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# ME 102

102: Engineering
E i
i M
Mechanics
h i

Forces in Beams

## Group G3 and G4 (EE+CE+CST)

Dr. Vaibhav Singhal
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering
Indian Institute of Technology Patna
03rd February 2016

## Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Statics

Application
Forces that are internal to the structural members beams
Slab
Beam

Column

7- 2

## Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Statics

Introduction
Preceding classes dealt with:
a) determining external forces acting on a structure, and
b) determining forces which hold together the various
members of a structure.
structure
This section is concerned with determining the internal
f
forces
(i tension/compression,
(i.e.,
i /
i shear,
h
andd bending)
b di )
which hold together the various parts of a given member.
Focus is on one of the important types of engineering
structures:
Beams - usually long, straight, prismatic members
designed to support loads applied at various points
along the member.

7- 3

Vector Forces
Mechanics
for Engineers: Statics
Internal
in Members

## Straight two-force member AB is

in equilibrium under application
of F and -F.

## Internal forces equivalent to F and -F are required for

equilibrium of free-bodies AC and CB.

7- 4

Vector Forces
Mechanics
for Engineers: Statics
Internal
in Members

## Multi-force member ABCD is in equilibrium under application of

cable and member contact forces.
Internal forces equivalent to a force-couple system are
necessary for equilibrium of free-bodies ABCJ and JD.

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Vector Forces
Mechanics
for Engineers: Statics
Internal
in Members
Force F Axial Force

Force
V Shear
Force
F
Sh
F

## Moment M Bending Moment

7- 6

VectorProblem
Mechanics for Engineers: Statics
Sample
SOLUTION:
Compute reactions and forces at
connections for each member.
Cut member ACF at J. The internal
forces at J are represented by
equivalent force-couple system
which is determined by considering
equilibrium of either part.
Cut member BCD at K. Determine
force-couple system equivalent to
internal forces at K by applying
Determine the internal forces
equilibrium conditions to either
((a)) in member ACF at ppoint J
part.
t
and (b) in member BCD at K.

7- 7

VectorProblem
Mechanics for Engineers: Statics
Sample
SOLUTION:
p reactions and connection forces.
Compute
Consider entire frame as a free-body, and
apply
l equilibrium
ilib i
conditions:
diti

ME 0:

## 2400 N 3.6 m F 4.8 m 0

F 1800 N

Fy 0 :
2400 N 1800 N E y 0

E y 600 N

Fx 0 :

Ex 0

7- 8

VectorProblem
Mechanics for Engineers: Statics
Sample
Drawing the FBD for member BCD:
- Why are forces at B and C drawn in these
directions? Is there a choice on the directions?
- Why are there two force components at each
point instead of just a single force?
Think about these and discuss with a neighbor.
neighbor
Drawing the FBD for member ABE:
- Why
Wh are forces
f
at B in
i these
h
directions?
di i ? Is
I
there a choice on the directions?
- Why are there two force components at A
instead of just a single force?
g
Think about these and discuss with a neighbor.
Finally, the FBD for member ACF.

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VectorProblem
Mechanics for Engineers: Statics
Sample
Consider member ABE as free-body:

MA 0:
Fx 0 :
Fy 0 :

Bx 2.7 m 0

Bx 0

B x Ax 0

Ax 0

Ay B y 600 N 0 Ay 1800 N

MB 0 :

## 2400 N 3.6 m C y 2.4 m 0

C y 3600 N

MC 0 :
2400 N 1.2 m B y 2.4 m 0

Fx 0 :

Bx C x 0

B y 1200 N
Cx 0

7- 10

VectorProblem
Mechanics for Engineers: Statics
Sample
Cut member ACF at J. The internal forces at J are
represented by an equivalent force-couple system.
Consider free-body AJ:

MJ 0:
1800 N 1.2 m M 0

Fx 0 :
F 1800 N cos 41.7 0

M 2160 N m

F 1344 N

Fy 0 :
V
V 1800 N sin
i 41.7 0

V 1197 N

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VectorProblem
Mechanics for Engineers: Statics
Sample
Cut member BCD at K. Determine a force-couple
y
equivalent
q
to internal forces at K .
system
Consider free-body BK:

MK 0:
1200 N 1.5 m M 0

M 1800 N m

Fx 0 :

F 0

Fy 0 :
1200 N V 0

V 1200 N

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Vector Types
Mechanics
for Engineers:
Statics
Various
of Beam
Support
Beam - structural member designed to
support loads applied at various points
along its length.
B
Beam can be
b subjected
bj t d to
t concentrated
t t d
combination of both.
both
Beam design is a two-step process:
1) determine shearing forces and
bending moments produced by
2)) select cross-section best suited to
resist shearing forces and bending
moments

7- 13

Vector Types
Mechanics
for Engineers:
Statics
Various
of Beam
Support

## Statically Determinate Beams

Reactions at beam supports are determinate if they involve
only
l three
h unknowns.
k
Otherwise,
Oh
i they
h are statically
i ll
indeterminate.

7- 14

Vector Types
Mechanics
for Engineers:
Statics
Various
of Beam
Support

## Statically Indeterminate Beams

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Vector
Mechanics
for Engineers:
Statics
Shear
and
Bending Moment
in a Beam
Wish to determine bending moment
and shearing force at any point (for
example, point C) in a beam subjected
Determine reactions at supports by
treating whole beam as free-body.
Cut beam at C and draw free-body
g
for AC and CB. Byy
diagrams
definition, positive sense for internal
force-couple systems are as shown for
each beam section
section.
From equilibrium considerations,
determine M and V or M and V.

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Vector
Mechanics
for Engineers:
Statics
Shear
and
Bending Moment
Diagrams
Variation of shear and bending
moment along beam may be
plotted.
l d
Determine reactions at
supports.
supports
Cut beam at C and consider
member AC,
V P 2 M Px 2
Cut beam at E and consider
member
b EB,
EB
V P 2

M P L x 2

## For a beam subjected to

and moment varies linearly.

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VectorProblem
Mechanics for Engineers: Statics
Sample
SOLUTION:
Taking entire beam as a free-body,
calculate reactions at B and D.

shown.

## Find equivalent internal force-couple

cuttingg beam on either side of load
application points.
Plot results.

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VectorProblem
Mechanics for Engineers: Statics
Sample
SOLUTION:
y, calculate
Takingg entire beam as a free-body,
reactions at B and D.
Find equivalent internal force-couple systems at
sections
i
on either
i h side
l d application
li i points.
i

Fy 0 :

20 kN V1 0

M1 0 :

20 kN 0 m M 1 0

V1 20 kN

M1 0

Similarly
Similarly,
V2 20 kN

M 2 50 kN m

V3 26 kN
V4 26 kN

M 3 50 kN m
M 4 28 kN m

V5 14 kN

M 5 28 kN m

V6 14 kN

M6 0

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VectorProblem
Mechanics for Engineers: Statics
Sample
Plot results.
Note that shear is of constant value