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By: Amy Harris

What Do The Numbers Mean?

After looking at the data that was forelock, lighter patches of skin, white
collaboratively collected I decided to body hair, white eyelashes or eyebrows,
research more information on the white premature graying, and hearing loss. In
forelock, hitchhikers thumb, and mid- our two classes there were 0 people who
digital hair. I will figure out if these three had this trait and 46 people who did not.
traits are dominant or recessive and what From the data that was collected
could cause it to become that way. After collaboratively there were 13271 people
doing some research on the white with the white forelock and 102233 people
forelock trait, I discovered some very without it.
interesting information about this
dominant trait. There are many names for
this trait like Waardenburg Syndrome,
WS, WS1, WS2, WS3, and WS4. There
are different levels of WS and different
causes of these. WS1 and WS3 are
caused by mutations in the PAX3 gene
that is found on the chromosome band
2q35. The PAX3 gene is the gene that
has been identified with ear, eye, and For the hitchhiker’s thumb, also known
facial development, as well as, regulating as “hyperextension of the thumb”, I could
gene expression and binding DNA. WS2 not find any information on the genetic
is caused by mutations in the MITF gene coding that causes it, other than it is a
that is found on chromosome band recessive trait. The hitchhikers thumb is a
3p14.1-p12.3. The MITF gene trait that you can obtain if both parents
transactivates the tyrosinase gene that is have the ability to bend the tip of their
Example of involved in melanocyte differentiation; thumb back at a 60-degree angle. This
hitchhiker’s thumb melanocytes are the cells that are found trait can sometimes be related to
at the bottom layer of skin's epidermis achondrophasia, which is dwarfism.
and in the middle of the eye. WS4 is Achrondrophasia puts people at a higher
caused by homozygous mutations of the risk of death than the people who are not
endothelin-3 or endothelin-B receptor. affected by this condition. Other than this
Cases of WS are estimated to affect very small possibility of having
about 1 case per 42,000 people; this achrondrophasia, there are no other liked
syndrome is also believed to be genetic conditions to the hitchhikers
responsible for 2-3% of congenital thumb. After combining both classes’
deafness. The death rates are data results for this trait 20 people had
comparable with people who do not have the hitchhikers thumb, and 26 did not.
this syndrome. There is also no special The data that was collected
race, sex, or age that is affected by this collaboratively shows that there were
syndrome. The most well known features 62684 people with the hitchhiker’s thumb
that hint at this syndrome are white and 63793 people with a straight thumb.
Genetics Page 2 of 4
The last trait that I did research on was the
mid-digital hair, which is a dominant trait. This graph shows the data our two classes collected
Mid-digital hair is the hair found on your
fingers between your middle and top
knuckle. These hairs do not have to be
black and curly to determine if you have
this, they can be tiny and blonde, that still
means that you have mid-digital hair.
There are no known diseases that are
liked to this trait and it does not affect your
life span, you simply have hairs on your
fingers. After combining both classes’
results there was a total of 13 people with
this trait and 33 people without it. The data
that was collected collaboratively shows
that there were 50906 people with this trait
and 74380 without it.

Comparing the numbers

I made two bar graphs to compare the
data that was collected collaboratively This graph shows the data collected collaboratively
and our two classes’ data results. For the
white forelock there were a total of 13271
people with this trait and 102233 people
without it from the data collected
collaboratively, from our class there was
a total of 0 people with the white forelock
and 46 people without it. The data found
for the hitchhiker’s thumb that was
collected collaboratively collected showed
that there are 62684 people with this trait
and 63793 people who do not have it, in
our classes we found that there was 20
people who had this recessive trait and 26
people who did not. For the final trait, mid-
digital hair, the data that was collected
collaboratively shows that there were
50906 people with this trait and 74380
people who do not have it, in our classes
we found there was a total of 13 people
who had this trait and 33 people who did
not. The numbers do not really show if a Even though these two graphs have completely different
trait is dominant or recessive. numbers, you can see that the data is around the same
amount. The white forelock has the least amount of people
carrying the trait in both graphs, the mid-digital hair is the
trait in the middle of these three traits in both graphs, and
the hitchhiker’s thumb has the most people carrying this
trait in both of the graphs.

Example of mid-digital
Page 3 of 4 Genetics

What does our class show?

For the next part of this project we had to on your face or arms caused by a high
find three traits we used in class but were concentration of melanin. Freckles are
not found on the website. I chose the dominant and are related to the presence
widows peak, pigmented iris, and of a melanocortin-1 receptor (MCR1)
freckles. The first trait I choose to study gene variant. In the 5th period class there
was the widow’s peak. A widow’s peak is was only 1 girl and 3 boys with freckles, Example of widow’s peak
a dominant trait that makes the hairline meaning there would be 14 girls and 9
come to a V-shape point in the middle of boys without freckles. In my 7th period
the forehead. In the 5th period class class there were 5 girls and 1 boy that
there were 6 girls and 6 boys that had the had freckles present on their skin;
widow’s peak, as well as, 9 girls without therefore, there were 8 girls and 5 boys
the trait and 6 boys without the trait. In my that did not have any form of freckles.
7th period class I was the only one who After combining the two periods data
had the widow’s peak, meaning there totals together there were 13 people with
were 12 girls without this trait and 6 boys the widow’s peak and 33 people without
without it also. For the pigmented iris trait the widow’s peak. After combining the Example of pigmented and not
your eye color must be any color except results for the pigmented iris there were pigmented eyes
blue, this is considered a dominant trait. 26 people who had this trait and 20
In the 5th period class there were 8 girls people who did not. The final data that I
and 6 boys with this trait; however, there combined was for freckles and it showed
were 7 girls and 6 boys without the trait. that there were 10 people that had this
In the 7th period class we basically had trait and 36 people who did not. From the
the same results, 8 girls and 4 boys with information I found and from what the
the trait and 5 girls and 2 boys without the numbers show me, all three of these traits
trait. The final trait I chose to analyze was are dominant traits.
freckles. Freckles are the spots you have

Family Genetic Study family pedigree is found on the next Example of freckles
For my family pedigree I decided to trace page.
the widow’s peak back through some of
my family members to determine why I
have it and how many of my other
relatives have it. I started this pedigree
with my great-grandma, Vada Peace, This genetics project has helped me
then; I went to my grandma, Betty Peace better my understanding of how genetics
and her brother, my great-uncle, Bob are formed and how you obtain the
Siple. My grandma Betty married Tom genetics you have. Everyone has traits
Siple, my grandpa, and they had three that make them who they are, some
kids Cathy Siple, my mom, Jim Siple, my traits just happen to be more unique and
uncle, and Duane Siple, my uncle also. unusual than others.
My mom had two children, my brother
and I, my Uncle Jim had two daughters,
Autumn and Ashley, and my Duane had
two boys, Zach and Brock. Only 7 people
in my family had the widow’s peak and
they were Tom, Cathy, Duane, me,
Kevin, Zach and Brock. The image of my’s_peak
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