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In conducting the experiment, the sources of the errors found were generally
environmental, human and mechanical errors. For instance, the calorimeter was not a
perfectly insulated, thereby, resulting to heat losses to the surroundings and affecting
the temperature of the mixture. That is, when placing the water inside of it, either, it was
not properly closed or there are water that needed to be wiped off from the metals
surface. Regarding this, the experiment was held in an air-conditioned room which cools
the object faster than the normal temperature needed. To be particular in the first part,
the time of immersion of the sample metals in boiling water was not obtained properly
for the temperature. Moreover, the advantage of the stirrer for shortening the time to
reach the equilibrium of the mixed sample was not used. This resulted to prolonging the
room temperature affect the calorimeter.
Based on the gathered results, the computed values for the specific heat of aluminum
and brass are the following:
(Table 1) Part 1: Determining the Specific Heat of Metals
Trial 1: Aluminum Metal

Trial 2: Brass Metal

Initial Temperature of metal, tom



Final Temperature of mixture, tmix



Experimental Specific Heat of Metal, cm

0.1676 cal/g-

0.0947 cal/g-

Actual Specific Heat of Metal, cm

0.2174 cal/g-

0.0917 cal/g-

Percentage of Error

22.8873 %

3.2854 %

Graph 1. Temperature vs Specific Heat of Aluminum


Specific Heat (cal/g-) 10

89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96

Temperature ()

The table shown above (Table 1),

displays the comparison between the experimental and actual value of the metal
samples. The amount of heat capacity the aluminum was 0.1676 cal/g-C which tells
that the experimental value is far from having 0.2174 cal/g-C of specific heat. This
indicates that the increase specific capacity is not that credible to absorb heat before its
temperature rises. On the other hand, the brass obtained 0.0947 cal/g-C heat capacity
which is nearly close to the actual value. This tells that decreasing value of specific heat
of brass has the ability to transfer heat to a cooler object more readily. Furthermore, if
the aluminums initial temperature is to be lowered, ranging from 90-95 it would give
more less percentage of error (See Graph 1). Since the proportionality of the amount of
heat is directly to the temperature.
The table shown below (Table 2), displays the comparison between two trials when
finding the latent heat of fusion of ice.

internal energy might lead to solidifying or freezing. Furthermore, the ice from the
second trial absorbed the heat better than the first one. The mass of the second trial
has bigger value which resulted to a decrease in latent heat.
This indicates that the proportionality of mass is inversely to the latent heat. The
extracted amount of energy from the water to melting the ice can be computed by using
the formula below:
M w C w ( t mixt w ) + M c C c ( t mix t c )
M i Ci ( t mix 0)
Lf =

( 241.6 ) ( 1527 )+ 46.3 ( 0.217 4 ) (152 7 )

Lf =
Lf =76.5967

The specific heat of the metal samples is determined by obtaining the masses of metal,
calorimeter and water. Moreover, the difference of the final temperature of mixture (tmix)
and initial temperature of metal must be computed. Given the specific heat of the metal,

Cm =





[ ( M w C w )( t mix t m ) + M c C c ( t mix t m ) ]
M m ( t mix t m )






Aluminum holds a 0.1257 cal/g-C as great as that of brass. This tells that it is 0.1257
cal/g-C as much heat to raise the temperature of aluminum than brass. Moreover, its
greater specific heat value, enables the aluminum to absorb more heat before its
temperature rises. The motion of atoms in the brass is fewer, since less heat is required
to make the kinetic energy increase and raise it by 1C.
The latent heat of fusion is acquired by having the masses of ice, water, and
calorimeter. Furthermore, when finding the change in temperature, it is computed by
having the difference of the final temperature of mixture and initial temperature of ice,
(tmix toi). As well as, the differences of the tmix and initial temperature of water, (tmixtw), and tmix and initial temperature of calorimeter. By putting these altogether, the

variables can be expressed as

M w C w ( t mixt w ) + M c C c ( t mix t c )
M i Ci ( t mix 0)
Lf =

, given the values

of specific heat capacity of ice, water, and calorimeter. The dependence of the mass of
the ice greatly affects the outcome of the latent heat. For the reason that, that its
proportionality is inverse to the latent heat. In converting the ice to liquid, there should
be an increase of internal energy. On the other hand, reducing it the internal energy
might lead to freezing and solidifying.
To put this briefly, when a substance has a higher specific heat, it absorbs more heat
before the temperature rises. And as the specific heat value decreases, it has the
potential to increase the transfer of heat to a cooler object.