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TR313 | Revision Date 2/15/2013

Revision Level: 001

Level 2
Pre-Course Study Guide

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Property of Condor Security Inc. 2013

Table of Contents
Message from Condor Management
Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms


Canadian Criminal Code (CCC)

Criminal Offences

Risk Management

Physical Security Continuum

Suspicious Persons Related Laws


Improvised Explosive Devices


Condor Evolution Program


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Message from Condor Management

Level 2 is more than a training course it is a standard of performance, skill, and knowledge.
To qualify for Level 2, one must meet the following pre-requisites:
1. Employed at Condor Security for at least 3 months
2. Certified in Standard First Aid and Level C CPR
3. Able to meet or exceed the standard in Level 1 testing
Condor employees who successfully pass the theoretical and practical aspects of the course with
a score of 80% or higher will be certified as Level 2 Guards. This designation comes with added
opportunity and responsibility.
With the philosophy of lead by example, Level 2 Guards help to set the expectation for new staff
members for how trained security personnel should look, act, perform their duties, communicate,
and respond in emergencies.

Level 2 Guards have a better understanding of how to work within a team, and as units
forming a larger team.

Level 2 Guards have a better understanding of their role within a physical security
program, and can contribute more realistic and innovative ideas for improving the level of
security within their workplaces.

Level 2 Guards have a deeper knowledge of the local laws, acts, and regulations which
define their role within the private security industry.

Successfully completing the Level 2 course opens the gate to advanced Condor courses such as
ASP and Level 3.
Being certified as a Level 2 Guard also opens up Condor Securitys ASIS PSP assistance program
for more information on this, email
In summary, being a Level 2 Guard raises expectations on performance, responsibility, and
Condor Security Inc. would like to wish you the best of luck in the course and on the test.
We look forward to seeing you wear the Level 2 badge and continue on evolving through Condor
Security Inc. training programs.
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Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms

Articles 1, 2, 7, 15


1. The Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms guarantees the rights and freedoms set out in it
subject only to such reasonable limits prescribed by law as can be demonstrably justified in a free
and democratic society.

Canadians have these rights except when reasonable laws say otherwise.
2. Everyone has the following fundamental freedoms:
(a) freedom of conscience and religion;
(b) freedom of thought, belief, opinion and expression, including freedom of the press and
other media of communication;
(c) freedom of peaceful assembly; and
(d) freedom of association

You can think, believe, and express whatever you want, and can get together with
whoever you want as long as your purpose is peaceful.
7. Everyone has the right to life, liberty and security of the person and the right not to be
deprived thereof except in accordance with the principles of fundamental justice.

You have the right to be alive, free, and safe, as long as you follow the law.
15. Every individual is equal before and under the law and has the right to the equal protection
and equal benefit of the law without discrimination and, in particular, without discrimination
based on race, national or ethnic origin, colour, religion, sex, age or mental or physical disability.

Everyone is equal and should be treated as such.

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Canadian Criminal Code (CCC)

Articles 6, 16, 13, 219, 220, 221, 224, 24, 21, 22, 464, 23, 465

6. Where an enactment creates an offence and authorizes a punishment to be imposed in respect
of that offence,
(a) a person shall be deemed not to be guilty of the offence until he is convicted or discharged
under section 730 of the offence; and
(b) a person who is convicted or discharged under section 730 of the offence is not liable to
any punishment in respect thereof other than the punishment prescribed by this Act or by
the enactment that creates the offence.

You are legally innocent until a court finds you guilty of a crime. You will not
receive any more or less punishment than the law states.
16. (1) No person is criminally responsible for an act committed or an omission made while
suffering from a mental disorder that rendered the person incapable of appreciating the nature
and quality of the act or omission or of knowing that it was wrong.
(2) Every person is presumed not to suffer from a mental disorder so as to be exempt from
criminal responsibility by virtue of subsection (1), until the contrary is proved on the balance of
Burden of proof
(3) The burden of proof that an accused was suffering from a mental disorder so as to be exempt
from criminal responsibility is on the party that raises the issue.

People with mental disorders cannot be found guilty of crimes as they are unable
to make decisions based in reality. Most people dont have mental disorders, so
using it as a defense to a crime requires proof.
No person shall be convicted of an offence in respect of an act or omission on his part
while that person was under the age of twelve years.

No one can be convicted of a crime while under 12.

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219. (1) Every one is criminally negligent who
(a) in doing anything, or
(b) in omitting to do anything that it is his duty to do, shows wanton or reckless disregard
for the lives or safety of other persons.
Definition of duty
(2) For the purposes of this section, "duty" means a duty imposed by law.

If you do something, or fail to do something you should have done, and it affects
the lives and safety of others, you are guilty of a crime.
24.(1) Every one who, having an intent to commit an offence, does or omits to do anything for the
purpose of carrying out the intention is guilty of an attempt to commit the offence whether or not
it was possible under the circumstances to commit the offence.
Question of law
(2) The question whether an act or omission by a person who has an intent to commit an offence
is or is not mere preparation to commit the offence, and too remote to constitute an attempt to
commit the offence, is a question of law.

If you want to commit a crime, and you do something or purposely fail to do

something in order to help you commit that crime, youre guilty of attempt.
21.(1) Every one is a party to an offence who
(a) actually commits it;
(b) does or omits to do anything for the purpose of aiding any person to commit it; or
(c) abets any person in committing it.
Common intention
(2) Where two or more persons form an intention in common to carry out an unlawful purpose
and to assist each other therein and any one of them, in carrying out the common purpose,
commits an offence, each of them who knew or ought to have known that the commission of the
offence would be a probable consequence of carrying out the common purpose is a party to that

You are considered a party to an offense if you commit a crime, help others commit
a crime, or encourage/support others in committing it.

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Criminal Offences
 Summary Conviction
 Indictable Offence
 Hybrid/Dual Procedure

Not as serious as others

Punishment - max $5000 and/or imprisonment max 6 mo.
Pardon: 3 years after sentence completed
Charged: within 6 mo. of commission of offence
Not fingerprinted
Lawyer can appear for you in court, but must be in person at trial


Most serious
Punishment - major fine and Imprisonment for up to life
Pardon: 5 years after completion of sentence
Charged: no time limit
Trial by jury for major offenses, medium not necessary
Must appear in person at all court dates


o Offences which may be treated as either summary conviction or indictable
o Example: Trespassing

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Risk Management
To lower the probability of, handle more efficiently, and improve methods for dealing with
damage, threat, and harm.

Risk Model
o Colour: Green Blue Yellow Orange Red
o Meaning: None Low Medium High Danger

Level of risk determines intensity of response
o Low Intensity:
Conscious  Communication, Awareness
Multiple Options
o High Intensity:
Unconscious  Fight, Flight, Freeze
Few Options

Removing the problem by eliminating the risk.
Lowering impact of risk when impossible to avoid.
Decentralize risk so that a problem in one area does not cause a complete loss involves
more people/procedure.
Remove risk by placing responsibility for it elsewhere.
Murphys Law: Anything that can go wrong, will go wrong.
Plan for impact of eventual risk.

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Physical Security Continuum

(Deter Detect Delay Respond Defeat Report)
Physical security is a general term which refers to any and all physical measures taken to protect
persons and property through the use of security personnel, security systems technology, and
security guidelines (procedures).
A risk assessment is usually performed prior to designing a security program, and as a general
principle, all aspects of the security program are designed before adding Security Guards.
Security guards are only one part of a sites physical security program, but are able to take on
many varied roles. Arguably, most aspects of a physical security program are centered on six
main functions, all of which a security guard can perform.

Proactive prevention of crime through causing fear and doubt.

Importance: Many persons have had the experience of deciding not to commit a crime
due to the likelihood of being caught in the act and facing the consequences;
the more powerful a persons belief of getting caught, the less likely that
person will commit the crime. Examples of security measures which lead
people to believe they will not successfully carry out crimes can include
cameras, fences, lights, documented records of access, ID checks, metal
detector checks, and of course, well trained, well dressed, and professional
security staff on duty.

Not reliably measurable. Impossible to determine the number of times

individuals considered attempting to commit criminal acts on or in relation
to the property but changed their minds due to the sites level of deterrence.


Discovering information.

Importance: The ability to detect unwanted activities is necessary to initiate a response,

therefore, technologies such as lights, alarms, motion sensors, access control
systems, and CCTV systems are used to increase detection ability. The speed
of detection time is important, as faster detection results in a higher
probability that the intruder will be intercepted before escaping.

Measurable. The likelihood of an unwanted act being detected by a security

measure can be measured in terms of pDT, or probability of detection. For
example, a value of 0 means no chance of detection, a value of 0.5 means the
act will be detected half of the time, and a value of 1 means 100% chance of
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detection. The probability of an infrared motion sensor detecting a person

moving in a secured zone might be 70%, or 0.7. The probability of a
security guard monitoring the cctv system and detecting a person moving
through a secure zone might be 10%, or 0.1.

Increasing the time required to carry out an action.

Importance: Time is a critical factor; the element of delay is used to increase the amount
of time required to enter the area, get to a target, overcome a target, and
then leave the area. The element of delay increases the chance to detect the
event and increases the amount of time security personnel have to respond
to it. Solutions such as layers of protection (lobby door, swipe card to use
elevator, key to enter unit, code to open safe, etc) and the use of barriers
(perimeter fence, gate, exterior wall, interior walls, doors, etc) are
commonly used to delay intruders from achieving their goals.

Measurable. The length of time it takes for a threat to defeat a security

measure can be expressed in terms of time. For example, the length of time
it may take to pick a certain type of lock might be 60 seconds, and the length
of time required to hop a fence could be 20 seconds. The total length of time
it may take to move from point a (exterior of the site) to point b (a safe in
the centre of the site) might be 20 minutes. The total length of time
required to exit the site, from point b back to point a, might be 5 minutes.
All these times must be considered.


Acting in accordance with security procedures, emergency procedures, sitespecific procedures, decision making skills, and risk management skills.

Importance: The timeliness and overall effectiveness of the response element will most
likely determine whether or not the unwanted action will be prevented.
Variables involved in a proper response include recognition of the event,
understanding of the event, assessment of potential options, time to decide
on a course of action, and time required to be in a position to resolve the

Measurable. The length of time necessary for the security response to carry
out its purpose can be measured in terms of the time from detection to the
time the security measure was initiated. For example, an infrared motion
sensor which detected a person moving in a secure zone may activate an
alarm which an employee at a monitoring company notices who then
contacts 911, at which point police officers are dispatched to the site and
arrive within 10 minutes. The total time of response might be 15 minutes,
but each link in the response chain may be measured as well.
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Overcoming the threat.

Importance: Once the security response (whether security guards, police officers, fire
services, etc.) Are in a position to resolve the event, the probability that they
will be successful relies heavily on their training, experience, and current
physical and mental condition. The ability of security staff to communicate
effectively with emergency services and the intruder is often the key to
successful resolution.

Measurable. The likelihood that the security response will prevent the
threat from carrying out its purpose may be measured in terms of pDF, or
probability of defeat. For example, a value of 0 means the security response
has no chance to defeat the threat, a value of 0.5 means the threat will be
defeated half of the time, and a value of 1 means 100% chance of defeat.


Communicating information to others.

Importance: After an event has been resolved, protecting oneself, ones team, ones
company, and the client from liability is a primary concern. Ensuring all
important details are reported honestly and accurately, both verbally and
written, is necessary for reports to be effective.

Measurable. Generally, there is no formula to measure this aspect of the

continuum, but the security program should set requirements for reporting
and recording actions taken. The effectiveness of reports may be evaluated
on quantity and quality.

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Suspicious Persons Related Laws

1. In this Act, occupier includes,
(a) a person who is in physical possession of premises, or
(b) a person who has responsibility for and control over the condition of premises or the
activities there carried on, or control over persons allowed to enter the premises, even
if there is more than one occupier of the same premises; (occupant)
Trespass an offence
2. Every person who is not acting under a right or authority conferred by law and who
(a) without the express permission of the occupier, the proof of which rests on the
(i) enters on premises when entry is prohibited under this Act, or
(ii) engages in an activity on premises when the activity is prohibited under this Act; or
(b) does not leave the premises immediately after he or she is directed to do so by the
occupier of the premises or a person authorized by the occupier, is guilty of an offence
and on conviction is liable to a fine of not more than $2,000.

If you are responsible for private property, and tell a lady without a right to
be there to leave, and she doesnt, shes trespassing.
Arrest without warrant on premises
9. A police officer, or the occupier of premises, or a person authorized by the occupier may
arrest without warrant any person he or she believes on reasonable and probable
grounds to be on the premises in contravention of section 2.

You can technically arrest someone if you honestly think theyre trespassing.
Method of giving notice
5. A notice under this Act may be given,
(a) orally or in writing;
(b) by means of signs posted so that a sign is clearly visible in daylight under normal
conditions from the approach to each ordinary point of access to the premises to
which it applies;

You can tell someone youre trespassing, to give sufficient notice. If an

unauthorized person enters a building with a NO TRESPASSING sign, that
person is trespassing.
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Implied permission to use approach to door

3. (2) There is a presumption that access for lawful purposes to the door of a building on
premises by a means apparently provided and used for the purpose of access is not

You enter a building through the doorway, not intending to cause any
trouble. The building does not have any signs, and it seems like anyone is
allowed to enter. You would not be guilty of trespassing.
Prohibition of entry
3. (1) Entry on premises may be prohibited by notice to that effect and entry is
prohibited without any notice on premises,
(a) that is a garden, field or other land that is under cultivation, including a lawn,
orchard, vineyard and premises on which trees have been planted and have not
attained an average height of more than two metres and woodlots on land used
primarily for agricultural purposes; or
(b) that is enclosed in a manner that indicates the occupiers intention to keep
persons off the premises or to keep animals on the premises.

Defence of
of house or real property
41. (1) Every one who is in peaceable possession of a dwelling-house or real property, and
every one lawfully assisting him or acting under his authority, is justified in using force to
prevent any person from trespassing on the dwelling-house or real property, or to remove
a trespasser therefrom, if he uses no more force than is necessary.

You, and anyone helping you, are allowed to stop anyone from trespassing as
long as you only use as much force as the situation demands. If the person
resists, it is considered assault. Even if the person has a right to be there, if he
cant prove it to you, you are allowed to stop him from entering.
Trespassing at night
177. Everyone who, without lawful excuse, the proof of which lies on him, loiters or
prowls at night on the property of another person near a dwelling-house situated on that
property is guilty of an offence punishable on summary conviction.

Dont hang out at night on the property of another persons home its

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Improvised Explosive Devices

What is Terrorism?
An act or a failure to act because of:
Religious, Political, or Ideological motives
Using methods that:
 Intimidate the public by threatening their security
 Force people, organizations, and governments to do or stop doing an act
Which causes any of the following:
 Death or serious bodily harm due to violence
 Endangered human life
 A health or safety risk to the public
 Major property damage
 Serious disturbance of the use of an essential service, facility, or system
To cause change in accordance with principles

Must be pressed, hit,
removed, physically altered
Mines, Tripwire, Handheld
Release Trigger, and
Anti-Handling Devices

Common Trigger Mechanisms

Independent timer is
connected to electrical circuit
which is connected to the
Can use wrist watches, windup alarm clocks, etc.

Remote Trigger
Usually Receiver in weapon,
Transmitter operated by
Can be set to be triggered by
common equipment
Can be accidentally or
purposely triggered by:
cellphones, car alarms, TV
remote controls, garage door
openers, etc.

Common Methods of Delivery

Hidden Location
Vehicle Based
Suicide Bomber

Time Based or Remote Detonator

Uncommon areas
Time Based, Remote Detonator, or Suicide/Impact
Parking Lots, Near Buildings, Near High Traffic zones
Time Based or Manual Detonator
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Property of Condor Security Inc. 2013