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938 Aurora Boulevard, Cubao, Quezon City

Civil Engineering Department

Construction Materials and Testing

REBUGIO, Ron Julienne C.

REPORT SUBMITTED October 12. Joseph Aspdin. when a number of English inventors began experimenting with both natural and artifcially produced cements. This mortar was also harder. Knowledge of concrete construction was lost with the fall of the Roman Empire. in 1824. much more adhesive. while quarrying limestone for mortar. and cured much more quickly than the ordinary lime mortar to which they were accustomed.2015 CHAPTER 13 Concrete Construction The ancient Romans. produced a cement that exhibited a unique property: When mixed with water and sand. and the name Portland remains in use today. In fact. when mixed with limestone and burned. accidentally discovered a silicaand aluminabearing mineral on the slopes of Mount Vesuvius that. it produced a mortar that could harden underwater as well as in the air. it was stronger when it hardened underwater. His cement was soon in great demand. whose durability as a building stone was legendary. stronger. . patented an artifcial cement that he named portland cement. after English Portland limestone. not to be regained until the latter part of the 18th century.

silica. (Reprinted with permission of the Portland Cement Association from Design and Control of Concrete Mixtures. and. it tapers off gradually over long periods of time. Coarse aggregate is normally gravel or crushed stone. is a gray powder. iron. The curing process does not end abruptly unless it is artiÞ cially interrupted. and fi ne aggregate is sand. hereafter referred to simply as cement. called heat of hydration. -showing the close packing of coarse and Þ ne aggregates and the complete coating of every particle with cement paste. Portland cement. Skokie. . considerable heat. concrete is normally considered fully cured after 28 days. 12th edition. Rather. though. a phenomenon referred to as drying shrinkage. and water and allowing the mixture to harden. IL) Portland cement may be manufactured from any of a number of raw materials. of concrete.Concrete is a rocklike material produced by mixing coarse and Þ ne aggregates. and alumina. especially as excess water evaporates from the concrete. a process called hydration. Photos: Portland Cement Association. During this process. for practical purposes. provided that they are combined to yield the necessary amounts of lime. During the hardening. the concrete shrinks slightly. the cementcombines chemically with water to form strong crystals that bind the aggregates together. is given off.or curing. portland cement.

rotating kiln at temperatures of 2600 to 3000 degrees Fahrenheit (1400-1650 C) to produce clinker. silica. but highquality aggregates are becoming scarce in some countries. To make portland cement. or seashells. marl. Iron. In rare instances. marble. and alumina may be provided by clay or shale. proportioned. Aggregates and Water Sand and crushed stone come from abundant sources in many parts of the world. and blended. the selected constituents are crushed.Lime is commonly furnished by limestone. ground. aggregate in . Then they are conducted through a long.

but its compressive strength is considerable. it can be used for every type of structure. and concrete (shaded row). and when combined with steel reinforcing. like masonry. Formwork Formwork components that can be reused many times have a clear advantage over singleuse forms. Water of a quality suitable for concrete is scarce in many developing countries. (Specially formulated concretes are capable of substantially higher strengths than those listed in this table. recycled glass. Concretes that use less water by using superplasticizers. Comparative physical properties of four common structural materials: wood. used foundry sand.concrete has been found to be a source of radon gas.) . has no useful tensile strength. and crushed. which represent a large waste of construction material.Form release compounds and curing compounds should be chosen for low volatile organic compound content and biodegradability. recycled concrete can substitute for a portion of the conventional aggregates in concrete. brick masonry. Concrete.. steel. Waste materials such as crushed. air entrainment. Concrete itself is not associated with indoor air quality problems. The ranges of values in strength and stiffness reß ect variations in concrete mix properties. Insulating concrete forms eliminate most temporary formwork and produce concrete walls with high thermal insulating values.