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CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION TO AAI
1.1 INTRODUCTION
The Airports Authority of India (AAI) is an organization working under the Ministry of
Civil Aviation that manages all the airports in India. The AAI manages and operates 126
airports including 12 international airports, 89 domestic airports and 26 civil enclaves. The
corporate headquarters (CHQ) are at Rajiv Gandhi Bhawan, Safdargung Airport, New
Delhi R.K. Shrivastava is the current chairman of the AAI.

Fig. 1.1 Logo of AAI


The Airports Authority of India (AAI) was formed on 1st April 1995 by merging the
International Airports Authority of India and the National Airports Authority with a view to
accelerate the integrated development, expansion and modernization of the operational,
terminal and cargo facilities at the airports in the country conforming to international
standards. AAI provides air navigation services over 2.8 million square nautical miles of
airspace.
Profile
The Airports Authority of India (AAI) was formed on 1st April 1995 by merging the
International Airports Authority of India and the National Airports Authority with a view to
accelerate the integrated development, expansion and modernization of the operational,
terminal and cargo facilities at the airports in the country conforming to international
standards.

1.2 STRUCTURE OF MCA


The Ministry of Civil Aviation of the Government of India (MCA) is the nodal Ministry
responsible for the formulation of national policies and programmers for development and
regulation of Civil Aviation and for devising and implementing schemes for the orderly

growth and expansion of civil air transport. Its functions also extend to overseeing airport
facilities, air traffic services and carriage of passengers and goods by air. The Ministry also
administers implementation of the 1934 Aircraft Act and is administratively responsible for
the Commission of Railways Safety

Fig. 1.2: Civil Aviation set up in India

1.2.1 DIRECTORATE GENERAL OF CIVIL AVIATION


The Directorate General of Civil Aviation (DGCA) is the Indian governmental regulatory
body for civil aviation under the Ministry of Civil Aviation. This directorate
investigates aviation accidents and incidents. It is headquartered along Sri Aurobindo Marg,
opposite Safdarjung Airport, in New Delhi. Endeavour to promote safe and efficient Air
Transportation through regulation and proactive safety oversight system.

1.2.2 BUREAU OF CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY


The Bureau of Civil Aviation Security (BCAS) is an agency of the Ministry of Civil
Aviation of India. Its head office is on the first through third floors of the A Wing of the
Janpath Bhawan along Janpath Road in New Delhi. The agency has four regional offices,
located

at Indira

Gandhi

Airport in Delhi, Chhatrapati

Shivaji

International

Airport in Mumbai, Chennai International Airport in Chennai, and Netaji Subhas Chandra
Bose International Airport in Kolkata[1].

1.2.3 AAI
The Airports Authority of India (AAI) under the Ministry of Civil Aviation is responsible
for creating, upgrading, maintaining and managing civil aviation infrastructure in India. It
provides Air traffic management (ATM) services over Indian airspace and adjoining
oceanic areas.

1.2.4 PRIVATE AIRPORTS


The airports in India are categories as Custom, Domestic, International, Defence, Future
and Privates. Private Airports are used for specific purpose. List of private airports in India
are:
1. Sri SathyaSai Airport , Andhra Pradesh
2. OP Jindal Airport, Chhattisgarh
3. Mehsana Airport, Gujarat
4. Vidyanagar Airport, Karnataka
Amravati

Airport,

Shirpur

Airport,

Baramati

Airport,

Gondia

Airport,

Maharashtra.

1.2.5 AIR LINES


The total fleet size of commercial airlines in India was 371 by 20 February 2013. In 1994,
the Air Corporation Act of 1953 was repealed with a view to remove monopoly of air
corporations on scheduled services, enable private airlines to operate scheduled service,
convert Indian Airlines and Air India to limited companies and enable private participation
in the national carriers. Since 1990 private airline companies were allowed to operate air
taxi services, resulting in the establishment of Jet Airways and Air Sahara. These changes in
the Indian aviation policies resulted in the increase of the share of private airline operators
in domestic passenger carriage to 68.5% in 2005 from a meagre 0.4% in 1991.

1.2.6

IGRUA

Indira Gandhi Rashtriya Uran Akademi (IGRUA) is a premier pilot training institute of
India.

Its

an

autonomous

institution

and

comes

under Ministry

of

Civil

Aviation, Government of India.Course offered are: Commercial Pilot License (CPL),


Simulator training.

1.3.

ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE

AAI manages 126 airports, which include 11 international airports, 89 domestic airports and
26 civil enclaves at Defense airfields. AAI provides air navigation services over 2.8 million
square nautical miles of airspace.
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1.4.

INFORMATION RELATED TO AAI

Control and management of the Indian airspace extending beyond the territorial limits of the
country, as accepted by ICAO. Design, Development, Operation and Maintenance of
International and Domestic Airports and Civil Enclaves. Construction, Modification and
Management of Passenger Terminals. Development and Management of Cargo Terminals at
International and Domestic airports. Provision of Passenger Facilities and Information
System at the Passenger Terminals at airports. Expansion and strengthening of operation
area viz. Runways, Aprons, Taxiway etc. Provision of visual aids. Provision of
Communication and Navigational aids viz. ILS, DVOR, DME, Radar etc [1].

1.5.

PRESENT TIME AAI

1. Most of AAI's revenue is generated from landing/parking fees and fees collected by
providing CNS & ATC services to aircraft over the Indian airspace.
2. Only 16 of the 126 airfields operated by the AAI are profitable while the other airports
incur heavy losses due to underutilization and poor management.

1.6 FUNCTIONS OF AAI


(i)

To control and manage the entire Indian airspace (excluding the special user airspace)
extending beyond the territorial limits of the country, as accepted by ICAO.

(ii)

To Design, Construct, Operate and Maintain International Airports, Domestic


Airports, Civil Enclaves at Defense Airports.

(iii)

Development and Management of Cargo Terminals at Airports

(iv)

Provision of Passenger Facilities and Information System at the Passenger Terminals


at airports

(v)

Expansion and strengthening of operation area viz. Runways, Aprons, Taxiway, etc

(vi)

Provision of visual aids.

(vii) Provision of Communication and Navigational aids viz. ILS,DVOR,DME,

Radar

etc.
(viii) Construction, modification & management of passenger terminals, development &
management of cargo terminals, development & maintenance of apron infrastructure
including runways, parallel taxiways, apron etc.,
(ix)

Provision of Communication, Navigation and Surveillance which includes provision


of DVOR / DME, ILS, ATC radars, visual aids etc., provision of air traffic services,
4

provision

of passenger facilities and related amenities at its terminals thereby

ensuring safe and secure operations of aircraft, passenger and cargo in the country.

1.7 CONCLUSION
This part of report gives the information related to airport authority of India. In this part also
explain the basic profile of the AAI, function of AAI and the present time market strength
of the AAI.

CHAPTER 2
AIRPORT AUTHORIT OF JAIPUR
2.1 AAI, JAIPUR
Jaipur Airport (IATA: JAI, ICAO: VIJP) is in the southern suburb of Sanganer, 13 km
from Jaipur, the capital of the Indian state of Rajasthan.
Jaipur airport is the only international airport in the state of Rajasthan. It was granted the
status of international airport on 29 December 2005. The civil apron can accommodate
14 A320 aircraft and the new terminal building can handle up to 1000 passengers at a time.
There

are

plans to

extend the runway to

12,000 ft (3,658 m) and expand

the terminal building to accommodate 1,000 passengers per hour. The runway is now being
extended to 11,500 ft (3,505 m). This extension will help to land big planes such as Boeing
747 and Airbus A380. Thus, the air traffic will be more and the international destinations
will be also more. This project will be completed on July 2015.

2.2 STRUCTURE OF AAI, JAIPUR


The new domestic terminal building at Jaipur Airport was inaugurated on 1 July 2009.The
new terminal has an area of 22,950 sqm, is made of glass and steel structure having modern
passenger friendly facilities such as central heating system, central air conditioning,
inline x-ray baggage inspection system integrated with the departure conveyor system,
inclined

arrival

baggage

claim

carousels, escalators, public

address system, flight

information display system (FIDS), CCTV for surveillance, airport check-incounters with
Common Use Terminal Equipment (CUTE), car parking, etc.
The International Terminal Building has peak hour passenger handling
capacity of 500 passengers and annual handling capacity of 400,000.The entrance gate ,
made of sandstone and Dholpur stones along with Rajasthani paintings on the walls, give
tourists a glimpse of the Rajasthani culture.
Two fountains on both sides of the terminal, dotted with palm trees, maintain
normal temperature within the airport premises. The transparent side walls of the building
have adjustable shades that control the passage of sunlight into the airport premises, thereby
cutting down heavily on electricity bills.

Fig. 2.1: Jaipur Airport

Fig. 2.2: Terminal- 2


The Airlines operating at this airport are: (a)

International: Indian , Air Arabia, & Air India Express

(b)

Domestic: Indian, Jet Airways, Jet lite, Indigo, Kingfisher, Go Air, SpiceJet.
TABLE NO. 2.1: TECHNICAL DATA OF THE AIRPORT

AERODROME REFERENCE CODE

4D

ELEVATION

1263.10 Feet (385 meter)


264926.3N

ARP COORDINATES

0754812.5E

MAIN RWY ORIENTATION

27/09

RWY DIMENSION

2797.05m X 45m

APRON DIMENSION

230m X 196 m

PARKING BAYS

TABLE NO. 2.2: GENERAL INFORMATION OF AIRPORT


AIRPORT NAME

JAIPUR AIRPORT,JAIPUR

AIRPORT TYPE

CIVIL AERODROME

OPERATOR

AIRPORT AUTHORITY OF INDIA

ADDRESS

OIC,AAI,JAIPUR AIRPORT,JAIPUR302029

NAME & DESGINATION OF

RAMA GUPTA

OPERATOR INCHARGE
REGION

NORTHERN REGION

RHQ

NEW DELHI

NATURE OF STATION

NON TENURE

TABLE NO.2.3: RUNWAY


DIRECTION

LENGTH

SURFACE

09/27

9,177ft

CONCRETE/ASPHALT

15/33

5,233ft

ASPHALT

TABLE NO.2.4: TERMINALS, AIRLINES & DESTINATION


AIRLINES

DESTINATION

AIR ARABIA

SHARJAH

AIR COSTA

BANGALORE,CHENNAI,HYDERABAD,VISAKHAPATNAM

AIR INDIA

MUMBAI,DELHI

AIR INDIA
EXPRESS

DUBAI

ETIHAD

ABU DHABI

AIRWAYS
GOAIR
INDIGO

CHENNAI,MUMBAI
AHMEDABAD,BANGALORE,CHENNAI,GUWAHATI,HYDERABAD,
KOCHI, KOLKATA,MUMBAI,INDORE

JET AIRWAYS

AHMEDABAD,CHANDIGARH,DELHI,MUMBAI,
LUCKNOW,INDORE

JETKONNECT

DELHI,INDORE,PUNE

OMAN AIR

MUSCAT

SPICEJET

DELHI

2.3 OPERATIONS
2.3.1 PASSENGER FACILITIES
(a) Construction, modification & management of passenger terminals,

development &

management of cargo terminals, development & maintenance of apron infrastructure


including runways, parallel taxiways, apron etc.
(b) Provision of Communication, Navigation and Surveillance which includes provision of
DVOR / DME, ILS, ATC radars, visual aids etc., provision of air traffic services,
provision of passenger facilities and related amenities at its terminals thereby ensuring
safe and secure operations of aircraft, passenger and cargo in the country.
2.3.2 AIR NAVIGATION SERVICES
In tune with its global approach to modernise Air Traffic Control (ATC) infrastructure for
seamless navigation across state and regional boundaries, AAI is upgrading to satellite
based Communication, Navigation, Surveillance (CNS) and Air Traffic Management. A
number of co-operation agreements and memoranda of co-operation have been signed with
the Federal Aviation Administration, US Trade & Development Agency, European Union,
Air Services Australia and the French Government Co-operative Projects and Studies
initiated to gain from their experience[1].

2.3.3 IT IMPLEMENTATION
AAI website is a website giving a host of information about the organization besides
domestic and international flight schedules and such other information of interest to the
public in general and passengers in particular.

2.3.4 HRD TRAINING


AAI has a number of training establishments, viz. NIAMAR in Delhi, CATC in Allahabad,
Fire Training Centres at Delhi & Kolkata for in-house training of its engineers, Air Traffic
Controllers, Rescue & Fire Fighting personnel etc. NIAMAR & CATC are members of
ICAO TRAINER programme under which they share Standard Training Packages (STP)
from a central pool for imparting training on various subjects.
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2.3.5 REVENUE
Most of AAI's revenue is generated from landing/parking fees and fees collected by
providing CNS & ATC services to aircraft over the Indian airspace.

2.4. CONCLUSION
In this chapter we gained technical information information about the AAI Jaipur and its
working operations.

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CHAPTER 3
COMMUNICATION NAVIGATION &
SURVEILLANCE SYSTEM
3.1. INTRODUCTION
AAI is semi govt. authority as well as public sector unit.AAI can take any decision for the
development of infrastructure of the company. For the infrastructure, the civil aviation plays
a vital role in airport infrastructure. Civil Aviation is the fastest growing arm of Indias
transport infrastructure and it plays an increasingly important role in providing connectivity.
The sprojections for both passenger & cargo traffic growth, coupled with the deficient &
lagging airport & allied Infrastructure, calls for an urgent need to build & augment Indias
Aviation Infrastructure.[3]

3.1.1 DEPARTMENTAL STRUCTURE


It can be divided into mainly five departments:
1. Overall Airport Management
2. CNS Office
3. Nav-Aids/GAGAN
4. Equipment Room
5. FIDS(Flight Information Display System)/Security Equipments/CCTV
1. Overall Airport Management- This area comes under management part. Various
activities viz. booking of tickets , maintenance of transactions and funds for the
development and modernization of airport, and other departmental activities .This
department regulates the cost and maintenance of various equipments used at the
airport. This department also deals with the buying of the various new equipments for
replacement with the old ones.
2. CNS Office- CNS refers to Communication Navigation and Surveillance. The work of
this department is to take care of proper communication between the airport officials
and also to the pilot during take-off and landing of the aeroplane.
3. Nav-Aids- It represents Navigational Aids. This department helps in the Navigation of
the aircrafts in the airspace. It is not necessary that these aircraft should land on the
airport, instead they can get directions from here during the flight also.
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4. Equipment Room- This room has all the necessary equipment for the proper
functioning and monitoring of the various data transfers.
5. FIDS- It represents Flight Information Display System. It is for the

passengers

information and convenience.[1]

3.2 NETWORK STRUCTURE


It has a wide network all over India. Their network structure provide guidance to any
aeroplane and helicopters over the whole Indian airspace. For this purpose all the airports
are constantly in touch with the nearest airports through proper communication system. The
network structure is based on LAN and WAN.

3.3 HARDWARE AND SOFTWARE


The Airports Authority of India uses various hardware equipments of various companies
and many equipments like VHF and DATIS use software of different technologies.these
equipments are based on various parameters such as VSWR ,power ,modulator ,power
supply unit, synthesizer etc.

3.4 ROLE OF CNS DEPARTMENT


1. To provide uninterrupted services of Communication, Navigation and Surveillance
(CNS) facilities for the smooth and safe movement of aircraft (over flying, departing &
landing) in accordance with ICAO standards and recommended practices.
2. To maintain Security Equipments namely X-Ray Baggage systems (XBIS), Hand Held
Metal Detectors (HHMD) and Door Frame Metal Detectors (DFMD).
3. To provide and maintain inter-unit communication facility i.e. Electronic Private
Automatic Exchange Board (EPABX)
4. To maintain the passenger facilitation systems like Public Address (PA) system, Car
Handling System and Flight Information Display System (FIDS).[4]

3.5 CNS FACILITY


1. VHF air to ground voice communication facilities.
2. Digital Voice Tape Recorder.
3. Dedicated Satellite Communication Network.

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4. Voice Communication System.


5. Automatic Message Switching System

Fig 3.1 General Architecture of CNS department

3.6. CONCLUSION
In this part of report gives the information related to CNS (communication navigation
surveillance) department. The basic role or airport and the equipment used at airport related
to security, for communicate to pilot, for the landing for distance measuring used all
equipment.

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CHAPTER 4
COMMUNICATION DEPARTMENT
4.1 INTRODUCTION
Communication is the process of sending, receiving and processing of information by
electrical means. It started with wire telegraphy in 1840 followed by wire telephony and
subsequently by radio/wireless communication. The introduction of satellites and fiber
optics has made communication more widespread and effective with an increasing emphasis
on computer based digital data communication. In Radio communication, for transmission
information/message are first converted into electrical signals then modulated with a carrier
signal of high frequency, amplified up to a required level, converted into electromagnetic
waves and radiated in the space, with the help of antenna. For reception these
electromagnetic waves received by the antenna, converted into electrical signals, amplified,
detected and reproduced in the original form of information/message with the help of
speaker.[1]
4.1.1 TRANSMITTER
Unless the message arriving from the information source is electrical in nature, it will be
unsuitable for immediate transmission. Even then, a lot of work must be done to make such
a message suitable.
This may be demonstrated in single-sideband modulation, where it is necessary to
convert the incoming sound signals into electrical variations, to restrict the range of the
audio frequencies and then to compress their amplitude range. All this is done before any
modulation.
In wire telephony no processing may be required, but in long-distance
communications, transmitter is required to process, and possibly encode, the incoming
information so as to make it suitable for transmission and subsequent reception.
Eventually, in a transmitter, the information modulates the carrier, i.e., is
superimposed on a high-frequency sine wave. The actual method of modulation varies from
one system to another.
Modulation may be high level or low level, (in VHF we use low level modulation)
and the system itself may be amplitude modulation, frequency modulation, pulse
modulation or any variation or combination of these, depending on the requirements.[1]

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Fig. 4.1: RF Transmitter

4.1.2 CHANNEL
The acoustic channel (i.e., shouting!) is not used for long-distance communications and
neither was the visual channel until the advent of the laser. "Communications," in this
context, will be restricted to radio, wire and fiber optic channels.
Also, it should be noted that the term channel is often used to refer to the frequency
range allocated to a particular service or transmission, such as a television channel.[2]
It is inevitable that the signal will deteriorate during the process of transmission and
reception as a result of some distortion in the system, or because of the introduction of
noise, which is unwanted energy, usually of random character, present in a transmission
system, due to a variety of causes.
Since noise will be received together with the signal, it places a limitation on the
transmission system as a whole. When noise is severe, it may mask a given signal so much
that the signal becomes unintelligible and therefore useless. Noise may interfere with signal
at any point in a communications system, but it will have its greatest effect when the signal
is weakest. This means that noise in the channel or at the input to the receiver is the most
noticeable.[3]

4.1.3 RECEIVER
There are a great variety of receivers in communications systems, since the exact form of a
particular receiver is influenced by a great many requirements. Among the more important
requirements are the modulation system used, the operating frequency and its range and the
type of display required, which in turn depends on the destination of the intelligence
received. Most receivers do conform broadly to the super heterodyne type.[2]

15

Fig 4.2: RF Receiver


Receivers run the whole range of complexity from a very simple crystal receiver, with
headphones, to a far more complex radar receiver, with its involved antenna arrangements
and visual display system. Whatever the receiver, its most important function is
demodulation (and sometimes also decoding). Both these processes are the reverse of the
corresponding transmitter modulation processes.
As stated initially, the purpose of a receiver and the form of its output influence its
construction as much as the type of modulation system used. The output of a receiver may
be fed to a loudspeaker, video display unit, teletypewriter, various radar displays, television
picture tube, pen recorder or computer: In each instance different arrangements must be
made, each affecting the receiver design. Note that the transmitter and receiver must be in
agreement with the modulation and coding methods used (and also timing or
synchronization in some systems).[2]

16

Fig 4.3: Transmitter and Receiver Equipment

4.2. VCCS /TAPE RECORDER/DATIS


The Voice Communication Control System (VCCS) is a Voice Switch and Control System
for networking an airport VHF communication system. It is an electronic switching system,
which controls the complex flow of speech data between air traffic controllers on ground
and aircraft. The system has been designed using Complementary Metal Oxide
Semiconductor (CMOS) digital circuits and is very easy to operate.[2]
The VCCS is based on a modular architecture. The heart of the system is a Central
Switching Unit (CSU) in which the data inputs from various controller workstations are
separately processed. The controller workstation installed at the ATS units works as a
command centre from which the air traffic controller operates the VHF RT. Each Controller
Workstation is assisted by a Radio Telephony Display Console, Audio Interface and
Headset Interface Units.

Fig. 4.4: VCCS

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Fig. 4.5: System Architecture of VCCS


4.2.1 INTRODUCTION TO TAPE RECORDING
The purpose of tape recorder is to store the Sound by recording of sound either by Disc
Recording, Film Recording or Magnetic Recording. In our Department, we are using
Magnetic Recording to record the communications/speech between Air (Aircraft) to
Ground, Ground to Ground, telephones, Intercoms etc. For any miss happening or any
other reason, the conversations of past period can be checked to find out the root cause so
that in future such types of mistakes can be avoided.[6]

4.3. DIGITAL AIRPORT TERMINAL INFORMATION SYSTEM


(DATIS)
Digital Airport Terminal Information System (DATIS) is an intelligent announcing system
used for Automatic Terminal Information Service (ATIS) for the automatic provision of
current, routine information (weather, runway used etc.) to arriving and departing aircraft
throughout 24 hrs or a specific portion thereof. The System is Completely solid-state,
without any moving parts. The design is based around advanced digital techniques viz.,
PCM digitization, high density Dynamic RAM Storage and microprocessor control. This
ensures reproduction of recorded speech with high quality and reliability. Storage capacity
normally supplied is for 4 minutes Announcement, and as the system design is modular, it
can be increased by simply adding extra memory. The system is configured with fully
duplicated modules, automatic switch-over mechanism and Uninterrupted Power Supply to
ensure Continuous System availability.[6]

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Table 4.1: Frequency Band


BAND NAME

FREQUENCY BAND

Ultra Low Frequency (ULF)

3Hz -

30 Hz

Very Low Frequency (VLF)

3 kHz -

30 kHz

Low Frequency (LF)

30 kHz - 300 kHz

Medium Frequency (MF)

300 kHz - 3 MHz

High Frequency (HF)

3 MHz - 30 MHz

Very High Frequency (VHF)

30 MHz - 300 MHz

Ultra High Frequency (UHF)

300 MHz -3 GHz

Super High Frequency (SHF)

3 GHz - 30 GHz

Extra High Frequency (EHF)

30 GHz - 300 GHz

Infrared Frequency

3 THz-

30 THz

Table 4.2: Frequency Band Used in Communication


NAME OF THE

FREQUENCY BAND

USED

EQUIPMENT

NDB

200-450 KHZ

HF

3-30 MHZ

Ground to Ground/Air Com.

LOCALIZER

108-112 MHZ

Instrument Landing System

VOR

108-117.975 MHZ

Terminal, Homing & En-route

VHF

117.975-137 MHZ

Ground to Air Comm.

GLIDE PATH

328-336 MHZ

Instrument Landing System

DME

960-1215 MHZ

Measurement of Distance

UHF LINK

0.3-2.7 GHZ

Remote Control, Monitoring

RADAR

0.3-12 GHZ

Surveillance

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Locator, Homing & Enroute

Fig. 4.6: DATIS

4.4. AUTOMATIC MESSAGE SWITCHING SYSTEM


In AFTN, information is exchanged between many stations. The simplest form of
communication is point-to-point type, where information is transmitted from a source to
sink through a medium. The source is where information is generated and includes all
functions necessary to translate the information into an agreed code, format and procedure.
The medium could be a pair of wires, radio systems etc. is responsible for transferring the
information. The sink is defined as the recipient of information; it includes all necessary
elements to decode the signals back into information.[2]
4.4.1. CLASSIFICATION OF AFTN SWITCHING SYSTEM
A switching system is an easy solution that can allow on demand basis the connection of
any combination of source and sink stations. AFTN switching system can be classified into
3 (three) major categories:[4]
1

Line or circuit Switching

Message Switching

Packet Switching.

4.4.1.1 Line Switching


When the switching system is used for switching lines or circuits it is called line-switching
system. Telex switches and telephones exchanges are common examples of the line
switching system. They provide user on demand basis end-to-end connection. As long as
connection is up the user has exclusive use of the total bandwidth of the communication
channel as per requirement. It is Interactive and Versatile.[4]

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4.4.1.2 Message Switching


In the Message Switching system, messages from the source are collected and stored in the
input queue which are analysed by the computer system and transfer the messages to an
appropriate output queue in the order of priority.
The message switching system works on store and forward principle. It provides good
line utilization, multi- addressing, message and system accounting, protects against
blocking condition, and compatibility to various line interfaces.[4]
4.4.1.3 Packet Switching
This system divides a message into small chunks called packet. These packets are made of a
bit stream, each containing communication control bits and data bits. The communication
control bits are used for the link and network control procedure and data bits are for the
user.
A packet could be compared to an envelope into which data are placed. The envelope
contains the destination address and other control information. Long messages are being cut
into small chunks and transmitted as packets. At the destination the network device stores,
reassembles the incoming packets and decodes the signals back into information by
designated protocol. It can handle high-density traffic. Messages are protected until
delivered. No direct connection required between source and sink. Single port handles
multiple circuits access simultaneously and can communicate with high speed.[2]

4.5. AERONAUTICAL TELECOMMUNICATION NETWORK (ATN)


The basic objective of CNS/ATM is Accommodation of the users preferred flight
trajectories. This requires the introduction of automation and adequate CNS tools to
provide ATS with continuous information on aircraft position and intent. In the new
CNS/ATM system, communications with aircraft for both voice and data (except for polar
region) will be by direct aircraft to satellite link and then to air traffic control (ATC) centre
via a satellite ground earth station and ground-ground communication network. Voice
communication (HF) will be maintained during the transition period and over polar region
until such time satellite communication is available. In terminal areas and in some high
density airspaces VHF and SSR mode S will be used.[2]
The introduction of data communication enables fast exchange of information
between all parties connected to a single network. The increasing use of data
communications between aircraft and the various ground systems require a communication
21

system that gives users close control over the routing of data, and enables different
computer systems to communicate with each other without human intervention.
In computer data networking terminology, the infrastructure required to support the
interconnection of automated systems is referred to as an Internet. Simply stated, an Internet
comprises the interconnection of computers through sub-networks, using gateways or
routers. The inter-networking infrastructure for this global network is the Aeronautical
Telecommunication Network (ATN).[1] The collection of interconnected aeronautical endsystem(ES), intermediate-system(IS) and sub-network (SN) elements administered by
International Authorities of aeronautical data-communication is denoted the Aeronautical
Telecommunication Network (ATN).
The ATN will provide for the interchange of digital between a wide variety of endsystem applications supporting end-users such as Aircraft operation, Air traffic controllers
and Aeronautical information specialists. The ATN based on the International organization
for standardization (ISO). Open system interconnection (OSI) reference model allows for
the inter- operation of dissimilar Air-Ground and ground to ground sub-networks as a single
internet environment. End-system attached to ATN Sub-network and communicates with
End system with other sub-networks by using ATN Routes. ATN Routes can be either
mobile (Aircraft based) or fixed.
The router selects the logical path across a set of ATN sub-networks that can exists
between any two end systems. This path selection process uses the network level addressing
quality of service and security parameters provided by the initiating en system. Thus the
initiating end system does not need to know the particular topology or availability of
specific sub-networks.
Present day Aeronautical communication is supported by a number of organizations
using various networking technologies. The most eminent need is the capability to
communicate across heterogeneous sub-networks both internal and external to
administrative boundaries. The ATN can use private and public sub-networks spanning
organizational and International boundaries to support aeronautical applications. The ATN
will support a data transport service between end-users which is independent of the
protocols and the addressing scheme internal to any one participating sub-networks. Data
transfer through an Aeronautical internet will be supported by three types of data
communication sub-networks.[1]
1. The ground network AFTN,ADNS,SITA Network

22

2. The Air-ground network Satellite, Gate-link, HF, VHF, SSR Modes


3. The Airborne network the Airborne Data Bus, Communication management unit.[1]

4.5.1 THE GROUND NETWORK


It is formed by the Aeronautical Fixed telecommunication network (AFTN), common ICAO
data interchange network (CIDIN) and Airline industry private networks.[4]

4.5.2 THE AIR-GROUND NETWORK


The Air-Ground sub networks of VHF, Satellite, Mode S, gate link, (and possibly HF) will
provide linkage between Aircraft-based and ground-based routers (intermediate system).[1]

4.5.3 THE AIRBORNE NETWORK


It consists of Communication Management Unit (CMU) and the Aeronautical radio
incorporation data buses (ARINC). Interconnectivity to and inter-operability with the Public
data Network (PDN) will be achieved using gate-ways to route information outside the
Aeronautical environment.[1]

4.6 ADNS (AIRNC DATA NETWORK SERVICE)


The backbone of the ARINC communication services is the ARINC Data Network Service.
The network provides a communication interface between airlines, AFTN, Air-route Traffic
Control Centre (ARTCC) and weather services. ADNS is also used to transport air ground
data link messages and aircraft communication addressing and reporting system (ACARS).

4.7 SITA NETWORK


SITAs worldwide telecommunication network is composed of switching centers
interconnected by medium to high speed lines including international circuits. The
consolidated transmission capacity exceeds 20 Mbps and the switching capacity exceeds
150 million data transactions and messages daily.

4.8. THE AIR-GROUND COMMUNICATION SYSTEM


The available/planned air-ground communication systems are
1. Satellite
2. Gate link
3. HF radio
4. VHF

23

4.9 COMMUNICATION EQUIPMENTS


It can be categorized into two parts:

4.9.1 AIR TO GROUND COMMUNICATION

It uses the very high frequency range 30MHz-300MHz.

An Equipment Room contains the VHF equipment as well as the remote control of
other navigational equipment.

Staggered Dipole Antenna is used in omni direction.Amplitude Modulation is used.

Transmitter frequency at Jaipur Airport is 125.250MHz.

4.9.1.1 Air traffic control (ATC)

It is a service provided by ground-based controllers who direct aircraft on the ground


and in the air.

The primary purpose of ATC systems worldwide is to separate aircraft to prevent


collisions, to organize and expedite the flow of traffic, and to provide information and
other support for pilots when able.

In addition to its primary function, the ATC can provide additional services such as
providing information to pilots, weather and navigation information and NOTAMs
(Notices to Airmen).

4.9.1.2 The DR100 multimode VHF receiver

It is a state-of-the-art communication unit specifically designed to operate as radio core


part of Air Traffic Control ground stations.

It is able to support a huge number of operating modes, ranging from the traditional
AM-DSB mode for analogue speech communications, to the latest VDL 3 and 4 modes*
for voice and data or data-only links.

Fig.4.7: DR 100

24

Due to its DSP-based architecture, software-radio approach, and modular design, it


allows for easy update and re-configuration in terms of type of modulation, channel
spacing and interface to external controllers.

The equipment has outstanding performances in terms of noise radiation and unwanted
emissions together with the high grade of immunity to external interference.

The equipment has been designed to fulfill operating requirements in any possible
system layout. This results in an extreme degree of flexibility and operability. It can also
be used as direct replacement of analogue VHF equipment in traditional ATC systems

Power consumption Transmitter

: 400 W (DC main)

Power consumption Receiver

: 40 W (DC main)

Efficiency

: 10%

Operating frequency band

: 108 to 156 MHz

Technical Description and Architecture

The DR100 comprises independent modules, each of them accomplishing a different


and specific function. The equipment can be provided in different configurations
according to the type of fitted modules. The following block diagram highlights the
modularity of DR100.

RX

BB

ALB-S

PS
IMC

ALB-M

CP

Fig.4.8: Block diagram of DR 100


1. Receiver module (RX)

25

RF from antenna

2. Base Band module (BB)


3. Power Supply Unit (PSU)
4. IMC/MSIC cards
5. Control Panel (standard and enhanced HMI)
6. Line Barrier card (e.g. ALB_S, ALB_M)

The Receiver module mainly performs the related radio frequency functions. The
RX module is based on a super-heterodyne layout that provides the full downconversion of received AM-DSB/D8PSK/GFSK modulated RF signals, and
amplification to required level for the analogue to digital conversion. The RX
module sends the digitized I/Q format data stream to the Base band module via an
RS422 serial interface

The BB module handles carrier digital processing. The Base band module is a full
digital module that is mainly charged of carrier processing and the associated control
tasks. The type and amount of BB signal processing tasks is dependent on the
operating mode (AM-DSB or VDL mode

The PSU module provides all the required internal supply voltages for DR100
modules operation. It also provides EMI filtering and over-voltage/under-voltage
line protections. It is fed by external DC power source.

The AC/DC converter module provides a DC output to feed the PS module by


conversion of the 110 - 230 VAC main supply.

The IMC card, located on cPCI back plane, is the simplest management card, that
allows for DR100 full O&M tasks management, interfacing with Analogue Line
Barrier cards, supporting of VDL modes default data interface to an external station
controller through an RS232 port.

The MSIC card alternative to IMC is still located on CPCI back plane. It is the fullsized management card that, in addition to IMC features,

The Control Panel, which is managed by the IMC or MSIC, absolves any local HMI
functions. Analogue Line Barrier (ALB), are used in AM-DSB and AM-DATA
mode, when the equipment must process analogue speech communication.

4.9.2 GROUND-TO-GROUND COMMUNICATION


4.9.2.1 Wacky-talky

It is a small portable radio link (receiver and transmitter)

26

A two-way radio communication system (usually microwave); part of a more extensive


telecommunication network.

Use frequency modulation technique.

Its frequency at Jaipur Airport is 166.2 MHz.

A Base station called challenger is provided for it.

4.9.3 OTHER IMPORTANT EQUIPMENTS


4.9.3.1 DVTR

The Digital Voice Tape Recorder is used for audio recording.

It can record 24 channels simultaneously.

In this about 20 channels are fixed while remaining 4 channels can be set as
requirement.

Recording is done on magnetic tape and saved about 2 months.

4.10 SPACE MODULATION


Space modulation is a radio amplitude modulation technique used in instrument landing
systems that incorporates the use of multiple antennas fed with various radio frequency
powers and phases to create different depths of modulation within various volumes of threedimensional airspace. This modulation method differs from internal modulation methods
inside most other radio transmitters in that the phases and powers of the two individual
signals mix within airspace, rather than in a modulator.
An aircraft with an on-board ILS receiver within the capture area of an ILS, (glide slope and
localizer range), will detect varying depths of modulation according to the aircraft's position
within that airspace, providing accurate positional information about the progress to the
threshold.
Another type of amplitude modulation process may be required to be used in many places
like Navaids where the combination (addition) of sideband only (SBO comprising one or
more TSB(s)) and the carrier with or without the transmitter modulated sidebands takes
place in space. Note that both of the SBO or carrier with sidebands (CSB) are transmitter
modulated but when all the required signals out of these three namely SBO, CSB or carrier
are not radiated from the same antenna the complete modulation process will be realized
rather the composite modulated waveform will be formed at the receiving point by the
process of addition of all the carriers and all the sidebands (TSBs). The process of achieving

27

the complete modulation process by the process of addition of carriers and sidebands
(TSBs) at the receiving point in space is called the Space Modulation which means only
that modulation process is achieved or completed in space rather than in equipment itself
but not at all that space is modulated.

4.11 CONCLUSION
This part of report gives the information related to how to communicate with pilot and the
transmitter and receiver component used at airport. Communication is basically to sending,
receiving and processing of information by electronic means.

28

CHAPTER 5
SURVEILLANCE DEPARTMENT
INTRODUCTION
The Airports Authority of India is a public sector unit (PSU). It is a Miniratna company of
category I. It handles the landing and take-off of various types of planes viz: passenger U
planes, cargo planes, military planes carrying military equipments etc. It also provides
security facility to the passengers and manages them properly at the main terminal so that
they do not feel any inconvenience. It is also equipped with various types of security
equipments for the security purposes. It guides the planes on their way in determining their
trajectories also. For all these purposes the AAI manages various types of equipments at
each terminal and also in continuously communicates with the nearby airports for further
information.[1]

5.1. PUBLIC ADDRESSING SYSTEM


1.

At the airport it is use to address the passengers.

2.

Information about the arrival and departure of flights, security checking etc is
announced by this system. Here three or more power amplifiers are used in series to
amplify the audio power from where the audio output is announced in different
sections through loudspeakers.[1]

Fig. 5.1: PA System

29

Fig.5.2: Personal Announcement System

5.3. SECURITY EQUIPMENTS


The main security equipment are1. X-BIS
2. DFMD
3. HHMD
4. ETD
5. CCTV
1. X-BIS
X-Ray Baggage Inspection System is used for baggage inspection, passengers are
carrying with them.

Fig. 5.3: X-Ray BIS

30

Generation of X-Ray
For X-Ray Generation very high voltage DC supply is applied between cathode and anode
in a vacuum tube. Cathode heats and emits electron. Electron moves from cathode to anode.
When there is change in energy of electron X-Ray generates and passes through a 1mm hole
in the form of narrow beam. Beam direction is set at the angle of 45 degree diagonally. As
to cover the total area as well as to make 3-D projection.[6]

Fig.5.4: Generation of X-Rays


Operation
Start key is pressed from the keyboard then the command goes to the microprocessor, then
to the interface board. The interface board starts the motor hence conveyor belt starts
running. But at this time X-Rays doesnt generate. The speed of conveyor belt is normally
0.2m/sec. When baggage is run on the conveyor belt and passes through the light barriers
then interruption occurs. The microprocessor reads the interrupt through interface board.
Microprocessor again gives the command to the X-Ray generator to generate X-Rays
through the interface board. X-Rays falls on the baggage some absorb and rest passes
through it. The X-Rays now converts into the voltage by a transducer. Now a VGA
(Voltage

Graphic Adopter) converts the input voltage signal into the output graphic image

on the monitor. At the monitor slice-by-slice screening is achieved. The X-BIS shows the
different color patterns according to the material inside the baggage, such as: 1. Organic: Orange color
2. Inorganic: Green
3. Metal: Blue

31

2. Door Frame Metal Detector (DFMD)


A Door Frame Metal Detector or DFMD is used to detect metal objects passengers are
carrying with them. The system is used for weapons detection as well as passenger
screening.[7]
Main components are1. Transmitter panel (TX)
2. Receiver panel (RX)
3. Cross piece.
4. Remote control unit.
5. Electronics unit.
The operation of DFMD is based on electromagnetic pulsed-field technology.
Transmitter pulses causes decaying eddy currents in metal objects inside the sensing area of
the WTMD. The signal induced to the receiver by the eddy currents is sampled and
processed in the electronic unit. Moving metal objects are detected when the signal exceeds
the alarm threshold. A sampling circuit in the metal detector is set to monitor the length of
the reflected pulse. By comparing it to the expected length, the circuit can determine if
another magnetic field has caused the reflected pulse to take longer to decay. If the decay of
the reflected pulse takes more than a few microseconds longer than normal, there is
probably a metal object interfering with it.

Fig. 5.5: DFMD


The sampling circuit sends the tiny, weak signals that it monitors to a device call an
integrator. The integrator reads the signals from the sampling circuit, amplifying and
32

converting them to direct current (DC).The DC's voltage is connected to an audio circuit,
where it is changed into a tone that the metal detector uses to indicate that a target object
has been found. If an item is found, you are asked to remove any metal objects from your
person and step through again.[7]
3. Hand Held Metal Detector (HHMD)
1. A Hand Held Metal Detector is also used to detect metal and objects passengers are
carrying with them.
2. Hand Held Metal Detector is based on the principle of Electromagnetic induction.
3. Basic principle is whenever there is change in magnetic links of force associated with a
conductor an EMF is generated.
4. It consists of two coils, primary and secondary or transmitter and receiver coil.
5. Transmitter and receiver coils are isolated to each other.
6. When the switch is ON HHMD starts working, as soon as it set to check the metal or
non metal due to change in magnetic field eddy currents are being traced from the metal.

Fig. 5.6: Internal Structure of Hand Held Metal Detector

33

Fig. 5.6: Internal Structure of Hand Held Metal Detector

Main components of HHMD


1. MELU 5087 M28 Electronics unit
2. METOR coil set
3. 8.Button M28
4. Carring strap
5. Button slide
6. Battery/ charger cable
7. Clamping screw

Fig. 5.7: HHMD


The coil is part of the oscillating circuit which operation frequency is 23.5 kHz. When a
metal object is inside the sensing area of the coil, it will effect to amplitude of the
oscillating signal. After a while the integrating control will set the amplitude a constant
value. Output of oscillator is rectified and it is connected through the filter section to
comparator. When the signal is lower than the adjusted reference level (sensitivity setting)
comparator generates alarm signal. It activates the alarm oscillator and the audible alarm /
the red alarm light. Battery voltage is controlled with a low voltage circuit and constant
alarm is activated when the battery voltage is under 7V. The connector in the rear of the unit
operates as headphone and charger connections. The charger idle voltage is between 14 and

34

24 VDC. During charging operation the green light is plinking and with full battery it lights
constantly. If headphone is connected, audible alarm is not operational[8].
4. Explosive Trace Detector (ETD)
An Explosive Trace Detector is used to detect the explosives and narcotics. It consists
normally a vacuum tube. The operator on swap takes a sample from the luggage. In the
ETD machine the sample is melted and then vaporized, by applying high voltage. Thus
there is displacement occurs in the atomic weight of the substance. By the LUT (Look Up
Table) the displacement can be measured, and thus substance can be detected. The screen of
ETD shows the information about the sample with necessary graph etc.

Fig. 5.8: Explosive Test Detection System


5. Closed-Circuit Television (CCTV)
Closed-Circuit Television (CCTV) is the use of video cameras to transmit a signal to a
specific, limited set of monitors. In this the signal is not openly transmitted, though it may
employ point to point wireless links. For security purpose many CCTV camera input are fed
to a multiplexer or generally in a switcher, from where it goes as a input to the monitor
output.[7]

35

Fig. 5.9: Closed Circuit Television Control System

5.4 RADAR
Radar is an object-detection system that uses radio waves to determine the range, altitude,
direction, or speed of objects. It can be used to detect aircraft, ships, spacecraft, guided
missiles, motor vehicles, weather formations, and terrain. The radar dish or antenna
transmits pulses of radio waves or microwaves that bounce off any object in their path. The
object returns a tiny part of the wave's energy to a dish or antenna that is usually located at
the same site as the transmitter.

Fig. 5.10: Surveillance Radar

5.4.1. PRINCIPLE OF RADAR


A

radar

system

has

a transmitter that

emits radio

waves called radar

signals in

predetermined directions. When these come into contact with an object they are
usually reflector scattered in many directions. Radar signals are reflected especially well by
materials of considerable electrical conductivity especially by most metals, by seawater and
by wet lands. Some of these make the use of radar altimeters possible. The radar signals that

36

are reflected back towards the transmitter are the desirable ones that make radar work. If the
object is moving either toward or away from the transmitter, there is a slight equivalent
change in the frequency of the radio waves, caused by the Doppler effect.
Radar receivers are usually, but not always, in the same location as the transmitter.
Although the reflected radar signals captured by the receiving antenna are usually very
weak, they can be strengthened by electronic amplifiers. More sophisticated methods
of signal processing are also used in order to recover useful radar signals.
The weak absorption of radio waves by the medium through which it passes is what
enables radar sets to detect objects at relatively long rangesranges at which other
electromagnetic wavelengths, such as visible light, infrared light, and ultraviolet light, are
too strongly attenuated. Such weather phenomena as fog, clouds, rain, falling snow, and
sleet that block visible light are usually transparent to radio waves. Certain radio
frequencies that are absorbed or scattered by water vapor, raindrops, or atmospheric gases
(especially oxygen) are avoided in designing radars, except when their detection is intended.
Radar relies on its own transmissions rather than light from the Sun or the Moon, or
from electromagnetic waves emitted by the objects themselves, such as infrared
wavelengths (heat). This process of directing artificial radio waves towards objects is
called illumination, although radio waves are invisible to the human eye or optical cameras.
5.4.2. APPLICATION OF RADAR
1. The information provided by radar includes the bearing and range (and therefore
position) of the object from the radar scanner. The first use of radar was for military
purposes: to locate air, ground and sea targets. This evolved in the civilian field into
applications for aircraft, ships, and roads.
2. In aviation, aircraft are equipped with radar devices that warn of aircraft or other
obstacles in or approaching their path, display weather information, and give accurate
altitude readings. The first commercial device fitted to aircraft was a 1938 Bell Lab unit
on some United Air Lines aircraft. Such aircraft can land in fog at airports equipped with
radar-assisted ground-controlled approach systems in which the plane's flight is observed
on radar screens while operators radio landing directions to the pilot.
3. Marine radars are used to measure the bearing and distance of ships to prevent
collision with other ships, to navigate, and to fix their position at sea when within range
of shore or other fixed references such as islands, buoys, and lightships.

37

4. Meteorologists use radar to monitor precipitation and wind. It has become the primary
tool

for

short-term weather

forecasting and

watching

for severe

weather such

as thunderstorms, tornadoes, winter storms, precipitation types, etc. Geologists use


specialised ground-penetrating radars to map the composition of Earth's crust.

5.5. CONCLUSION
This part of report gives information about various equipments used at the airports along
with their principles and uses. The equipments use that airport are constantly checked for
their accuracy and efficiency so that it cant lead to any accident or security breach. The
purpose of security screening using X-rays is to benefit society as a whole by improving
aircraft security. While the additional risk to a single person being scanned is very close to
zero, if screening is widespread and concerns a large part of the population, this vey small
risk cannot be ignored at the population level. Estimates on the magnitude of any added risk
are very uncertain and it is impossible to evaluate separately the effects on different groups
of the population

38

CHAPTER 6
NAVIGATION DEPARTMENT
6.1.

INTRODUCTION

Navigation is the art of determining the position of an aircraft over earths surface and
guiding its process from one place to another. To accomplish this art some sort of aids are
required by the pilots, called the navigational aids. Radio Navigation is based on the use of
Radio Transmitter, Radio Receiver and propagation of electromagnetic waves to find
navigational parameter such as direction, distance, position of the aircraft etc.
According to service range the radio navigational aids are broadly classified into three
categories1. Long Range
2. Medium Range
3. Short range
6.1.1 LONG RANGE NAVIGATIONAL AIDS
Operate in very low frequency and low frequency, i.e. 10 KHz, 50-100 KHz and 100-200
KHz respectively. Provide very long ranges of the order of 7000Kms and 700Kms. They are
based on the hyperbolic system of navigation.
6.1.2 MEDIUM RANGE NAVIGATIONAL AIDS
It operates in the LF or MF band of frequency. It gives the range of 150-250 nautical miles.
NDB (Non Directional Beacons) falls in this category.
6.1.3 SHORT-RANGE NAVIGATIONAL AIDS
These aids operate in and above VHF bands. The coverage is dependent upon line of sight
propagation. VHF, ILS, DME, VOR and RADAR are some widely used short-range aids.

6.2.

DOPPLER VHF OMNI RANGE (D.V.O.R) OR V.O.R

VOR, short for VHF Omni-directional Range, is a type of radio navigation system for
aircraft. VORs broadcast a VHF radio signal encoding both the identity of the station and
the angle to it, telling the pilot in what direction he lies from the VOR station, referred to as
the radial. Comparing two such measures on a chart allows for a fix. In many cases the
VOR stations also provide distance measurement allowing for a one-station fix.

39

Radio Navigational aid. It works on the principle of phase comparison of two 30 Hz


signals i.e. an aircraft provided with appropriate Rx, can obtain its radial position from the
range station by comparing the phases of the two 30 Hz sinusoidal signals obtained from the
V.O.R radiation. Any fixed phase difference defines a Radial/Track (an outward vector
from the ground station into space). V.O.R. provides an infinite number of radials/Tracks to
the aircrafts against the four provided by a LF/MF radio range.

6.2.1. PURPOSES AND USE OF VOR


1. The main purpose of the VOR is to provide the navigational signals for an aircraft
receiver, which will allow the pilot to determine the bearing of the aircraft to a VOR
facility.
2. In addition to this, VOR enables the Air Traffic Controllers in the Area Control Radar
(ARSR) and ASR for identifying the aircraft in their scopes easily. They can monitor
whether aircraft are following the radials correctly or not.
3. VOR located outside the airfield on the extended Centre line of the runway would be
useful for the aircraft for making a straight VOR approach. With the help of the AUTO
PILOT aircraft can be guided to approach the airport for landing.
4. VOR located enroute would be useful for air traffic 'to maintain their PDRS (PRE
DETERMINED ROUTES) and are also used as reporting points.
5. VORs located at radial distance of about 40 miles in different directions around an
International Airport can be used as holding VORs for regulating the aircraft for their
landing in quickest time. They would be of immense help to the aircraft for holding
overhead and also to the ATCO for handling the traffic conveniently.

6.3. DISTANCE MEASURING EQUIPMENT (DME)


1. Distance Measuring Equipment is a vital navigational Aid, which provides a pilot with
visual information regarding his position (distance) relative to the ground based DME
station.
2. The facility even though possible to locate independently, normally it is collocated with
either VOR or ILS.
3. The DME can be used with terminal VOR and holding VOR also.
4. DME can be used with the ILS in an Airport; normally it is collocated with the Glide
path component of ILS.

40

6.3.1. PURPOSES AND USE OF DME


Distance Measuring Equipment is a vital navigational Aid, which provides a pilot with
visual information regarding his position (distance) relative to the ground based DME
station. The facility even though possible to locate independently, normally it is collocated
with either VOR or ILS. The DME can be used with terminal VOR and holding VOR also.
DME can be used with the ILS in an Airport; normally it is collocated with the Glide path
component of ILS.
6.3.1.1. Mode of Operation
1. Search Mode:
a. The Search mode is automatically established whenever the airborne equipment is
tuned to a new DME ground Transponder
b. When the aircraft's transmitter is in Search mode, it transmits interrogations at a higher
rate (about 150 interrogations per second). When the aircraft receives at least 65%
replies to its interrogations Lock-on will be established.
3. Track Mode:
a. The transmitter changes to the Track mode of operation. This process may take up to 30
seconds. Only when this is achieved, the cockpit readout of the DME range is turned on.
b. In the Track mode the aircraft's interrogation rate reduces considerably (about 30
interrogations per second). The reduced interrogation rate of transmission in the track
mode will allow more aircraft to use the DME station.

6.3.2. ASSOCIATION OF DME WITH VOR


Associated VOR and DME facilities shall be co-located in accordance with the following:
a. Coaxial co-location: the VOR and DME antennas are located on the same vertical axis;
b. Offset co-location:
For those facilities used in terminal areas for approach purposes or other procedures where
the highest position fixing accuracy of system capability is required, the separation of the
VOR and DME antennas does not exceed 30 m (100 ft) except that, at Doppler VOR
facilities, where DME service is provided by a separate facility, the antennas may be
separated by more than 30 m (100 ft), but not in excess of 80 m (260 ft). For purposes other
than those indicated above, the separation of the VOR and DME antennas does not exceed
600 m (2,000 ft).

6.3.3. ASSOCIATION OF DME WITH ILS


Associated ILS and DME facilities shall be co-located in accordance with the following:
41

a. When DME is used as an alternative to ILS marker beacons, the DME should be located
on the airport so that the zero range indication will be a point near the runway.
b. In order to reduce the triangulation error, the DME should be sited to ensure a small
angle (less than 20 degrees) between the approach path and the direction to the DME at
the points where the distance information is required.
c. The use of DME as an alternative to the middle marker beacon assumes a DME system
accuracy of 0.37 km (0.2 NM) or better and a resolution of the airborne indication such
as to allow this accuracy to be attained.[7]
The main purposes of DME installations are summarised as follows:
a. For operational reasons
b. As a complement to a VOR to provide more precise navigation service in localities
where there is.
c. High air traffic density
d. Proximity of routes
e. As an alternative to marker beacons with an ILS. When DME is used as an alternative to
ILS marker beacons, the DME should be located on the Airport so that the zero range
indication will be a point near the runway.
f. As a component of the MLS.

6.3.4. APPLICATIONS OF DME


a. Provide continuous navigation fix (in conjunction with VOR).
b. Permit the use of multiple routes on common system of airways to resolve traffic.
c. Permit distance separation instead of time separation between aircraft occupying

the

same altitude facilitating reduced separation thereby increasing the aircraft handling
capacity.
d. Expedite the radar identification of aircraft.

6.4. INSTRUMENT LANDING SYSTEM (ILS)


6.4.1. PURPOSE AND USE OF ILS
The Instrument Landing System (ILS) provides a means for safe landing of aircraft at
airports under conditions of low ceilings and limited visibility. The use of the system
materially reduces interruptions of service at airports resulting from bad weather by
allowing operations to continue at lower weather minimums. The ILS also increases the
traffic handling capacity of the airport under all weather conditions.
42

The function of an ILS is to provide the PILOT or AUTOPILOT of a landing aircraft


with the guidance to and along the surface of the runway. This guidance must be of very
high integrity to ensure that each landing has a very high probability of success.[7]

6.4.2. COMPONENTS OF ILS


The basic philosophy of ILS is that ground installations, located in the vicinity of the
runway, transmit coded signals in such a manner that pilot is given information indicating
position of the aircraft with respect to correct approach path.
To provide correct approach path information to the pilot, three different signals are
required to be transmitted. The first signal gives the information to the pilot indicating the
aircraft's position relative to the center line of the runway. The second signal gives the
information indicating the aircraft's position relative to the required angle of descent, where
as the third signal provides distance information from some specified point.
These three parameters which are essential for a safe landing are Azimuth Approach
Guidance, Elevation Approach Guidance and Range from the touchdown point. These are
provided to the pilot by the three components of the ILS namely Localizer, Glide Path and
Marker Beacons respectively. At some airports, the Marker Beacons are replaced by a
Distance Measuring Equipment (DME).[7]
This information is summarized in the following table:Table 6.1. ILS Parameter v/s Component
ILS Parameter

ILS Component

a. Azimuth Approach Guidance

Provided by Localizer

b. Elevation Approach Guidance

Provided by Glide Path

c. Fixed Distances from Threshold

Provided by Marker Beacons

d. Range from touch down point

Provided by DME

6.4.3. FUNCTION OF ILS


1. The function of an ILS is to provide the PILOT or AUTOPILOT of a landing aircraft
with the guidance to and along the surface of the runway.
2. This guidance must be of very high integrity to ensure that each landing has a very high
probability of success.

43

3. The basic philosophy of ILS is that ground installations, located in the vicinity of the
runway, transmit coded signals in such a manner that pilot is given information
indicating position of the aircraft with respect to correct approach path.

6.5. LOCALIZER UNIT


The localizer unit consists of an equipment building, the transmitter equipment, a platform,
the antennas, and field detectors. The antennas will be located about 1,000 feet from the
stop end of the runway and the building about 300 feet to the side. The detectors are
mounted on posts a short distance from the antennas.

6.6. GLIDE PATH UNIT


The Glide Path unit is made up of a building, the transmitter equipment, the radiating
antennas and monitor antennas mounted on towers. The antennas and the building are
located about 300 feet to one side of the runway center line at a distance of approximately
1,000 feet from the approach end of the runway.

6.7. MARKER UNITS


Three Marker Units are provided. Each marker unit consists of a building, transmitter and
directional antenna array. The system will be located near the runway center line, extended.

Fig. 6.1: The typical locations of Marker

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The transmitters are 75 MHz, low power units with keyed tone modulation. The units are
controlled via lines from the tower. The outer marker will be located between 4 and 7 miles
in front of the approach end of the runway, so the pattern crosses the glide angle at the
intercept altitude. The modulation will be 400 Hz keyed at 2 dashes /sec.
The middle marker will be located about 3500 feet from the approach end of the runway, so
the pattern intersects the glide angle at 200 feet. The modulation will be a 1300 Hz tone
keyed by continuous dot, dash pattern.
Some ILS runways have an inner marker located about 1.000 feet from the approach end of
the runway, so the pattern intersects the glide angle at 100 feet. The transmitter is
modulated by a tone of 3000 Hz keyed by continuous dots.

6.8. DISTANCE MEASURING EQUIPMENT (DME) COMPONENTS


Where the provision of Marker Beacons is impracticable, a DME can be installed co-located
with the Glide Path facility. The ILS should be supplemented by sources of guidance
information which will provide effective guidance to the desired course. Locator Beacons,
which are essentially low power NDBs, installed at Outer Marker and Middle Marker
locations will serve this purpose.

6.9. AIRCRAFT ILS COMPONENT


The Azimuth and Elevation guidance are provided by the Localizer and Glide Path
respectively to the pilot continuously by an on-board meter called the Cross Deviation
Indicator (CDI).Range information is provided continuously in the form of digital readout if
DME is used with ILS. However range information is not presented continuously if Marker
Beacons are used. In these condition aural and visual indications of specific distances when
the aircraft is overhead the marker beacons are provided by means of audio coded signals
and lighting of appropriate colored lamps in the cockpit.

6.10. FUNCTIONS OF ILS COMPONENTS


A brief description of each of the ILS components is given in this section.
1. Function of Localizer unit

The function of the localizer unit is to provide, within its coverage limits, a vertical
plane of course aligned with the extended centerline of the runway for azimuth guidance
to landing aircraft. In addition, it shall provide information to landing aircraft as to
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whether the aircraft is offset towards the left or right side of this plane so as to enable
the pilot to align with the course.

Basically the localizer provides the centerline of the runway.

Localizer uses the frequency range 108-112MHz.

Its frequency at Jaipur Airport is 109.9MHz.

Log Periodic antenna is used, which gives high gain and bandwidth.

Horizontal covering range for Localizer is 25NM.

The localizer unit consists of an equipment building, the transmitting equipment, a


platform, the antennas and field detectors.

The antennas will be located about 1000 feet from the stop end of the runway and the
building about 300 feet to the side.

The detectors are mounted on posts a short distance from the antennas.

2. Function of Glide Path unit:

The function of the Glide Path unit is to provide, within its coverage limits, an inclined
plane aligned with the glide path of the runway for providing elevation guidance to
landing aircraft. In addition, it shall provide information to landing aircraft as to whether
the aircraft is offset above or below this plane so as to enable the pilot to align with the
glide path.

The function of the Glide Path unit is to provide, within its coverage limits, an inclined
plane aligned with the glide path of the runway for providing elevation guidance to
landing aircraft.

The Glide Path gives the information indicating the aircrafts position relative to the
required angle of descent.

The MARRY antenna is used for it.

Frequency range for Glide path is 328-336MHz.

Its frequency at Jaipur Airport is 333.8MHz.

Covering range for Glide Path is 10NM.

The Glide Path unit is made up of a building, the transmitter equipment, the radiating
antennas and monitor antennas mounted on towers.

The antennas and the building are located about 300 feet to one side of the runway
center line at a distance of about 1,000 feet from the approach end of the runway.

3. Function of marker Beacon / DME

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The function of the marker beacons,/DME is to provide distance information from the
touchdown point to a landing aircraft.
The marker beacons, installed at fixed distances from the runway threshold, provide
specific distance information whenever a landing aircraft is passing over any of these
beacons so that the pilot can check his altitude and correct it if necessary.
The DME, installed co-located with the Glide Path unit, will provide continuous
distance information from the touchdown point to landing aircraft.
4. Function of Locators
The function of locators, installed co-located with the marker beacons, is to guide
aircraft coming for landing to begin an ILS approach.

6.11. DIFFERENT MODELS OF ILS USED IN AAI


Different models of ILS used in AAI are as follows:
1. GCEL ILS: In this ILS mechanical modulator is used and both the near field monitoring
system is utilized.
2. NORMARC ILS :In this system advance technology is used and for monitoring
purpose along with near field monitoring integral monitoring has been utilized .Now a
days 2 models viz. NM 3000 series and NM 7000 series are mostly used in AAI.
3. ASI ILS:

In Mumbai and Delhi airport these ILS are used under modernization

programme. One of the ILS model at Delhi is a CAT III ILS.

Fig. 6.2: Radiation pattern of antenna


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Fig. 6.3: Coverage range of Localizer Antenna

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Fig. 6.4: Lobes showing angle for Glide Path

6.12. ANTENNA USED


There are various antenna used for transmitting and receiving signals.
1. Log periodic antenna (LLZ)
2. Folded dipole antenna (ATC)

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3. M-array antenna (NAV-AIDS)


4. Biconical antenna (DME)
5. Loop antenna (DVOR)
6. DSCN-dedicated satellite communication network
7. Parabolic antenna
8. Gain and beam width is very high
9. Uplink-6 GHZ
10. Downlink- 4 GHZ

Fig. 6.5: DSCN

Fig. 6.6: DVOR antenna (Antenna Array)

Fig. 6.7: DME antenna

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6.12.1 ANTENNA PARAMETER


Antenna parameter are the factor by which we select the antenna for specific purpose or
application:
1

Gain

Beamwidth

Directivity

Efficiency

Polarization

a. Horizontal Polarization
b. Vertical Polarization
1. Gain
Gain is a parameter which measures the degree of directivity of the antenna's radiation
pattern. A high-gain antenna will preferentially radiate in a particular direction. Specifically,
the antenna gain, or power gain of an antenna is defined as the ratio of the intensity (power
per unit surface) radiated by the antenna in the direction of its maximum output, at an
arbitrary distance, divided by the intensity radiated at the same distance by a
hypothetical isotropic antenna.
2. Bandwidth
An antenna's bandwidth specifies the range of frequencies over which its performance does
not suffer due to a poor impedance match.
3. Polarization
The polarization of an antenna refers to the orientation of the electric field of the radio wave
with respect to the Earth's surface and is determined by the physical structure of the antenna
and by its orientation. Therefore, straight wire antenna will have one polarization when
mounted vertic\ally, and a different polarization when mounted horizontally.For most of
antennas, it is very easy to determine the polarization. It is simply in same plane as elements
of antenna. So, a Vertical Antenna will receive vertically polarized signals and similarly,
Horizontal Antenna will receive horizontally polarized signals[2].
1.

Directivity: It is measure of how directional an antennas radiation pattern are.

2. Beamwidth: Half power beam width is angle between half power (-3dB) points of main
lobes, when referenced to peak effective radiated power of main lobe. An antennas
radiation in the far field is often characterized by its beam width.

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6.13. TRANSMISSION LINE


In communications and electronic engineering, a transmission line is a specialized cable or
other structure designed to carry alternating current of radio frequency, that is, currents with
a frequency high enough that their wave nature must be taken into account. Transmission
lines are used for purposes such as connecting radio transmitters, receivers with
theirantennas,

distributing cable

television signals, trunklines routing

calls

between

telephone switching centres, computer network connections, and high speed computer data
buses. Coaxial lines confine virtually all of the electromagnetic wave to the area inside the
cable. Coaxial lines can therefore be bent and twisted (subject to limits) without negative
effects, and they can be strapped to conductive supports without inducing unwanted
currents in them. In radio-frequency applications up to a few gigahertz, the wave propagates
in the transverse electric and magnetic mode (TEM) only, which means that the electric and
magnetic fields are both perpendicular to the direction of propagation (the electric field is
radial, and the magnetic field is circumferential).

6.14. FREQUENCY BANDS USED IN COMMUNICTAION


TABLE NO. 6.2: FREQUENCY BANDS
BAND NAME

FREQUENCY BAND

Ultra Low Frequency (ULF)

3Hz-30Hz

Very Low Frequency (VLF)

3KHz-30KHz

Low Frequency (LF)

30KHz-300KHz

Medium Frequency (MF)

300KHz-3MHz

High Frequency (HF)

3MHz-30MHz

Very High Frequency (VHF)

30MHz-300MHz

Ultra High Frequency (UHF)

300MHz-3GHz

Super High Frequency (SHF)

3GHz-30GHz

Extra High Frequency (EHF)

30GHz-300GHz

Infrared Frequency (IF)

3THz-30THz

TABLE NO. 6.3: VARIOUS EQUIPMENTS FREQUENCY BANDS


NAME OF THE
EQUIPMENT

FREQUENCY BAND

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USES

NDB

200 450 KHz

HF

3 30 MHz

Localizer

VOR
VHF
Glide Path
DME
UHF LINK

RADAR

108 112 MHz


108 118 MHz
30 300 MHz
328 336 MHz

Locator, Homing &


En-route
Ground to Ground, Ground
to Air Comm.
Instrument Landing System
Terminal, Homing &
En-route
Ground to Air Comm.
Instrument Landing
System

960 1215 MHz

Measuring of distance

0.3 2.7 GHz

Remote control, monitoring

0.3 12 GHz

Surveillance

6.14. CONCLUSION
This part of report gives information about various equipments used at the airports along
with their principles and uses. The equipments use that airport are constantly checked for
their accuracy and efficiency so that it cant lead to any accident or security breach.
GAGAN and antenna used gives the information about new technology.

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CHAPTER 7
IT UNIT
7.1. INTRODUCTION
IT or the information technology is used basically for transmitting and receiving the
information from one place to another place, fast and in an efficient way.

7.2. FUNCTIONS OF IT DEPARTMENT

Development & hosting of AAI website & website management. Use of Web based
Information Technology as strategic business tool to improve the business process &
efficiency of the Organization.

Internet & E-mail services to all the executives of AAI & sections on need basis,
initially using dial-up & subsequently using Leased Line & AAI Proxy Server.

Planning & implementation of AAI Internet. LAN /WAN planning connecting all AAI
establishment throughout the country on AAI Internet.

Standardization of IT systems, procurement, implementation & integration. Integration


of all existing systems with AAI Internet.

Planning, development & commissioning of Centralized Software & other application


using Centralized Database Servers & Web Enable Application Software.

Assessment & planning of IT related Training & in-house application development.

Planning & implementation of suitable information security & protection system with
FIREWALL to ensure safety & security of Database & prevention of unauthorized
access to AAI server.

Hyper link connection for downloading of information on latest flight schedules,


arrival/departures of flights on registration basis to third parties such as Hotels, Tour &
Travel Operators, Cell Phone & Cable Operators etc.

7.3. NETWORKING
Networking means interconnection of computers. These computers can be linked together
for different purposes and using a variety of different cabling types.
The basic reasons why computers need to be networked are

To share resources (files, printers, modems, fax machines etc.)

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To share application software (MS Office, Adobe Publisher etc.)

Increase productivity (makes it easier to share data amongst users

Networking is divided into three categories. They are as follows

Local Area Network (LAN).

Wide Area Network (WAN).

Internet.

7.3.1. LOCAL AREA NETWORK (LAN)


A local-area network is a computer network covering a small geographic area, like a home,
office, or group of buildings [3].

Fig. 7.1: LAN


The typical character tics of LAN are

Physically Limited Distance (< 2km)

High Bandwidth (> 1mbps)

Inexpensive Cable Media (Coaxial Or Twisted Pair)

Data And Hardware Sharing Between Users

Owned By The User

7.3.2. WIDE AREA NETWORK (WAN)


It reaches across cities, states, or even across the world.

Its a collection of LAN and MAN.

Range of connectivity : 10-1000 km

Example:- internet on a whole world.

Fig. 7.2: WAN

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A wide area network is a geographically dispersed telecommunications network. The term


distinguishes a broader telecommunication structure from a local area network (LAN).

7.3.3. INTERNET

The Internet is the world's largest public WAN.

The Internet is a worldwide collection of computer networks, cooperating with each


other to exchange data using a common software standard. Through telephone wires and
satellite links, Internet users can share information in a variety of forms. The size, scope
and design of the Internet allows users to:

Connect easily through ordinary personal computers and local phone numbers;

Exchange electronic mail (E-mail) with friends and colleagues with accounts on the
Internet;

Post information for others to access, and update it frequently;

Access multimedia information that includes sound, photographic images and even
video; and fast and damn expensive servers.

7.4. NETWORK TOPOLOGIES


7.4.1. BUS
This topology essentially has each of the computers on the network daisy-chained to each
other. This type of network is usually peer to peer and uses Thinnet (10base2) cabling.
Connecting a T-connector to the network adapter and then connecting cables to the Tconnectors on the computers on the right and left configure it.
ADVANTAGES: Cheap, simple to set up.
DISADVANTAGES: Excess network traffic, a failure may affect many users, Problems
are difficult to troubleshoot[3].
Fig. 7.3: Bus Topology
Fig.7.3: Bus Topology

7.4.2 STAR
The star is the most commonly used topology today. It uses twisted pair (10baseT or
100baseT) cabling and requires that all devices are connected to a hub.

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ADVANTAGES: centralized monitoring, failures do not affect others unless it is the hub,
easy to modify.
DISADVANTAGES: If the hub fails then everything connected to it is down. This is like if
you were to burn down the phone company's central office, then anyone connected to it
wouldn't be able to make any phone calls.

Fig. 7.4: Star Topology

7.4.3 RING
The ring topology looks the same as the star, except that it uses special hubs and Ethernet
adapters. The Ring topology is used with Token Ring network.

Fig. 7.5: Ring Topology


ADVANTAGES: Equal access.
DISADVANTAGES: Difficult to troubleshoot, network changes affect many users, failure
affects many users.

7.4.4 MESH

Fig. 7.6: Mesh Topology

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Mesh topologies are combinations of other topologies and are common on very large
networks. For example, a star bus network has hubs connected in a row (like a bus network)
and has computers connected to each hub[3]

7.5. CONVERSIONS
Decibel or dB is defined by logarithmic ratio of output by input (power and voltages).
dB= 10log (pout/Pin)
Pout = Output Power
Pin = Input Power

A dBm is a decibel relative to 1 mW. It is defined by the decibel equation with Pin set at
1*10-3.
dBm =

10 log

Pout
1* 10-3

A dBW is a decibel with respect to 1W.


dBW = 10log {Pout/1W}

7.6. OSI MODEL

Fig. 7.7: Layered Structure of OSI Mode

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The Open Systems Interconnection model is a layered framework for the design of network
systems that allows for communication across all types of computer systems. It consists of
seven separate but related layers, each of which defines a segment of the process of moving
information across a network.

Developed by the International Standard Organization (ISO) in 1977.

The primary architectural model for inter computer communications.

A conceptual model composed of seven layers, each specifying particular network


functions.

Describes how information from a software application in one computer moves through
a network medium to a software application in another computer[4].

7.6.1. PHYSICAL LAYER


It is the lower most layer of the OSI reference model. It is which is responsible for direct
interaction of the OSI model with hardware. The hardware provides service to the physical
layer and it provides service to the datalink layer.
The major functions and services performed by the physical layer are:

Establishment and termination of a connection to a communications medium.

Participation in the process whereby the communication resources are effectively


shared among multiple users. For example, contention resolution and flow control.

Fig. 7.8: Physical Layer

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7.6.2. DATALINK LAYER


There may be certain errors which may occur at the physical layer. If possible, these errors
are corrected by the datalink layer. The datalink layer provides the way by which various
entities can transfer the data to the network.

7.6.3. NETWORK LAYER


It does not allow the quality of the service to be degraded that was requested by the
transport layer. It is also responsible for data transfer sequence from source to destination. A
number of layer-management protocols belong to the network layer. These include routing
protocols, multicast group management, network-layer information and error, and network
layer address assignment. It is the function of the payload that makes these belong to the
network layer, not the protocol that carries them.

7.6.4. TRANSPORT LAYER


The reliability of the data is ensured by the transport layer. It also retransmits those data that
fail to reach the destination. The transport layer provides transparent transfer of data
between end users, providing reliable data transfer services to the upper layers. the transport
layer can keep track of the segments and retransmit those that fail. The transport layer also
provides the acknowledgement of the successful data transmission and sends the next data if
no errors occurred.

7.6.5. SESSION LAYER


The session layer is responsible for creating and terminating the connection. Management
of such a connection is taken care of by the session layer. The session layer controls the
dialogues (connections) between computers. It establishes, manages and terminates the
connections between the local and remote application. It provides for full-duplex, halfduplex, or simplex operation, and establishes check pointing, adjournment, termination, and
restart procedures. The OSI model made this layer responsible for graceful close of
sessions, which is a property of the Transmission Control Protocol, and also for session
check pointing and recovery [4].

7.6.6. PRESENTATION LAYER


This layer is responsible for decoding the context (syntax and semantics) of the higher level
entities. The presentation layer establishes context between application layer entities, in
which the higher-layer entities may use different syntax and semantics if the presentation
service provides a mapping between them. If a mapping is available, presentation service
data units are encapsulated into session protocol data units, and passed down the stack. This
60

layer provides independence from data representation (e.g., encryption) by translating


between application and network formats. The presentation layer transforms data into the
form that the application accepts.

7.6.7. APPLICATION LAYER


Whichever software application that implements socket programming will communicate
with this layer. This layer is closest to the user. The application layer is the OSI layer
closest to the end user, which means that both the OSI application layer and the user interact
directly with the software application. This layer interacts with software applications that
implement a communicating component. Such application programs fall outside the scope
of the OSI model. Application-layer functions typically include identifying communication
partners, determining resource availability, and synchronizing communication. When
identifying communication partners, the application layer determines the identity and
availability of communication partners for an application with data to transmit. When
determining resource availability, the application layer must decide whether sufficient
network or the requested communication exist. In synchronizing communication, all
communication between applications requires cooperation that is managed by the
application layer.

7.7 NETWORKING DEVICES


7.7.1. HUB
A common connection point for devices in a network. Hubs are commonly used to connect
segments of a LAN. A hub contains multiple ports. When a packet arrives at one port, it is
copied to the other ports so that all segments of the LAN can see all packets[3].

7.7.2. SWITCH
In networks, a device that filters and forwards packets between LAN segments. Switches
operate at the data link layer (layer 2) and sometimes the network layer (layer 3) of the OSI
Reference Model and therefore support any packet protocol. LANs that use switches to join
segments are called switched LANs or, in the case of Ethernet networks, switched Ethernet
LANs.

7.7.3. ROUTER
A network this complex needs a device which not only knows the address of each segment,
but also determine the best path for sending data and filtering broadcast traffic to the local
segment. Such a device is called router. A device that forwards data packets along
61

networks. A router is connected to at least two networks, commonly two LANs or WANs or
a LAN and its ISP.s network. Routers are located at gateways, the places where two or more
networks connect. Routers use headers and forwarding tables to determine the best path for
forwarding the packets, and they use protocols such as ICMP to communicate with each
other and configure the best route between any two hosts.

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CHAPTER 8
CONCLUSION
The training involved theoretical study about the navigational aids, communication and
security system used at airport and how they work apart from the practical visualization and
handling of the equipments associated with it.
In this report I have tried to give an overview of the communication, navigation &
surveillance system. Communication system is categorized into two parts air to ground
communication and ground to ground communication. Navigation is the art of determining
the position of an aircraft over earths surface and guiding its process from one place to
another. To accomplish this ART some sort of aids are required by the pilots, called the
navigational aids. These navigational aids include ILS, DME, DVOR.
On this training I learnt some other units of AAI in which some of the units are IT
communication system, automation, AFTN, AMSS, and aeronautical information service.
The training provided a very new experience of working in an organization and to
understand the work culture and ethics. It also provided a strong base by supplementing the
theoretical knowledge with practical exposure to make me ready for working in such an
organization.

63

REFERENCES
1. www.aai.aero.
2. Electronic Communication System by Kennedy & Davis.
3. http://www.studytonight.com/computer-networks/network-topologytypes
4. www.webopedia.com/quick_ref/OSI_Layers.asp
5. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Instrument_landing_system
6. http://www.aai.aero/public_notices/aaisite_test/commun_nav_surv.jsp
7. en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aeronautical_Fixed_TelecommunicationNetwork
8. en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Metal_detector.

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