You are on page 1of 8

Asian Journal of Biochemical and Pharmaceutical Research

Issue 4 (Vol. 2) 2012

ISSN: 2231-2560

CODEN (USA): AJBPAD

Asian Journal of Biochemical and Pharmaceutical Research Issue 4 (Vol. 2) 2012 ISSN: 2231-2560 CODEN (USA):
Asian Journal of Biochemical and Pharmaceutical Research Issue 4 (Vol. 2) 2012 ISSN: 2231-2560 CODEN (USA):

Research Article

Asian Journal of Biochemical and Pharmaceutical Research

Phytoconstituents and Pharmacological activities of Musa paradisiaca Linn.

Sanjeev Kumar 1 , Chanchal Kumar Mishra 1 , Anil Ahuja 1 , Asha Rani 2 & R.K. Nema 3

1. Arya College of Pharmacy, Kukas, Jaipur, Rajasthan 2. Govt. Pharmacy Institute, Bariatu, Ranchi, Jharkhand 3. Rishiraj College of Pharmacy, Indore

Received: 29 October 2012; Revised: 14 November 2012; Accepted: 30 November 2012

Abstract: Musa paradisiaca is a monoherbacious plant belonging to family; Musaceae, commonly known as plantain. Plantain refers in India to a coarse banana. Banana is the common name for herbaceous plants of the genus Musa and for the fruit they produce. Bananas come in a variety of sizes and colors when ripe, including yellow, purple and red. The family Musaceae having two genera and 42 different species, 35 species are belongs to Musa species. Traditionally the Plant Musa paradisiaca was used for different purposes such as cancer, diabetes, diarrhea, dysentry, hypertension, marasmus, migrain, psoriasis, small pox, syphilis, tuberculosis, tumor, urticaria and wounds. The various unknown justified pharmacological activity of Musa Paradisiaca is documented in traditional as well as in recent scientific literature. The main pharmacological activity of this plant are Hepatoprotective, hair growth promoter, diuretic, analgesic activity, skeletal muscle contraction, antiulcer, wound healing, antioxidant, antidote for snake bite, hypoglycemic acivity. Fruits consist of carbohydrates, amino acids, sugar and starch. The pulp protein was rich in arginine, aspartic acid, glutamic acid, methionine and tryptophan. A new bicyclic diaryl heptanoid rel (3S-4Ar,10Br)-8-hydroxy-3-(4-hydroxy phenyl)-9-methoxy-4a,5,6,10b-tetrahydro-3H naphtho (2,1-b) pyran as well as four known compounds 1,2 dihydro 1,2,3 trihydroxy-9-(4-methoxy phenyl)phenalene (2)-hydroxy anigorufone(3), 2-(4-hydroxy phenyl)naphthalic anhydride(4) and 1,7 bis(4-hydroxy phenyl) hepta-4(E),6(E)-diene-3-one Plants (Flower) consist of tannins, saponins, reducing and non reducing sugars, sterols and triterpenes. The structure of new tetracyclic triterpine isolated from the flowers of Musa paradisiaca was determined as (24R)- 4α – 14 α, 24- trimetrimethyl- 5- cholesta- 8, 25 (27)-dien- 3β- ol. In our review, we have given special emphasis to draw attention to the Chemistry, distribution and enormous pharmacological activity. The number of pharmacological activity of Musa paradisiaca still needs scientific justification which would be helpful for the further research.

Key words: Musa paradisiaca, Chemical constiuents, Hepatoprotective, Hair growth promoter.

INTRODUCTION:

Musa paradisiaca is a monoherbacious plant, belonging to family Musaceae, commonly known as plantain. Plantain refers in India to a coarse banana. The plants having two genera and 42 different species, 35 species are belongs to Musa species [1]. It is up to 9 m long Plant with a robust tree like pseudostem, a crown of large elongated oval deep-green leaves (up to 365 cm in length and 61 cm in width), with a prominent midrib, each plant produces a single inflorescence like drooping spike and large bracts opening in succession, ovate, 15-20 cm long, concave, dark red color and in

199

Asian Journal of Biochemical and Pharmaceutical Research

Issue 4 (Vol. 2) 2012

CODEN(USA) : AJBPAD

Asian Journal of Biochemical and Pharmaceutical Research Issue 4 (Vol. 2) 2012 CODEN(USA) : AJBPAD somewhat

somewhat fleshy. Fruits are oblong, fleshy, 5-7cm long in wild form and longer in the cultivated varieties [2].

Asian Journal of Biochemical and Pharmaceutical Research Issue 4 (Vol. 2) 2012 CODEN(USA) : AJBPAD somewhat
Asian Journal of Biochemical and Pharmaceutical Research Issue 4 (Vol. 2) 2012 CODEN(USA) : AJBPAD somewhat

Photograph: Unripe fruit of Musa paradisiaca Linn.

DISTRIBUTION:

Mostly in India and Burma (In India mostly found in Assam, Madhya Pradesh, Bihar, Gujarat, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Jalgaon district in Maharashtra, West Bengal, Tamilnadu etc.) and it is also distributed in America, Australia and tropical Africa. Cultivation is limited to Florida, the Canary Islands, Egypt, Southern Japan and South Brazil. Traditionally the Plant Musa paradisiaca was used for different purposes such as Abscess, Alopecia (female), burns, cancer, cataplasm, diabetes, diarrhea, dog bites, snake bite, dysentery, dyspepsia, fracture, gangrene, hematuria, hemiplegia, hemoptysis, hemorrhage, hypertension, lizard bites, marasmus, migrain, ringworm, shingles, smallpox, syphilis, tuberculosis, tumor, uremia, otalgia, psoriasis, urticaria, warts and wounds [3].

CHEMICAL CONSTIUTENTS:

The whole plant as well as specific parts (Flowers, banana bracts, ripe, unripe fruits, leaves and stems) of plant extract and its active constituents have been used for the treatment of large number of human ailments. Flower consists of tannins, saponins, reducing and non reducing sugars, sterols and triterpenes. The structure of new tetracyclic triterpine isolated from the flowers of Musa Paradisiaca Linn was determined as (24R)-4α-14α, 24-trimethyl-5-cholesta-8, 25 (27)-dien-3β-ol [4]. Banana bracts abundant edible residues of banana production were investigated as a potential source of natural colourant. Monomeric anthocyanin content was 32.30 mg/100gm. Other anthocyanins were 3- rutinoside derivatives of dephinidin, pelargonidin, peonidine and malvidin [5]. Fruit consists of carbohydrates, amino acids, sugar and starch. Foremost components of this starch are amylose and amylopectin, present in a ratio of around 1:5. About 1.3% of sugars are present in total dry matter in unripe plantains, but this rises to around 17% in the ripe. The skin of the fruit is rich in cellulose (10%), hemicelluloses (7%). The pulp protein was rich in arginine, aspartic acid, glutamic acid, methionine and tryptophan [6]. A new bicyclic diaryl heptanoid rel (3S-4Ar,10Br)-8-hydroxy-3-(4- hydroxy phenyl)-9-methoxy-4a,5,6,10b-tetrahydro-3H naphtho (2,1-b) pyran as well as four known compounds 1,2 dihydro 1,2,3 trihydroxy-9-(4-methoxy phenyl) phenalene (2)-hydroxy anigorufone (3), 2-(4-hydroxy phenyl) naphthalic anhydride(4) and 1,7 bis(4-hydroxy phenyl) hepta-4(E), 6 (E)- diene-3-one(5) were isolated from ethyl acetate soluble fraction of the methanolic extract of fruits [7].

200

Asian Journal of Biochemical and Pharmaceutical Research

Issue 4 (Vol. 2) 2012

CODEN(USA) : AJBPAD

Asian Journal of Biochemical and Pharmaceutical Research Issue 4 (Vol. 2) 2012 CODEN(USA) : AJBPAD Peeled

Peeled fruits consist of two new acyl steryl glycosides Sitoindoside-III and Sitosterol myo-inosityl- beta-D-glucoside have been isolated by gradients solvent extraction and extensive chromatography (CC, GC, TLC and HPLC) [8]. Fruit pulp consists of three forms of α-glucan phosphorylase, separated by ammonium sulfate fractionation and DEAE-cellulose chromatography [9]. Leaves having two forms (A and B) of starch phosphorylase were found in the mature banana leaf by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and DEAE-cellulose chromatography [10]. The polysaccharide components present in the scape of Musa paradisiaca were fractionated into water soluble (WSP), EDTA soluble (EDTA- SP), alkali soluble (ASP) and alkali insoluble (AISP) polysaccharide Fractions [11].

Mucilaginous exudates of the water soluble polysaccharides isolated from the vascular gel (mucilaginous exudates) of Musa paradisiaca were fractionated via anion exchange chromatography into four fractions. Fractionated polymers contained arabinose, xylose and galactouronic acid as major sugars together with traces of galactose, rhamnose, mannose and glucose residues [12].

Table. 1 Chemical constituents present in Musa paradisiaca Linn.

S. No.

Part of

Chemical constituents

Isolation method

plant

   

Two forms of starch phosphorylase

Polyacrylamide gel

  • 1 Leaves

(A and B)

electrophoresis and DEAE - cellulose chromatography.

   

New bicyclic diaryl heptanoid rel (3S-

 

4Ar,10Br)-8-hydroxy-3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-9-

methoxy-4a,5,6,10b-tetrahydro-3H naphtho (2,1-b) pyran and four known compounds 1,2 dihydro 1,2,3 trihydroxy-9-(4-methoxy phenyl) phenalene(2)-hydroxy anigorufone

From ethyl acetate soluble fraction of the methanolic extract of fruits

  • 2 Fruits

(3), 2-(4-hydroxy phenyl) naphthalic anhydride(4) and 1,7 bis-(4-hydroxy phenyl)

hepta-4(E), 6(E)-diene-3-one (5).

   

Two new acyl steryl glycosides Sitoindoside-

Gradient solvent extraction

  • 3 Peeled

III and Sitosterol myo-inosityl-beta-D-

and Extensive

fruits

glucoside.

chromatography (CC, GC, TLC and HPLC)

 
  • 4 Fruit pulp

Three forms of α-glucan phosphorylase

Ammonium sulfate fractionation and DEAE- cellulose chromatography.

 
  • 5 Scape

Watersoluble(WSP),alkali soluble (ASP) and alkali insoluble(AISP) EDTA soluble (EDTA- SP) polysaccharide fractions.

-

   

Arabinose, xylose and galactouronic acid as

 

201

Asian Journal of Biochemical and Pharmaceutical Research

Issue 4 (Vol. 2) 2012

CODEN(USA) : AJBPAD

6 Mucilagino major sugars together with traces of galactose, rhamnose, mannose and glucose residues. usexudate 7
6
Mucilagino
major sugars together with traces of galactose,
rhamnose, mannose and glucose residues.
usexudate
7
Fruits Peels
Trace elements(except Zn)
Anion exchange
chromatography
Trace elements(except Zn)

Table 2 Nutritional value of banana, plantain in compare to other food (per 100 gm raw edible portion) 13

S. No.

Constituents

Banana

Plantain

Sweet

Potato

Apple

potato

 
  • 1 Water (g)

74.26

65.28

72.84

78.96

83.93

 
  • 2 Energy (kcal)

92

122

105

79

59

 
  • 3 Protein (g)

1.03

1.3

 
  • 1.65 0.19

2.07

 
  • 4 Fat (g)

 

0.48

0.37

 
  • 0.30 0.36

0.10

 
 
  • 5 Carbohydrate (g)

23.43

31.89

24.28

17.98

15.25

 
  • 6 Calcium (mg)

6

3

22

7

7

 
  • 7 Iron (mg)

0.31

0.6

0.59

0.76

0.18

 
  • 8 Potassium (mg)

396

499

204

543

115

 
  • 9 Sodium (mg)

1

4

13

6

0

 
  • 10 Vitamin C (mg)

9.1

18.4

22.7

19.7

5.7

 
  • 11 Thiamin (mg)

 
  • 0.045 0.674

0.052

 
  • 0.088 0.017

 
 
  • 12 Riboflavin (mg)

 

0.54

  • 0.100 0.147

 
  • 0.035 0.014

 
 
  • 13 Niacin (mg)

 
  • 0.540 0.674

0.686

 
  • 1.484 0.077

 
 
  • 14 Vitamin A (iu)

81

1127

20063

0

53

 
  • 15 Saturated fats (g)

 
  • 0.185 0.026

  • 0.143 0.058

0.064

   
 
  • 16 m. u fats (g)

 
  • 0.041 0.002

  • 0.032 0.015

0.011

   

17

p.u fats (g)

 
  • 0.089 0.043

  • 0.069 0.105

0.132

   

Table 3 Percentage of U. S. recommended daily allowance of vitamin and minerals provided by 100g of Musa paradisiaca Linn.

 

Vitamins

Minerals

S. No.

Vitamin

%

Mineral

%

1

B6

29

MAGNESIUM

7

2

C

15

COPPER

6

3

A

< 2

IRON

2

4

FOLACIN

5

PHOSPHORUS

2

5

THIAMIN

3

ZINC

6

6

RIBOFLAVIN

5

   

7

NIACIN

3

   

202

Asian Journal of Biochemical and Pharmaceutical Research

Issue 4 (Vol. 2) 2012

CODEN(USA) : AJBPAD

Asian Journal of Biochemical and Pharmaceutical Research Issue 4 (Vol. 2) 2012 CODEN(USA) : AJBPAD Arginine,

Arginine, Aspartate and Glutamine are the amino acid available with maximum concentrations in plantains. It is an excellent source of vitamins like; vitamin A (Carotene), B (Thiamine, niacin, riboflavin and B 6 ) and C (ascorbic acid). Although it do not provide a particularly good source of several important minerals in human nutrition, such as calcium, iron and iodine they are notably high in potassium and low in sodium [13].

PHARMACOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES:

The various effects of Musa paradisiaca Linn. are documented in traditional as well as scientific literature. The main pharmacologial effects of this plant are- Hepatoprotective, hair growth promoter, diuretic, analgesic, antiulcer, wound healing, antioxidant, hypoglycemic, antiurolithiatic activity, mutagenic effects and haemostatic activity in which few are reported.

1. Antiulcer activity: Orally administered banana pulp powder was shown to have significant antiulcerogenic activity in rats subjected to Aspirin, Indomethacin, Phenyl butazone, Prednisolone, Cysteamine and in guinea pigs subjected to hist amine. Banana pulp powder not only increased mucosal thickness but also significantly increases thymidine (incorporation into mucosal DNA). Histological studies showed that banana treatment sections showed a greater aggregation and intensity of pink spots when compared to controls. This study suggests that banana powder treatment not only strengthens mucosal resistance against ulcerogens but also promotes healing by inducing cellular proliferation. The active ulcerogenic ingredient was extracted from unripe plantain banana by solvent fractionation and identified by chromatography, spectroscopy and HPLC. As the flavanoid leucocyanidin and purified synthetic leucocyanidin demonstrated significant (p<0.05) protective effect against aspirin induced erosion. Extracts of plantain (Musa sapientum Linn. var. paradisiaca was studied on the accumulation of eicosanoids in incubates of human gastric and colonic mucosa. The ethanol extracts caused a concentration dependent increase in the eicosanoid but the water extract was ineffective. Methanolic extracts of plantain banana pulp was evaluated for its antiulcer and antioxidant activities in 2 hr cold restraint stress and anti H. pylori activity in vitro. The extract (50mg/kg twice daily for 5 days) showed significant antiulcer effect and antioxidant activity in gastric mucosa homogenates where it reversed the increase in ulcer index, lipid peroxidation and superoxide dismutase values induced by stress [14].

2. Wound healing activity: The rats were given graded dose of (50-200 Kg/day) of aqueous and methanolic extract of Musa sapientum var. paradisiaca orally for a period of 10-21 days depending upon the type of study. Both extracts when studied for incision and dead space wounds parameters increased wound breaking strength and levels of hydroxyl proline, hexuronic acid, hexosamine, superoxide dismutase, reduced glutathione in the granulation tissue and decreased percentage of wound area, scar area when compared with the control group both the extracts showed good safety profile [15].

3. Hair Growth promoting activity: For the evaluation of the hair growth promoting activity of Musa paradisiaca unripe fruit extract, the study was aimed to investigate the hair growth promoting activity of Musa paradisiaca unripe fruit extract. We examined the effect of Musa Paradisiaca unripe fruit extract for the hair growth promoting activity, which has been traditionally used for treating hair loss. The mice were divided into four groups the extract and minoxidil were applied over the shaved skin

203

Asian Journal of Biochemical and Pharmaceutical Research

Issue 4 (Vol. 2) 2012

CODEN(USA) : AJBPAD

Asian Journal of Biochemical and Pharmaceutical Research Issue 4 (Vol. 2) 2012 CODEN(USA) : AJBPAD surface

surface on to the backs of mice and monitored for 30 days. The extract of Musa Paradisiaca unripe fruit when tested for the hair growth activity was assyed by studying hair length and microscopic study of follicles in vehicle control, 2% minoxidil treated and extracts treated animals. The findings suggest that extract of Musa Paradisiaca unripe fruit has potential as a hair growth promoter [16-17].

  • 4. Analgesic activity: The analgesic activity of aqueous extract of the plant was evaluated using the

hot plate method and writhing test in mice. The hot plate method is useful in detecting centrally acting analgesics whereas acetic acid induced writhing method is useful to detect peripheral analgesic effects. Acetic acid, which is used as an inducer for writhing syndrome, causes analgesia by liberation of endogenous substances, which then excite the pain nerve endings. The fact that aqueous extract of

Musa paradisiaca showed analgesic activity in both the models studied, indicate that this effect could be due to the presence of two components; one acting centrally and the other via peripheral route from the above results, it can be deduced that aqueous extract has shown dose dependent activity. As the phytochemical screening has shown the presence of carbohydrates, sterols, proteins, flavonoids, alkaloids in aqueous extract of Musa paradisiaca leaves, its potent activity may be attributed to the presence of these phytoconstituents [18].

  • 5. Antioxidant property: The antioxidant behavior of the extracts was evaluated by using the

thiocyanate method, ß-carotene bleaching method and 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical elimination. Antioxidant activity of water extracts was comparable to those of synthetic antioxidants such as butylated hydroxyanisole and butylated hydroxytoluene and it shows a significant antioxidant property. The antioxidant effects of crude extracts from green banana and yellow peel were investigated and the results indicated that the extract of green peel recorded more significant activities than that of yellow peel at other solvents extracts [19].

  • 6. Hepatoprotective activity:To investigate the hepatoprotective activity of stem of Musa paradisiaca

in CCl4 and paracetamol induced hepatotoxicity models in rats,the aqueous and alcoholic extracts was utilized.Administration of hepatotoxins(CCl4 and Paracetamol) showed significant biochemical and histological deteriorations in the liver of experimental animals.Pretrement with alcoholic extract (500 mg/kg) more significantly and to a lesser extent the alcoholic extract (250 mg/kg) and aqueous extract (500 mg/kg), reduced the elevated levels of the serum enzymes like serum glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT), Serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase (SGPT), Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and bilirubin levels, Also alcoholic and aqueous extracts reversed the hepatic damage towards the normal, which gives the evidence of hepatoprotective activity of stem of Musa paradisiacal Linn [20].

  • 7. Mutagenic effect: Mutagenic effect of the Musa paradisiaca fruit peel extract was assessed by the

single-cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE) and micronucleus assays. Peripheral blood cells of Swiss mice were collected 24 h after treatment for the SCGE assay and 48 and 72 h for the micronucleus test after

feeding the extract in three different concentrations (1000, 1500 and 2000 mg/kg Body Weight). It was concluded that the two higher doses of the extract of Musa paradisiaca induced significant increases in the average numbers of DNA damage in peripheral blood leukocytes for the two higher doses and a significant increase in the mean of micronucleated polychromatic Erythrocytes in the three doses tested [21].

  • 8. Haemostatic Effect of the Stem Juice of Musa paradisiaca L. :The Haemostasis involves the

spontaneous arrest of time taken for bleeding to stop was recorded. This was bleeding from damaged

204

Asian Journal of Biochemical and Pharmaceutical Research

Issue 4 (Vol. 2) 2012

CODEN(USA) : AJBPAD

Asian Journal of Biochemical and Pharmaceutical Research Issue 4 (Vol. 2) 2012 CODEN(USA) : AJBPAD blood

blood vessels which are important repeated using other rats and the average was taken as for initiation of tissue repair processes and prevention of bleeding time. The procedure was repeated on the second tissue death through haemorrhage. It occurs in three arms. However after puncturing the skin and blood had stages: vasoconstriction, platelet response and blood started coming out, a drop of stem juice was dropped on coagulation. A fourth stage occurs when the clot is each of the puncture sites and the time taken for bleeding dissolved following repair of the blood vessel [22].

9. Antidiabetic activity: Methanolic extracts of mature green fruit of Musa Paradisiaca in normal and Streptozocin treated diabetic mice using Chlorpropamide as antidiabetic agent. MEMP (100-800 mg/kg, p.o) showed significant dose related (p<0.05 – 0.001) reduction in the blood glucose concentration in normal and diabetic mice. Chlorpropamide (250 mg/kg p.o) also produced significant (p<0.01 and p<0.001) reduction in the blood glucose concentration in normal and diabetic mice [23-

24].

RESULT AND DISCUSSION:

This literature review presents some phytochemicals and detailed pharmacological information of Musa paradisiaca Linn. The few pharmacological studies has been reported and number of activities require the proper scientific justification on the plant in which diarrhoea, dysentery, ulcer, antispasmodic, hypertension, nephroprotective activity and cardiac diseases etc are scientifically possible. The different phytoconstituents present in the unripe fruit extract of the plant like; alkaloids, steroids, antioxidants, flavonoids etc that gives the possibility of expected pharmacological activities and which help for further research and treatment for the patients.

REFERENCES:

  • 1. W.C. Evans & Trease., Pharmacognosy, 2002,16th Edn, Saunders Elsevier: 42.

  • 2. Pradeep K Dutta, Asir K Das & Nilima Benerji., Phytochemistry. 1986, 22 (11), 2563.

  • 3. Alexandra Pazmino-Duran, M Monica Giusti, Ronald E Wrolstad & M M Beatriz., Food chemistry., 2001, 73 (3), 327.

  • 4. O. Adegboyega & Ketiku., Journal of the science of food and Agriculture, 2006, 24 (6), 703.

  • 5. D.S. Jang, E.J. Park, M.E. Hawthorne, J.S.Vigo & J.C.Graham., J Agri Food Chem., 2002, 50 (22), 6330.

  • 6. Shibnath Ghosal., Phytochemistry., 1985, 24 (8), 1807.

  • 7. Surjeet Singh & G. G. Sanwal., Phytochemistry, 1975, 14 (1), 113.

  • 8. Anil kumar and G G Sanwal, Phytochemistry, 1977, 16(3), 327.

  • 9. Y.U. Anjaneyalu, R.L. Jagadish & T.S. Raju., Glycoconj J. 1997, 14 (4), 507.

10. S.K. Mondal, B. Ray, Thakens & P.K. Ghosal., Fitoterapia., 2001, 72 (3), 263.

205

Asian Journal of Biochemical and Pharmaceutical Research

Issue 4 (Vol. 2) 2012

CODEN(USA) : AJBPAD

Asian Journal of Biochemical and Pharmaceutical Research Issue 4 (Vol. 2) 2012 CODEN(USA) : AJBPAD 11.
  • 11. S. Sharrock, C. Lusty, Nutritive value of banana, INIBAP annual report 1999, NIBAP, Montpellier (FRA)., 2000. 28.

  • 12. R.K. Goel, S. Gupta, R. Shankar & A.K. Sanyal., J Ethanopharmacology., 1986, 18(1), 33.

  • 13. P.K. Agarwal, A. Singh, K. Gaurav, S. Goel, H.D. Khanna & R.K. Goel., Indian J Exp. Biol. 2009, 47(1), 32

  • 14. Surbhi Gupta et al, Der Pharmacia Sinica., 2011, 2(4), 74.

  • 15. M.S. Mokbel & H. Fumio., American journal of Biochemistry and Biotechnology.2005, 1(3)

125.

  • 16. C.U.B. Andrade, F.F. Perazzo, E.L. Maistro., Genet. Mol. Res., 2008, 7(3), 725.

  • 17. G.H. Rabbani, M.J. Albert, H. Rahman, A. Chowdhury & Shortchain., Dig. Dis. Sci. 1999, 44,
    1547.

  • 18. G.H. Rabbani, T. Teka, B. Zaman, M. Majid N Khatun & G.J.Fuchs., Gastroenterol., 2001, 121, 554.

*Correspondence Author: Sanjeev Kumar, Arya College of Pharmacy, Kukas, Jaipur, Rajasthan

206