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Section7.

2,concluded:
Exercise7.2.4(a):Provethataboundedfunctionfis
integrableon[a,b]ifandonlyifthereexistsasequenceof
partitions(Pn)1nsatisfyinglimn[U(f,Pn)L(f,Pn)]=0.
Solution:
()Iffisintegrable,thenwithn=
..?..
1/n,Theorem7.2.8impliesthatthereexistsapartition
PnsatisfyingU(f,Pn)L(f,Pn)<1/n.Itfollowsthat
limn[U(f,Pn)L(f,Pn)]=0asdesired.
()Conversely,assumethereexistsasequenceof
partitions(Pn)satisfyinglimn[U(f,Pn)L(f,Pn)]=0.
..?..
Given>0,choosePNfromthissequencesothat
U(f,Pn)L(f,Pn)<forallnN.Theninparticular
U(f,PN)L(f,PN)<,andsincewasarbitrary,Theorem
7.2.8impliesfisintegrable.
Section7.3:
Mainideas?

..?..
Afewdiscontinuitiesdontruinintegrability(thoughif
therearetoomany,thefunctioncanbenonintegrable)
E.g.,foranysetS[a,b],definetheindicatorfunctionofS
as1Swith1S(x)=1ifxSand0ifxS.Then:
IfSisfinite,1Sisintegrableon[0,1],withintegral0.
IfS=[0,1]Q,1Sisnotintegrableon[0,1](Example
7.3.3).
But:
IfS={1,1/2,1/3,1/4,},1Sisintegrableon[0,1](youll
provethisonthenextassignment).
Notethat[0,1]Qand{1,1/2,1/3,1/4,}areboth
countablyinfinite.
Furthermore,ifSistheCantorset,then1Sisintegrable
withintegral0(seeexplanationbelow).
SoitsnotamatterofhowmanyelementsShas;itdepends
onhowtheyrespreadoutover[0,1].
(RecallthattheCantorsetCwasdefinedastheintersection
ofthesetsC1,C2,,whereCnisaunionof2nclosed
intervals,eachoftheform[(k)/3n,(k+1)/3n].SoifweletP
bethepartition{0<1/3n<2/3n<<1},wecancheck

thatL(1C,P)=0whileU(1C,P)=(2(2n)2)(1/3)n.Sincewe
canmakethedifferenceassmallaswelikebychoosingn
sufficientlylarge,1Cisintegrableand1C=0.)
Exercise7.3.3:Hereisanalternateexplanationforwhya
functionfon[a,b]withafinitenumberofdiscontinuitiesis
integrable.Supplythemissingdetails.Embedeach
discontinuityinasufficientlysmallopenintervalandletO
betheunionoftheseintervals.Explainwhyfisuniformly
continuouson[a,b]\O,andusethistofinishtheargument.
Solution:Assumefisnotcontinuousonthefiniteset{z1,
z2,,zN}.WewillbuildapartitionPintwosteps:first
handlingthebadordiscontinuouspoints,andthen
handlingtheremainderoftheinterval[a,b].
AssumefisboundedbyMandlet>0.Aroundeachzi
constructdisjointsubintervalssmallenoughsothatthesum
ofthelengthsofallNofthesesubintervalscomestoless
than/(4M)(forinstance,assumeeachoftheNbad
subintervalshaslengthlessthan/(4MN)).Focusingon
justthesesubintervalsweseethat

badsubintervals(Mkmk)xkbadsubintervals2Mxk

=2M(/(4M))
=/2.
IfOistheunionoftheopensubintervalsthatsurround
eachzi,then[a,b]\Oisacompactset.Becausefis
continuousonthisset,fisuniformlycontinuousonthisset
andsothereexistsa>0withthepropertythat|f(x)f(y)|<

/(2(ba))wheneverx,y[a,b]\Owith|xy|<.
Focussingontheintervalsthatmakeup[a,b]\O(thegood
points),wepartitionthesesothatalltheresulting
subintervalshavelengthlessthan.Weget

goodsubintervals(Mkmk)xk</(2(ba))goodsubintervalsxk
</(2(ba))(ba)
=/2.
Puttingthesetwopartstogetherweseethat
U(f,P)L(f,P)=goodsubintervals(Mkmk)xk
+badsubintervals(Mkmk)xk
</2+/2
=,
andbythecriterionofTheorem7.2.8,fisintegrable.

Exercise7.3.4:Assumef:[a,b]Risintegrable.
(a)Showthatifonevalueoff(x)ischangedatsomepoint
xin[a,b],thenfisstillintegrableandintegratestothesame
valueasbefore.
AssumefisintegrablesothatU(f)=L(f)=[a,b]f.Nowlet
f0bethemodifiedfunctionwherewehavechangedthe
valueoffatx0.WewanttoprovethatU(f0)=U(f)andL(f0)
=L(f).
Let>0bearbitrary.ToarguethatU(f0)=U(f)itsuffices
tofindapartitionPforwhichU(f0,P)<U(f)+.(Because
ifweknowthisforall>0,wegetU(f0)U(f).
Butthesameargumentwiththerolesoffandf0reversed
wouldgiveusU(f)U(f0).HenceU(f0)=U(f).)
SinceU(f)=inf{U(f,P)},weknowthereexistsapartition
Pwhere
U(f,P)<U(f)+/2.
ThefirststepistoletPbearefinementofPwiththe
propertythattheinterval(s)containingx0havewidthless
thanx=/(4D),whereD=|f(x0)f0(x0)|.BecausePP

weknowU(f,P)U(f,P)<U(f)+/2.Nowobservethat
becausefandf0agreeeverywhereexceptatx0,
|U(f,P)U(f0,P)|<D(2x)</2.
(Theextra2isneededincasethepointx0isanendpointof
anintervalinPandisthuscontainedin2subintervals.)
Finally,weseethat
U(f0,P)<U(f,P)+/2(U(f)+/2)+/2=U(f)+,
andweconcludethatU(f0)U(f).Thisgivesequality,as
describedabove.TheproofthatL(f0)=L(f)issimilar.
(b)Showthattheobservationin(a)holdsifafinitenumber
ofvaluesoffarechanged.
Thisfollowsusinganinductionargument.
(c)Findanexampletoshowthatbyalteringacountable
numberofvalues,fmayfailtobeintegrable.
Dirichletsfunctiondiffersfromthezerofunctioninonlya
countablenumberofpointsbutisnotintegrable.