Important Questions

© All Rights Reserved

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Important Questions

© All Rights Reserved

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You are on page 1of 20

102: Engineering

E i

i M

Mechanics

h i

Forces in Beams

Dr. Vaibhav Singhal

Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering

Indian Institute of Technology Patna

03rd February 2016

Application

Forces that are internal to the structural members beams

Slab

Beam

Column

7- 2

Introduction

Preceding classes dealt with:

a) determining external forces acting on a structure, and

b) determining forces which hold together the various

members of a structure.

structure

This section is concerned with determining the internal

f

forces

(i tension/compression,

(i.e.,

i /

i shear,

h

andd bending)

b di )

which hold together the various parts of a given member.

Focus is on one of the important types of engineering

structures:

Beams - usually long, straight, prismatic members

designed to support loads applied at various points

along the member.

2013 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

7- 3

Vector Forces

Mechanics

for Engineers: Statics

Internal

in Members

in equilibrium under application

of F and -F.

equilibrium of free-bodies AC and CB.

7- 4

Vector Forces

Mechanics

for Engineers: Statics

Internal

in Members

cable and member contact forces.

Internal forces equivalent to a force-couple system are

necessary for equilibrium of free-bodies ABCJ and JD.

2013 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

7- 5

Vector Forces

Mechanics

for Engineers: Statics

Internal

in Members

Force F Axial Force

Force

V Shear

Force

F

Sh

F

7- 6

VectorProblem

Mechanics for Engineers: Statics

Sample

SOLUTION:

Compute reactions and forces at

connections for each member.

Cut member ACF at J. The internal

forces at J are represented by

equivalent force-couple system

which is determined by considering

equilibrium of either part.

Cut member BCD at K. Determine

force-couple system equivalent to

internal forces at K by applying

Determine the internal forces

equilibrium conditions to either

((a)) in member ACF at ppoint J

part.

t

and (b) in member BCD at K.

2013 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

7- 7

VectorProblem

Mechanics for Engineers: Statics

Sample

SOLUTION:

p reactions and connection forces.

Compute

Consider entire frame as a free-body, and

apply

l equilibrium

ilib i

conditions:

diti

ME 0:

F 1800 N

Fy 0 :

2400 N 1800 N E y 0

E y 600 N

Fx 0 :

Ex 0

7- 8

VectorProblem

Mechanics for Engineers: Statics

Sample

Drawing the FBD for member BCD:

- Why are forces at B and C drawn in these

directions? Is there a choice on the directions?

- Why are there two force components at each

point instead of just a single force?

Think about these and discuss with a neighbor.

neighbor

Drawing the FBD for member ABE:

- Why

Wh are forces

f

at B in

i these

h

directions?

di i ? Is

I

there a choice on the directions?

- Why are there two force components at A

instead of just a single force?

g

Think about these and discuss with a neighbor.

Finally, the FBD for member ACF.

2013 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

7- 9

VectorProblem

Mechanics for Engineers: Statics

Sample

Consider member ABE as free-body:

MA 0:

Fx 0 :

Fy 0 :

Bx 2.7 m 0

Bx 0

B x Ax 0

Ax 0

Ay B y 600 N 0 Ay 1800 N

MB 0 :

C y 3600 N

MC 0 :

2400 N 1.2 m B y 2.4 m 0

Fx 0 :

Bx C x 0

B y 1200 N

Cx 0

7- 10

VectorProblem

Mechanics for Engineers: Statics

Sample

Cut member ACF at J. The internal forces at J are

represented by an equivalent force-couple system.

Consider free-body AJ:

MJ 0:

1800 N 1.2 m M 0

Fx 0 :

F 1800 N cos 41.7 0

M 2160 N m

F 1344 N

Fy 0 :

V

V 1800 N sin

i 41.7 0

V 1197 N

7- 11

VectorProblem

Mechanics for Engineers: Statics

Sample

Cut member BCD at K. Determine a force-couple

y

equivalent

q

to internal forces at K .

system

Consider free-body BK:

MK 0:

1200 N 1.5 m M 0

M 1800 N m

Fx 0 :

F 0

Fy 0 :

1200 N V 0

V 1200 N

7- 12

Vector Types

Mechanics

for Engineers:

Statics

Various

of Beam

Loading and

Support

Beam - structural member designed to

support loads applied at various points

along its length.

B

Beam can be

b subjected

bj t d to

t concentrated

t t d

loads or distributed loads or

combination of both.

both

Beam design is a two-step process:

1) determine shearing forces and

bending moments produced by

applied loads

2)) select cross-section best suited to

resist shearing forces and bending

moments

2013 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

7- 13

Vector Types

Mechanics

for Engineers:

Statics

Various

of Beam

Loading and

Support

Reactions at beam supports are determinate if they involve

only

l three

h unknowns.

k

Otherwise,

Oh

i they

h are statically

i ll

indeterminate.

2013 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

7- 14

Vector Types

Mechanics

for Engineers:

Statics

Various

of Beam

Loading and

Support

2013 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

7- 15

Vector

Mechanics

for Engineers:

Statics

Shear

and

Bending Moment

in a Beam

Wish to determine bending moment

and shearing force at any point (for

example, point C) in a beam subjected

to concentrated and distributed loads.

Determine reactions at supports by

treating whole beam as free-body.

Cut beam at C and draw free-body

g

for AC and CB. Byy

diagrams

definition, positive sense for internal

force-couple systems are as shown for

each beam section

section.

From equilibrium considerations,

determine M and V or M and V.

7- 16

Vector

Mechanics

for Engineers:

Statics

Shear

and

Bending Moment

Diagrams

Variation of shear and bending

moment along beam may be

plotted.

l d

Determine reactions at

supports.

supports

Cut beam at C and consider

member AC,

V P 2 M Px 2

Cut beam at E and consider

member

b EB,

EB

V P 2

M P L x 2

concentrated loads, shear is

constant between loadingg ppoints

and moment varies linearly.

2013 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

7- 17

VectorProblem

Mechanics for Engineers: Statics

Sample

SOLUTION:

Taking entire beam as a free-body,

calculate reactions at B and D.

diagrams for the beam and loading

shown.

systems for free-bodies formed by

cuttingg beam on either side of load

application points.

Plot results.

7- 18

VectorProblem

Mechanics for Engineers: Statics

Sample

SOLUTION:

y, calculate

Takingg entire beam as a free-body,

reactions at B and D.

Find equivalent internal force-couple systems at

sections

i

on either

i h side

id off load

l d application

li i points.

i

Fy 0 :

20 kN V1 0

M1 0 :

20 kN 0 m M 1 0

V1 20 kN

M1 0

Similarly

Similarly,

V2 20 kN

M 2 50 kN m

V3 26 kN

V4 26 kN

M 3 50 kN m

M 4 28 kN m

V5 14 kN

M 5 28 kN m

V6 14 kN

M6 0

7- 19

VectorProblem

Mechanics for Engineers: Statics

Sample

Plot results.

Note that shear is of constant value

between concentrated loads and

bending moment varies linearly.

7- 20

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