and culturally by users of the target language. Understanding the sociolinguistic side of language helps learners know what comments are appropriate, know how to ask questions during interaction, and know how to respond nonverbally according to the purpose of the talk. For instance, in some Asian cultures, paying a compliment to someone obligates that person to give a negative answer such as “No. It is not so good.” And so on in order to show “modesty”, whereas in North America culture such a response might be both inappropriate and embarrassing. 2.2.2. An overview of a speaking lesson 2.2.2.1. Stages of a speaking lesson A speaking lesson is a kind of bridge for learners between the classroom and the world outside. However, there are many kinds of speaking lesson stages that a teacher can follow. As teachers often design in a lesson plan, speaking lesson often includes three stages:

Pre speaking: Set a scene (lead in), pre teaching vocabulary and structures, developing guessing skills While speaking: teacher and students perform speaking task the speaking lesson Website of TESOL (Teachers of English to Speakers of Other
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• Post- speaking: consolidate, expand speaking skill, and go beyond

Languages Association) in Algeria offered a framework for designing speaking lessons. The stages of a speaking lesson organized in this way are:

Stage Rationale Sample activities Present Students need to be • Brainstorming/eliciting vocabulary exposed to new • Analyzing/noticing language in a text • Using people and things in the classroom • Learning a dialogue • Watch and follow a model • Elicitation from students of vocabulary they already know language and skills in an authentic way by the teacher, their peers, or a listening or reading text.

Practice Students and remember

need the

time to new

• Gapfill • Matching • Cloze • Selecting the correct answer • Substitution or transformation drills • Listening/Reading repeating/saying • Finding and correcting errors • Question and Answer (Q&A)
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practice

language or skill and to explore the limits of its form, meaning, and use.

and

• Completing a sentence or question starter • Sorting • Word prompts • Information gap • Guessing • • • • • • • • • • • • Categorizing Ranking Comparing/Making Connections Interpreting Problem-solving Ordering Sharing Personal Information Sharing General Information Creative project Role-play Retell Structured Discussion

Use

Students and use

need the

a new

chance to personalize language or skill, to do something they are likely to do outside class; fluency tasks also help Ss remember the language or skill, and give the teacher a chance to assess students’ learning.

Table 1: A framework for designing speaking lessons According to this framework, a speaking lesson will go through three stages from present, practice to use. The initial stage, as it is named, presents new language and skills to students. In the second stage, students have chance to practice with the purpose of remembering the language or skills. Lastly, students possibly personalize the new language by doing
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tasks modeling what might happen in real situation. Each stage are accompanied by plenty of suggested activities. C. Terry (2008) offers her own way to conduct a speaking lesson which includes three stages: pre-communicative stage, practice stage, communicative interaction or production stage. During the precommunicative stage, the teacher will introduce the communicative function, point out the target structure, and provide students with the necessary vocabulary. On the next stage - practice stage, teacher will do some activities as followed: correct or prompt students if necessary. During the communicative interaction, teacher should take note of any aspects that may hinder communication (pronunciation, vocabulary, grammar). The major drawback of Terry’s theory is this method is quite teacher-centered. It can be ambiguous as students’ activities during the three stages are not mentioned. In summary, in order to help create a lesson which is organized, coherent, and lead to a clear lesson objective, a speaking lesson can include three main stages:
1.

Stage 1: Firstly, student can be motivated and attracted to the

lesson by a small warm up or lead in part. Then the teacher will explain the new language patterns to help students understand necessary vocabulary and structures.
2.

Stage 2: During this phase, the main speaking tasks of the

lesson will be performed by the students while teacher can correct or prompt students if necessary.
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3.

Stage 3: Teacher can help students to consolidate and

remember the language or skill they acquired during the lesson by correcting some mistakes that might happen in the earlier stages. 2.2.2.2. Characteristics of a successful speaking lesson Just a few pedagogues have mentioned the characteristics of a successful speaking lesson except for Penny Ur and Jack Richards. Ur (1996) lists the characteristics of a successful speaking activity: learners talk a lot, participation of students is even, motivation is high, and language is of an acceptable level. Richards (2003) believes that goals for a successful speaking lesson are among others: balance of accuracy and fluency activities, students participating actively in lessons, activities suitable for students of different proficiency levels, addressing grammar and pronunciation errors appropriately, suitable activities and tasks for students of different proficiency levels. Students should have ample talking time and opportunities for personalization. Very important is also the pleasure factor, all the students have to experience success. In addition, a progression from controlled practice to freer practice is essential. Although Ur’s and Richard’s attitude toward successful speaking lesson is different but characteristics of a successful speaking lesson can be summarized as follow:

Appropriate and sufficient language input and other supports: Input is the language to which students are exposed: teacher talk, listening
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activities, reading passages, and the language heard and read outside of class. This will give learners the material they need to develop their ability to use the language on their own. Language input and other supports should be matched to learners’ current comprehension level and connected to what they already know. It can be used in the presentation stage of a lesson

Balance of accuracy and fluency activities: Balancing fluency and accuracy is a tricky business though. Students emphasizing fluency still need to keep grammar in mind, and students improving their accuracy dare not become so concerned about accuracy that they can no longer speak easily. During speaking lesson, teacher will sometimes correct students a lot, for example during grammar practice. On other occasions, for example in a role play, students won’t be corrected as the teacher will want them to focus more on fluency and communicating ideas. A balance of accuracy and fluency in speaking will help students to become successful language learners.

Activities are suitable for students of different proficiency levels: Students can perform most speaking tasks and participate effectively. Moreover, learners can express themselves in utterances that are relevant, easily comprehensible to each other, and of an acceptable level of language accuracy.

Students participate actively and evenly in lessons: Motivating students to actively participate in class is a challenge even for the most experienced educators. Classroom discussion is not dominated
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by a minority of talkative participants. All get a chance to speak, and contributions are fairly evenly distributed. If only a few students participate by volunteering answers, asking questions, or contributing to discussions, class sessions become to some extent a lost opportunity to assess and promote learning. It is important to create an environment in which all participants have the opportunity to learn and in which the class explores issues and ideas in depth, from a variety of viewpoints. Some students will raise their voices more than others; this variation is a result of differences in learning styles as well as differences in personalities. 2.3. Related studies Giving and checking instructions are not a new topic but it is still not paid enough attention to. Because teacher’s instruction is a small field in ELT methodology, it is often involved in classroom management or teacher’s talk research. In her book “A course in language teaching”, Penny Ur devoted one unit in a chapter to introduce a long-term strategy to improve teacher’s instructions followed by a guideline on giving effective explanations and instructions. This strategy includes two phases. At first, teacher notes down immediately after the lesson how he/she gives instructions and discusses with colleagues. Then teacher revises the instructions to make it more effective. In the guideline, Penny Ur identified six points to give and check instructions successfully, which are preparing, assuring the class’s attention, presenting information more than once, being brief, illustrating with example and getting feedback. Author Fredric H. Jones (1999) in Positive Classroom Instruction begins with an analysis of the classroom social system that profoundly yet
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invisibly link instructional practice with discipline management. The outcomes of the analysis are: student motivation clarifies the teacher’s options and actions and empowers them to produce learning; implementation to give corrective feedback to stuck students; teacher training and staff development. All the fundamentals of instruction that apply to students in the classroom apply to teachers within the context of teacher training. Positive Classroom Instruction is a guide to effective classroom practice, as well a guide to effective teacher training. In a research namely “Giving Oral Instructions to EFL Young Learners” by Susana María Liruso and Elba Villanueva de Debat from Argentina (2003), the authors addressed when delivering oral classroom instructions to EFL young learners, it is essential for teachers to develop an awareness of the importance of clear oral instructions for good class management. Then, they found in teacher talk an important feature for classroom management and some developmental characteristics of children. As can be seen, many authors conducted research on this matter concentrating on practical tips to give and checking instructions without providing a theoretical framework or the real difficulties of teachers when giving and checking instructions. Moreover, they talk a lot about instructions in a general lesson, which may create confusion between different lessons such as grammar lessons, vocabulary lessons or lessons to teach four skills in English. This research aims at providing a theoretical background for giving and checking instructions as well as giving and checking instructions in a specific kind of lessons as speaking lessons. The
40

study on a smaller scale aims at exploring the current situation of utilizing teacher’s instructions in the context of Vietnamese high schools, specifically Viet Duc high school in Hanoi. The findings and suggestions will be useful for teacher and those who are interested in the subject. To sum up, in this chapter, the researcher has briefly defined important terms and reviewed relevant background theory before investigating deeply into the subject matter in reality.

CHAPTER 3: METHODOLOGY This chapter is intended to cover the methodology of the research including research settings, descriptions of the participants, research instruments, data collection and data analysis procedure.
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The research was carried out in order to find information on: • •

The

teacher’s

attitude

towards

giving

and

checking

instructions and students’ towards teacher’s instruction in speaking lessons Techniques teachers use to give and check instructions in The possible difficulties teachers might have when giving and speaking lessons checking instructions in speaking lessons 3.1. Research settings

The study was conducted at Viet Duc upper-secondary school, Hanoi. In this academic year, Viet Duc high school has approximately 2200 students. In each grade, there are 15 classes which are divided into four groups: TN, CB, XH and D. The TN classes belong to Nature Science department, CB classes belong to Basis department, XH classes belong to the Social department and D classes belong to Foreign Language Specializing Department. In each department, classes are numbered from 1 to 9. In general, students in Foreign Language Specializing Department are better at English than the others. Like the majority of upper-secondary schools all over Vietnam and in Hanoi, English has been made a compulsory subject at Viet Duc school, along with German as a free-chosen subject. Viet Duc is also among top quality schools in Hanoi with much investment put in the teaching and learning facilities as well as teacher training every year. For the past few years, with the economic open-door policy pursued by the Government, the
42

demand for communicating in English increasing results in the fact that the Communicating Language Teaching (CLT) approach has been implemented in Vietnam upper-secondary schools. The introduction of the reformed textbook in 2006 to grade-10 students nationwide as well as in Hanoi is a typical example. Nowadays, grammar, vocabulary and pronunciation are put much concentration on because the two most important English examinations in Vietnam, the school final examination and the university entrance examination, still focus on them. Despite this, with CLT approach, Viet Duc students can gradually develop all four skills including speaking, reading, listening and writing. 3.2. Participants The target population of this study was students and teachers who teach English at Viet Duc upper-secondary school. 3.2.2. Students 3.2.1.1. Description Although the focus of the research is on teacher’s giving and checking instructions, which is much concerning teacher’s job, students still play a very important role as the observers, evaluators, commentators and beneficiaries of the process. In total, 100 students from three classes joined in this study and did the survey questionnaire. Because this was a small-scale study, this number seemed to be reasonable and manageable. Students randomly taken from various classes can show their diverse

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perspectives on the same issue. About their background, all of the students had passed an entrance examination to Viet Duc high school and now they are in the second semester of the academic year 2009-2010 at this school. Most of them have learned English for at least 5 years since secondary school; therefore, they have quite a good background of English. Level of their English proficiency is pre-intermediate though in reality, some are above or below this level. In addition, the respondents’ background information including their group name, their gender, and their years of learning English also made their significant contribution to the maximization of the diversity of the targeted subjects. The wide diversity of the sampling population could be illustrated in detailed in this table below. Gender Male 10D6 11C2 11C3 28 40 32 4 7 5 Female 24 33 27 Average years of 5-10 26 38 31

learning English 0-4 2 2 1

Table 2: Background of the target population Besides that, as can be clearly seen in the table 2 below, the average scores of the previous semester of the students reflects the difference in their English competence. Their English score ranged from good (grade over 8.0), fairly good (grade from 7.0 to 7.9), average (grade from 6.0 to 6.9) and weak (grade below 6.0). Group name Average English score
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10D6 11C2 11C3

7 9 12

7 15 5

9 13 7

5 3 6

Table 3: Summary of average English scores of surveyed students 3.2.1.2. Sampling method The selection of students taking part in the survey was based on the principle of random sampling. The name of each class will be written in a piece of folded paper. Then they were put in a box altogether. The researcher randomly picked up three pieces of paper to choose three classes as the participants for her study. Finally, three classes namely 10D6, 11CB2 and 11CB3 with about 50 students each class were chosen as informants for the research. Thanks to this sampling strategy, each member of the target population has an equal and independent chance of being selected. The selection of one would not eliminate the probability of the others. As cited in Research methods in education, this sampling method will be “useful if the researcher wishes to be able to make generalization, because it seeks representativeness of the wider population” (Cohen et al, 2000, p.100). Therefore, this random choice will lead to an objective result with reliable and sufficient information for the researcher to carry out the study. In other words, this sampling method could guarantee high diversity and, thus reliability as well as the validity for the study. 3.2.2. Teachers Because teachers are core subjects of this research, seven teachers
45

were invited to share their opinion and experience on the investigated issue. Firstly they did the survey questionnaire and then, they took part in the interview with researcher to clarify some points in the questionnaire. Although seven was not a very big number, this quantity could definitely provide accurate and rich information. The detailed information about surveyed teachers could be referred to in the following table: Teacher 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Gender Female Female Female Female Female Female Female Age 32 24 35 52 42 40 30 Years of teaching 8 2 14 25 19 16 7

Table 4: Summary of selected teachers As can be seen from the table, all of the teachers were female, which was commonly seen in high schools. Their ages are at the middle between 24 and 52 years old. The number of years of teaching English ranged from 2 to 25 years. As a result, their valuable experience and knowledge could make major contribution to the research. 3.3. Data collection instruments 3.3.1. Questionnaire Questionnaire was chosen as the first data collection method, which was delivered to both students and teachers due to its great effectiveness. As Wilson and Mc Lean (1994, as cited in Cohen, Manion and Morrison,
46

2000: 245) stated, a questionnaire can provide “structured, numerical data, being able to be administered without the presence of the researcher, and often straightforward to be analyzed.” Moreover, with three types of data: behavioral, factual and attitudinal, the researcher could collect a huge amount of information in a limited amount of time. Also, from reality, the researcher found it economical and practical to conduct questionnaire among a large number of students and teachers. 3.3.1.1. Piloting Firstly, five tenth-grade students from 11CB2 and one teacher of English in Viet Duc high school volunteered to participate in the piloting stage. When students and teacher did the first version of the survey questionnaire, the researcher observed their reactions, and consider their answers. Along with it, their direct suggestions for the questionnaire improvement contributed to help the researcher to add some explanation for some important or uncommon terms for the respondents to avoid misunderstanding. Moreover, with the feedback from the supervisor, the researcher removed two unnecessary items in teacher questionnaires, two in student questionnaires, and edited the overall format and organization of the survey questionnaires. After the piloting of the questionnaire, the researcher created the final version of the survey questionnaires. 3.3.1.2. The design of the questionnaire The questionnaire had to be carefully designed. It began with a brief overview of the research title, the purpose of carrying out the questionnaire survey and a desire for cooperation from respondents. The researcher also
47

put emphasis on the confidentiality of the shared information. The questionnaire included two main sections: • Section 1: This section sought for their personal information.

The teacher questionnaire included their gender, age and the number of year that they have been teaching English. The student questionnaire included their class name, gender, the English score of the last semester and the time that they have been learning English. • Section 2: questions used in this section were mainly multiple choice and table grading questions. At some points open-ended questions were used to minimize the fatigue effect among students and teachers’ answers. This section would deliberately find the answers to the research questions. To make it easy for students to understand, the questionnaire was translated into Vietnamese and did not consist of too specialized terms. 3.3.2. Teacher interview In order to obtain more reliable and practical information and have an insightful look into the answers collected in the questionnaires, the interview was designed for the teachers. Unlike the questionnaires which included both the close- ended and open- ended questions, the interviews comprised of only open-ended ones. The interview was created in semistructured type. The advantages of semi-structure interview are enormous. In the book Second language research: Methodology and design, Mackey and Gass (2005, p.173) believed that “because interviews are interactive,
48

researchers can elicit additional data if initial answers are vague, incomplete, off-topic or not specific enough”. This idea agrees with that of Mackey and Gass (2005, p.96), interviews can balance some “potential problems related to the analysis of questionnaires such as inaccurate or incomplete responses”. This type of interview was supposed to give the interviewee a degree of authority and control and give the interviewer a greater deal of flexibility. Then finally it helped to work out the satisfactory answers to the research questions. The interview consisted of two parts. In the first part, the interview found out answers to the first three research questions which were later compared with students’ opinions. In the other part, the interview helped the researcher find out problems and solutions to the employment of giving and checking instructions techniques. 3.3.3. Classroom observation Classroom observation was also employed in this research as a data collection instrument to consolidate the results obtained through questionnaires and interviews. In many cases, the answers of questionnaires are inaccurate and incomplete whereas interviews may involve “selective recall, self- delusion, perceptual distortions, memory loss from the respondents and subjectivity in the researcher’s recording and interpreting the data” (Mackey and Gass, 2005, p.174). In their book, Mackey and Gass (2005: 176) claimed that the researcher can gain a deeper and more multilayered understanding of the participants and their content with the use of “over time and repeated observation. Sharing the same
49

viewpoints, Cohen et al (2000, p.305) believed that observational data are attractive as they afford the researcher the opportunity to gather ‘live’ data from ‘live’ situations. During the researcher’s teacher-training period, observation

checklists were carefully completed to achieve more practical data. These checklists included two main sections: teacher’s activities focusing on giving and checking instructions and students’ activities focusing on students’ reactions to teacher’s instructions. In a nutshell, the combination of the three most common data collection tools namely questionnaire, interview and classroom observation brought about a rich amount of valid and reliable data, which would be analyzed in the next chapter.

3.5.

Data collection procedure

To collect data for the study, the process of data collection had to be put in three phases as follows. 3.4.1. Phase 1: Preparation During this stage, after finishing designing the final version of the survey questionnaires, the researcher prepared for the official questionnaire administration. This phrase is essential because it lays the foundation for the whole process of data collection. Moreover the researcher understands that a well-prepared administration situation in advance can help the
50

researcher achieve good results. 3.4.2. Phase 2: Implementation First and foremost, the researcher came to meet the informants one week before the official day to deliver the survey questionnaire to give advance notice about the purpose of the study and the importance of their cooperation to the study as well as the specific time of delivering the survey. During the break time, the researcher went to each class and distributed survey questionnaires to the students personally. Before asking the students to do the survey questionnaire, the researcher briefly explained the format, the length of the questionnaire along with emphasizing confidentiality and the significance of the results. Besides the written instructions on the handout with the presence of the researcher when respondents were giving the answers, oral Vietnamese instructions and explanations were also available to avoid any misunderstanding and ambiguity. After fifteen minutes, the respondents finished completing all questionnaires. 120 questionnaires were returned. Finally, the researcher thanked the respondents for their help. Then, at the meeting of the Foreign Language Group, the researcher had the opportunity to directly interact with all the teachers and distribute the questionnaire to them. Eight questionnaires were delivered to the teachers at the end of the meeting. After twenty minutes, the questionnaires were completed and seven papers were returned. The researcher thanked the respondents for their help.
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Afterwards, three semi-structured interviews were conducted face to face with selected teachers. One week before the interview, the researcher asked for permission from the interviewed teachers as well as noticed them about the topic, the purpose and the importance of the research. After permission was given, an appointment was made at the teachers’ convenience. Like the questionnaires, two main parts of the interview included the personal information and the core content. While interviewing, the researcher tried the best to take notes and tape-record the content under the interviewees’ permission. All the main questions in the interview question list were covered. Besides, the researcher tried to be flexible by asking some extra questions to obtain deeper information relating to the research. Lastly, classroom observation was conducted after the questionnaires and interviews had been done. After asking for permission from the teachers of the classes observed, the researcher observed two different classes which were taught by two different teachers at different lessons: One speaking lesson at Group 11CB3 (Unit 12: The Asian Games) and one speaking lesson at 11CB1 (Unit 13: Hobbies). During these lessons, observation checklists were completed and some other observation notes were taken by the researcher. 3.4.3. Phase 3: Grouping the data After collecting data from questionnaires, interviews, and class observations, a plan for synthesizing and analyzing these data was quickly designed by the researcher.
52

3.5. Data analysis method and procedure Initially, descriptive statistics method was used to process the data got from the survey questionnaire, interviews and classroom observation. Based on the results of returned questionnaires, the researcher began to classify and synthesize data. Semi-structured interviews were transcribed, and analyzed. Regarding classroom observation, the researcher made a careful analysis on the observation details recorded from the two lessons. The results then were compared with those of questionnaires and interviews. For better illustration, comparison and explanations, all the data from close- ended questions were presented in bar charts and pie charts in a reader-friendly way. Next, the charts were followed by detailed explanation. For the open-ended questions, the researcher created categories from the statements made by the respondents. The categories were grouped together according to research questions. Besides, the most typical quotations from the interviews and useful classroom observations were regularly cited when necessary to illustrate the analysis of data. That is, all of the data gathered from the survey questionnaire was to find out the appropriate answers for the research questions In conclusion, the chapter has identified the major characteristics of participants and settings of the research. Descriptions of data collection instruments, procedure and data analysis method and procedure have also been provided.

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CHAPTER 4: RESULTS AND DISCUSSION This chapter is going to present and discuss the data obtained from the three employed instruments namely survey questionnaire, interview and classroom observation. After being analyzed seriously, some results were revealed as below: 4.1. The current situation of speaking lessons at Viet Duc high school, Hanoi To begin with, in this section some data concerning the student’s English proficiency are discovered. This chart below represents their selfevaluation of their English proficiency.

54

5%

8%

42%

Good Fairly Good Average Weak

45%

Figure 1: Student’s self-evaluation of their English proficiency (Question 1, Appendix 1) Inevitably less than 5% of the selected students were confident to say that their English proficiency is good. Most of the students thought of their English proficiency as average (45%) or weak (42%). This result seemed to contradict to their real result when both average and weak score accounted for only 56%. However, their teacher’s opinions were quite different from them while most of them, 72% believed that the students’ proficiency was average while the rest thought that it was good. The low proficiency English level could indirectly lead to students’ misunderstanding and not following the teacher’s instructions. Moreover, it can be inferred from the results that students are too shy and unconfident to actively participate in the class’s activities. In speaking lesson, the level of activeness in taking part in activities can be displayed as followed:

55

3%

10% 9%
Always

38%

Usually Often Rarely Never

40%

Figure 2: Level of students’ activeness in speaking lessons (Question 2, Appendix 1) Discovered from this data, most of the students, were often or rarely participating in activities in speaking lessons, which accounts for 40% and 38% respectively. Only 10% always actively joined in speaking activities. Particularly 3 students (3%) claimed that they never took part in speaking activities. The classroom observation supported this finding. In the speaking lessons observed in class 11CB3, nearly half of the students enthusiastically took part in the activities. Their enthusiasm seemed to reduce by the end of the lesson. Generally speaking, students at Viet Duc high school were not fully involving in the speaking lessons. 4.2. Teachers’ perception and students’ attitude towards teacher’s instructions This part of the questionnaire is intended to reveal teachers’ perceptions and students’ attitudes towards the significant roles of teacher’s
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instructions as well as the reasons for their choices. The data collected is displayed as follows.

0% 1% 36% 29%

1 Point 2 Points 3 Points 4 Points 5 Points

34%

Figure 3: Student's attitude towards teacher's instructions (Question 3, Appendix 1) In the graph, 1 point represents “instructions are not important” while 5 points represent “instructions are very important”. As can be seen, a large proportion of students seem to have realized the significance of teacher’s instructions, without which they hardly become competent English users. Specifically, as many as 34% of the surveyed students decided on “important” and 36% of the whole population even judged the role of teacher’s instructions beyond the word “very important”. However, a small percentage of students (1%) have not been enlightened about the contribution of the teacher’s instructions to their learning speaking process.

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6 Number of teachers 5 4 3 2 1 0 2

5

Important Very Important

Figure 4: Teachers' attitudes towards teachers' instructions (Question 2, Appendix 2) From the chart above, 5 out of 7 surveyed teachers made no hesitation to say that the instructions are very important while the other two decided that they are important. Some students when being asked why they just gave 1 point or 2 points for the importance of teacher’s instructions, they said that they could do the tasks or activities without teacher’s instructions by themselves through reading books or asking friends. As the largest percentage of students and all teachers share the same attitude, students cannot learn everything on their own but need the instructions from the teachers. Teachers both have many years of teaching experiences and know the ability of students clearly, so they can give the right instructions which are suitable for students’ level. From listening to the teacher’s instructions, students have chance to experience the English vocabulary and structures in real situation. Most importantly, according to some teachers, instructions act as a guideline and help students go through the lessons in the right way and avoid any misunderstanding of the teacher’s intention. This result seemed to correspond with the experts’ opinion on the importance of
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teacher’s instructions in literature review chapter. 4.3. Techniques employed to give and check instructions The researcher investigated techniques teachers use to give and check instructions and the frequency of using each technique. As revealed from the data, students’ opinions varied from that of teacher’s. The results can be seen as follows.
Number of students 60 50 5 points 4 points 3 points 2 points 1 point 40 30 20 10 0 Step-by-step Demonstrate it Say-do-check Techniques Student recall

Figure 5: Giving and checking instructions techniques and their frequency (students’ opinions) (Questions 4,5, Appendix 1) (The points from 1 to 5 respectively indicate the ascending degree of frequency). The result from the charts reflects the real situation that all the giving and checking instructions techniques were employed in speaking lessons. However, the frequency of using each differed dramatically. The most distinguishing feature of the charts is that say-do-check was most frequently employed by teachers, followed by the use of student recall and demonstrate it technique. The utilization of step-by-step was noticed to be
59

rarely used. This finding was made on the basis of the rating scale from 1 to 5 in terms of frequency degree. Regarding say-do-check, it was assessed at 5 points by 56.25% of students. The second largest number is 20% of the students chose number 4. The lowest points of the rating scale were hardly circled by students. Following closely to the top was the use of student recall when there were more than 46% of the students choosing number 4 and 5. Therefore, the use of this technique could be said to be relatively frequent. The use of demonstrate it techniques ranked the third in terms of frequency. With regards to step-by-step, they were not regularly exploited in speaking lessons when more students ticked at column 1 and 2 than all the others. In short, say-do-check was used with a greatly high frequency. Student recall and demonstrate it were also greatly employed, but less regularly. Step-bystep was believed to be least frequently exploited.

5 4 3 Number of 2 teachers 1 Step-by-stepDemonstrate Say-do-check Student it recall Techniques 0
5 points 4 points 3 points 2 points 1 point

Figure 6: Giving and checking instructions techniques and their frequency (teachers’ opinions) (Questions 3,4, Appendix 2)
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(The points from 1 to 5 respectively indicate the ascending degree of frequency). From this figure it can be seen that teachers seemed to reach agreements on their use of techniques. Most of the interviewed teachers gave step-by-step the highest ranking: 5 points. To clarify their choice about step-by-step, one teacher said that “It takes a lot of time to use the other techniques, so it will be a waste of time. Moreover, when with stepby-step, teacher give and check instructions gradually at a low pace. And it fits to students’ ability.” The figure above illustrates great diversity in their choices. It meant that they were fully aware of the importance of those techniques. Step-by-step is usually applied because it is not only easy to do but also appears quite effective. “Demonstrate it” is sometimes used to attract the students’ attention and motivate them to involve in the lesson. Because usually instructions are given orally, which may cause the boredom to the students. Also, say-do-check is used when teachers want students to have more chances to practice English as much as possible. In this situation, listening and speaking are integrated. Moreover, it is very important to check whether students understand what they are required to do or not. Teachers admitted that except for step-by-step, the other techniques can’t be employed more frequently because of the limited time. Classroom observation conducted in speaking lessons at two classes: 11CB1 and 11CB3 and could support the results gathered from survey questionnaires and interviews. During 45 minutes of a lesson, a wide variety of techniques was used. When a game was utilized as the warm-up, the teacher used say-do-check because at the beginning of the lesson there
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was much time left. After that, when asking students to do the task in textbook, specifically task 3: work with a partner in unit 13: Hobbies (English 11), teacher gave and checked instructions using step-by-step. Teachers’ opinions can be summarized into two main points. Firstly, step-by-step was picked most with highest frequency, followed by other techniques. Secondly, no techniques are ignored in speaking lessons. These findings were well-supported by the literature on the same field. Techniques to give and check instructions can be diversified but the principles to give and check instructions have to be guaranteed, that is instructions are made to be attractive to students and easy to understand and follow. Apart from step-by-step, say-do-check, demonstrate it, student recall, other techniques teachers employed is repeating the instructions more than one time and paraphrasing the instructions by using other vocabulary and structures. 4.4. Languages used to give and check instructions As shown in these chart, both teachers and their students stated that among English and Vietnamese, English was used more often to give and check instructions. The below chart shows that 84%, which equals to the largest percentage of the students said their teachers used English more often to give and check instructions. 16 is the percentage of students who considered both languages are used by their teachers. At the same time no student says that Vietnamese was used more often. It can be realized from the chart 8 that the teachers hardly ever used Vietnamese more often to
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give and check instructions in their speaking lessons. The minority of the teachers (1 out of 7 teachers asked) said they used both Vietnamese and English. It should also be noted that with the largest proportions of teachers agreed (more than 85%), English is the favorite language of teachers when giving and checking instructions. The observation of class 11CB1 and 11CB3 showed that teacher gave and checked instructions in English completely. The results collected are not beyond the researcher’s prediction. English is used more often on the aim of maximizing students' exposure to the second language. Teachers insisted on creating opportunities in which their students could speak and listen exclusively in the target language. Vietnamese, the first language, can be used sometimes, but conditionally. For instance, an interviewed teacher stated that first language needed to be used when teachers attempted to give the ideas that are abstract or a new concept. All in all, whether it is English or Vietnamese, instructions need to be comprehensible.
100 Number of students 80 60 40 20 0 English 16 0 Vietnamese Both

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Language

Figure 7: Languages used in giving and checking instructions (students’ opinions) (Question 6, Appendix 1)
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7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

Number of teachers

6

Language
English Vietnamese Both

Figure 8: Language used to give and check instructions (teachers’ opinions) (Question 5, Appendix 2) Relating to the conception of classification of sentences, there are three types of sentences namely declarative, interrogative, imperative sentences. A brief explanation of each type of sentence can be seen as follow. A declarative sentence makes a statement and ends with a period. An interrogative sentence asks a question and ends with a question mark. An imperative sentence gives a command. The frequency of using each type of sentences is clarified as in the following figures.
Percentage of students 100% 80% 60% 40% 20% 0%
ive e ro ga ra t iv ra t tiv e

1 point 2 points 3 points

la

De c

In te r

Types of sentences

Figure 9: Types of sentences used to give and check instructions
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Im

pe

(Students’ opinions) (Question 7, Appendix 1) (The points from 1 to 3 respectively indicate the ascending degree of frequency) As shown in this chart, among three types of sentences, none of them are ignored. According to students’ opinions, teachers used all three types of sentences but their frequency differed from each other considerably. According to the chart, declaratives are among the sentence types which are most frequently utilized, followed by interrogative sentences. Imperative sentences were noticed to rarely be used to give and check instructions in speaking lessons. To be more precise, declarative sentences ranked the first with 11% students who circled point 3 and 57% circled point 2. As many as 45% chose point 3 and 15% chose point 2 for interrogative sentences. Half of the students chose point 1 for imperative sentences. The teacher’s idea can be listed as follows:
100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0%
De cla ra tiv e In te rro ga tiv e Im pe ra tiv e

Percentage of students

1 point 2 points 3 points

Types of sentences

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Figure 10: Types of sentences used to give and check instructions (Teachers’ opinions) (Question 6, Appendix 2) (The points from 1 to 3 respectively indicate the ascending degree of frequency) Teacher’s opinions are slightly different from that of students’. The leading and also the equal percentage of 70% of teachers circled point 2 is shared by declarative and imperative sentences. The frequency of using interrogative sentences is lesser than that of two other kinds, which is illustrated by nearly 30% teachers decided to choose point 1, meaning the least frequency for interrogative sentences. This result corresponded with that of the observation in the speaking lesson at class 11CB3 and 11CB1, the researcher recognized when giving instructions for the warm-up activity, teachers first gave the instructions in declarative sentences. Then she put stress on each step of the instructions by saying an imperative sentence. From the teachers’ interviews, a good explanation for this statistics is imperative sentences are often applied when teachers wanted to put more emphasis on this part or this idea. But teachers didn’t use them too much because it made students feel like being imposed and teachers are the controller that they had to obey. On the other hand, interrogatives are employed to check students’ comprehension more often. 4.5. The hindrances teacher might have when giving and checking instructions 4.5.1 The level of students’ understanding teacher’s instructions
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Because the effectiveness of teachers’ instructions can be reflected through students’ understanding, the researcher decided to conduct the questions on how students evaluate their understanding of teachers’ instructions. The current situation inferred from the result of the research does live up to the researcher’s expectations. When being asked to self-assess the level of their understanding the teacher’s instructions, most of them gave out a high number, which is from 3 points to 5 points. To be more specific, the largest target population (33%) gave 3 points which indicates that they understand nearly all the instructions. Nearly the same percentage (32%) claims that they quite understand the instructions. 15% of the students said they can understand all the teacher’s instructions, which is a satisfactory fact. Just a small proportion of students claimed that they don’t understand the teacher’s instructions, occupying 5%, the smallest percentage. It can be seen that the difficulties teachers had when giving and checking instructions came from both student factor and teacher factor.
5% 15% 15%

5 points 4 points

33% 32%

3 points 2 points 1 point

Figure 11: Level of students’ understanding teacher’s instructions
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(Question 8, Appendix 1) (The points from 1 to 5 respectively indicate the ascending degree of frequency) The causes that lead to some students’ misunderstanding are also the actual difficulties that teachers have when giving and checking instructions. The answer for this problem is revealed when the researcher carried out the deeper investigation. 4.5 2. Possible difficulties when giving and checking instructions The answer to this also helps to justify why some techniques were used at rather low frequency and the effectiveness of teacher’s instructions was assessed by some students to be still vague. In an attempt to investigate what are the troubles teacher might have when giving and checking instructions, the researcher gained the following figures.

Teacher's unclear voice
10% 11% 7%

High speed of the lesson New vocabulary and structures Students' concentration

36% 36%

Others

Figure 12: Reasons why students don’t understand teacher’s instructions (Question 9, Appendix 1) From the statistics, the highest percentage of new vocabulary and
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structures and students’ concentration piece was 36%. It can be inferred that new vocabulary and structures with students’ low concentration along were two most serious obstacles to giving and checking instructions. Many students stated that the teacher used complex structures which they couldn’t understand. Students confessed that they didn’t fully concentrate to hear the teacher’s instructions. Sometimes they would prefer talking with peers or learning the subjects for the next periods if they have test. Besides, teacher’s voice and high speed of the lessons were also dramatically causing troubles. Students who chose this complained that their teacher’s voice is so soft and not easy to listen to and even sometimes their teacher spoke so fast that they couldn’t keep up the pace. Teacher’s voice and lesson moving on a high speed accounted for 11% and 7% respectively. 10% chose “others”. Students also gave out the reasons to clarify their points. Firstly, their low English proficiency level especially their basic-leveled listening skill is caused them a lot of trouble. Some admitted that they are lazy and forgetful and even don’t like learning English. Some claimed that the learning environment was not good when the whole class was too noisy and they don’t have a partner or a team to do the tasks and follow the teacher’s instructions. Some students put the blame on teacher’s incorrect pronunciation, boring voice tone and the instructions are not necessary. The difficulties that lead to ineffectiveness of the instructions are proposed from the researcher’s own observation. The findings from teachers’ opinions about hindrances they met when giving and checking instructions are displayed in the following figure.
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0% 30%

10%
Teacher's unclear voice Time constraint Finding vocablary and structures Student's concentration Others

40% 20%

Figure 13: Hindrances to giving and checking instructions (Question 7, Appendix 2) From this chart, it is notable 40%, the largest number of teachers claimed that they had difficulties in time constraint. Thus, the biggest challenge was time constraint, which was agreed upon by most of the interviewees. Giving and checking instructions is quite time-consuming. A teacher answered in the interviews: “Forty five minutes per period are not sufficient for the teachers to put too much attention to give and check very careful instructions while the core content had to be fully covered.” The effectiveness was limited by the student factor itself. Students here lack of confidence and self discipline, which leads to their low concentration. Teachers also put a stress on the difficulties related to finding appropriate words and structures to use in their instructions. Some teachers who chose “others” make their ideas clear by stating about the teaching and learning conditions. The teaching condition is not supportive enough. Viet Duc upper-secondary school, despite being put lots of investment in, is still in need of modern classroom facilities. At the current situation, each class in Viet Duc high school has about 50 students. This number is hard for the teachers to organize such large-sized classes. Even the difficulties come from the curriculum. Although the content in the textbook had to be
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followed, the task is not attractive enough and not appropriate for the students’ demand. Some teacher stated that some students’ English proficiency is not good as well as they didn’t have the background knowledge about the topic. 4.6 Implications The reported findings are hoped to have significant pedagogical suggestions which can assist the involved parties in solving problems for giving and checking instructions. Firstly, to solve the problems relating to students’ unsupportive attitudes, boredom and incomprehensibility, a positive attitude towards the teaching career is necessary. A competent teacher with a love of teaching can win students’ respect and support. That is the prerequisite for teachers to be successful in everything they do, including the task of giving and checking instructions. Secondly, it will be much effective to have an appropriate giving and checking instructions manners such as varying the intonation, putting the rhythm in the instructions, giving more stress on important words and phrases in the instructions with correct pronunciation. More than that, the instructions need to be given clearly and slow enough with familiar words and structures so that it is comprehensible for students. In some case, teacher can say the instructions in English first then translate into Vietnamese. Students at Viet Duc high school often learn the lessons beforehand at home or at a language center, thus, they may feel bored and inactive at schools. Teachers are advised to invest much of their creativeness in making the lessons in general and instructions specifically
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more interesting and attractive. Some activities can be applied is games which require more talking, role play, English songs, using vivid visual aids and demonstration. In dealing with time constraint, and unfavorable teaching conditions when forming small-sized class is impossible, teachers should prepare for the lesson carefully. Also, being flexible in using giving and checking instructions techniques can help teachers use the time budget more efficiently. In schools where teaching and learning conditions are not adequate for the demands, teachers should try to exploit available resources very creatively. Without hi-tech facilities, they can use substitute tools such as realia, flashcards, and so on to support their giving and checking instructions. However, the inadequate teaching conditions create a need for infrastructure upgrading which educational administrators should take into consideration. For the overall success of the lesson, beside teachers’ effort, students should also be well aware of their responsibilities, i.e try to be supportive to teachers’ instructions, putting more concentration and hard working at class. To sum up, this research has found out a number of significant results, some of which corresponded to those of the previous studies and the theory presented in the literature review. The finding analysis chapter serves as a accurate account of the situation surveyed, based on which the researcher can work out pedagogical implications for involved parties.

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CHAPTER 5: CONCLUSION Four previous chapters namely introduction, literature review, methodology, results and discussion have discussed all the concepts and viewpoints around this topic as well as presented results achieved from conducting this research. The final chapter aims to summarize findings, notable limitations of the research and give some suggestions for further study as well. 5.1. Summary of the findings On the whole, this research was carried out among the students and teachers at Viet Duc upper-secondary school to find out the situation of teachers’ giving and checking instructions in this school. The investigation was implemented by three data collection instruments namely questionnaire, interview and classroom observation with 100 students and
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seven teachers as the targeted population. The results can be noted as follows. Firstly, concerning the attitude towards teachers’ instructions, most of the students and all the teachers highly appreciated the role of teachers’ instructions in learning speaking English. This finding seemed to be similar to the opinions of Gower and Walters (1983) and Harmer (1998). Regarding the techniques, all four techniques: step-by-step, demonstrate it, say-do-check, student recall were reported to be employed to give and check instructions. However, the frequency of using each was discovered to be different. Say-do-check is used with the highest frequency as acknowledged by students. Whereas, step-by-step was the most favorite choice among teachers themselves. About the language teachers at Viet Duc School applied to give and check instructions, both teachers and students agreed that English was used more often than Vietnamese. It was due to the fact that teachers desired to maximize students' exposure to the second language usage. Moreover, relating to preference of using sentence types, teachers and students seemed to prefer declarative and imperative sentences to interrogative sentences. Talking about the obstacles to the employment of teachers’ instructions, the major difficulties are pointed out. The rating descended from time constraint, students’ concentration, finding appropriate words and structures to quality of teachers’ voice. Besides that, the other difficulties stated in the survey were: lack of modern teaching facilities,
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large-sized class, English ability of students and boredom from the textbook tasks. The identified problems would be partly solved by the attempt of all parties involved. They were the efforts to self-improving of both teachers and students along with the assistance of the school and other authorities. 5.2. Limitation Due to the restrictions of time, scope of the study and the author’s limited knowledge and experience, the shortcomings of the research are unavoidable. Firstly, 100 students directly get involved in this research is still a limited number. As a result, the representativeness of this study is not as high as the researcher’s expectation. Secondly, due to time constraint and difficulty in approaching participants, the interview was conducted among only three teachers; and observation was just carried out with two lessons. Thus the survey scope was not as broad as expected. The research partly reflected the actual situation of teachers’ instructions at Viet Duc upper-secondary school. In order to compensate these weaknesses, the researcher did make a thorough data collecting and analyzing procedure in order to obtain validity and reliability for the research. The limitation of the study, little or much, may pose harm to the result of the study and should be taken into account in future research of the same field. Hopefully, the author could receive both enthusiastic and critical review from the readers. 5.3. Suggestions for further research As stated in the previous part, the present study restricted the survey scope to teachers and students at Viet Duc high school with a certain
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number of participants. Therefore, if time, finance and energy allow, researchers can expand the scope to a large number of upper-secondary schools in Hanoi. By expanding and varying sampling participants, these researches can have better representativeness. In addition, the writer of this study mainly focuses on instructions in speaking lessons. Therefore, other researchers can shift this topic to other skills rather than speaking areas. This is because tasks and activities in speaking lessons are much different from those of writing, reading, or listening lessons, which might lead to the requirement of different techniques to give and check instructions. Finally, those who are interested in this topic can choose to do the research among trainee teachers. Because as observed by the researcher, the research on giving and checking instructions can greatly contribute to the success of novice and inexperienced teachers who have difficulties in giving and checking instructions more frequently than experienced teachers. To sum up, there are many alternatives for other researchers to choose from to do further studies relating to this topic. In a nutshell, like Glickman (2002) has said, each teacher in each classroom is unique with talent, energy, thought, and knowledge. This explanation is meant to convey that working with teachers to improve instruction is always an experiment, a trial-and-error research cycle of finding out what structures, formats, and observations best support the growth of individual competence, improved student learning, and overall school success. Therefore, hopefully this research can help involved parties find a reliable referential source to improve their own situation as well as to carry out further exploitation into the same field.
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REFERENCES Brown, G. and Yule, G (1983). Teaching the Spoken Language. Cambridge. Cambridge University Press. Brown, K. Douglas. (1994). Teaching by principle. Prentice Hall Regents. Carl D. Glickman. (2002). Leadership for learning. Virginia, USA. Celce-Murcia, M. (1995). Communicative competence: A pedagogically motivated model with content specifications, Issues in Applied Linguistics, 6 (2), 10-24. Cohen, L., Manion, L. and Morrison, K. (2004). A guide to teaching practice (5th ed.). Routledge Falmer. Cohen, L., Manion, L. and Morrison, K. (2000). Research methods in education. London: Routledgefalmer.
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Doff, A. (1988). Teach English: A training course for teachers. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Florez (1999). Improving Adult English Language Learners’ Speaking Skills. Washington, DC. Gower, Phillips and Walters (1995). Teaching practice: a handbook for teacher in training. Thailand: Macmillan Education. Harmer, J. (1983). The practice of English Language Teaching. Essex: Longman Group Limited. Huitt, W. (2003). Educational Psychology Interactive. Valdosta, GA: Valdosta State University. Le, C. (1999). Language and Vietnamese pedagogical contexts, The 4th Internal Conference on Language Development. Hanoi: Nha xuat ban Dai Hoc Quoc Gia Hanoi. Liruso & Villanueva (2003). Giving Oral Instructions to EFL Young Learners. Argentina. Luoma (2003). Assess speaking. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Mackey, A. and Gass S.M. (2005). Second language research: Methodology and Design. London: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Nunan, D. (2003). Practical English language teaching. Boston: Mcgrawhill Companies.

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Richard, J.C. (2005). Communicative Language Teaching Today. New York: Cambridge University Press. Richards, J, J Platt and H Weber. (1985). Longman Dictionary of Applied Linguistics. London: Longman. Richards, J.C. (2003).Teaching Speaking Theories and Methodologies. Retrieved December 13, 2009 from www.professorjackrichards.com. Terry, C. (2008). How to Teach Speaking in an EFL Class. Chile. To, T. H et al. (2006). ELT Methodology II (Course book). University of Languages and International Studies, Vietnam National University, Hanoi. Ur, P. (1996). A Course in Language Teaching. Cambridge University Press.

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APPENDICES Appendix 1: Questionnaire for students (English version) Appendix 2: Questionnaire for students (Vietnamese version) Appendix 3: Questionnaire for teachers Appendix 4: Interview question list (for teachers) Appendix 5: Observation checklist Appendix 6: Interview extraction

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APPENDIX 1 STUDENT QUESTIONNAIRE (English version) Teacher’s giving instructions and checking in speaking lessons My name is Nguyen Thu Thuy, from Class 061E11, University of Languages and International Studies – Hanoi National University. I am doing the research for my graduation paper, which is about teacher’s giving and checking instructions and this questionnaire is an essential part of the research. This questionnaire was designed to investigate how the instructions are given in speaking lessons. This is not a test, so there is no “right” or “wrong” answer. I would highly appreciate if you could read the questions carefully and answer all the questions honestly and completely. Your personal information will not be disclosed under any circumstances. Your answer to all or any questions will be treated with strictest confidence. A. PERSONAL INFORMATION 1. Class: 2. You are: Male or Female
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3. Age: 4. English score of the last semester: B. QUESTIONS Please give out your choice which you think the most suitable for you. For some questions, more than one answer is acceptable. 1. Self evaluate your speaking English proficiency: a. Good b. Fairly good a. Always b. Usually c. Often d. Rarely e. Never 3. What do you think about the importance of teacher’s instructions in class? 1 2 3 4 5 (1: not important, 5: very important) Reasons for your choice:................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................ 4. What techniques does your teacher use to give and check instructions in speaking lesson? a. Step-by-step b. Demonstrate it c. Say-do-check d. Student recall c. Average d. Weak

2. How often do you participate in activities in speaking lessons?

Step-by-step: teacher gives Ss one instruction at a time, not a list of instructions all together. Breaking down instructions into small, separate steps to help Ss to understand these completely.
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Demonstrate it: teacher doesn’t talk about what Ss must do, instead, he/she shows them what to do by giving demonstration. Say- do – check: teacher follow 3 steps for each instruction. First: says the instruction, second: gets Ss to do it, third: check that they’ve done it correctly before going on to the next instruction. Student recall: after giving instructions in English, teacher checks that SS understand everything by asking ss to recall what they will do in VNese “say it again in Vnese”,”tell me what you have to do in VNese” 5. How often does your teacher use each type of techniques in speaking lesson? Always Step-by-step Demonstrate it Say-do-check Student recall 6. Between English and Vietnamese, which one does your teacher use more often to give and check instructions? a. Vietnamese b. English c. Both 7. What kind of sentences your teacher use in her instructions? (there may be more than 1 choice). a. Declarative ..... b. Interrogative ..... c. Imperative .... Number from 1 to 3 to demonstrate the frequency of using each kind of sentences (1: most, 3: least)
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Usually

Sometimes Rarely

Never

8. Self assess your understanding of teacher’s instructions in speaking lesson 1 2 3 4 5 (1: do not understand, 5: understand fully) 9. If you don’t understand, or understand just a little, in your opinion, what are the reasons for it? a. Teacher’s voice is not clear b. Teacher speaks too fast c. Some words in the instruction you don’t understand d. You don’t concentrate
e. 10.

Others (please specify):......................................................................... What do you suggest to improve the teacher’s instructions in ..................................................................................................

speaking lesson? .................................................................................................................... .................. In case you want to ask me anything about the questionnaire, please contact me via phone: 098 2927 233 or email: thuy.nguyenthu9@gmail.com THANK YOU VERY MUCH FOR YOUR HELP!

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APPENDIX 2 PHIẾU ĐIỀU TRA Dành cho học sinh (Phiên bản tiếng Việt) Lời hướng dẫn của giáo viên trong các giờ học nói Chào các bạn! Tôi tên là Nguyễn Thu Thủy, sinh viên lớp 061E11, trường Đại học Ngoại ngữ, Đại học quốc gia Hà Nội. Tôi đang tiến hành một nghiên cứu cho bài khóa luận tốt nghiệp của tôi về việc đưa ra và kiểm tra lời hướng dẫn của giáo viên trong các giờ học nói tại trường THPT Việt Đức. Phiếu điều tra này là một phần quan trọng không thể thiếu được của nghiên cứu. Vì vậy tôi rất mong nhận được những ý kiến trung thực nhất từ phía các bạn để nghiên cứu này thu được những kết quả tốt nhất. Cám ơn các bạn rất nhiều. Nội dung của bản điều tra này là hoàn toàn tuyệt mật. Thông tin cá nhân về các đối tượng điều tra sẽ được bảo đảm tuyệt đối. A. Thông tin cá nhân 1. 2. 3. 4. Lớp: Giới tính: Tuổi: Điểm tiếng Anh của học kì trước:

B. Câu hỏi Hãy đưa ra câu trả lời mà bạn nghĩ rằng phù hợp nhất với mình. Một số câu hỏi có thể lựa chọn nhiều đáp án 1. Bạn tự đánh giá năng lực tiếng Anh của mình là: a. Tốt
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b. Khá

c. Trung bình

d. Kém

2. Bạn có hay tham gia vào các hoạt động (phát biểu, làm nhóm, làm đôi, làm các tasks trong sách...) trong giờ học nói không? a. Luôn luôn b. Thường xuyên c. Thỉnh thoảng d. Hiếm khi e. Không bao giờ 3. Bạn nghĩ tầm quan trọng của lời hướng dẫn của giáo viên là như thế nào? 1 2 3 4 5 (1: không quan trọng, 5: rất quan trọng) Lý do cho lựa chọn của mình: ………………………………………………………………………............. .........................................................................................................................
4.

Giáo viên của bạn dùng cách gì để đưa ra và kiểm tra lời hướng dẫn? a. Từng bước một b. Minh họa c. Nói-làm- kiểm tra d. Học sinh nhắc lại

Từng bước một: Giáo viên nói từng lời hướng dẫn một thành những bước nhỏ riêng lẻ mà không nói liền mạch Minh họa: Giáo viên không nói học sinh phải làm gì, thay vì vậy, giáo viên minh họa cho học sinh thấy. Nói-làm-kiểm tra: Giáo viên đi theo ba bước sau. Thứ 1: Nói lời hướng dẫn, thứ 2: bảo học sinh làm, thứ 3: kiểm tra xem học sinh đã làm đúng chưa trước khi đi đến phần tiếp theo Học sinh nhắc lại: sau khi đưa ra lời hướng dẫn bằng tiếng Anh, giáo viên kiểm tra học sinh đã hiểu đến đâu bằng cách bảo học sinh nhắc lại những việc HS cần phải làm bằng tiếng Việt

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5. Cho biết mức độ thường xuyên trong việc sử dụng các cách để đưa ra và kiểm tra lời hướng dẫn?

Luôn luôn Thỉnh thoảng

Đôi khi

Hiếm khi

Không bao giờ

Từng bước một Minh họa Nói-làm-kiểm tra Học sinh nhắc lại 6. Giữa tiếng Việt và tiếng Anh, giáo viên của bạn thường dùng tiếng gì để đưa và kiểm tra lời hướng dẫn? a. Tiếng Việt b. Tiếng Anh c. Cả hai 7. Loại câu nào sau đây giáo viên của bạn thường dùng trong lời hướng dẫn? (có thể có nhiều lựa chọn) a. Câu trần thuật ..... b. Câu nghi vấn ..... c. Câu mệnh lệnh .... Đánh số từ 1 đến 3 để biểu thị tần xuất của việc sử dụng những mẫu câu trên (3: nhiều nhất, 1: ít nhất) 8. Tự đánh giá mức độ hiểu lời giáo viên hướng dẫn của bạn? 1 2 a. b. c. 3 4 5 (1: không hiểu, 5:hiểu hết) 9. Nếu bạn không hiểu hoặc chỉ hiểu ít, theo bạn lí do là gì? Giọng của giáo viên không rõ và không dễ nghe Bạn không tập trung Có từ và cấu trúc mới mà bạn không biết
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d.

Khác:...........................................................................................

...........
10.

Bạn có đề nghị gì để nâng cao hiệu quả của lời hướng dẫn của giáo viên? ..................................................................................................... ............................................................................................................... ..........

Trong trường hợp bạn muốn hỏi tôi bất kì điều gì về phiếu điều tra, xin hãy liên lạc với tôi theo số điện thoại: 098 2927 233 hoặc email: thuy.nguyenthu9@gmail.com XIN CHÂN THÀNH CẢM ƠN!

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APPENDIX 3 TEACHER QUESTIONNAIRE Teacher’s giving and checking instructions in speaking lessons My name is Nguyen Thu Thuy, from Class 061E11, University of Languages and International Studies – Hanoi National University. I am doing the research for my graduation paper, which is about teacher’s giving instructions and this questionnaire is an essential part of the research. This questionnaire was designed to investigate how the instructions are given in speaking lessons. This is not a test, so there is no “right” or “wrong” answer. I would highly appreciate if you could read the questions carefully and answer all the questions honestly and completely. Your personal information will not be disclosed under any circumstances. Your answer to all or any questions will be treated with strictest confidence. Please give out your choice which you think the most suitable for you. For some questions, more than one answer is acceptable. A. PERSONAL INFORMATION 1. You are: Male or Female 2. Age: 3. You have been teaching English for: B. QUESTIONS a. Good b. Fairly good
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1. Specify the level of your student’s speaking English c. Average d. Weak

2. What do you think about the importance of giving and checking instructions? 1 2 3 4 5 (1: not important, 5: very important) Reasons for your choice:................................................................................. ……………………………………………………………………................ 3. What techniques do you use to give and check instructions in speaking lesson? a. Step-by-step b. Demonstrate it c. Say-do-check d. Student recall

(There may be more than 1 choice) Step-by-step: teacher gives Ss one instruction at a time, not a list of instructions all together. Breaking down instructions into small, separate steps to help Ss to understand these completely. Demonstrate it: teacher doesn’t talk about what Ss must do, instead, he/she shows them what to do by giving demonstration. Say- do – check: teacher follow 3 steps for each instruction. First: says the instruction, second: gets Ss to do it, third: check that they’ve done it correctly before going on to the next instruction. Student recall: after giving instructions in English, teacher checks that SS understand everything by asking ss to recall what they will do in VNese “say it again in Vnese”,”tell me what you have to do in VNese” 4. How often do you use each type of techniques in speaking lesson? Always Usually Step-by-step Demonstrate it Say-do-check Student recall 5. Between English and Vietnamese, which do you use more often to give and check instructions? Why? ....................................................................................................................
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Sometimes Rarely

Never

6. What kind of sentences do you use to in your instructions? (There may be more than 1 choice). a. Declarative ..... b. Interrogative ..... c. Imperative .... Number from 1 to 3 to demonstrate the frequency of using each kind of sentences (1: least, 3: most) 7. What are difficulties that you have when giving and checking instructions? a. Your voice is unclear b. Time constraint c. Finding appropriate words and structures d. Students don’t concentrate
e.

Others:...................................................................................................

8. What do you suggest to improve the teacher’s instructions in speaking lesson? ...................................................................................................... .................................................................................................................. ............ In case you want to ask me anything about the questionnaire, please contact me via phone: 098 2927 233 or email: thuy.nguyenthu9@gmail.com THANK YOU VERY MUCH FOR YOUR HELP APPENDIX 4 Interview questions (For teachers)
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A.

Personal information: Age: Year of teaching experience:

B. Interview questions 1. What do you think about the importance of teacher’s instructions? Give reasons for your choice 2. Among the listed techniques (Step-by-step, Demonstrate it, Saydo-check, Student recall), how frequently do you use them? 3. For those you rarely use and those you use most often, can you explain why? 4. Between English and Vietnamese, which do you use more often to give and check instructions? Why? 5. What kind of sentences do you use to in your instructions? What is the most frequently used and why? 6. What are the difficulties that you have when giving instructions? 7. What do you suggest to improve the teacher’s instructions in speaking lesson?

APPENDIX 5 Observation checklist
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Date: Time: Location: Unit: Participants: Teacher 1. Techniques to give and check instructions • What techniques are used, how often and when? + step by step + demonstrate it + say- do - check + Student recall 2. Language to give and check instructions • When and how often + English + Vietnamese 3. Types of sentences to give and check instructions • When and how often + Declarative + Imperative + Interrogative APPENDIX 6 INTERVIEW EXTRACTION
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Student 1. Student’s participation - What are the responses? - Confident and active in doing what is required?

1. What do you think about the importance of teacher’s instructions? Give reasons for your choice Teacher 1: Teacher’s instructions is very important because teachers know the ability of students clearly, so they can give the right instructions which are suitable for students’ level. Teacher 2: instructions can act as a guideline and help students Teacher 3: To avoid any misunderstanding of the teacher’s go through the lessons in the right way intention 2. Among the listed techniques (Step-by-step, Demonstrate it, Saydo-check, Student recall), how frequently do you use them? -Teacher 1: I use all the techniques 3. For those you rarely use and those you use most often, can you explain why?
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Teacher 1: It takes a lot of time to use the other techniques, so it

will be a waste of time. Moreover, with step-by-step, I give and check instructions gradually at a low pace. And it fits to students’ ability. Teacher 2: Step-by-step is usually applied because it is not only easy to do but also appear quite effective. “Demonstrate it” is sometimes used to attract the students’ attention and motivate them to involve in the lesson. - Teacher 3: Other techniques can’t be employed more frequently because of the limited time. Say-do-check is used when listening and speaking are integrated.

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4. Between English and Vietnamese, which do you use more often to give and check instructions? Why? - Teacher 1: First language needed to be used when I attempt to give the ideas that are abstract or a new concept. - Teacher 3: whether it is English or Vietnamese, instructions need to be comprehensible. 5. What kind of sentences do you use to in your instructions? What is the most frequently used and why?
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Teacher 1: I use imperative sentences to put more emphasis on a part or an idea. But I don’t use it too much because it made students feel like being imposed.

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Teacher 2: On the other hand, interrogatives are used to check

students’ comprehension more often. 6. What are the difficulties that you have when giving instructions? Teacher 1: The teaching condition is not supportive enough. Each class in Viet Duc high school is very large with about 50 students. Also, some students’ English proficiency is not good. - Teacher 2: Students here lack of confidence and self discipline, which leads to their low concentration. - Teacher 3: Giving and checking instructions is quite timeconsuming. Forty five minutes per period are not sufficient. 7. What do you suggest to improve the teacher’s instructions in speaking lesson? - Teacher 1: Teacher can say the instructions in English first then translate into Vietnamese.

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- Teacher 2: Teacher should invest more time in preparation to make the lessons and the instructions more interesting and attractive. - Teacher 3: being flexible in using the time budget as well as trying to exploit available resources.

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