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Thermodynamics

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Nabua, Camarines Sur

Project

In

Thermodynam

ics

Submitted By:

Ryan T. Espalmado

Submitted to:

**Engr. Nino Garlando
**

1-Basic Principles, Concepts and Definitions

Review Problems:

A mass of 0.5 fps² and if friction effects are neglected. The acceleration of gravity g −6 decreases by 3. What is the mass in grams and the weight in dynes and in gram-force of 12 oz of salt? Local g is 9.10 slug in space is subjected to an external vertical force of 4 lb. if the local gravity acceleration is g=30.75 mps². 2. What will be its weight on the surface of the moon where gm =1. 3.33 x 10 fps²for each foot of elevation. on earth where g=9. Find its mass in lb. what will be the force in kg f and in newton’s required to accelerate the module at 10 mps²? .70 mps².1. slugs. The mass of a given airplane at sea level (g= 32. determine the acceleration of the mass if the external vertical force is acting a) upward and b) downward. On the surface of the moon. and kg and its (gravitational) weight in lb when it is travelling at a 50.000-ft elevation. 4.65 m/s² 1 lb m =16 oz.1 fps²) is 10 tons. A lunar excursion module (LEM) weights 1500 kg.

topside it read 28.075 lb/ft³ and estimate the height of the building. .311 slug. Assume that the average atmospheric air density was 0.90 fps². A weatherman carried an aneroid barometer from the ground floor to his office atop the Sears Tower in Chicago. and (d) its specific weight where g= 31. Hg absolute. Determine (a) the total volume of liquid (b)its total mass in pounds and slugs. the barometer read 30. (c) its specific volume. Find a) specific volume b) the specific weight and c) the total volume. The mass of a fluid system is 0.607 in. its density is 30 lb/ft³ and g is 31. 6. 3 feet in height) is filled with a fluid whose density is 40 lb/ft³. A cylindrical drum (2 feet in diameter.150 in.5. On the ground level.90 fps 7. Hg absolute.

At section 1: A 1 =10ft². 10.3 kpa? 9. Convert the following readings of pressure to kpa absolute. assuming that the barometer reads 760 mm Hg (a) 90 cm Hg gage. v 1=4 ft ³/lb. (d) 8 in. Hg gage. What is the absolute pressure in the condenser in kpa when the atmospheric pressure is 101. A fluid moves in a steady flow manner between two sections in a flow line. Hg vacuum. Calculate (a) the mass flow rate and (b) the speed at section 2. A vacuum gauge mounted on a condenser reads 0. (c) 100 psig.20 lb/ft³. V 1 =100fpm. (b) 40 cm Hg Vacuum. At section 2: A 2 =2ft². . and (e) 76 in.8. P2=¿ 0.66 m Hg.

95 fps²). find (a) the mass flow rate in lb/min. and (b) and the total required to fill a vertical cylinder tank 10 feet in diameter and 12 feet high. deleting energy terms which are irrelevant. Assuming that there are no heat effects and no frictional effects.11. find the kinetic energy and speed of a 3220-lb body after it falls 778 feet from rest. Start with the steady flow equation.5 lb/ft³(g=31. If a Pump discharges 75 gpm of water whose specific weight is 61. . 2-Conservation of Energy Review Problems: 1.

During passage through the system the fluid receives 3000 J/s of heat. P2=¿ 80 psia. A reciprocating compressor draws in 500 cubic feet per minute of air whose density is 0.2. Determine the work on the air in Btu/min and in hp. What is the work in Btu/min and in hp for a flow of 2 lb/sec? 4.16 kJ/kg. Determine the work.56 kg per minute of fluid where P1 =137.80 kJ/kg. P1 =15psia. the transferred heat is 13 Btu/lb. 3.6 kPa. at discharge.193 m³/kg. At the suction.90 kPa. The fluid leaves the system at a boundary where P2=¿ 551. . Neglect change in kinetic energy.8 Btu/lb and the heat transferred from the air by cooling is 13 Btu/lb.0388 m³/kg. A thermodynamic steady flow system receives a 4. v 2 =183 m/s and u2 =52. The increase in the specific internal energy is 33.070 lb/cu feet and discharges it with a density of 0. Steam enters turbine with an enthalpy of 1292 Btu/lb and leaves with an enthalpy of 1098 Btu/lb.304 lb/cu ft. V 1 =0. and u1 =17. v 2 =0. v 1=¿ 122 m/s.

135 kJ of work is done by each kg of fluid.5 kg/s through an air compressor.62 m³/kg. and speed at the inlet are 0. and by how much? . Air flows steadily at the rate of 0. In a steady flow apparatus. and 270 m/s.19 m³/kg. The discharge conditions are 0. and 16 m/s. 700 kPa. The inlet is 32 m above the floor and the discharge pipe is at floor level. Compute the work in kW. In flowing through this apparatus. entering at 7 m/s speed. does the specific internal energy increase or decrease. and leaving at 5 m/s.95 m³/kg specific volume. 100 kPa pressure and 0.37 m³/kg. pressure. the total heat loss between the inlet and discharge is 9 kJ/kg of fluid. The internal energy of the air leaving is 90 kJ/kg greater than that of the air entering.5. 600 kPa. 6. The specific volume of the fluid. Cooling water in the compressor jackets absorbs heat from the air at the rate of 58 kW. and 0. 100kPa.

The Ideal gas Review Problems: 1. Determine the final gage pressure assuming the volume remains constant. 3. Calculate the work done by the steam. An Automobile tire is inflated to 32 psig pressure at 5°F.7. Steam enters a turbine stage with an enthalpy of 3628 kJ/kg at 70 m/s and leaves the same stage with an enthalpy of 2846 kJ/kg and a velocity of 124 m/s. . After being driven the temperature rise to 75°F.

Find the final weight. Heat was applied and the temperature was back to 85°F. A party of the gas was discharged at the temperature and the pressure changed to 70°F and 300 psia. A 10 ft³ tank contains gas at a pressure of 500 psia. volume. and pressure of the gas. what will be the pressure of the air in psi? 3.2. If 100 ft³ of atmospheric air at zero Fahrenheit temperature are compressed to a volume of 1 ft³ at a temperature of 200°F. . temperature of 85°F and a weight of 25 pounds. respectively.

A motorist equips his automobile tires with a relief-type valve so that the pressure inside the tire never will exceed 240 kPa (gage). During the long drive. (b) mass of helium pumped out. (c) the temperature of the remaining helium falls to 10°C. Determine (a) mass of helium remaining in the tank. A 6 m³ tank contains helium at 400 K and is evacuated from atmospheric pressure to a pressure of 740mm Hg vacuum. Four hundred Cubic centimeters of gas at 740 mm Hg absolute and 18°C undergoes a process until the pressure becomes 760 mm Hg absolute and the temperature 0°C. What is the final volume of the gas? 5. (b) the pressure of the tire when the temperature returns to 23°C.4. He starts a rip with a pressure of 200 kPa (gage) and a temperature of 23°C in the tires. 6. the temperature of the air in the tires reaches 83°C. Determine (a) the mass of air escaping each tire. What is the pressure in kPa? . Each tire contains 0.11 kg of air.

04 ft. (a) if the balloon is filled with hydrogen at a temperature of 70°F and atmospheric pressure. if the tire is inflexible. .54 and for helium is 386. what is the resulting percentage increase in gage pressure? (c) What mass of the 145°F air must be bled off to reduce the pressure back to its original value? 8.lb/lb. Does it have half the lifting force? R for hydrogen is 766.7. An automobile tire contains 3730 cu in. of air at 32 psig and 80°F.92 in Hg abs. the air temperature increases to 145 ° F. A spherical balloon is 40 ft in diameter and surrounded by air at 60°F and 29. (a) What mass of air is in the tire? (b) in operation. what total load can it lift? (c) Helium is nearly twice as heavy as hydrogen.°R.

. c v =2. during which the enthalphy increases by 15. A gas initially at 15 psia and 2 cu ft undergoes a process to 90 psia and 0. while the pressure in the reservoir decreases to 6205 kPa and the temperature to a 18. and (c) R. A reservoir contains 2. What is the volume of the tank? R for CO is 296.60 cu ft.K°.92 j/kg.3°C. An evacuated tank is filled from the reservoir to a pressure of 3497 kPa and a temperature of 12. (b) c p .5 Btu.4°C.6°C. Determine (a) ⍙U.83 cu m of carbon monoxide at 6895 kPa and 23.R°. 10.9.44 Btu/lb.

8 ft.11. . A perfect gas has a value of R= 58.R and k= 1.277 kJ/kg. (d) ⍙U.384.7°C? (c) If 31.65 kJ are transferred to this gas at constant volume in (d) What are the resulting temperature and pressure? 4-Processes of Ideal gases Review Problems: 1. (b) ⍙H.K and k=1.11 kPa and 26. R= 0. (c) ⍙S. For a certain gas. and (e) work of a nonflow process. find (a) T 2 . If 20 Btu are added to 5 lb of this gas at constant volume when the initial temperature is 90°F.lb/lb. (a) What5 are the value of c p and c v ? (b) What mass of the gas would occupy a volume of 0.425 cu m at 517.26.

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