You are on page 1of 11

## Doc: AA01014 || APRIL 2014

APPLICATIONS
TREND SURFACE MODELLING AND
ANALYSIS PROGRAM
SURFMAP
VERSION 1.0.0
Environmental
Research

FOR
Urban Analysis

ENVIRONMENTAL
RESEARCH AND
APPLICATIONS

Transport
Analysis

Crime Analysis

## INNOVATION || SOLUTION || PROFESSIONALISM || RESPONSIBILITY

surfMAP 1.0.0
Trend Surface Modeling and Analysis Program
(v1.0.0)

APPLICATIONS
Doc: AA01014 || APRIL 2014

HOW IT WORKS

Data
Collection
X, Y Coordinates
(GPS)

Z-Values
Other measuring devices or GPS

Data Entry
Data Manipulation
Data Storage
Data Retrieval

## Spatial series statistics

Computed trend values
Residual trend values
Min/max coordinates/trend
values

Data
Management

Data Processing
and
Statistical
Analysis

SurfMAP
1.0.0
% Reduction in Sum of
Squares
Linear Trends Model
Equivalent Coefficient of
correlation

## Spatial distribution of trend

(point chart)
Linear distribution of trend
Least square curve of best fit
Combined charts

Processing
and
Analysis
Results

Results
Interpretation
and
Presentation

surfMAP 1.0.0

## Trend Surface Modeling and Analysis Program

(v1.0.0)

APPLICATIONS
Doc: AA01014 || APRIL 2014

INTRODUCTION
SurfMAP 1.0.0 is developed to analyse spatial series containing x and y coordinates with
corresponding z-values. The z-values represents any observations or parameters, and generally
variables that has a spatial distribution such as elevation (height), rainfall, temperature, land rent,
population, soil grain size, etc at each data point.
Users can input three-dimensional (x, y, z) spatial data from the integrated surfMAP datasheet;
compatible data sheet files (containing x, y ,z data) could also be imported via the Load Data
command. The program uses a method of mathematics and matrices to derive the trend surface
model. The model describes an equation of least-squares used to determine the predicted trend
values which varies smoothly over the surface area.
The final trends model result is interpreted based on its percentage reduction of sum of squares
(%RSS) and the equivalent co-efficient of correlation derived. Charts are integrated to depict
graphical presentation of the spatial structure of the area and the spatial distribution of the
observed trend showing relationships between the least square curve of best fit and linear trend
distribution in the area. SurfMAP is developed and used for;
i.
ii.
iii.
iv.
v.
vi.
vii.
viii.
ix.
x.

## Spatial series data entry

Series statistical analysis
Linear trends surface model development
Computed and residual trends value calculation
Computation of the percentage reduction in sum of squares
Computation of the equivalent co-efficient of correlation
Trends spatial distribution (point chart) development
Trends linear distribution line chart plotting
Trends least square curve of best fit plotting
Combined chart of linear trends distribution and least square curve

In this brochure (Applications Doc: AA01014), the Trends Surface Modeling and Analysis
Program (SurfMAP) was applied to selected environmental science related researches. SurfMAP
could also be applied (and not limited to) in urban residential analysis, crime analysis, road
network analysis, basic space and atmospheric sciences, oil spill trends analysis, drainage basin
analysis, etc.

surfMAP 1.0.0
Trend Surface Modeling and Analysis Program
(v1.0.0)

APPLICATIONS
Doc: AA01014 || APRIL 2014

## ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH AND

APPLICATIONS
INTRODUCTION
In this version of Applications Doc: AA01014, application of the Trends Surface Modeling and
Analysis Program (SurfMAP) for environmental research and related studies is presented.
Application of SurfMAP for wetland elevation trends analysis (for urban wetland assessment and
analysis) and flood heights analysis (for flood vulnerability-risk assessment) is presented.
Application of SurfMAP in the environmental sciences and related disciplines is not limited to
the ones presented in this booklet.

## A.WETLAND ELEVATION TRENDS ANALYSIS

Background
The X and Y spatial coordinates and elevation values for each wetland areas were recorded using
a handheld Global Positioning System device. Data for 62 wetland areas were collected.
SurfMAP was used as a complimentary software package with existing GIS software.

Fig 1
Identified wetland areas
in Ile Ife and the ones
used for cultivation.
This analysis is carried
out from ArcMAP 9.3.
The X, Y, Z data used in
this analysis is computed
from SurfMAP datasheet
- data entry system.

surfMAP 1.0.0
Trend Surface Modeling and Analysis Program
(v1.0.0)

APPLICATIONS
Doc: AA01014 || APRIL 2014

## Wetlands Spatial Series Data Entry

Fig 2
Data entry page in
surfMAP used to record
data collected from the
GPS.
The Trend Data Sheet is
delete, update) the X, Y,
Z data for each wetland
area.

## Trends Statistical Analysis

Fig 3
Squares and sum of
squares of series entries
were computed on the
statistics form.
The trends minimum
and maximum values
were deduced.
Trends
Normal
Equations
were
developed
and
the
matrix defining the
relationship between the
trend components is
generated.

surfMAP 1.0.0
Trend Surface Modeling and Analysis Program
(v1.0.0)

APPLICATIONS
Doc: AA01014 || APRIL 2014

## Trends Analysis Result

Fig 4
Generated values for the
three constants that
define the least square
equation used as the
linear trend model for
the observed trend.
The statistical result for
the computed (Zti) and
residual
(Ui)
trend
values at each wetland.
Interpretation of the
elevation trend surface
and Equivalent Coefficient of Correlation.

## Trends Linear Distribution Chart

Fig 5
Linear distribution of
trend
surface
that
describes the wetlands
recorded
and
corresponding elevation
values in the area.
Elevation values for
each wetland point is
also displayed.

surfMAP 1.0.0
Trend Surface Modeling and Analysis Program
(v1.0.0)

APPLICATIONS
Doc: AA01014 || APRIL 2014

## Trends Least Square Curve

Fig 6
Least square curve of
best fit representing the
linear trends surface
model generated for
elevations of wetland
areas in the Ile Ife.

## Trends Linear Chart and Least Square Curve of Best Fit

Fig 7
Chart
showing
the
relationship between the
linear trend distribution
(as blocked points) and
the least square curve of
best fit.

surfMAP 1.0.0
Trend Surface Modeling and Analysis Program
(v1.0.0)

APPLICATIONS
Doc: AA01014 || APRIL 2014

## Using SurfMAP in complimentary capacity with existing GIS software

SURFMAP 1.0.0
Trends Statistical Analysis, Model
Development, Trends Interpretation and
Trends Surface Analysis Results in Charts

## OTHER GIS PACKAGE

Spatial Analysis, Layers Creation and Maps
Development

surfMAP 1.0.0
Trend Surface Modeling and Analysis Program
(v1.0.0)

APPLICATIONS
Doc: AA01014 || APRIL 2014

## B. FLOOD HEIGHT ANALYSIS

Fig 8
Computed Trends result
and model generated
including computed and
residual trend values, the
trends % reduction in
and
equivalent
coefficient of correlation.

Fig 9
Linear
trends
distribution chart of
observed flood height.

10

surfMAP 1.0.0
Trend Surface Modeling and Analysis Program
(v1.0.0)

APPLICATIONS
Doc: AA01014 || APRIL 2014

Fig 10
Least
square
curve
representing the best fit
linear trends surface
model generated for the
flood heights.

Fig 11
Combined (overlayed)
least square curve of
best fit and linear trends
distribution for the flood
heights.