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Reports

Comparison between Public and


Private Sector in Pakistan

Researchers:
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Table of contents

Abstract............................................................................................2
Acknowledgement...........................................................................3
Chap 1.......Introduction..................................................................4
Background......................................................................................6
Research Objective..........................................................................7
Research Question...........................................................................8
Significance of Study.......................................................................9
Scheme of Study..............................................................................16
Chap 2........Literature review........................................................24
Chap 3.......Theoretical Framework.............................................32
Chap 4........Data and Methodology...............................................33
Chap 5.......Analysis........................................................................35
Chap 6........Result and Conclusion................................................36
Chap 7........Refrences......................................................................37

ABSTRACT
Over the past several years, the researcher has compared public and private organizations, using
a variety of approaches to examine whether the performance of public and private organization
was same or not. This study compares the public and private sector organization in terms of
organizational commitment and work value. There are two independent variable that is
organizational commitment and work value and one dependent variable that is organizational
performance. And the result shows that their relationship are positive. The data are collected in
one public sector organization (Pakistan Institute of Medical Sciences) and one private sector
organization (Shifa International Hospital). The questionnaire techniques can be used to collect
the data and the overall sample size are 100. In public sector organization (Pakistan Institute of
Medical Sciences) the size of sample are 50 and in private sector organization (Shifa
International Hospital) the size of sample are also 50. The SPSS (Statistical Package for Social
Sciences) software can be used to analyze the data and the result shows that the organizational
commitment and work value of private sector organization employee are relatively higher than
the organizational commitment and work value of public sector organizations employee that
resulted the increase in the performance of private sector organization as compared to public
sector organization.
Keywords: Organizational Commitment, Work value, Organizational performance.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
All praise to Allah, the most merciful, kind and beneficent, and the source of all knowledge,
wisdom within and beyond our comprehension. He is the only God, who can help us in every
field of life. All respect and possible tributes goes to Holy Prophet Mohammad (PBUH), who is
forever guidance and knowledge for all human beings on this earth. This research was
supported/partially supported by [Mam Gulbaher]. We thank our colleagues from who provided
insight and expertise that greatly assisted the research, although they may not agree with all of
the interpretations/conclusions of this paper. We thank public sector organization (Pakistan
Institute of Medical Sciences) and private sector organization (Shifa International Hospital) that
can allow to collect the data.

Chapter 1
INTRODUCTION

BACKGROUND
Public and private sectors have long been a topic of interest for many
researchers and academics, even talk shows. Among the past studies like the
New Public Management (NPM) movement (Barzelay 2001; Osborne and
Gaebler 1992) has downplayed sectoral distinctions through its implicit
suggestion that management is management, regardless of sector. The
NPM paradigm has its roots in the business concepts of customer service and
total quality management and in public-choice theory, a branch of economics
that views individuals as self-interested and rational decision makers who
primarily seek to maximize their personal utility ( Argyriades 2003; Borins
2002). The basis for one's psychological attachment to an organization may
be predicated on three independent foundations: (a) compliance or
instrumental involvement for specific, extrinsic rewards; (b) identification or
involvement based on a desire for affiliation; and (c) internalization or
involvement

predicated

on

congruence

between

individual

and

organizational values. These differences may represent separate dimensions


of commitment OReilly & Chatman (1986). Contrary to popular stereotypes,
public servants were more likely than private-sector workers to say, I make
a point of doing the best work I can, even if it sometimes does interfere with
the rest of my life. Norman Baldwin asked, Are we really lazy? in 1984, he
found no difference between public and private managers motivation levels.
Polls show that the public believes government employees work less hard
and

are

less

productive,

than

their

private

sector

counterparts

(Volcker,1989,pp.82,91).Talk-show callers complain about road crews leaning


on their shovels and the satirical Monument of the Unknown Government
Employee

featuresa100-cupcoffeeurnasitscenterpiece.

(http://home.earthlink.net/~jmarshal/introduction.htm).

Available

federal

at

employees

reported working very hard. Although these findings contradict the prevailing
view of public employees, they are limited in scope.
5

RESEARCH OBJECTIVES
To find the query, either of the two sectors is performing well in comparison
to each other. Also to find either the people perception, "public employees
are underperforming comparing to their counterpart private sector" is reality.
The researchers seek to determine whether there are any significant
differences in public and private sector employees. First researchers seek To
determine whether there are significant differences in what both the sector
employees, public and private seek from their work. The analysis of work
values will guide the researchers to some indication of whether or not
people are attracted to one or the other sector on the basis of their work
values. Secondly, the researchers seek To find the difference between the
commitment level of public and private sector employees. The analysis of
commitment level will guide the researchers to indicate which sector poses
more loyal and committed members. Finally the researcher would want to
see the effect of the two variables, work values and organizational
commitment, on organizational performance.
Summarizing the objective

To determine whether there are significant differences in work values

of public and private sector employees.


To find the difference between the commitment level of public and
private sector employees

RESEARCH QUESTIONS
The researcher can compares the performance of public and private sector organization in terms
of organizational commitment and work value. There are two independent variable that is
organizational commitment and work value and one dependent variable that is organizational
performance.
The research question of this study is the following:

What is differences in performance of public sector organization and private sector


organization in terms of organizational commitment and work value?

SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY
The Significance of this study was that to determine whether there is any differences on
performance from public sector organization and private sector organization. One of the main
characteristics of the public sector is the large number of formal processes that appear to be
essential to ensure that it functions. The second major subject analyzed in many of the studies in
our sample is the specificity of the objectives of the organizations in both sectors.

Chapter 2
LITERATURE REVIEW

Introduction
Since in Pakistan, it has been observed that so many public institutions (like
PIA, Pakistan Steel Mill, Railway etc) are underperforming in terms of
creating customer value and profit maximizing comparing to the counterpart
private institutions. The aim of this paper is to find the comparison of public
and private sectors employees effects on the organizational performance of
these two sectors public and private.
Public and private sectors have long been a topic of interest for many
researchers and academics, even talk shows. Among the past studies like the
New Public Management (NPM) movement (Barzelay 2001; Osborne and
Gaebler 1992) has downplayed sectoral distinctions through its implicit
suggestion that management is management, regardless of sector. The
NPM paradigm has its roots in the business concepts of customer service and
total quality management and in public-choice theory, a branch of economics
that views individuals as self-interested and rational decision makers who
primarily seek to maximize their personal utility ( Argyriades 2003; Borins
2002). Polls show that the public believes government employees work less
hard and are less productive, than their private sector counterparts
(Volcker,1989,pp.82,91).Talk-show callers complain about road crews leaning
on their shovels and the satirical Monument of the Unknown Government
Employee featuresa100-cupcoffeeurnasitscenterpiece. Available at
(http://home.earthlink.net/~jmarshal/introduction.htm). federal employees
9

reported working very hard. Although these findings contradict the prevailing
view of public employees, they are limited in scope
The research is based on, work value, and level of commitment differences
between public and private sector. Although there are already other
publications that studied these factors of comparison but those are confined
to the American samples. we would study these factors and examine the
sectoral differences within a sample of Pakistan.
A value can be defined as an enduring belief that a specific mode of
conduct or end-state of existence is personally or socially preferable to an
opposite or converse mode of conduct or end-state of existence ( Rokeach
1973, 5)

Work values: Work values can be defined as generalized beliefs about


the desirability of certain attributes of work (e.g., pay, autonomy, working
conditions), and work-related outcomes (e.g., accomplishment, fulfillment,
prestige).
Organizational commitment: Organizational commitment relates to the
strength of ones identification with and involvement in a particular
organization. It is manifest in (1) a strong belief in and acceptance of the
organization s goals and values; (2) a willingness to exert a considerable
amount of effort on behalf of the organization; and (3) a desire to remain
within the organization ( Porter et al. 1974, 603)
The construct of organizational commitment has received enough attention
in the organizational psychology literature, All the reasons behind this
attention have been to identifying the consequences of having committed
employees., The researchers of these studies suggest that commitment is
positively associated with motivation and involvement (Farrell & Rusbult, 198
1; Stumpf & Hartman, 1984), expressions of positive affect and loyalty
(Kanter, 1968; OReilly & Caldwell, 1980), some aspects of job performance
(Angle & Perry, 198 1; Mowday, Porter & Dubin, 1974; Steers, 1977), and
10

prosocial behaviour (OReilly & Chatman, 1986; Organ, 1988). Additionally,


some researchers have found, commitment is negatively associated with the
likelihood of turnover (Hom, Katerberg & Huh, 1979; Porter, Crampon &
Smith, 1976; Porter, Steers, Mowday & Boulian, 1974). When firms have welldeveloped recruitment and orientation procedures and well-defined
organizational value systems, respondents manifest higher levels of
normative commitment to the organization (Caldwell, 1990).
So apparently positive outcomes emerge from having committed
employees.
Broad Problem Area:
So the broad problem area is to determine the organizational commitment and work value of
organizational employee in public and private sector organization.
Main body:
In comparing public sector and private sector employee motivation, strong interaction effects
have been found between work motivation and management level (Baldwin 1987; Jurkiewicz
and Massey 1997; Karl and Sutton 1998; Moon 2000). Baldwin (1991) concludes that private
sector and public sector employees are equally motivated. However, Baldwin's summary table
makes clear that most of the cited studies deal with public sector managers, not street- level
public sector employees. Baldwin's conclusion of equal motivation, then, may be relevant only
for managers and not for other employees. The job security in non-public sector jobs is lower in
countries with stricter employment protection legislation but higher in countries with more
generous unemployment benefits. These effects are not found for public jobs, which seem to be
more 'universally' perceived as safe jobs (i.e. insulated from labor market shocks). These
conclusions hold controlling for composition effects and controlling for sorting by workers into
job types.

The higher level of job satisfaction is associated with a higher level of top

management support for ethical behavior. Organizational Commitment is a core predictor of


employees attitude to the organization and is a strong indicator of turnover behavior, withdrawal
tendency and organizational citizenship behavior (Mathieu and Zajac, 1990; Morrow, 1993;
Sinclair and Wright, (2005).Organization Commitment has been the three dimensional approach
11

proposed by Meyer and Allen (1984; 1997), which categorizes commitment into three distinctive
scales, namely, affective, normative and continuance commitment. The relationship between an
employee and the organization is founded on behaviors bounded by a contract of economic
gains (Becker 1990). Researchers claim engagement has a positive relationship with customer
satisfaction, productivity, profit, employees' retention (Coffman and Gonzalez-Molina, 2002;
Buckingham and Coffman, 1999) and organizational success and profit (Richman, 2006;
Baumruk, 2004). Harter et al. (2002) argue that employee engagement is important for
'meaningful business results and performance in many organizations. Saks (2006) defines
employee engagement as the extent to which an individual is attentive and absorbed in the
performance of his/her roles. He discerned between two types of employee engagement: job
engagement and organizational engagement. Job engagement refers to the extent to which an
individual is actually fascinated in the performance of his/her own individual job role
meanwhile, organizational engagement reflects the extent to which an individual is
psychologically present as a member of an organization. According to May et al (2004)
engagement is most closely associated with the constructs of job involvement and flow
(Csikszentmihalyi 1990). Job involvement is defined as a cognitive or belief state of
psychological identification (Kanungo 1982:342). This differs from engagement in that it is
concerned more with how the individual employs him/her self during the performance of his/her
job. Furthermore, whilst the focus of job involvement is on cognitions, engagement, according to
most definitions, also encompasses emotions and behaviors. According to Holbeche and
Springett (2003), peoples perceptions of meaning with regard to the workplace are clearly
linked to their levels of engagement and, ultimately, their performance. They argue that
employees actively seek meaning through their work and, unless organizations try to provide a
sense of meaning, employees are likely to quit. In comparison of public and private sector
employees, work values and general values. Organizational commitment has long been a topic of
interest for management researchers, and it has been linked to performance (Mowday, Porter, and
Steers 1974; Porter, Crampon, and Smith 1976). Buchanan (1974) argues that the relative lack of
organizational commitment among public sector managers is the result of the weak performanceoutcome link in public management. Because the goals of public agencies are broad and diffuse
rather than specific and tangible, managers in the public sector are less able to gauge the value of
their efforts in meeting overall organizational requirements. Because public managers must often
12

focus on process rather than outcomes, they identify less with the broader goals of their
organization and more with their immediate work. This leads them to be less committed to the
organization's higher-level goals. No significant sector differences were observed in any of the
10 value types proposed by Schwartz's (1992) value model when the effect so f age, gender, and
educational level were controlled for. Zeffane (1994) noted a lack of clear theoretical explanation
for the lower relative organizational commitment among public sector employees. This study
identified differences in the work values of employees in different sectors, qualitative research is
needed to fully interpret and explain the nature and causes of these differences. Of particular
interest is the issue of causality. It is important to know whether work value differences among
employees in different sectors are the result of occupational choices based on existing work
values or the product committed to their organizations than public sector employees. Romzek
(1990) argues that government organizations are at risk of dropping below a critical threshold of
dedicated employees. The results of this study punctuate her warning. Most studies have
concluded that public sector workers are less extrinsically and hence more intrinsically motivated
(Cacioppe and Mock 1984; Crewson 1997). In a comparison of 474 Australian public sector
employees and 944 private sector employees, Zeffane (1994). Moon (2000) found that public
sector managers have a lower level of organizational commitment than do private sector
managers especially in term so f their willingness to expend extra effort. Some other studies,
however, have reported a higher level of commitment among public sector managers or no
difference ( Rainey1 983). Farid( 1997), for example, compared the organizational commitment
of 54 and 43 middle managers from public sector and private sector organizations respectively
and found no significant difference. Commitment to the job (Lee and Olshfski 2002) is at least as
important as commitment to the organization or to the public interest. Individuals enter the
organization with specific skills, desires, and goals, and expect a work setting where they can use
their skills, satisfy their desires, and achieve their goals. To the extent the organization is
perceived as facilitating these ends, organizational commitment is likely to increase. On the other
hand, if the organization is perceived as failing to provide sufficient opportunities along these
lines, organizational commitment is likely to diminish (Steers, 1977). All the dimensions of
organizational climate are positively associated with organizational commitment except the
dimension 'participative management' in the sample organizations. With regard to the ownership,
it can be seen that all the dimensions of climate except 'participative management' and 'training
13

and education' were significantly correlated with organizational commitment in private


organizations. In public organizations grievance handling, monetary benefits, welfare facilities
revealed significant association with organizational commitment. Public sector organizations are
more democratic than the private organizations and the workers of public enterprises are more
committed to their organizations than the workers of private enterprises. It is observed from the
study that public sector organizations with democratic climatic promote organizational
commitment. However, organizational climate is not found to be a predictor of the attachment of
an individual to the union. This implies that the type of organizational climate does not predict
dual commitment. This finding has some implications for both labor and management in
particular and organizations in general. Direct economic benefits are less important for public
sector employees than for those in the private sector (Newstrom, Reif, and Monczka1976). Pay is
a much greater motivator for private sector employees, supervisors (J urkiewic z Massey, and
Brown 1998), and managers (Khojasteh 1993) than it is for their public sector counterpart.

Significance of the study


The Significance of this study was that to determine whether there is any differences on
performance from public sector organization and private sector organization. One of the main
characteristics of the public sector is the large number of formal processes that appear to be
essential to ensure that it functions. The second major subject analysed in many of the studies in
our sample is the specificity of the objectives of the organizations in both sectors.

14

Chapter 3
15

THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK

THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK
First, we seek to determine whether there are significant differences in the general values of
public servants employees and private sector employees. This will give us an indication of
whether individuals working in the public service hold a value set that differs from their private
sector counterparts. Second, we seek to determine whether public sector and private sector
employees differ in what they seek from their work. This will provide some indication of
whether employees motivation is on the basis of their work values. Third, we seek to determine
whether employees in the two sectors differ with respect to their level of commitment to their
organizations. This will allow us to determine whether public sector and private sector
organizations vary in their ability to engender feelings of involvement and dedication in their
employees.

16

Independent variable

Dependent variable
Organizational
Commitment

Organizational
performance

Intrinsic
values
Extrinsic
values
Altruistic
values

Work Value

Prestige
values
Social values

HYPOTHESIS
This study compares the performance of public and private sector organization in terms of
organizational commitment and work value. There are two independent variable that is
organizational commitment and work value and one dependent variable that is organizational
performance. Hypothesis of this research are as following

H0: There is no difference in work value and level of commitment between Public and Private
Sector employees.

H1: There is a difference in Work value between Public and Private Sector employee.
H2: There is a comparisons in level of commitment between Public and Private Sector
employees.
17

Chapter 4
18

DATA AND METHODOLOGY

SOURCES OF DATA
The researcher use primary data source by studying articles and check the relation between
public and private sector employees regarding work value and job performance .The researcher
collect data through questionnaires. Questionnaires often use various measuring scales to obtain
information from the respondents. To obtain the bio data of the respondents, we use nominal
scale as it serves as label or identification such as gender and age, which often does not involve
calculations. To gather respondents' preferences, we use ordinal scale which is used to arrange
objects or alternatives according to their magnitude in an ordered relationship. To obtain
information related to attitude, we use rating scales. Rating asks the respondents to estimate the
magnitude of a characteristic or quality.
The researcher collect data through questionnaires from public sector and private sector
organization and then apply different statistical operation to get result of comparison of public
and private sector employees organizational performance. The researcher collect data for these
three variables work values organizational commitment and general values. For this purpose
19

researcher will also study the literature and then collect the data how these elements are
important for the employees of two different organization.

ESTIMATION METHODOLOGY
Data Collection Method Since this was a descriptive study, therefore, survey and primary data
methods were used to collect the requisite information. Our surveys aimed to determine what
factors are influencing the organization performance of the public and private companies and do
these organizational performance factors differ in terms of sector of employment. In this
connection a self-administered questionnaire was circulated amongst the 50 employees of public
and private companies. The first part of the questionnaire was designed to collect biographical
information that includes gender, age, qualification and job experience. The second part consists
of five major organizational performance scales to be measured regarding the public and private
employees performance in the questionnaire on a five point Likert-scale ranging from 1
=strongly disagree to 5=strongly agree. A convenient sampling technique was used for data
collection.
The statistical program used for the data analyses and presentation of data in this research is
Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS).The descriptive statistics utilized are based on
frequency tables to provide information on key demographic variables in this study. This is
followed with presentation of the inferential statistics based on examination of each hypothesis
formulated for the research. The dependent variables consist of the average ranking of each of
the five job factors (financial rewards, work contents, career development opportunities,
supportive work & social environment, and work-life balance). These variables are labeled as
scale. The independent variables used for the hypothesis testing are factual background data
consisting of sector of employment (Public/Private). They are type of categorical variable.

RESEARCH DESIGN
The research design refers to the overall strategy that you choose to integrate the different
components of the study in a coherent and logical way, thereby, ensuring you will effectively
address the research problem; it constitutes the blueprint for the collection, measurement, and
analysis of data.

20

Purpose of Study:
The purpose of this study is to compare the public and private sector organization with respect to
organizational commitment, work values, general value. This study has exams the work value
and general value and their relationship to organizational performance and the level of
commitment among the employees of public and private sector organization. The employee of
the private sector organization will be more committed to their job and will show higher job
satisfaction as compared to the employees of public sector organization.

Research strategy:
The data for this study were collected using simple random sampling technique. Total 20
questionnaires were personally distributed among the faculty members of the public and private
sector organization. The questionnaires were distributed among the subordinates.

Research interference:
The extent of interference (Intervention) by the researcher with the normal flow of work at the
workplace has a direct bearing (influence/impact) on whether the study undertaken is causal or
Correlational. The researcher tries to manipulate certain variables so as to study the effects of
such manipulation on the dependent variable of interest.

Unit of analysis:
Individual as a unit of analysis. The data can be collected in the individual to the public and
private sector organization. Data will have to be collected from each individual staff member
and the unit of analysis is individual.

Time horizontal:
Time horizontal is the cross sectional because a study can be done in which data
are gathered just once, perhaps over a period of days or weeks or months, in order
to answer a research question.

Study setting:

21

The study setting is the natural environment because we can compare the public and private sector

organization with respect to organizational commitment, work values, general value in natural
environment that provide the accurate results.

POPULATION
This research is based on the population living in Pakistan. Our population for this research is all
the employees of Pakistan whether they were in public or private sector, for our research there is
no age limit no gender discrimination, no income level limit, we consider all the employees of
Pakistan both public and private sector. Individuals that are working in Pakistan Im public or
private sector are our population.

SAMPLE
Researcher have done non-probability sampling. Further in non-probability sampling we cover
judgmental sampling. This is because we want data from the people that are knowledgeable and
can provide more reliable information. Researcher selected 100 employees from both sector, 50
from public and 50 from private sector to conduct the sampling. sampling was collected through
providing questionnaire to the elements. Employees of PIMS and SHIFA hospital were selected
for sampling purpose. PIMS is a public hospital and SHIFA is private sector hospital.

INSTRUMENTS
Researcher used primary data for this research. Data is been collected through the technique of
questionnaires. Questionnaire been filled by the 100 knowledgeable employees, employees been
selected through judgmental sampling technique. Analysis of data has been made in this study
by employing descriptive statistics. The collected data has been fed into the Statistical Package
for Social Sciences (SPSS-Version 20) for computation. To report demographic data, the
22

descriptive statistics included frequency measures such as percentage, mean and standard
deviation. The final sample consisted of 100 employees.

PROCEDURE
The present study has been designed with a view to investigate the satisfaction level of Public
Sector Bank employees and Private Sector employees, to find out the effect of various aspects
(pay and fringe benefits, relation with co-workers supervision, employees empowerment, nature
of job, employees participation, performance appraisal and training and development, etc.) on
job satisfaction. The study covers a Commercial hospital in all, taking two from Public Sector
namely PIMS and one from Private Sector, SHIFA. One hundred employees of selected
Hospitals located at Islamabad been approached to ascertain their views on job satisfaction.
Primary data has been collected from one hundred respondents of different age group, education
level, income and designation. The coverage is adequate keeping in view the nature of the study
and limited resources at the disposal of the respondents. Sampling used in this research is simple
judgmental sampling. The survey conducted on employees of Public Sector Bank and Private
Sector Hospitals. The target audience was doctors, officers and clerks.

23

The diversity of the study is that it involves employees of all age groups and career levels. A
semi structured questionnaire has been used with a number of variables related to job
satisfaction. The following five point Likert scaling technique has been used for obtaining
response on each question: Analysis of determinants of job satisfaction and criteria for coping
patterns of employees is the primary focus of this research. Given the nature of the data and
findings of the study, the statistical tools used were percentage method, discriminate analysis.

Chapter 5
24

Statistics
Gender
Valid

Experience

Age

Occupation

50

50

50

50

1.38

2.16

2.82

1.00

2.00

3.00

Std. Deviation

.490

.817

1.024

Variance

.240

.668

1.049

Missing

Mean
Median

ANALYSIS

DEMOGRAPHIC VARIABLE
Public Sector:

All questionnaire are valid. There are no missing value.


Gender
Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative
Percent

Valid

Male

31

62.0

62.0

62.0

Female

19

38.0

38.0

100.0

Total

50

100.0

100.0

25

In public sector organization the data are collected in 31 for male and 19 for female.

Age
Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative
Percent

Less than 20

Valid

12.0

12.0

12.0

21-30

13

26.0

26.0

38.0

31-40

15

30.0

30.0

68.0

50 above

16

32.0

32.0

100.0

Total

50

100.0

100.0

Experience
Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative
Percent

Valid

1 Year or less than 1 year

13

26.0

26.0

26.0

2-3 Years

16

32.0

32.0

58.0

4-5 Years

21

42.0

42.0

100.0

Total

50

100.0

100.0

13employee are less than 1 year experience. 16 employee are two to three year experience. 21
employee are four to five year experience.

Private Sector:
Statistics
Gender

Age

Occupation

50

50

50

50

Mean

1.42

2.22

2.78

Median

1.00

2.00

3.00

Std. Deviation

.499

.815

1.055

Valid

Experience

Missing

26

Variance

.249

.665

1.114

All questionnaire are valid. There are no missing value

Gender
Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative
Percent

Valid

Male

29

56.9

58.0

58.0

Female

21

41.2

42.0

100.0

Total

50

98.0

100.0

In private sector organization the data are collected in 29 for male and 21 for female.

Age
Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative
Percent

Less than 20

Valid

15.7

16.0

16.0

21-30

10

19.6

20.0

36.0

31-40

17

33.3

34.0

70.0

50 above

15

29.4

30.0

100.0

Total

50

98.0

100.0

Experience
Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative
Percent

Valid

1 Year or less than 1 year

12

23.5

24.0

24.0

2-3 Years

15

29.4

30.0

54.0

4-5 Years

23

45.1

46.0

100.0

Total

50

98.0

100.0

13 employee are less than 1 year experience. 15 employee are two to three year experience. 23
employee are four to five year experience.

27

DESCRIPTIVE STATISTICS
Public Sector:

Descriptive Statistics
N

Minimum

Maximum

Mean

Std. Deviation

Gender

50

1.36

.485

Experience

50

2.10

.839

Age

50

2.74

1.065

Occupation

Valid N (listwise)

Private Sector:

Descriptive Statistics
N

Minimum

Maximum

Mean

Std. Deviation

Gender

50

1.42

.499

Experience

50

2.22

.815

Age

50

2.78

1.055

Occupation

Valid N (listwise)

28

CORRELATION
Public sector:

Correlations
Organizational

Work Value

Commitment
Pearson Correlation
Organizational Commitment

Sig. (2-tailed)
N

Work Value

.204
.154

50

50

Pearson Correlation

.204

Sig. (2-tailed)

.154

50

50

The organizational commitment and work value are positively correlated in public sector
organization (PIMS)

Private sector:

Correlations
Organizational

Work Value

Commitment
Pearson Correlation
Organizational Commitment

Sig. (2-tailed)
N

.605
50

29

.075

50

Work Value

Pearson Correlation

.075

Sig. (2-tailed)

.605

50

50

The organizational commitment and work value are positively correlated in private sector
organization (SHIFA)

Regression
Public Sector:
Variables Entered/Removeda
Model
Variables
Variables
Method
Entered
Removed
Work Value,
Organizational
Commitment

Mode

Model Summary
a. Dependent Variable:
Performance
Adjusted
R
Std.
Error
of
b. All requested variables entered.

Square

.615

. Enter

.378

Square

.352

Change Statistics

the

R Square

Estimate

Change

Change

6.40156

.378

14.296

df1

df2

Sig. F
Change

47

.000

a. Predictors: (Constant), Work Value, Organizational Commitment


The R2 shows that the Work Value, Organizational Commitment can change the performance of
public sector organization (PIMS) by .378

ANOVAa
Model

Sum of Squares

df

Mean Square

Regression

1171.678

585.839

Residual

1926.056

47

40.980

Total

3097.733

49

a. Dependent Variable: Performance


30

F
14.296

Sig.
.000b

b. Predictors: (Constant), Work Value, Organizational Commitment

Private Sector:
Variables Entered/Removeda
Model

Variables

Variables

Entered

Removed

Method

Work Value,
1

Organizational
Commitment

. Enter

ANOVA

a. Dependent Variable: Performance


Model Summary
Sum of Squares
Mean Square
b. All requesteddfvariables
entered.

Model

R
R
1 Mode Regression
l
Square
Residual

Adjusted
R Std. Error2of
1238.869
Square
the
77.251
47
Estimate
Total
1316.120
49
.970a
1
.941
.939
1.28204
a. Dependent Variable: Performance

F
Change
376.869 Statistics

619.434
R Square
1.644
Change

df1

.000b

df2

Change

.941 376.869

Predictors:
(Constant),
Work
Value, Organizational
b. a.
Predictors:
(Constant),
Work Value,
Organizational
Commitment

Sig.

Change
2

47

Commitment
The R shows that the Work Value, Organizational Commitment can change the
performance of private sector organization (SHIFA) by .941
2

RESULT AND CONCLUSION


Result

31

Sig. F

.000

This study compares the public and private sector organization in terms of organizational
commitment and work value. The data are collected in one public sector organization (Pakistan
Institute of Medical Sciences) and one private sector organization (Shifa International Hospital).
The questionnaire techniques can be used to collect the data and the overall sample size are 100.
In public sector organization (Pakistan Institute of Medical Sciences) the size of sample are 50
and in private sector organization (Shifa International Hospital) the size of sample are also 50.
The SPSS (Statistical Package for Social Sciences) software can be used to analyze the data and
the result shows that the organizational commitment and work value of private sector
organization employee are relatively higher than the organizational commitment and work value
of public sector organizations employee that resulted the increase in the performance of private
sector organization as compared to public sector organization. The regression equation shows
that when the employee of private sector organization are more committed and importance to
work value then the performance of organization is changed by .941. And when the employee of
public sector organization are more committed and importance to work value then the
performance of organization is changed by .378.

Conclusion:
The organizational commitment and work value of private sector organization employee are
relatively higher than the organizational commitment and work value of public sector
organizations employee that resulted the increase in the performance of private sector
organization as compared to public sector organization. This research study found that
organizational commitment and work value directly effects the organizational performance. The
significantly strong relationship between set of two independent variable such as organizational
commitment and work value and one dependent variable that is organizational performance.
Whether the employee of private or public sector organization are more committed or more
importance to work value, the performance of organization increases.

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