MATHEMATICS
GIRLS
FOR
BY
WILLIAM
AUTHOR
OF
H.
"VOCATIONAL
MATHEMATICS
"TEXTILES,"
D.
C.
BOSTON
DOOLEY
HEATH
"
NEW
ETC.
CO.,
YORK
PUBLISHERS
CHICAGO
COPYRIGHT,
1917,
BY
D.
C.
HEATH
IB?
"
Co.
PREFACE
author
THE
in
experience
he
give
to
teachers
Many
of
the
life.
often
Too
without
of
trade,
this
book
believe
in
but
mathematics,
to
The
few
the
problems
with
years
subject.
and
of
in
course
rule
day
every
matics
mathe
her
apply
or
to
matics
mathe
the
"
as
time
the
meet
needs
life.
mathematics
the
the
way
difficulty that
regular
the
author
has
prepared
for
girls.
He
does
school
secondary
vocational
offers
regular
such
in
problems
commercialize
"
this
omitting
of
ondary
sec
this
commercial
from
home
vocational
on
the
and
commerce,
overcome
with
to
in
knowledge
is to
It
able
and
teacher
average
girl graduates
intermediate
girls. During
and
the
considerable
years,
mathematical
solving
being
mathematical
of
familiar
not
of
ten
practical applications
pupils
methods
thumb
boys
inability
are
last
conducting
for
schools
noticed
has
and
organizing
technical
the
had, during
has
mathematics
as
not
in
course
an
tion
introduc
course.
have
girls
used
been
of
by
school
high
the
author
The
age.
the
during
method
of
past
ing
teach
has
showing
actual
the
its
value
experience
mind
A
consisted
before
she
discussion
arousing
in
daily
and
each
This
teacher
in
mathematics
subject
or
the
terms
life.
to
division
of
information
used.
to
by
based
upon
the
pupil's
the
problems.
the
may
not
The
book
iii
recalled
are
is
who
facts,
Important
solve
mathematics
in
interest
an
observation,
attempts
of
problems.
in
be
for
familiar
contains
the
regular
with
samples
the
of
PREFACE
IV
from
problems
the
from
all
textile
mill
author
The
has
teachers
Green,
Bessie
Susan
Watson,
Boston
North
Adams,
High
School,
Institute,
Mass.
N.
Rochester,
Curtis
J.
Washington
Ellis,
Girls'
Industrial
High
School,
Machine
Industrial
the
preface
author's
valuable
the
and
the
N.
The
of
of
J.
Y.
Md.
Miss
Griselda
J.
W.
N.
Y.
C.
E.
;
Weaf
The
Agriculture,
of
Donoer,
roughs
Bur
Educational
Women's
Conference
Consalus,
Mr.
; Mr.
dustrial
In
H.
F.
City
of
Department
Reports
Director
; Mrs.
Buffalo,
;
Mechanics
Belt, Baltimore,
N.
Newark,
School,
Bushwick
Principal
York
Syracuse,
School,
New
ington,
Wash
York
State
Teachers.
Vocational
This
Pa.
Miss
Hospital,
Normal
Eaton,
Mabel
New
Company
Union
C.
D.
Dr.
School,
High
Adding
School,
HutchinsonCentral
and
Y.
J.
; Mrs.
City
Lattimer,
M.
J.
; Mr.
Philadelphia,
Irving High
Technical
hue,
Y.
N.
Lewis,
George
Miss
Mass.
Brigham
Rollins,
mer
for
Baylies
Pa.
York
New
Principal
Frank
; Mr.
Brockton,
Bent
Murdock,
; Mr.
Brooklyn
enter,
his
Lilian
Philadelphia,
School,
Peter
Miss
College,
at
F.
Arts, Yonkers,
Mr.
High
Teachers
Prank
to
from
suggestions
Journal,
Instructor
Mr.
likely
are
following
Home
McGowan,
B.
the
Brockton
Kingman,
Ellen
valuable
from
Ladies'
women
home.
the
to
received
and
Editor
that
occupations
would
wife,
be
not
Ellen
Mrs.
and
suggestions
complete
V.
Dooley,
corrected
both
reference
without
has
who
the
offered
to
many
manuscript
and
proof.
The
author
corrections
from
will
any
be
pleased
teacher.
to
receive
any
suggestions
or
CONTENTS
PART
REVIEW
I"
ARITHMETIC
OF
PAGE
CHAPTER
I.
ESSENTIALS
Processes
Numbers
Involution
Decimals
and
Ratio
pound
Com
Proportion
; Evolution.
64
MENSURATION
.
Circles
Triangles
; Cone
Pyramid
III.
Fractions
Percentage
...
Fundamental
II.
ARITHMETIC
OF
Quadrilaterals
; Similar
Sphere
INTERPRETATION
Polygons
Ellipses
Figures.
RESULTS
OF
80
......
of
Reading
Scale
THE
Estimating
Solving
Examples.
II
of
Home
and
Weight
Drawing
to
Methods
of
HOMEMAKING
IN
INCOME
OF
89
Families
American
Division
of
Income
FOOD
,100
Kinds
Cost
;
PROBLEMS
of
ON
of
Food
Meals
Kitchen
Recipes
CONSTRUCTION
THE
and
Weights
; Economical
OF
ures
Meas
Marketing.
HOUSE
128
.
Advantages
Materials
VII.
Book.
Account
Different
VI.
Plans
PROBLEMS
"
of
Expense
Distances
DISTRIBUTION
Incomes
V.
PART
IV.
Blue
COST
Different
Taxes
FURNISHING
OF
Different
Linen
of
of
Coal
Kinds
of
Living
Room
; How
Meters
to
;
United
States
Heating.
Houses
Building
Revenue.
HOUSE
146
Furniture
Read
of
Types
; Bedroom
Gas
Meters
Hall
;
Floor
Dining
;
How
Coverings
Value
;
Room
to
Read
tric
Elec
CONTENTS
VI
CHAPTER
VIII.
THRIFT
INVESTMENT
AND
Different
178
Institutions
of
; Bonds
Savings
; Stocks
change
; Ex
; Insurance.
PART
IX.
III
DRESSMAKING
"
PROBLEMS
Fractions
X.
MILLINERY
DRESSMAKING
IN
of
Finished
AND
Yard
Garments
198
; Tucks
; Hem
; Ruffles
; Cost
Millinery Problems.
CLOTHING
.
of Cloth
Parts
PART
XL
XII.
IV"
; Materials
THE
ARITHMETIC
FOR
Sheets
and
CIVIL
.217
STORE
233
....
; Profit
and
Loss
; Time
Pay Rolls.
FOR
SALESGIRLS
;
CASHIERS
AND
268
ARITHMETIC
"
ARITHMETIC
FOR
276
Weights
NURSES
NURSES
FOR
260
Making Change.
SERVICE
PART
XIV.
Weight.
THE
ASSISTANTS
; Invoices
Saleslips; Extensions
XIII.
; Kinds
AND
OFFICE
Calculations
ARITHMETIC
of Yarn
OFFICE
Rapid
of
Measures
; Household
Equivalents of
Measures
; Doses
and
Metric
ures
Meas
English
Strength of Solutions
Prescription Reading.
PART
XV.
PROBLEMS
VI
ON
PROBLEMS
"
ON
THE
FARM
FARM
THE
304
APPENDIX
317
Metric
System
Graphs
; Formulas
; Useful
Mechanical
Information.
INDEX
365
MATHEMATICS
VOCATIONAL
GIRLS
FOR
PART
REVIEW
"
ARITHMETIC
OF
CHAPTER
Notation
is
unit
number
thing ;
one
is made
and
as,
book,
one
units
of
up
Numeration
and
inch.
pencil,one
one
tells how
units
many
are
taken.
integer is
An
A
the
number.
singlefigureexpresses
column.
units
column
; 53
column
and
represents
shown
as
whole
is
of
number
the
figure
certain
example,
For
a
in
the
of
number
or
is
has
the
the
column
Each
tens.
is said
figure 3
for
column,
tens
and
units
single figure in
figures and
two
of
number
has
in
to
the
the
second
its
own
be
in
units
units
figure
name,
below.
Sp3
00
r
"9s
I
 
JjlJjsJjJJjl
138,
Reading
numbers
commas,
695,
Numbers.
they
are
"
at
  
4O
7,
in
convenience
For
separated
beginning
"
by
certain
the
into
reading
of
groups
125
three
right:
138,695,407,125.
The
first group
The
second
The
third
The
fourth
group
group
group
is 125
units.
is 407
is 695
is 138
thousands.
millions.
billions.
and
writing
figures each
FOR
A\K7^d"TION;A^.MA*fPSEMATICS
GIRLS
The
preceding
billion,
six
is
number
hundred
read
thirtyeight
hundred
one
seven
ninetyfivemillion,four hundred
695 million,
twentyfive
; or 138 billion,
Roman
important. Dates
and amounts
in buildings
on
are
prescriptions
usuallyexpressed
for numbering
in Roman
numerals.
also
used
They are
in
chapters and dials. The following capitalletters,seven
A
knowledge
used
all,are
to
of Roman
Numerals
is very
numerals
Roman
express
numerals
IIIVXLCD
One
Five
Two
All
numbers
other
1.
II
When
letter is
represents2
2.
When
value, the
XXX,
When
repeated. Thus,
lesser is added
to the
is
placed after
greater.
one
of
Thus, VII,
greater
7
two
"
is
the
placed before
greater.
one
of
Thus, IX,
greater
9
"
ten
one.
Read
rules
letters
30.
is
value
the
to five.
added
3.
are
repeated,the
1000
500
100
Fifty
expressedby combining
:
followingprinciples
the
according to
Ten
the
followingRoman
numerals
accordingto
the
above
REVIEW
Express
the
ARITHMETIC
OF
followingnumbers
numerals
in Roman
1.
14
4.
81
7.
281
10.
314
13.
1837
2.
42
5.
73
8.
509
11.
573
14.
1789
3.
69
6.
67
9.
812
12.
874
15.
80,003
Mathematics
Standard
should
work
the
it easy
11
by
to
in.,should
set down
show
answer
check
each
the
in such
be done
the
answer
be
used.
example
different
obtained
Sheet.
way
Rule
each
its proper
with
sheet
number
the
or
the
proof
in the
solution.
should
follow
number
and
name
of
the
to
make
size,8"
in.
followingdiagram,
margin, and clearly
To
that
show
the
example.
SHEET
MATHEMATICS
print her
step and
of standard
in the
as
solving problems
each
Paper
is correct,
in
errors
to show
as
found.
when
STANDARD
The
avoid
To
"
the
class,the
problem
on
date
the
when
the
Standard
Mathematics
the
margin
(a), (/"),etc.
"
line.
line should
GIRLS
several
contains
question
be tabulated
should
they
to
If the
Sheet.
inside
FOR
MATHEMATICS
VOCATIONAL
"
be
divisions
drawn
lems,
prob
or
left of the
the
at
between
lems
prob
problems
separate them.
Addition
is the
Addition
The
sign of
is
addition
9 inches
Thus,
Thus, the
to
statement
(read nine
more
or
is called
that
8 feet +
the
EXAMPLE.
"
of barrels of flour
39, and
19,883 bbl.
inches
6 feet
of two
agent for
An
to be
added.
plus seven
14
inches).
parallellines,
=
feet,means
feet.
numbers.
more
the
during
How
or
The
plus.
feet
amount
or
sum
called
+
short horizontal
two
equal to.
eightfeet (or 8
find the
numbers
is
equals or
means
To
7 inches
sign of equality is
The
added
two
process
upright cross,
an
the two
and
this
by
of
sum
amount.
or
sum
finding the
obtained
result
The
numbers.
of
process
day
ber
followingnum1203, 2672, 31,118,480,
did he sell during the
barrels
many
day?
[The
for barrels
abbreviation
2$
The
sum
2 672
20
48 +
2 +
^1
9""
1 1k
The
39
19,883
and
+1+7
dreds
and
Place
23 hundreds
the 3 hundreds
to the next
and
; 23 hundreds
column.
5 thousands.
2 +
Add
are
9 +
the
1 +
2+
1 tenthousand
in the
Place
15
and
the
2+8
add
thousands, or
to
the
the
8 +
3+8
equal
2 hun
tens
under
hundreds
4 +
1+6
3 hundreds.
the 2 thousands
1 tenthousand
tenthousands
units
column.
tens
and
9 +
more
the
is 2 +
add
under
to 2 thousands
column
=
column.
equal
and
29 tens
and
column
is 3 +
20
column
29 tens.
9 tens.
the hundreds
under
the
the 2 tens
add
column
units, or
leave
so
the hundreds
to
2
tens
25
bbl.]
units
of the tens
sum
the
55,395 bbl.
^s tens,
column
*r
Sum
of the
1,203
is
column
REVIEW
and
the
is 1 +
sum
Hence, the
TEST.
is
sum
the
5.
55,395
Repeat
"
1 +
OF
ARITHMETIC
Write
the 5 in the
tenthousands
column.
bbl.
beginning
process,
the
at
of the
top
righthand
column.
is very
Exactness
correct
one
kind
be
should
estimate
the
numerical
made
calculations.
the
on
before
answer
in
the
work.
to be
The
solvingthe
the
solution,the
also necessary
arithmetic.
only
accurate
check
of
some
simplest check is
problem. If there
and
answer
is
to
is
the
It is
probably wrong.
reading the problem.
in
exact
to be
estimated
work
is
There
it is necessary
answer
in
Therefore
answer.
performing the
in
important
EXAMPLES
1.
Write
following numbers
the
thousand
Seventyfive
three
hundred
eight hundred
2.
five thousand
In
mines
3.
certain
Solve
the
386
4.
be
output of
total
5289
of
cost
53666
the Panama
many
6.
makes
successive
eggs
A
were
woman
the
$ 146.00
a.
b.
Add
million
two
from
copper
the
in words.
3001
Canal
received
weeks
received
the
291
f 38
estimated
was
in
1912
to
in words.
following number
during
the four
705
weeks
eggs.
of
eggs
How
She
buys a twofamily house for $6511.00.
ing,
following repairs: masonwork, $ 112.00 ; plumbting,
decora; carpenter work, $ 208.00 ; painting and
$ 319.00.
7.
wife
farmer's
four
them
following:
in
The
add
worth
was
hundred
the
year
figuresand
eight; seven
fortynine.
as
the
How
much
does
followingnumbers,
the house
left to
her ?
cost
right:
VOCATIONAL
8.
According
United
of
the
males
FOR
of
1910
lights was
run
the
population of the
of the outlyingpossessions,
consisted
What
the
44,639,989 females.
was
census
and
GIRLS
population?
9.
three
the
to
States,exclusive
47,332,277
total
MATHEMATICS
Wire
for
If the first
rooms.
second
18
and
long
electric
ft.
and
Remember
Find
10.
the
46 Ib. +
wide;
the
was
electric
four
and
long
total
9 ft. wide
third
the
and
length
of
sides
of
wire
lightsrequire two
12 ft.
quired?
re
wires.
Ib. +
135
ft.
18
that
sum
13 ft.
was
long
wide, what
ft.
room
around
72 Ib. +
39 Ib. +
Ib. +
427
64 Ib. +
Ib.
139
Subtraction
is the
Subtraction
numbers,
two
from
findingwhat
equal a given sum.
to
which
subtracted
findingthe
of
or
given number
of
process
subtract
we
; and
the
number
between
added
is the
subtrahend
to
is the
minuend
ber
num
number
is the result
remainder
or
difference
be
must
The
; the
difference
of the
subtraction.
The
sign
To
12
"
find the
EXAMPLE.
placed
4 is read
difference
five years
ago.
What
the
It
was
the
twelve
horizontal
short
before
of two
house
"
was
is
subtraction
is
minus, and
Thus,
of
number
minus
purchased
recentlysold at
was
the
greater, with
Subtrahend
$4869.00
the
Remainder
$3205.00
units, which
14
Since
from
6 leaves
units
1 ten
0.
$ 8074.00
auction
from
and
added
5 units
4'
the
was
remain.
was
changed
Write
0 under
from
the
units
twenty
for $ 4869.00.
of
the
under
the
order
same
be
9 cannot
in
taken
1
*"
*ffrom
unif
7Tbe
7 tens
the
changed
units
makes
Write
the
7 tens, there
tens
number
line.
chan"e
so
that
to
smaller
vertical
same
ten
the
for
loss ?
$8074.00
from
subtracted.
Minuend
10
numbers.
Write
makes
"
be
to
called
line,
column.
14
5 under
are
units.
the unit
6 tens
Next,
Take
9
umn.
col
left,and
8 hundred
can
REVIEW
from
taken
be
not
the thousands
from
Write
taken
been
the
4 thousand
the 8
from,
PROOF.
the
minuend,
leaves
10
column.
hundred
Since
Write
is
changed
leave
2 hundred.
1 thousand
left 7 thousand
are
3 thousand.
has
to subtract
3 under
the
the
thousand
is 83205.00.
of the
sum
there
(ten hundred)
from
hundreds
remainder
If the
"
hundred
thousand,
which
whole
The
column.
the
1 thousand
so
under
from
hundred,
column.
ARITHMETIC
OF
subtrahend
the remainder
and
equals
the
is correct.
answer
EXAMPLES
1.
Subtract
1001
2.
box
contained
used
were
screws
from
79,999.
one
on
job,how
(144)of
gross
wood
screws
many
If 48
screws.
left in the
were
box?
of
number
What
3.
be added
must
to 3001
produce
to
sum
98,322?
Barrels
5.
removed,
A
6.
1189
box
contains
how
many
much
How
cotton
while
No.
worsted
What
is the
spent
$ 189.00
10.
69,221
11.
The
and
in 1910
to 1910?
does
If
109
are
yarn
in
3008
saved
800.00
October
and
save
840
contains
yards
yards
560
to
the
to
the
pound,
pound.
length?
$453.00
trip.
sea
she
in
the difference ?
was
contains
yam
lady
on
quarts of milk
What
difference
young
(144) of pencils.
purchases a $
9.
1247
in November.
No.
8.
gross
remain?
housewife
$ 719.00.
received
farmer
quarts
7.
are
How
five years.
remained
?
during
much
She
City in
was
1900
was
the increase
3,437,202
from
1900
If
12.
there
cityhaving
the residents
the
In
13.
United
14.
1820
year
States.
many
arrived
The
first
How
in
8385
only
in 1842
than
in 1820
many
of
in
the
arrived.
How
in
settled
Lynn, Mass.,
is it since he arrived
years
many
how
arrived
immigrants
great shoemaker
certain
In
more
1636.
wageearningwomen
not
are
GIRLS
are
total
FOR
MATHEMATICS
VOCATIONAL
in
in
Lynn
Multiplication
of
the
rinding
of
product
two
numbers.
Thus, 8x3
8 added
read
be
may
to itself 3
times,
multiplied by 3,
8
8 +
or
8 +
and
24
8 times
or
8x3
3,
and
means
24.
numbers
multipliedby
means
7x4
Thus,
product
EXAMPLE.
the
"
weight of
be.read
may
find the
To
or
times.
of two
certain
set of books
24 Ib.
cand,
17
etc.
the
units
T7)"11
added
the
6 tens.
hundreds
1, proceed
is 4 of this
under
their
the
sum
Place
before, but
as
partialproduct,
hundreds
is the
What
whole
6 tens
1 is
as
under
column,
and
product,
is
or
the
so
408
8 units.
is
2 tens
tens
on.
Ib.
the
column,
Add
the
first
and
the
8 under
to
are
7 times
16
and
partialproduct.
To
tens,
the
be
tens
or
1 hundred
multiply by
number,
the
tens,
units, which
tens
are
column
tens
ten, write
product.
the
in the
28
multipli
under
Place
The
tens
the
tens
equal
column.
to the
168
units,
4 units
and
tens
14 tens
the
column.
under
7 times
24
are
multiplier under
units
in the
the
are
1(58
and
Ib.
24
weighs
17 sets ?
Mvltiplicand
Multiplier
hundred
4.
numbers.
Write
7 times
multiplied by 4, or
next
which
number
partial products,and
ARITHMETIC
OF
REVIEW
EXAMPLES
ordered
milliner
100
yards.
How
shoe
box
1.
Each
2.
boxes
423
pairsin
many
contains
Multiply 839 by
4.
mechanic
Ib.
total
shoes.
pairs of
How
many
291.
in
sent
the
following
for
order
bolts
12
each;
Ib.
weight of
the order
product of
the
Find
5.
12
3.
bolts,6
bolts,2
ing
spoolsof wire, each spool containyards did she order in all ?
58
?
1683
and
809.
as
ciphersto
multiply by 10, 100, 1000, etc.,annex
many
multiplicandas there are ciphersin the multiplier.
To
the
EXAMPLE.
864
"
100
86,400.
EXAMPLES
the
read
Multiply and
to the
answers
10
1.
869
2.
1011
3.
10,389 x
4.
11,298 X 30,000
5.
58,999
6.
7.
x
x
100
1000
following:
8.
100
9.
1000
500
x
x
900
10.
10,000 x
500
11.
10,000 x
6000
400
12.
1,000,000x
6000
681,719 x
10
13.
1,891,717x
400
801,369
100
14.
10,000,059 x 78,911
Division
Division
is the
is contained
process
of
in another.
is the
divided
; the
divisor
divided
; the
quotient is the
number
number,
is not
what
contained
is left
over
an
finding how
The
dividend
number
by
equal number
a
times
one
is the number
which
of the
result
is called
many
the
remainder.
to be
dividend
division.
of times
ber
num
When
in another
is
a
10
The
of
sign
Thus,
56
divisor
with
In division
we
of
times
above
of the
one
his
among
$ 3.00
How
many
desires
employees
employees
to distribute
that
so
each
Employees
the
numbers
at
the left.
thousands
column.
thousand
in the
The
Write
in
the
dividend.
21
as
quotient
over
as
the
the
leave
~T
dred
quotient.
20 tens, and
7
figure in
quotient make
next
a
24
in 23 tens
the next
as
the
hundred.
the
times, or
the
of
Add
the 3 tens
quotient.
quotient.
Then
product
of
24
the
in the
or
20
units
subtract
in
25,
20
hun
18 hundred
or
Write
dividend
the
to
3 is
Write
the 5 units
8
Write
8 times.
is 2678
or
20
of 2 tens.
subtracted
answer
8 in the
units,plus
in
first
to be divided.
remainder
tens,
gives
the
remainder.
dividend
3 is contained
1 unit.
groups
thousand,
times,
hundred
(thousand)
3 is contained
6 hundred
with
is in
nearest
and
is 2
and
21 tens
the
thousand
remainder
is the next
25 units.
figure in the
remainder
23 tens
Place
the
25
figurein
contained
from
under
manner
thousand.
figure
or
How
into
."
hundred,
ceive
re
8 thousand
divided
be
can
of 3 is 2
2Q
will
$ 3.00 ?
the
indicated
3)8035 Dividend
Remainder
surplus
one
will receive
Write
the next
factors to
over
2678
as
the
in another.
is contained
number
one
manufacturer
"
$ 8035.00
Divisor
dividend
8.
by
are
many
is left
8.
factor.
find how
much
two
placed between
divided
by the second.
by writing the
56 divided
this is read
EXAMPLE.
by
GIRLS
line between.
Thus, 5/ ;
To
the first is to be
is also indicated
Division
when
j, and
56 divided
8 is read
s
is
division
that
signifies
numbers
FOR
MATHEMATICS
VOCATIONAL
from
25
units
employees
and
PROOF.
"
Find
if any,
the
and
if the
sum
the
divisor
and
quotient,
answer
add
the
mainder,
re
is correct.
12
VOCATIONAL
MATHEMATICS
REVIEW
1.
farmer's
bu.
34
each
to
of
bu.,
sold
raised
29
the farm
on
bu., 43
12
four
GIRLS
EXAMPLES
daughter
containing38
respectively. She
FOR
bu.
bu.,
each
to
families.
5 loads
39
How
and
bu.,
of three
of
toes
pota
29
bu.
families,and
bushels
many
were
left?
Five
pieces of cloth
piece contains 38 yards, what
2.
3.
bought
and
$4,
receive
in
gave
How
No.
of
30
total
3,
mat
each
length ?
for
bill.
$20
If
end.
$ 1,
What
table
for
did
change
cotton
The
How
ounces.
in
of yarn
of
25,200 yards
630,000 yards ?
in
water
115,819,729 gallons.
much
How
to
city during
116,891,213 gallons
was
teacup
many
contains
yarn
consumption
December
4 fluid
ounces
pounds
many
6.
payment
teacupfulcontains
fuls in 64 fluid
5.
for
is the
to
?
A
4.
chair
end
placed
are
and
the
month
during January
the
was
pound.
decrease
in
sumption
con
?
7.
An
machines
8.
the
order
each
If
of
weighing 75
one
Divide
11.
An
order
was
If each" mile
needed
?
How
one
4 Ib. per
16' 9" in
598
the total
foot of
sewing
weight
length,find
length.
319.
for
given
ties for
required3017 ties,how
uses
for
225.
gallons
many
if
hospitals,
gallons less
and
24,566 by
long.
two
shop called
pounds. What was
measuring
Multiply 641
10.
12.
machine
weight
9.
to
of
25
milk
are
railroad
many
used
gallonsper day
847
miles
ties would
every
and
be
day by
the other
REVIEW.
OF
13
ARITHMETIC
Factors
The
factors of
number
21 is the
product
number
plied
multi
7 ;
3 and
hence,
are
has
that
when
number.
of 3 and
number
Separatinga
integerswhich
the
are
factors
no
but
factoring.
1 is a prime
and
itself
number.
The
numbers
prime
prime
Thus,
find the
EXAMPLE.
factor
factors
of 15.
number
Find
2)84
^'
of
the
which
^"
prime
of 84.
PROOF.
The
"
2 divides
product
84
The
evenly.
So
factors.
5 ends
of the
with
1, 3, 7, or
9.
evenly,leavingthe quotient
next
The
2, 2, 3, and
factors
prime
quotient is
7 divided
7.
is indivisible.
which
prime factor.
factors of 84.
quotient
"
23.
number.
number
2 divides
quotient 1
1L
prime
divides,giving
ov"^
is
except 2 and
prime
The
are
as
prime factors
"
2)42
prime
are
Every prime
To
used
number
3 and
to 25
up
by
several
gives
the
last
divisors
are
the
the
are
21 which
prime
factors
givesthe number.
EXAMPLES
Find
the
prime
factors
1.
63
4.
636
7.
1155
2.
60
5.
1572
8.
7007
3.
250
6.
2800
9.
13104
Cancellation
To
rejecta factor
factor ; to reject
the
does
not
This
affect the
method
EXAMPLE.
can
"
from
number
factors
same
from
quotient. This
be used
Divide
12
to
divides
18 x 30
dividend
both
by
and
by
that
divisor
is called cancellation.
process
advantage
the number
in many
culation
everydaycal
4.
14
GIRLS
FOR
MATHEMATICS
VOCATIONAL
1
2
}$
Dividend
J8
division
the
the divisor
1
with
dend
Since
9 of 9 and
12, and
and
divisor
divisor
it may
being
in the
from
of 30 in the
of the
product
The
Since
cancelled
be
factor
18, respectively,
they
dividend.
and
dividend,
is
line between.
factor
is cancelled
is 30.
of
both
from
of 4 in the
factor
the divi
under
is
writing
by
Then
factors
uncancelled
locate
be cancelled
may
dividend
both,
be
multiply
to
"UOft6n"' foredividing
=3"
'
lj ^
it is not
method
necessary
"0
0X9X4
Divisor
By this
15
Jl
the
both, leaving15.
from
the
Therefore,
quotient
is 30.
PROOF.
If
"
the
dividend,
the
of
product
divisor
the
and
the
quotient equal
the
is correct.
answer
EXAMPLES
find
and
Indicate
1.
Divide
2.
What
27
36 x
is the
cancellation
quotientsby
49
38
quotient of
50
36
48
70 x
by
X
18
15.
16 divided
by
27
24
X8?
3.
How
in
given
pound
4.
There
Divide
pay
them
pound
butter
of
pounds
in
ounces
; 30
pound
horseshoes, if
many
each
40
at
pounds
weighs
the
be
must
cents
96
by
of steel will
?
ounces
the
product
of
9.
16
in butter
receive
7.
sold
16
are
15
cents
produce how
5.
for
exchange
at 50
of tea
pounds
many
dozen
at
40
at
eggs
cents
30
cents
pound
how
took
dozen
and
many
pounds
my
did
?
dealer
bought
16 cords
gain
per
of wood
cord.
at
$ 4
cord
and
sold
REVIEW
Greatest
The
greatest
greatest number
find the
To
Find
"
of two
divisor of two
the
greatest
of the numbers.
each
numbers.
more
or
of
divisor
common
is the
numbers
more
or
exactlydivide
that will
greatest common
EXAMPLE.
Divisor
Common
divisor
common
15
ARITHMETIC
OF
and
90
150.
90
2x3x5x3
2x3x5x5
150
Ans.
30
2 x 3
2)90
5)45
3)9
150
75
both
the
90
and
2, 3,
are
factors
prime
to
mon
Ans.
30
The
15
~Q
Method
First
^eatest
visor of two
com
aild 15"
Since
5.
di~
common
or
num
is
go
their
common
7^\\QA/i
is tne
greatest
common
divisor
of 90 and
150.
90)150(1
the
more
hers
product
of
factors,30
60
Greatest Common
Second
30)60(2
Divisor
find
To
gQ
common
numbers
the
then
the
last divisor
last divisor
The
divisor
and
so
by
last
the
remainder
is to
divisor
common
be
cannot
be
of two
The
on.
of
found
of
them,
two
is
there
greatest
divisor
when
the
smaller,
remainder.
no
numbers,
of this divisor
will be the
the
largerby
divisor.
than
then
last divisor
until
common
more
the
Method
find
and
greatest
the greatest
the
third
ber,
num
divisor
common
of
all of them.
EXAMPLES
Find
the
greatest
1.
270, 810.
3.
2.
264,312.
4.
each
product of
of
them
two
504, 560.
288,432,1152.
Common
Least
The
divisor
common
or
4, 6, 8,
more
12
are
5.
Multiple
numbers
is called
multiples of
2.
multiple of
The
common
16
VOCATIONAL
multiple of
two
MATHEMATICS
numbers
more
or
least
without
multiple of
common
EXAMPLE.
Find
"
the
least
the
28
2 X 2 X
the second
30
2 X
Tnus"
Take
"
Second
least
numbers.
Method
of the
factors
2 x
is the
is the
first
number, all of
already represented in
not
common
common
all the
30
more
or
numbers
number;
two
is divisible
; 60 is
more
or
First
21
that
number
two
multipleof
common
GIRLS
remainder
common
common
To
is
multiple of
multiple of 3, 5, 6.
smallest
FOR
420
the
etc.
first,
L. C. M.
Method
2)21
3)21
28
30
14
15
7)7
14
125
2 x 3
7 x 1
Divide
any
two
like 2 in 28 and
quotient
which
2 x 5
Write
30.
together with
420
the
21
L. C. M.
by
numbers
more
or
14 and
15.
them,
by
prime factor of 21 and 15
vided.
written in the quotient undi
is
14
5 with
in
divided
is not
which
of 1, 2 ;
gives a remainder
420
these
all
of
The product
and 5 undivided
is written down
as before.
divisors and the last quotients is the least common
multipleof 21, 28,
7 is
14 which
and 30.
EXAMPLES
Find
the least
multiple:
common
1.
4.
25,20,35,40.
6.
What
is the
pieces32',36',and
2.
shortest
44'
lengthof
long?
3.
24,48,96,192.
rope
that
can
be cut
into
17
ARITHMETIC
OF
REVIEW
Fractions
A
fraction is
one
into
apple, and
is
with
1 is called
A
the
proper
improper
less
is
number
The
value
divided
by
its
apple
equal to
of
of
with
:
whose
the
its
and
merator
nu
1 ; its
f, ", f, ^. An
or
than
more
denominator,
and
the
f,
as
fraction
between
1;
is
whole
etc.
4T9g,
3J,
fraction is
is less than
is 1
value
word
The
of the fraction.
terms
integer
an
numerator
below.
value
greater than
or
up
fraction
the
whose
divisor ;
the denominator.
denominator, as
fraction
Read
the
and
an
2 the
expressedby
called
fraction
is
and
denominator
a
are
made
number
number.
mixed
and
than
is
fraction
its numerator
A
}".
is
fraction
is
numerator
which
one
denominator
and
A
is
dividend
2 is called
and
line
is the
1, 1
numerator
above
written
In
fraction
common
If
unit.
two
division.
indicates
equal parts of
more
be divided
number
or
the denominator.
the
quotient of the
numerator
"
EXERCISE
Read
following:
the
1.
3.
121
5.
51
7.
9^
2.
"
4.
81
6.
6J
8.
12A
Reduction
of fractions
Reduction
without
To
fraction to
Multiplyingthe
fraction by
fraction.
the
of Fractions
process
of
changing
their form
higher terms.
denominator
and
number
does
same
value.
changing their
reduce
is the
9.
the numerator
not
change
of
the
the value
given
of
the
18
MATHEMATICS
VOCATIONAL
EXAMPLE.
Reduce
"
denominator
obtain
Ans.
"
_
GIRLS
""to thirtyseconds.
The
FOR
32
by
32 ;
the
the fraction
may
multiplied
be
must
in order
number
4 to
multiplied by
the numerator
so
same
be
must
of
value
the
that
changed.
not
be
6.
/jto
75ths.
7.
""to
144ths.
EXAMPLES
the
Change
to 27ths.
1.
2.
il to
3.
to 40ths.
8.
fj
to 168ths.
4.
to 56ths.
9.

to 522ds.
5.
T9Qto
60ths.
50ths.
To
the denominator
reduce
in its lowest
Dividing
the
The
the
does
fraction by
are
EXAMPLE.
number
prime
"
to each
Reduce
16
the
value
If the
terms
(1)
"
Reduce
other.
of
of the fraction.
the value
and
both may
the
denominator
of
be continued
until
must
same
be
4 ; then
number
divided
by
the numerator
so
as
not
to
give
to
must
be
change
the
of the fraction.
fraction
are
divide
f"f" to
2166)2888(1
fourths.
3
(2) 2166
=
"
2888
2166
G. C. D.
fraction
fourths.
denominator
by
tor
numera
other.
divisor and
greatest common
EXAMPLE.
of
to
denominator
new
the
denominator
numerator
to
divided
the
common
The
12
the
of dividing
process
when
terms
to each
change
not
to 9375ths.
terms.
and
numerator
number
same
the terms
prime
are
"ff
10.
fraction is said to be
and
by
following:
722)2166(3
2166
their
20
MATHEMATICS
VOCATIONAL
FOR
GIRLS
EXAMPLES
Reduce
mixed
integersor
to
numbers
1
tt
Aff"
7.
8J)f
1Q.
2.
\v9
5
3""r6JL
8
11
3.
*"*
6.
A"
9.
aflftn
12.
When
have
fractions
is called
smallest
their least
denominator
same
their denominator
denominator.
common
the

denominator.
common
of two
denominator
common
or
fractions is
more
denominator.
common
f, f "
when
least
to their
changed
common
denominator.
The
multipleof
common
The
least
the least
of
denominator
common
Reduce
"
of
denominator
multipleof
EXAMPLE.
fractions
more
or
is
their denominators.
common
common
two
fractions
more
or
is
denominators.
their
and
two
to fractions
having
common
denominator.
3. x
6.
The
i_8.
==
"
and
anc*
1TT
"
Therefore,
them.
To
EXAMPLE.
least
Since
denominators,
"2T
24
is
24
it is
denominator
common
Reduce
"
6' and
,^,
having
and
is the
Product
and
12
of
having
least
nominator
least
112
the
2 x
J^.; I
of the
denominator.
fractions
^e
multiple
common
of
"% to
^)^
the
denominator.
common
2"" S
be
must
denominators
the
20
fractions to fractions
reduce
of
multiple
common
2 o
_
denominator
common
12
f
L.C.M.
.
_?_
_L.
fraction,and
multiply both
terms
by
3, 6, 12,
is 12.
multiple
of each
the
multiple of
denominators
Divide
^ws"
be
must
common
which
de*
common
the
the least
12
by
common
the
quotient.
inator
denomIf the
denominators
should
least
denominator.
common
be
prime
21
ARITHMETIC
OF
REVIEW
to each
be their
EXAMPLES
to fractions
Reduce
having
denominator
common
I
i,f
5.
f f f
,
6.
, f,
3.
f i
7.
4
T4"
8
to fractions
having
least
i" A. *, i
denominator:
common
1
t,1,h
*,f A,
2
i i A
6.
f f J,
7.
Which
3
AJ
2T"
fractions have
If the
a
their
with
fractions
reduced
the
over
sum
common
not
the
denominator,
common
fraction,it should
EXAMPLE.
Add
"
be
their
add
If
to
an
the
be
can
denominator,
same
terms.
reduced
fraction is larger,
denominator
added.
reduce
them
numerators, and
denominator.
common
its lowest
to
"
of Fractions
Addition
Only
f f, f
Reduce
to
The
result should
result is
integeror
place
improper
an
mixed
number.
1.
2)4
2)2
16
multi
common
pie of the
48 L. C. M.
of each
adding
least
^a
a
6
13
nominator
be
fraction
fractions
The
their numerators
Hence, the
and
sum
and
is
are
de
nominators
is
placing the
W/,or 2?7^.
sum
over
the
common
nator.
denomi
22
VOCATIONAL
EXAMPLE.
MATHEMATICS
Add
"
FOR
GIRLS
find
First
which
is
of
sum
f""
the
of
sum
the
fractions,
Add
this
integers, 18.
18 +
iff
or
the
to
If"
19M
^4rcs.
19f
the
EXAMPLES
Find
1.
the
"
separate parts
overall
"
dimension
of
Find
the
sum
of
", and f 1.
, }, J,
3.
Find
the
sum
of
3f 4f
and
inch
wide
piece of
seams
cloth
27
made
are
bought
5.
T3gof
seam
the
measure
2.
4.
if
drawing
an
is made
wide.
inches
What
valued
cloth
cotton
2TV
for
$2J,
and
hose
ribbon
was
cut
into two
at
for
on
both
is the
width
$ 6 J, silk at $
$2J.
What
sides of
after the
kerchiefs
13J,handthe
was
whole
cost?
A
6.
If
5fa"long.
the
length
7.
of the ribbon
piecesof
Three
Add:
9.
Add
101
:
reduce
them
contain
cloth
should
was
and 53yards
38^, 12J,
length in yards ?
spectively
re
with
to
denominator
have
not
denominator
common
be reduced
of Fractions
common
fractions
the
of their numerators
result
cutting,what
other
7f 11, if.
fractions
If
in
the
Subtraction
Only
for waste
is their total
What
8.
allowed
Jg"was
8f" and
pieces,one
over
the
the
same
and
terms.
tracted.
sub
denominator,
write
the
denominator.
common
to its lowest
be
can
ence
differThe
REVIEW
EXAMPLE.
Subtract
"
from
J.
least
The
5
Ans.
 J.
=
and
is
"MI
least
their
4TT
==
6f
sixths,and
n
6J
added
^ns
to the
Their
from
1 is taken
makes
lOf
11
4
"
are
f,
units, changed
6
to
from
subtracted
be
cannot
changed
are
denominator, they
common
45
hence
f, which
fractions
the
When
"
4B~
and
,
jQ_g
11 subtract 5f
From
"
f
".
of
denominator
common
is 6.
difference
EXAMPLE.
23
ARITHMETIC
OF
to
6^.
EXAMPLES
1.
jacketand
3
3.
4.
of
The
5.
The
How
How
yards
many
is
One
of the
and
left ?
were
fractions
for
were
fractions is
$ 1\ and
gave
away
2^
3J.
How
?
is 371
of 2 numbers
sum
Find
coat.
cut
were
other.
had
Laura
cloth, If yards
butter
of two
sum
the
11^ lb.
remained
much
28f
firkin
lb. and
Find
^.
for
of
yards
3J yards
From
2.
sold
eleven
From
and
is
of the numbers
one
number.
the other
6.
for $
By sellinggoods
What
was
the
cost?
7.
man
How
yds.
34
8.
did
9.
much
10.
much
yards
sold
from
remain
goods
for
piece of
cloth
containing
12.
What
92 tons.
How
gaining $
56y3",
cost ?
dealer
remained
If I
do
9 yards
many
Brown
Mr.
they
sells
had
208
tons
of coal
and
sold
buy a
gain ?
ton
of
coal
for
6J
and
sell for
$ 71, how
24
VOCATIONAL
There
14.
MATHEMATICS
used, then
were
J gallons in
48
were
FOR
the
last
5^ gallons,and
GIRLS
tank.
First
41
2f gallons.
How
were
15.
What
is the difference
between
T9Tand if ?
16.
What
is the difference
between
32
17.
gallons
of
remains
many
and
3"J ?
12
gallons
If
four
made,
cuts
what
Multiplication of Fractions
To
neiv
multiplyfractions,multiplythe numerators
and
numerator
multiply the denominators
together
for
togetherfor
the
the
denominator.
new
when
equivalentto
To
mixed
Cancel
is
the
and
fractions
multiplythe whole
integer,
fraction separatelyby the integerthen add the
multiplya
number
number
two
products.
To multiplytwo
mixed
by
an
each
numbers, change
to
an
improper
fractionand multiply.
EXAMPLE.
Multiply  by f
"
\ multipliedby f
is f
that answer
so
This
same
as
method
together for
numerators
EXAMPLE.
the
Find
"
new
Cancellation
denominator.
new
 of f
3 and
of solution
the
a
is the
product of
are
is the
and
numerator
shortens
prime
as
same
to each
other
multiplying
the denominators
for
the process.
124
and
5.
124f
If the
~^T
6t
620
623f
Ans.
is
fraction
and
integer are
mul
QS
times
620.
620
V
3f, and
+ 3f =623f
=
5 times
124
25
ARITHMETIC
OF
REVIEW
EXAMPLES
William
1.
in five weeks
earn
One
2.
barrels
From
taken.
At
holds
barrel
of flour
barrel
time
another
pounds
many
flour costs
A
a
cents
will
much
How
day.
he
of
bag
cost ?
3.
831
earns
75
cents.
bags.
containing196 lb.,241
of the
remainder
lb.
taken.
was
three
will
much
How
were
How
left ?
were
of
Multiply J
5.
Multiply 26f by
6.
Find
7.
At
the cost
of
f by f
4.
of
91.
19 yd. of
each, how
$ 121
cloth
at 161
tables
many
cents
be
can
yard.
bought
for
$280?
8.
paid $
9.
for
barrel
is the cost of 18
What
If coal cost
11.
Multiply : 32 by
mixed
numbers
EXAMPLE.
^XX^X^
5
cloth at
much
will
15J cents
8J
tons
yard ?
cost ?
of Fractions
"
/?
T97more.
fraction
one
in
proceed as
sold it for $
8 j.
Division
divide
yards of
a ton, how
$7J
10.
To
of flour and
I sell it for ?
did
much
How
3
=
?"
.
Ans.
f by f
The
divisor
result
obtained
5
lation.
by
f
the
is inverted
process
and
the
of cancel
26
EXAMPLE.
Divide
"
GIRLS
FOR
MATHEMATICS
VOCATIONAL
5.
3156f by
Ans.
*
divided
1J
15
631

(^
If.
EXAMPLE.
Divide
"
3682
visor
'
by the
Ans.
Yj
with
called
To
whole
having a fraction
complex fraction.
fraction
a
reduce
EXAMPLE.
fraction
complex
Reduce
"
_I
to
to
is
of
divided
by
at
for
this
and
number,
it is useful
does
example
divisor
one
by
The
numbers.
both
or
and
large number
number
same
footh dividend
as
3156f
remainder
In
quotient.
boy
mixed
that
member
2
\oflyi
be
may
5 in
remainder
This
dividend
the
divisor
the
1) 3682
TT
times, with
mixed
by 5J.
When
follows
as
is placed
gives 270,which
the right of the quotient.
If
is
number
15
integerof
large, it
the
When
30
not
we
can
2 and
to
and
re
di
change the
multiply
then
divide
quotient is 669T5T.
of its terms
is
simple fraction.
simple fraction.
Change 4f and
the
be
7f
to
indicated
division
form
4/,respectively.Per
and
f.
EXAMPLES
1.
Divide^
by f
2.
Divide
TV by f.
3.
Divide
f by i.
7.
296=10i
8.
28,769^7=?
7i_?
'
4.
Divide
5.
Dividef by f.
6.
384

$ by \.
5
ft
iofi
1
28
VOCATIONAL
MATHEMATICS
FOR
GIRLS
REVIEW
OF
ARITHMETIC
29
30
MATHEMATICS
VOCATIONAL
is the
power
10 x 10
10
1000.
decimal
is 10
or
number
have
second
is the
100
power
fraction
power
or
is
decimal
of 10.
fraction
common
10, or
decimal
power
may
of 10.
have
must
25 ;
T^
.07 ;
T^
.016.
any
always
decimal
TVo
is
denominator
fraction
at the
.5 ;
100.
1000
of 10.
fraction whose
figure.
10
of 10.
figureat
10
equal factors,as
written
A
of
product
GIRLS
Fractions
Decimal
A
FOR
is
point.
decimal
A
To
is
decimal
mixed
read
an
decimal,
integerand
the
read
31
ARITHMETIC
OF
REVIEW
; as, 16.04.
decimal
decimal
as
integer,and
an
righthand figure. To
write the numerator, prefixingciphers when
the denominator, and
place the point
express
it the
There
are
of the
denomination
be
must
ciphers in
as
places in
decimal
many
the
write,
give
mal,
deci
to
necessary
at
the
decimal
as
left.
there
denominator.
the
EXAMPLES
Read
Express decimally :
tenths.
1.
Four
2.
Three
3.
Seventeen
thousand
4.
Seventeen
hundredths.
5.
Fifteen
8.
Eighteen and
9.
One
hundred
thousandths.
twentyfive
two
thousandths.
hundred
two
hundred
twelve
10
12.
Twentynine
13.
324
14.
7846
and
one
sandths.
hundredthou
hundredths.
6.
Five
7.
Six tenthousandths.
sixteen
hundredthousandths.
hundredthousandths.
millionths.
10.
eleven
hundred
11.
824
tenthousandths.
hundredths.
hundred
hundredmillionths.
twentysixmillionths.
32
MATHEMATICS
VOCATIONAL
nnnnnnnrj
5 4
2123
2 86
TO"O"
nnnnr"
TTF"
r^nnnnnr
563
1C
16
17.
One
and
one
tenth.
18.
One
and
one
hundredthousandth.
19.
One
thousand
four
twentynine hundred
and
decimal
do
each
always
of
denominator
The
1 with
as
decimal
ciphers as
many
the
change
not
there
fold.
ten
expressed
decimal
are
.of
For
diminished
when
"
value
ciphers.
these
decimal;
the
to
ths.
of Decimals
Reduction
Ciphers annexed
GIRLS
FOR
is
"
places
in
decimal.
the
reduce
To
Write
decimal
to
the numerator
ciphers annexed
to lowest
Tfien reduce
EXAMPLE.
the denominator
are
.25 and
.125 to
1
~~
~~
100
places
with
as
in the decimal.
1 for
fractions.
common
Write
2$
25
0~
decimal
write
terms.
Reduce
"
there
as
the decimal
of
numerator
many
fraction.
common
for
25
the
and
numerator
the denominator
with
O's,
two
"
^00
4
which
makes
lowest
terms
^
is
T^
reduced
to
\.
1
125
H
fflfi
OK
_
~~
~~
1000
EXAMPLE.
tion in the
.371
Reduce
"
.125 is reduced
*
'
to
x
100
way.
fraction.
common
37
100
same
frac
to a common
has
for
its denominator
Ans
"
^[00
4
This
which
is
reduced
complex
to
lowest
fraction
terms
ARITHMETIC
OF
REVIEW
EXAMPLES
Reduce
To
to
reduce
Annex
fractions
common
fraction to
common
decimal
ciphersto
Point
places
enough
as
there
in the
are
EXAMPLE.
decimal.
the numerator
and
divide
by
the denominator.
quotient,prefix ciphers.
The
Reduce
"
be
always
to
exact, i.e. f
=
.142for
.142+.
decimal.
.75
4)3.00
28
20
.75
EXAMPLES
Reduce
to decimals
1.
JQ
6.
I
11.
irhr
ti
12
3.
8.
If
13.
4.
9.
5.
T^
10.
""
fi
21.
17
16i
22
25.12^
18.
66
23.
331
14
12i
19
if
24
15.
T6T
20.
25.
Addition
To
a
add
column.
directlyunder
the
as
in
"L
2To
of Decimals
so
integers,and
points above
it.
place
the
in
points are
point
in the
sum
34
EXAMPLE.
the
Find
"
of
sum
GIRLS
FOR
MATHEMATICS
VOCATIONAL
.831.
3.87
Place
2 Q983
numbers,
these
under
one
the
other, with
as
in addition
'
points in
decimal
of
.831
The
integers.
that
numbers
of
sum
add
and
column,
point
the decimal
have
these
in the
should
numbers
column
same
as
the
added.
were
Ans.
11.83661
EXAMPLES
Find
sum
1.
5.83,7.016,15.0081,and
2.
12.031,0.0894,12.0084,and
3.
.0765,.002478,.004967,.0007862,.17896.
4.
24.36,1.358,.004,and
5.
.175,1.75,17.5,175.,1750.
6.
1.,.1,.01,.001,100, 10.,10.1,100.001.
18.3184.
13.984.
1632.1.
25 hundredthousandths
tenths;8063 millionths;
thousandths; 17 millionths; 95 tenmillionths ; 5, and
7.
48
the
Add
171
8.
Add
9.
32.58,28963.1,287.531,76398.9341.
10.
.0058,71, 9Ty
145.,14.5,1.45,.145,.0145.
of Decimals
Subtraction
To
; 17 tenthousandths.
hundredthousandths
24f
subtract
number
under
the
under
the
largertvith the decimal point of the subtrahend directly
and place
Subtract as in integers,
decimal point of the minuend.
the point directly
under the points above.
EXAMPLE.
"
Subtract
2.17857
Write
4.32570
Minuend
with
2.17857
Subtrahend
Add
2.14713
Remainder
same,
with
decimal
the
lesser number
0 to the
4.3257.
denominator
as
point under
under
under
the
greater,
other.
points
minuend, 4.3257, to give it the
decimal
the
subtract
the remainder
from
as
the
in subtraction
the other
two
each
subtrahend.
of
integers.
points.
Then
Write
36
FOR
MATHEMATICS
VOCATIONAL
5.
11.11x100
6.
.5625
7.
.326 x 2.78
6.28125
8.
.325xl2
9.
.001542
10.
1.001
each
rightfor
to the
This
1.625
To
the
point
one
place
100.
100
1.01
writingthe multiplier.
Multiply1.625 by
EXAMPLE."
.0052
multiplier.
performed without
be
can
the
cipher in
x
x
To
GIRLS
the
162.5
point
to
the
rightand multiply
2.
by
EXAMPLE.
200.
Multiply86.44 by
"
86.44.
2
17,288
EXAMPLES
product of
the
Find
1.
1 thousand
2.
1 million
3.
700
4.
3.894
by
by
thousandth.
one
millionth.
one
thousands
by
7 hundredthousandths.
3000
5.
Division
To
divide
as
decimals
decimal
many
proceed
1.892
2000.
of Decimals
in
as
and give to
integers,
the number
figuresas
the quotient
in the dividend
ceeds
ex
EXAMPLE.
"
Divide
12.685
.5.
by
The
Divisor
.5)12.685Dividend
25.37
Quotient
the
quotient.
figuresin
of decimal
quotient,12.685,exceeds
her of decimal
by
figuresin the
number
two.
So
figuresin
there
must
the
be
the
num
divisor,.5,
two
mal
deci
EXAMPLE.
399.552
Divide
"
37
ARITHMETIC
OF
REVIEW
by
192.
When
2.081
Divisor
Quotient
tjie
192)399.552Dividend
divisor
the
the
dividend, and
in
as
1555
division
the
integers.
be
in
point
the
384
integer,
an
quotient should
jn the
point
is
formed
per
This
may
1536
192
dividend.
192
EXAMPLE.
28.78884
Divide
"
1.25.
by
When
23.031+
Divisor
Quotient
Dividend
1.25.)28.78.884
places
many
there
378
375
388
375
divisor
multiplying
both
dividend
the
by
does
134
the
125
were
Remainder
quotient
an
dividend
and
divisor is 100.
the
quotients
the
In
tient.
quo
point
the
if the
as
and
number
same
integer.
the
in the
divisor
place
Then
as
equivalent to
change
not
as
right
places
is
and
the
to
divisor,which
point
dividend
and
decimal
are
contains
the
move
figures,
in both
250
divisor
the
decimal
in
divisor
this
multiplierof
ample,
ex
both
EXAMPLES
Find
.125
1.
.0625
2.
315.432
3.
.75 .0125
4.
125^121
To
the
divide
left
for
To
divide
"
2.
.132
1000
6.
2.496
7.
2800016.8
.136
cipherin the
by 200, remove
8.
1.2254.9
9.
3.141627
10.
the
each
divide
by
.001
5.
8.335
point one
place to
divisor.
the
point
two
placesto
the
and
left,
38
VOCATIONAL
MATHEMATICS
FOR
GIRLS
EXAMPLES
Find
the
1.
38.64
2.
quotients
:
10
6.
865.45=
398.421000
7.
38.28400
3.
1684.321000
8.
2.5500
4.
1.155100
9.
.510
5.
386.542000
"
.0011000
10.
REVIEW
EXAMPLES
1.
Add
2.
Subtract
3.
Multiply 83.74
4.
Divide
5.
Perform
the
followingcalculations
6.
Perform
the
followingcalculations
28.03,.1674,.08309,7.00091, .1895.
1.00894
from
3.1416
13.0194.
3.1416.
8.5.
by
65.3
3.1416
600
7.
Change
00 2V
8.
5000
the
the
Change
(a) .331
00 eV
7.5.
to decimals
following decimals
to
(?) A
fractions
common
of 100
or
1000
1.
What
2.
What
part of 1000
3.
How
much
is
of 100?
Of 1000?
4.
How
much
is
of 100 ?
Of
5.
What
EXAMPLE.
35
8.3
followingfractions
(") A,
.7854
3.5 x
.7854
is
"
is 125?
of 100 ?
How
much
100 times
24
25 times
24
250?
1000
333?
?
Of 1000?
is 25
times
24 ?
2400.
1
as
much
as
100 times
24
600.
Ans.
.875.
REVIEW
Short
OF
of
Method
39
ARITHMETIC
Multiplication
multiplyby
To
25, multiplyby
100
and
divide
331, multiplyby
100
and
divide
16},multiplyby
100
and
divide
121, multiply by
100
and
divide
by
by
by
by
4 ;
3 ;
6 ;
8 ;
11,
if
is their
add
the
between
sum
them.
11
63 x
Note
tens
that
place is
when
the
carried
693
74
of the two
sum
to the
figureat
11
814
nine, the
figuresexceeds
in the
one
the left.
EXAMPLES
the short
Multiply by
1.
81
by
11
2.
75
by
331
3.
128
4.
87
by
11
5.
19
by
6.
846
7.
88
by
11
8.
19
by
11
9.
846
10.
68
11.
112
12.
37
13.
4183
14.
364
15.
8712
16.
984
17.
18.
11
by 16}
Aliquot
The
aliquot parts of
exactly contained
121, 16},331, etc.
The
monetary
one
by 12J
by
process
in it.
unit
hundred
Parts
of
number
The
of the
are
by 16f
by
by
cents, which
are
11
by
by
11
33i
by
?
=
121
36
by 16}
?
by 25
30
by
3331
$1.00
the
numbers
aliquotparts
United
11
States
written
of
100
is the
that
are
are
5, 20,
taining
dollar,con
decimally.
40
6 J cents
81 cents
12 cents
16
cents
$ ^
25
$ T^
33
J
50
10 dimes
dollar,$
10 dollars
eagle,E.
d.
69
quarter dollar
half dollar
$ .01
$ .05
$ .10
$ 1.00
"
nickel
will
What
69
cost
$ 0.01
or
$ 10.00
of
pairs
stockings cost
at
16
pecks.
32
pipe
on
salt each
A
pecks
of
potatoes
has
13.75,a
woman
14.21, and
fourth
total amount
inside
an
of
receives
woman
one
3.428
of
diameter
inches.
?
and
an
thickness
is the
of
pipe ?
receives
gives $
She
on
12.25
also pays
the
automobile
will
second
woman
inches
3.067
What
$ 121.50
make
paid
dressmaker
of 26.51
$ 11.50.
of Decimals
will be
long
many
to another.
she
third
is the
of the
She
work.
\9 $ llf
Ans.
job
diameter
At
how
peck,
$ \
for $ 8.00 ?
What
69
16f cts., or
25^
At
12.45,a
the metal
How
$ 1
1 dime,
work
An
"
For
outside
5.
cents
10 cents
8x^
$ 21.85.
does
"
"
woman
4.
Review
3.
bought
85^
2.
cents
5 cents
pairs will
1.
GIRLS
pair?
be
cent, ct.
EXAMPLE.
can
==
EXAMPLE.
69
cents
10 mills
cents
FOR
MATHEMATICS
VOCATIONAL
miles
of
one
$ 75.75
for
of 108
doing
boxes
of
piece
of
$ 10.50
helpers and
her
for
cost
material.
How
much
job ?
runs
it take
to
the
at
it to go
the
rate
from
of
Lowell
miles
91
to
hour.
an
Boston,
tance
dis
6.
If
hour
take
woman
17 cents
hour
an
hours
13^
who
woman
much,
how
on
have
to
13J
piece of work,
do it in
can
mile ?
of fuel per
is the cost
cents, what
cheaper,and
is
Which
7.
miles.
23
galloncosts
an
uses
man
41
ARITHMETIC
OF
REVIEW
9^ hours
cents
hire
or
On
9.
coal
at the
10.
end
of the week
The
distance
instrument
called
An
An
12.
.34
and
mi.
will
train leaves
4.15
the average
per
the
rate
The
weight
weight of
15.
stroke
many
16.
if the
the
gallons of
At
121
days
travels
man
in
by
week
an
the
mi., 112.60
traveled ?
copper
be
there
zinc.
and
of
pounds
are
York
New
The
P.M.
hour
of
21foot
steam
and
is measured
in
zinc
If .66 is copper
and
how
casting of
many
the
alloy
Ib. ?
Philadelphiaat
14.
left
was
copper
of
currency
alloyis made of
is zinc,how
many
pounds of
weighing 98
13.
is
more
much
how
automobile
an
What
English piece of
much
How
week,
mi., 49.75
87.5
bill is called
dollar
in
speedometer.
10,433.91 Ib.
were
traveled
followingdistances:
119.3 mi.,and 93.75
11.
the
beginning of
at the
hand
on
there
at
2.10
distance
foot
of
Ty
steel bar
is
What
is 1.08 Ib.
Find
bar.
3.38
gallons of
pump
makes
51.1
strokes
water
will it pump
10 hours
in
of the train ?
pumps
per
arrives
is 90 miles.
pump
cents
and
P.M.
hour, what
each
in
an
water
minute.
per
hour
to
each
How
for
23^ days
42
number
is
related
are
is
denomination
called
number
weight.
Changing
:
to
given
name
to
of
pk.
88
is also
in
from
to
lines
measuring
ing
descend
nation
higher denomi
2 bu. 3
distance
or
Table
12 inches
(in.)
3 feet
5 yards,
320
320
rd.
yd.
is used
Measure
Square
rods, or
1760
161
or
feet
5280
feet
5280
ft. =
in
foot,ft.
yard, yd.
rod, rd.
mile, mi.
03,360 in.
measuring
surfaces.
Table
144
square
9 square
1 sq. mi.
Cubic
1 square
foot,sq.
feet
1 square
yard,
yards
square
feet
160
square
rods
640
acres
640
inches
square
30^
272"
Measure
A.
102,400
is used
in
1 acre, A.
1 square
sq. rd.
ft.
yd.
sq.
pd
rod
mile, sq.
mi.
measuring
volumes
or
solids.
Table
inches
1 cubic
foot,cu.
27 cubic
feet
1 cubic
yard,
16 cubic
feet
1 cord
1728
cubic
8 cord
1
cu.
yd.
27
feet,or
cu.
ft.
128
=
cu.
ft.
46,656
cu.
in.
cu.
foot,cd.
cord, cd.
one
its value.
is called reduction
Changing
qt.
number
changing a
changing
is used
Measure
of
without
is called reduction
1 mi.
of
or
measure
denominations
more
or
that
pk. 1 qt.
unit
denomination
lower
as, 2 bu. 3
Linear
one
process
to another
denomination
as, 3 bu. 2
units
number.
is the
Reduction
having
denominate
number
compound
of concrete
of different kinds
composed
GIRLS
Numbers
Compound
A
FOR
MATHEMATICS
VOCATIONAL
ft.
yd.
ft.
pk.
44
MATHEMATICS
VOCATIONAL
FOR
GIRLS
Counting.
Table
12
things
12 dozen
12 gross
dozen, doz.
1 gross,
gr.
Paper Measure.
Table
24 sheets
quire
20
ream
quires
Reduce
"
17
yd. 2
yd.
3 ft.
17
yd.
17
53 ft.
1 ft.
12
in.
53 ft.
53
645
636
1 bale
Descending
51 +
1 bundle
5 bundles
Reduction
EXAMPLE.
reams
51 ft.
12
636
in.
in.
Am.
EXAMPLES
to lower
Reduce
denominations
1.
46 rd. 4
2.
3.
16
cu.
4.
15
5.
yd. 2
yd. 25
ft. to feet.
cu.
ft. 900
EXAMPLE.
"
Reduce
2)326 pt.
gi.
4)163 qt.
40
3 qt.
gal. +
gal.3 qt.
gi. Ans.
Ascending
gillsto higher denominations.
1306
in 1 pt. there
there
are
times
in 1306
In the
found.
2gi.
inches.
to seconds.
Since
4)1306 gi.
inches.
in. to cubic
cu.
Reduction
40
as
gi.,or
same
So
pints as
many
gi.,in
gi. are
326
pt. and
the
quarts and
way
there
are
are
in 1306
1306
gi.
contained
gi. remainder.
gi.,40
gallons are
gal. 3 qt.
45
ARITHMETIC
OF
REVIEW
EXAMPLES
Reduce
higher denominations
to
in. to
miles,etc.
1.
Reduce
225,932
2.
Change
1384
3.
In
4.
How
many
cords
5.
How
many
denominate
139,843 sq.
in. how
of wood
is
fraction
miles,rods,etc.
square
many
in 3692
ft. ?
cu.
fraction
of
unit of
weight
or
measure.
EXAMPLE.
"
Reduce
of 320
rd.
f
f
\
f
f
The
To
lower
the
Change
the
fractions to
denominate
reduce
To
same
reduce
of
of
of
rd.
228f
i6^03^ yd.
# yd.
V yd.
3 ft.
Of ft.
in.
12
3/in.
5} in.
=
mile
decimals
Reduce
.84
rd. 3
yd.
0 ft.
5 in.
decimals.
denominate
to denominate
.87 bu. to
numbers.
pecks,quarts, etc.
qt.
Change
1.68
pk.
.48
pt.
pk.
OA
the next
same
way,
quired
OJ.
Ans.
the
iower
the decimal
rd.
4
3.48
ceed
pro
228
denominate
.87 bu.
so
appliesto
"
and
way,
of
same
rods,yards,feet,etc.
to
process
EXAMPLE.
mile
of
the
in
Treat
denomination.
decimal
denomination.
part of
and
fraction
so
denomination.
the
Treat
product
proceed
to
in the
to the
re
46
MATHEMATICS
VOCATIONAL
FOR
GIRLS
EXAMPLES
Reduce
integersof
to
of
1.
2.
.3125
5.
Change f
6.
.2364
7.
What
8.
Reduce
9.
.375 of
an
of
of
gallon.
of
is the value
^bu.
"
hr.
of
how
of
the
mile.
days.
mile ?
denominations.
lower
of
rods, etc.
square
many
Numbers
7 hr. 30
min.
45
sec., 10 hr. 27
The
45
25
30
2 min.
15
33
the
10
27
46
the min.
50
39
34
in the
34
sec.
From
of the
sum
20
3 pt. 3
of
sec., 12 hr.
46
mm.
sec.
sec.
30
"
of
1^
12
EXAMPLE.
and
Compound
sum
34
sec.
seconds
sec.
Write
column
and
column.
same
154
the 34
add
sec.
under
sec.
the
min.
to
Add
way.
Ans.
Subtraction
of
Compound
Numbers
39
gi.
As
or
in
Ans.
gi. and
the
same
be
to
the
from
gi.
the remainder
way
from
taken
borrowed
are
added
the 5
"
gi.cannot
1 pt.
and
22
of
50 hr. 39 min.
"
.51625
integersof
to
equal to
Find
min.
4.
ton.
month.
are
EXAMPLE.
30
ton.
of
3.
to months
year
Addition
25 min.
denominations
acre.
T9?acre
10.
lower
until
22
pt. column
the
Subtract
is 2
all
gal
are
gi.,4 gi.
gi.
gi. from
Continue
subtracted.
3 qt
Q pt
gi"
47
ARITHMETIC
OF
REVIEW
Numbers
Multiplicationof Compound
EXAMPLE.
428
39
in. under
8_
the
Add
yd.
64
the
product of
7
ft. 8 in.
8 in.
8 times
in.
ft.
yd.
Multiply 4 yd. 2
"
in.
in.
Place
5 ft. 4 in.
column, and
2 ft. by
to the
8.
by
5 ft. to
the
equals 21 ft.
8, which
product of
add
yd.
yd.
yd. by 8
39
the
of
Division
EXAMPLE.
rd.
Find
"
ft.
yd.
4
35)42
of 42 rd. 4
Numbers
Compound
yd. 2
ft. 8 in.
in.
8(1
rd.
35
7
faof
6J
add
12
35
yd.
re
38 yd.;
42" yd. ^ of
=
+8
in.
35JI2 yd. (1 yd. 35)3T)2(8f"
280
35_
in. ; add
=294
~22
~7"
1 rd. ;
rd.
yd. ; remainder,
42J yd.
7" yd., 22 ft.
24" ft.
^ of 24" ft. 0 ft. 24" ft.
294
38"
+
mainder,
35)24(0ft.
3"
rd.
42
s\of
302
in.
8 in. =302
in.
8 in.
22"
1 rd. 1
ft.
yd. 8f
in.
Ans.
12
Difference
EXAMPLE.
Find
"
the
time
between
from
Dates
Jan.
1896.
1896
74
1842
54 yr.
It is customary
25
mo.
9 da.
Ans.
to consider
30
to a month.
4th
is the
1842d
da.,and
yr.,
1st.
Jan.
1896th
25, 1842,
25th
mo.,
days
month.
da.
48
EXAMPLE.
Do
Dec.
15
Jan.
31
are
Feb.
29
uary
Mar.
12
and
87
days.
number
exact
12, 1896
March
Dec.
is the
What
"
not
15
in
days
12
between
days
the
December,
29
in March
Jan
(leap year),
87
making
There
16th.
after the
days, February
31
has
of
count
days
GIRLS
FOR
MATHEMATICS
VOCATIONAL
days.
Ans.
EXAMPLES
time
much
How
1.
11, 1620,
Dec.
Washington
How
1799.
Mr.
3.
Smith
did
the exact
until June
Find
6.
How
To
To
continued
much
How
did he
of
number
exact
John
goes
many
minutes
bed
to
multiply by
the
it
its date
between
day
Wednes
working
?
earn
days
week
every
between
Jan.
10, 1896,
he
spend
compound
and
P.M.
gets up
at
7.10
A.M.
in bed ?
number
by
fraction.
and
To divide
product by
When
at 9.15
does
multiply or divide
divide
an
days
paid
May 5, 1896.
and
the
14,
payment.
6.
the
Dec.
5.
of
number
day
Feb.
dated
note
gave
of
died
he live?
Find
the time
4.
grims,
Pil
Independence,
Feb.
born
was
long
of
the
of
landing
Declaration
the
to
the
1776?
July 4,
2.
elapsed from
the
and
divide
the numerator.
multiplier or
divisor
is
mixed
above.
number,
reduce
to
REVIEW
49
ARITHMETIC
OF
EXAMPLES
1.
How
2.
will it
of 16 hr. 17 min.
If
train
at the
12f hr.
in
run
4.
Divide
14 bu. 3
5.
Divide
5 yr. 1
rate of
same
15 minutes
30 minutes
oz.,
How
3.
on
work
skirt,1
minutes
45
on
jacket. What
parts of
many
from
feet
many
8'
counter
and
by 3f
sec.
minutes
12
1 hour
and
petticoat,
the number
of hours
and
a
on
and
spent
weighing 14
nothing is allowed
sewing machine,
Ib. of metal
860
long
bench
6", a
furniture
and
many
gross
4.
How
5.
Find
must
14'
4",
the
between
if
each
train
in
is
33
run
dry goods
desk
3"
min.
sec., 10 hr. 27
8 hr. at
hour, how
2",
and
and
the
buttons
45
counter
between
the
counters
sec., 12
min.
the
be to hold
store
allowed
are
lot of 968
for
4'
the walls
of 7 hr. 30
sum
that 2 hours
states
hour
was
6.
speed ?
How
piecesof
far
be obtained
can
for waste
7'
on
EXAMPLES
piece of
on
and
hour, how
one
1 wk.
mo.
spent
were
hours
waist,2
on
card
time
is
REVIEW
1.
land, which
of
ft. in
mi. 35 rd. 16
60
runs
sec.
Find
farm.
14
sq. rd.
12
A.
10
field contains
of the whole
3.
is
much
46
hr. 25
min.
sec.
average
rate
of 50
street ?
8.
If 100
the total
bars of
weight of
iron,each 2f long,weigh
2300
bars ?
70
Ib.,what
is
50
MATHEMATICS
VOCATIONAL
If
9.
cubic
it
does
ounces
10.
weigh
sold it at 41 cents
11.
peck
12.
quart is what
13.
I have
is what
lb.
many
bushel
each.
oz.
she
and
receive ?
?
? of
of salt which
oz.
of butter
ounces
did
much
bushel
part of
pounds
How
of
part
lb. 14
84
of
made
pound.
lb.,how
62^
weighs
water
wife
farmer's
packages
of
foot
GIRLS
FOR
How
peck
I wish
put into
to
will
packages
many
there be ?
If
14.
will be
What
are
65
pt. 3 gi.,how
allowed
is the
bottles
dozen
many
pieces51" long
many
long, if 5"
holds
hold
requiredto
How
15.
bottle
one
for waste
be cut
can
from
16' 8"
rod
entire
Percentage
Percentage is
process
of hundredths
means
or
of
per
solvingquestions of
cent (%).
The
rate
The
The
cent
of
Since
per
per
cent
elements
of hundredths
by
the
taken.
the hundredths
of which
relation
by taking a
are
taken.
certain
per
number.
tain
by taking a cerpercentage is the result obtained
that the percentage is the
cent of a number, it follows
the
and
The
rate
product of the base and the rate.
factors,the percentage is the product.
EXAMPLE.
"
How
8
much
of $200
is 8
=
%
200
of $ 200
x
.08
base
are
always
$ 16.
(1)
52
6.
What
7.
per cent of
technical
8.
Out
What
was
school
high
of
of
gross
the per
cent
contains
bottles
of
Trade
Discount
broken.
were
Merchants
the discount
from
of the
pupils; 476
school is girls
?
mucilage
broken
? 4 inches
896
of the
cent
per
GIRLS
? 11 inches
foot is 8 inches
girls. What
pupilsare
FOR
MATHEMATICS
VOCATIONAL
list
this
the
tomer
cus
If
they
the
first
denotes
remainder.
the
EXAMPLES
Suppliesfrom
2.
121
price of
3.
allowed
Were
dealer
4.
was
If the
of 40
6.
and
7.
bill
15%,
to be
due
30.19
on
What
What
to
5%
and
10%,
paid ?
to
the
was
amounting
per
$ 58.75.
If
paid ?
amount
cessive
Suc
$ 212.75.
allowed.
were
paid within
30 days, what
bills
within
$399.16
c.
d.
30
days.
will
be
$1369.99
e.
489.01
Millinerysuppliesamounted
% and 15 %. What was the
$ 36.68
at
2816.49
10
cotton
amounted
store
discount,what
% is usuallydiscounted
following are to be paid
b.
5.
for
of
the amount
the amounts
a.
dry goods
received
discounts
What
spoolsof
200
off ?
at 40
M.
is the
What
1.
918.69
/.
to
$ 127.79
net
price?
singlediscount
is
equivalentto
singlediscount
is
equivalentto
20
with
discount
discount
of 45
10
%,
and
53
ARITHMETIC
OF
REVIEW
Simple Interest
that
Money
The
is
paid for
for the
money
the
principal,and
the
of
use
which
of
sum
of
use
the
is called
money
interest
is
paid
is called
interest
principaland
interest.
the
is called
the amount.
Interest
months
at 6
of 30
each
days
interest.
There
of the
principalfor 1 year ; 12
puting
are
usuallyregarded as a year in comseveral
methods
of computing
are
means
interest.
EXAMPLE.
What
"
is the interest
on
$100
.06
one
Or, ^fa
year.
$18.
Ans.
Ans.
$ 100 + $ 18
Rate
Principal x
EXAMPLE.
at 6
What
"
$ 118, amount.
Time
is the interest
Interest.
$ 297.62
on
for 5 yr. 3
mo.
$297.62
.06
yjL
$17.8572
21
$ 297.62
nr
"
TTT^
~~
~+
^7
"
"
100
$ 18750.06
_
~V
"
09
'1?vo"
7*
'
o"
200
5j
4.4643
89.2860
NOTE.
$93.7503
$93.75.
Ans.
mills.
and
"Final
Mills
called
results should
disregarded
are
another
cent
if 5
not
include
if less than
or
5,
more.
EXAMPLES
1.
What
is the interest
on
$ 586.24
for 3 months
at 6
2.
What
is the
on
$ 816.01
for 9 months
at 5
3.
What
is the interest
011
$ 314.72
for 1 year
4.
What
is the interest
on
$ 876.79
5.
What
at 51
is the
interest
interest
on
for 2 yr. 3
$ 2119.70
at 4
mo.
for 6 yr. 2
%
at
mo.
4" %
13 da.
54
VOCATIONAL
MATHEMATICS
The
the 6
By
of $
method
Per
What
"r
the
GIRLS
Method
Cent
it is convenient
1, then multiply it by
EXAMPLE,
8
Six
FOR
interest
principal.
is the interest
$ 50.24
on
at 6
for 2 yr.
18 da. ?
mo.
Interest
Interest
Interest
on
on
on
1 for 2 yr.
$ .06
$ .OOJ
18
$ .000*
=2
1 for 8
1 for 18 da.
1 for 2 yr.
mo.
Interest
on
Interest
on
Second
Method.
.04
.003
18 da.
mo.
Interest
"
$ 12
$ .163
on
.163
$ 8.19.
for
sum
any
Ans.
60
days
is the
What
"
interest
at 6
decimal
be
is
point
expressed
on
6%?
$3.9450, interest
on
at 6
%.
1.9725, interest
on
at 6
"Jo.
.3945, interest
on
$ 394.50
$6.3120, interest
on
EXAMPLE.
What
"
for 6
days
is the interest
at
"Jo.
at 6
Ans.
%.
$ 529.70
on
$ 6.31.
for 78
8%?
$5.297, interest
on
1.589, interest
on
$ 529.70
interest
on
$ 529.70
$6.886,
8
% =6
% +"
of
$6.886 + $2.295
at 6
%.
for 18
days (6 days
for 78 days at 6 %.
3)
6%.
Ans.
$9.181.
$9.18.
EXAMPLES
Find
amount
of the
6 da. at 6
following:
1.
$ 2350
2.
$ 125.75
for 2 yr. 5
mo.
17 da. at 7
3.
$ 950.63
for 3 yr. 7
mo.
21 da. at 5
4.
mo.
28 da. at 8
mo.
%.
%.
%.
%.
days
at
55
ARITHMETIC
OF
REVIEW
Exact
Interest
the time
therefore
reckoned
To
compute
1
includes
in
year.
days, and
sider
con
^^ of 1 year'sinterest.
as
Find
"
time
exact
of
it is ^
year, whereas
interest,
find the
exact
day'sinterest
EXAMPLE.
of
^
as
the exact
days at
7%.
$358
74
.07
days' interest
of $ 25.06
$358
Qr
is
J74
_7_
year's interest.
Ans.
$ 5.08.
X100
/^ of
,
365~
EXAMPLES
Find
interest of
the exact
1.
$324
for 15 da. at 5
2.
$253
for 98
3.
$624
for 117
4.
$ 620
5.
$ 153.26
6.
$ 540.25 from
from
da. at
on
for
21
3
Multiplyby
Multiply by
"
Multiply by
"
number
3* "l" Multiply by
"
number
number
%.
to be
number
at 8
Interest
Computing
principalfor any
principalby 100 and
%.
"
Sept.14
12 to
June
the
"
12 at 6
5 %
of
number
any
%.
da. at
Divide
4%.
15 to Nov.
Aug.
Rules
The
%.
da. at 7
for 256
as
days to
of
of
est
inter
days.
proceed
of
findingthe
follows:
run,
days, and
days, and
of
days,and
and
divide
divide
divide
divide
by
by
by 180.
144.
120.
by
102.86.
56
VOCATIONAL
"
"
"
"
"
MATHEMATICS
FOR
GIRLS
Multiplyby
number
of
days, and
divide
by
90.
Multiply by
number
of
days, and
divide
by
72.
Multiplyby
number
of
days, and
divide
by
60.
Multiply by
number
of
days, and
divide
by
51.43.
Multiply by
number
of
days, and
divide
by
45.
Savings
Showing the
interest added
amount
Bank
of " 1, from
semiannually,
Interest
Compound
1 year
at different
to
rates.
Table
15 years,
with
compound
REVIEW
57
ARITHMETIC
OF
EXAMPLES
the
Solve
1.
at 6
is the
years at 6
3.
How
long
How
long
long
it take
will
$ 400
will
$ 580
it take
to
5" %
%,
it take
$615
to
double
itself at
How
long
will
it take
$784
to
double
itself
7%,
8.
Find
9.
Find
10.
Find
the interest
11.
Find
is the
relation
by dividingone
of
The
between
the
days
for 74
two
%.
at 4
days
at
%.
4%.
at 5
days at
%.
%.
numbers
antecedent,and
ratio is
It is found
numbers.
ratio of 4 to 8 is 4
The
the two
are
ratio is the
sign of
for 37
at 3
Proportion
and
the other.
of the ratio
terms
first term
by
days
of
Ratio
Ratio
at
compared.
the
(:).(It is
^
second
the
i.
The
the
sequent.
con
division
sign
ally,
omitted.) Ratio may also be expressedfractionas
i" or 16 : 4 ; or T3Tor 3 : 17.
ratio formed
dent
by dividing the consequent by the antecethe line
is
The
will
Find
itself at
double
7.
with
itself at
double
to
interest?
simple interest
The
of 11
$ 1 at the end
of
interest
compound
interest ?
How
simple
6.
of
end
the
at
56
page
interest?
compound
5.
$1
on
?
"/0
compound
4.
tables
What
of
interest
compound
is the
What
81 years
2.
an
two
inverse
terms
ratio
of the
12
6 is the inverse
ratio
taken
ratio of 6
together form
12.
couplet.
58
VOCATIONAL
Two
or
MATHEMATICS
couplets taken
more
compound
taking
and
together form
2:5
Thus,
the
ratio
of the
product
changed
antecedents
the
To
number
does
for
Ratio
+
ratio.
by
antecedent,
new
consequent
; as,
Eatio
Consequent
Antecedent
of
terms
ratio
simple
new
both
ratio
by
the
same
the ratio.
change
not
for
Consequent
divide
multiply or
Antecedent
Ratio
to
Consequent
+
compound
6:11
be
may
GIRLS
FOR
Thus
12
3x12:3x6
2
2
EXAMPLES
Find
the ratio of
1.
20
300
2.
3 bu.
2116
""
12:i
""
A:*f
5
i'*
"
f:,f:,:
6.
16:
Fractions
nominator
pk.
with
ratio
as
de
common
have
the
same
their numerators.
":*"**'**
(?)=!"
Proportion
An
A
read
A
equalityof
proportion.
as
first and
third
The
and
fourth
terms
are
product
: :
12
6, and
is
12 is to 6.
proportionhas
antecedents
means.
ratios is
the
second
terms
called
of
terms, of which
four
are
and
fourth
third
are
consequents.
The
the second
and
are
means.
the
extremes
equals
the
product
of
the
60
VOCATIONAL
will
What
6.
FOR
MATHEMATICS
11
of cambric
1 yards
GIRLS
if 50
cost
yards
cost
$6.75?
If it takes
7.
suit,how
many
make
same
the
8.
If 21
9.
should
valued
If there
many
12.
are
valued
minims
in
16,843 minims
will 35
is taxed
$5700
at
7680
in
$ 52.50,what
property
on
are
there
There
11.
silk cost
yards of
farm
pintsare
to
suit ?
be the tax
10.
45
at
a
for
yards cost
What
$38.19.
$ 28,500 ?
pint of water,
how
many
approximately
641 grains?
15
grains
in
How
gram.
grams
in
In
ft.
What
velocity?
When
of water
nitrate
A
15.
days
ditch
If in
the
on
47ft.
17.
will form
be used
is
of 10 hours
16.
what
should
casts
If 10 grams
14.
shadow
dug
each
drawing
14
days
it have
would
a
taken
ground
cubic
much
timeters
cen
silver
of water
each.
ft.
59.2
How
?
many
38 ft.
tree
scale will
same
in 100
% solution,how
of 8 hours
level
shadow
cubic centimeters
in 1560
in
10
on
high?
What
will
be the
cost
of
21
motors
if 15 motors
cost
$887?
18.
If
at the
the list
goods
list
are
bought
price,what
price.)
per
at
cent
discount
is
of 25
gained?
% and are
(Assume $
sold
1
as
REVIEW
If
18.
goods,how
If
19.
much
is
girl spends
she
If
pole 8
it
cents
months
48 ft.
shadow
heavy
on
how
confectionery,
for
shadow
per minute
hour
an
week
casts
in
sew
for it in three
spend
which
tree
28
inches
26
sews
yards will
many
does
20.
machine
sewing
61
ARITHMETIC
OF
4J
ft.
long,how
high
long ?
Involution
is
The
The
is involution.
process of finding powers
product of two equal factors is the second
The
power.
equal factor.
product of three equal factors
power,
or
square, of the
The
or
cube,
of the factor.
42
23
2 x
4 is 4 to the second
2 x
2 is 2 to the third
34 =3x3x3x3
the cube
or
power,
is 3 to the fourth
of 4.
the square
or
power,
or
power,
of 2.
the fourth
of 4.
power
EXAMPLES
Find
the powers
1.
53
3.
I4
5.
(2i)2
7.
93
2.
1.1s
4.
252
6.
24
8.
.152
Evolution
One
of the
One
of two
One
of three
The
its root
radical
of 16
power
of
number
of
4.
The
3 is
The
is
root
before
root.
number
cube
is to be found.
Thus, \/9
of
equal factors
root
square
The
equal factors
equal factors
is the
of 27
a
cube
indicates that
root
of 9
3.
of it.
3.
number
root.
root
number
62
VOCATIONAL
A
small
called
MATHEMATICS
figureplaced in
index
the
the
FOR
opening
of
of
shows
GIRLS
the
radical
what
sign is
is to
root
be
taken.
Thus, \/8
of 8 is 2.
root
Square
The
of
square
the
number
of the
to the square
units,plus the
What
"
of the
square
tens'2+
EXAMPLE.
Root
2 x
tens
units +
root
2x3Q
units
tens
30 +
2 x
35
Separating
into
60[~325
65 1
325
900
units2
of 1225?
12'25(30+
2xtens
equal
tens by
units.
is the square
Tens2, 302
is
periods
figures
two
each
by
checkmark
beginning
there
power,
The
have
units,
at
we
be two
must
root
remainder
of
2 x
is 2
factor
2 x
The
in
"
(2 x 30
(units),which
tens
Therefore
and
contained
units
being the
60). By
5,
two
But
trial
divide
if correct.
root
of every
factors,length,and
is 30 +
square
('),
in
the
of
is
the
being
900,
and
its
one
of
them,
other.
we
units.
1225
factors,units
325
by
Completing
the square
area
is
of
periods
two
are
is 30
tens
tens
there
tens
even
Since
figuresin
greatest square
square
12'25.
of
the other
60 to find
the
the other
factor, we
have
factor,5, gives325.
35.
surface is the
product of
two
equal
width.
r
r
EXAMPLE.
Find
"
13'06. 09'96
SHORT
METHOD
the square
root
ing whole
406
66)
number
396
the
721
numbers
period,
Subtract
and
7224)28896
28896
the
and
bring down
Divide
the
the
to
the
root
annex
for
dividend,
When
twice
in the root,
occurs
is
to
figure,and
tillall the
manner
period, and
If there
from
the
to
in the leftthe
at
lefthand
period for
dividend, with
root, and
decimals
its
right.
period,
dividend.
righthand
the root
already found,
the divisor.
Multiply this
bring down
the next
period
before.
as
in this
Proceed
the next
quotient
its root
the next
figureomitted, by
and
figureseach, point
greatest square
write
the square
point,separate the
to
Find
right.
hand
721)1009
of 1306.0996.
at the decimal
Beginning
(36.14
63
ARITHMETIC
OF
REVIEW
divide
remainder
as
exhausted.
periods are
0 to
annex
trial
the
divisor,bring down
before.
periods are
exhausted,
mal
deci
annex
periods.
If,after multiplying by any root figure,the product is larger than
Also
dividend,the root figure is too largeand must be diminished.
last
figurein
For
every
in the
the
complete divisor
must
the
be diminished.
decimal
root.
the
must
not
be
decimal
contain
two
figure
figures,
cipher.
EXAMPLES
Find
square
root
of
V3.5326.28
1.
8836
5.
\7xn
2.
370881
6.
72.5
10.
V625
3.
29.0521
7.
.009^
11.
_LX
4.
46656
8.
1684.298431
12.
13.
an
the
area
equal to
9.
one
side of
square
1296
"
45 rd. wide
CHAPTER
II
MENSURATION
The
A
the
is
circle
Circle
plane figure
circumference,
bounded
which
of
point
every
by
curved
is
line, called
from
equidistant
the
center.
The
from
straight
of
point
one
and
another
to
is
diameter
the
line drawn,
circumference
the
through
passing
center.
The
the
of
ratio
diameter
of
circle
any
which
3,
Greek
letter
is
TT
is
always
mately
approxiby
(pi).
radius
to
represented
The
is
3.1416+,
number,
constant
the
circumference
the
Circumference
Diameter
straight
line
the
from
drawn
the
center
to
be
into
circumference.
Any
drawing
By
series
of
of
each
radius.
the
1
See
portion
of
a
the
is
sector
Therefore
product
Appendix
the
of the
for
of
one
equal
radii
of
number
figures,each
is
circumference
to
area
of
and
the
the
circle
and
directions
64
may
is called
half
circumference
explanation
circle
which
one
arc.
an
The
sector.
the
of
product
is
cut
equal
to
one
area
arc
and
half
radius.
concerning
the
use
of
formulas.
of
65
MENSURATION
In
radius
formula
this
equals
area,
3.1416, and
TT
R1
the
squared.
^
this
In
formula
iz"x"7
diameter
equals the
3.1416
A=._V
is the
What
"
the
ference,
circum
g=.7864ly
4
EXAMPLE.
and
of
area
circle whose
radius
is
3ft.?
EXAMPLE.
is the
What
"
area
of
ft
circle whose
ence
circumfer
is 10 ft. ?
X^X
3.1416
Area
of
Ring.
the
area
of
the
area
of the
Let
d
A
a
(1)
^"
7.1
sq.ft.
inside
On
"
side
one
10
3.1416
circle from
the
area
diameter
outside
inside
area
of outside
area
of inside circle
diameter
circle
66
MATHEMATICS
VOCATIONAL
FOR
GIRLS
(2)
Aa
(3)
Let
"
c
ring
diameter
what
is the
of
area
"
.7854
If the outside
7",
^Dzd
"
diameter
inside
the
of circular
area
EXAMPLE.
flat
of
D2
is 9" and
ring
side
one
of
the
ring?
#=.7854
B
(D2 "f2)
49)
(81
.7854
.7854
32
25.1328
sq. in.
Ans.
Angles
make
We
two
common
and
movement,
circle contains
circle contain
the
(2) to
360",
as
of
uses
measure
and
measure
difference
as
cular
cir
in direction.
the
degrees
many
angles : (1) to
the
on
circumference.
Angle
A
POE
has
as
degrees as
many
rightangle is measured
of the
PE.
by a quarter
which
circle,
of the
circumference
arc
is 90".
is
angle AOG
The
The
angle AC,
to each
they
are
other.
and
is
circle,
GOC,
When
said to be
of the other.
they
are
half
with
made
of the
angles,AOG
rightangle.
straightangle, and
which
the
sum
the circumference
it
of
two
angles
the
of two
sum
of the other.
contains,are
one
the
right
two
supplementary
is
one
equal
to
is the
90",
plement
com
angles equals180",
68
MATHEMATICS
VOCATIONAL
diameter
7.
The
cloth
diameter
9.
of
that
side of
one
outside
length
much
of
area
wheel
How
8.
18"
and
is the
What
diameter
child's
of the rubber
carriageis
tire that
the
exactlycovers
flat iron
ring 14"
inside
is needed
ribbon
GIRLS
to bind
top
of
30"
in
diameter.
fits it ?
the
edge
center
of
table
lar
circu28"
in
If
hat
straw
the diameter
10.
is the
What
6.
FOR
30"
measures
around
the
rim.
What
is
of the hat ?
circular
what
dining room
is the
table
greatest distance
measures
across
12' 6"
the
in circumferen
table ?
Triangles
by three straightlines.
plane figurebounded
classified according to the relative lengths of
Triangles are
their sides and the size of their angles.
A
triangle having equal sides is called equilateral. One
having two sides equal is isosceles. A trianglehaving no
sides equal is called scalene.
If the angles of a triangleare
equal, the triangleis equiangular.
A
triangleis
angle
triangleis a rightangle,the triis a right triangle. In a righttrianglethe side opposite
the rightangle is called the hypotenuse and is the longestside.
the legs,and are
other two sides of the righttriangle
The
are
at right angles to each other,
If
one
EQUILATERAL
of
the
angles of
ISOSCELES
SCALENE
EIGHT
69
MENSURATION
KINDS
TRIANGLES
OF
Right Triangles
In
right trianglethe
of the hypotenuse
square
the
equals
of
sum
the
squares
of
sides
legs.
length of
or
If the
and
other
one
right triangle is
the
other
the
side
two
the
potenuse
hy
leg of a
known,
be
may
found
by squaring the
hypotenuse and squaring
the leg,and extractingthe
square
EXAMPLE.
30" and
of
root
"
ference.
dif
their
If the
the base is
302
30
182
18
900
30
900
18
324
324
"
V57U
576
24".
Ans.
J8"
Areas
The
of
Triangles
results
togetherand
find
the
square
root
of
70
MATHEMATICS
VOCATIONAL
EXAMPLE.
17
measure
trianglewhose
?
inches,respectively
is the
What
"
GIRLS
FOR
of
area
sides
15
16
V24
17
9 x8
x7
V12096
2)48
x/12096
109.98
Am.
sq. in.
2415=9
24
24
16
17
Area
EXAMPLE.
17" and
of a Triangle
is the
What
"
altitude
5ase
of
area
Altitude
trianglewhose
base
is
10"?
17
;0
Ans.
85 sq. in.
EXAMPLES
1.
window
wall
is
of the wall ?
the base
Find
2.
base
with
Find
triangular piece of
length
the
length
area
the
from
height measured
of
the
of
hypotenuse
an
having
the
oppositeangle 56".
of
right triangle
sq. in.
of 280
area
side of
the
cloth
righttrianglewith equal
of 72 sq. in.
hypotenuse
of
right trianglewith
base
of
What
19, and
8 ft.
an
Find
8" and
7.
the
legsand
6.
of
area
the
Find
4.
5.
the
81" and
3.
17 ft.
ladder
21
What
is the
area
of
trianglewhose
sides
measure
12,
inches ?
is the altitude of
long and
base
6 ft.
an
long ?
isosceles
trianglehaving
sides
71
MENSURATION
Quadrilaterals
Foursided
them
the
are
SQUARE
RECTANGLE
RHOMBOID
TRAPEZIUM
TRAPEZOID
KINDS
A
rectangle is
paralleland
RHOMBUS
PARALLELOGRAM
QUADRILATERALS
OF
which
has
quadrilateral
its anglesrightangles. Its area
of its base
and
its
opposite sides
equals the product
altitude.
A=ba
A
Its
trapezoid is
area
is
quadrilateral
having only two sides parallel.
equal to the product of the altitude by one half the
a
of the bases.
sum
In this formula
trapezium is
length
of
longestside
foursided
known.
72
MATHEMATICS
VOCATIONAL
FOR
GIRLS
EXAMPLE.
and
area
236i
V =^p
V ^MH=365
43 X
43
In the
"
602
sq.
of ABC
ft.,area
of ADC
area
ft.,
total area
sq. ft.,
sq.
Ans.
To
draw
of irregularfigures,
find the areas
this
the longest diagonal and
upon
from
the vertices
diagonaldrop perpendiculars
of the figure. These
perpendicularswill form trapezoids
and righttriangleswhose
be determined
areas
by the premay
ceding
rules.
The sum
of the areas
of the separatefigureswill
give the area of the whole irregularfigure.
Polygons
A
plane figurebounded
by straight lines is a polygon. A
polygon which has equal sides and equal angles is a regular
polygon.
The
apothem of a regularpolygon is the line drawn from the
of the polygon perpencenter
dicular
to
of the
one
fivesided
sides.
polygon
is
is
pentagon.
sixsided
polygon
HEXAGON
PENTAGON
hexagon.
An
eightsided
polygon
The
shortest
hexagon
is
equal to
of
The
is the
an
between
octagon.
the
opposite sides
perpendiculardistance
the diameter
diameter
The
distance
is
of the
of the inscribed
circumscribed
between
of
polygon
is the
and
circle.
circle is the
sum
lar
regu
them,
long
regularhexagon.
perimeter of
ter
diame
73
MENSURATION
The
the
of
area
and
apothem
half the
Formula
In this formula
\ aP
perimeter
apothem
"
product of
Ellipse
the
Only
The
the
approximate circumference
of two
diameters
If
C
then
C
The
the
of an
area
and
major
minor
diameter
circumference
^"4,
is equal to
ellipse
minor
diameters
If
then
by
one
half the
be obtained.
product of
fourth
the
product
of
TT.
area
dl
major
diameter
d2
minor
diameter
w^
ellipsecan
TT.
diameter
d2
and
major
an
ellipse
equals one
circumferenceof an
sum
of
EXAMPLES
Find
1.
the
of
area
perpendicularsare
2.
What
18 ft. and
3.
the
What
diameter
is the
12
area
ft.,and
is the
is 14" and
trapezium
19' and
of
minor
diagonalis
93' and
33'.
trapezoidwhose
the altitude
distance
if the
are
8 ft. ?
around
diameter
parallelsides
an
8" ?
ellipsewhose
major
74
MATHEMATICS
VOCATIONAL
In the map
4.
of
country
is found
district
GIRLS
FOR
to
have
two
and
of its boundaries
miles.
216
If
door
Find
6.
are
the
of
area
The
7.
and
greater diameter
Find
the
is its
area
if the
hole
manelliptical
an
?
78"
diagonal is
and
27".
and
of
funnel
elliptical
an
is 4 ft.
8.
6", what
trapezium
perpendiculars18"
the
2'
of
diameters
lesser
greater and
If the
5.
perimeter of
What
is its
area
hexagon having
is 4 ft. 6
in.,
?
each
side
15"
long.
What
9.
and
is the
whose
of
area
whose
pentagon
apothem
is
4y
side is 5" ?
Volumes
bar is found
by
rectangularshaped
the area
of the base by the length. If the area
be in inches.
square inches,the length must
The
volume
of a cube is equal to the cube of an edge.
The
volume
contents
or
of a cylindricalsolid is equal
product of the area of the base by the height.
The
volume
If
S
R
H
contents
radius
of base
height
of
3.1416+
or
plying
multiis in
to
the
capacityof cylinder
TT
EXAMPLE.
of
cylinder
or
2f.(approx.)
"
inside diameter
Find
the contents
is 14" and
tank
cylindrical
height 6'.
6'
H=
of
72"
72
whose
76
MATHEMATICS
VOCATIONAL
EXAMPLE.
height of
is the
What
"
in.,and
36
C
44
surface
diameter
36
the
and
base
lower
The
of
frustum
14
irD
792
sq. in.
of
is the
cone
plane
or
having
cone
slant
"
Ans.
Cone
part of
included
cone
which
base
upper
4.4tf
is
between
parallelto
the
base.
volume
third
of the
square
root
of
frustum of
and
altitude
of their
When
H
Bl
R
the
the
two
bases
and
the
==
altitude
upper
base
lower
base
surface of
of
slant
the
of
one
product.
lateral
product
cone
sum
V="H(B
The
of
of 14 in. ?
Frustum
The
GIRLS
FOR
VB")
1? +
frustum of
height
and
the
cone
sum
of the bases.
The
The
where
The
volume
of a sphere is equal to
is the radius.
The
To
square
Sphere
find
the
of the
cubical
contents
largestdiameter
Barrel
of
by 2, (2) add
to
this
product
77
MENSURATION
the
square
of the
head
the
length
of the
barrel
EXAMPLE.
is
diameter
largest
length
Find
"
and
diameter,
and
that
the
cubical
21"
and
this
(3) multiply
.2618.
product by
of
contents
barrel
18",
diameter
head
by
sum
and
whose
whose
is 33".
212
182
441
324
V=
882
[(Z"2 x 2)
d2]
.2618
39798
324
.2618
120(3
1041911
33
in.
cu.
3618
10419.11
3618
45.10
Similar
Similar
The
of their
squares
EXAMPLE.
"
boilers
If two
"!
JL
=
4'2
The
of their
T9^as large as
corresponding
EXAMPLE.
"
If
what
respectively,
weighs $7
of
the
length, what
is
ratio of surfaces
the
Ans.
other.
to each
iron
balls
ratio
, ratio
8"
have
of their
other
as
much
as
of diameters
the
other.
12"
and
volumes
20' in
lengths
figures are
is the
=
ball
as
the
cubes
dimensions.
tw"
r8^
One
ratio
same
16
of similar
volumes
shape.
same
is
the
15' and
are
jj. f, ratio
boiler
exactly the
corresponding dimensions.
One
have
figures have
of similar
areas
Figures
figures that
figures are
Ans.
gal.
231
39798
Ans.
diameters,
78
FOR
MATHEMATICS
VOCATIONAL
GIRLS
EXAMPLES
1.
inside
Find
dimensions
in cubic inches.
3.
6"
of
bucket
the
following
Find
is 4 in.
the
in.,and
Water
radius
the volume
of
the
of the water
of the water
the volume
in
gallons
gal.
7.48
of
is the volume
What
with
long.
of 9
(1)
Find
foot contains
cubic
end
depth
is 6 in.
(2)
4'
10" and
small
to
of the water
surface
rectangular box
by
of the
in the bucket
stands
if
8"
radius
The
2.
of
the volume
steel
2^" in
cone
diameter
and
high?
4.
Find
4"
What
6.
What
a
on
7.
8.
and
9.
11"
Find
high
the surface
height
Find
the volume
many
8 ft.
11.
deep ?
What
outside
diameter
"
12.
many
13.
its
area
at
of
wooden
cone
pyramid
with
the
cubic
feet in
of
sphere has
?
(6) What
will
water
with
square
base,
6" diameter
perimeter of
18"
in.
of
one
hay
ton
of
round
tank
the
which
bottom,
cylindricalring having
inside
occupy
hay
of
diameter
area
cube
7'
5Ty,
1'
an
and
7', how
?
of 8.2467".
circumference
is its volume
at
hold
gal.)
is its outside
wild
ft. in diameter
top, 5
an
6J",
What
tons
whose
cask
volume
of
If 9
of
(231 cu.
is the
height of 3f
of
gallonsof
is 4 ft. in diameter
and
with
of 11".
slant
How
pyramid
height?
in diameter
surface
is the
slant
is
largestdiameter
whose
sphere 8"
of
is the volume
What
14"
and
of
is the volume
side and
barrel
of
the contents
(a) What
is
79
MENSURATION
to contain
diameter
is the
What
15.
much
inside
If the
17.
much
How
18.
4" in diameter
is the
weighs
A
cubic
cube
of
weight
its
011
If
barrel
of
22.
base and
conical funnel
many
24.
6 in.
25.
by
if
in diameter
inch ?
its total
(a) Find
edge,
area.
has
an
about
barrel
inside
(a) Find
of
Find
the
deep, and
Find
on
2150.42
is
(1
ft.
water?
cu.
at the
of 19.25"
diameter
its total
(b) Find
area,
of
How
cone.
20' in diameter
in.
cu.
capacity of a rectangularbin
8 ft. 3 in. long.
6 ft.
wide,
5 ft.
and
the
the
capacity
deep.
6"
tons
many
weighs
ft.,what
Find
How
cu.
contents.
contains
diameter
27.
3""
5.1"
26.
ball
wooden
bushel
the
must
paint a
to
ball
brass
the
high inside,
is 43"
its cubical
23.
lb.,how
5 in. what
,
ring is
it take
contains
of water
approximate weight of
water
weighs 62.5 lb.)
the
weighs
one
ring is
in diameter
10"
diameters
with
paint will
one
the inside
volume.
(") Its
21.
than
What
20.
less
4"" ?
smaller
of the
area
3.5" in
base
ring if
material
same
of
diameter
be if the
diameter
outside
brass
balls of the
height be
flat
diameter
V, respectively.If the
does the larger one
weigh
4" and
of
side
one
with
can
the
must
the outside
two
are
of
area
'
There
16.
conical
pint,what
2"' and
is
diameter
19.
to make
If it is desired
14.
52 lb. to
of nut
evenly to
cubic
of
cylindricalmeasure
coal
depth
foot.
are
in
of 4 ft. ?
bin
13"
5 ft. wide
Average
nut
in
and
coal
CHAPTER
III
INTERPRETATION
Reading
a
blue
print,
is
the
Print.
which
with
drawings
the
Blue
is
to
the
the
VIEW
of
construction,
following
worker,
by
the
of
house,
views
finished
of
and
a
are
his
House.
the
to
produce
j views
show
of
the
each
appearance
the
the
to
blue
builder,
foreman
the
Through
metal
carpenter,
the
in
wanted
object
of
the
the
the
drawing
following
floor, including
80
The
and
draftsman.
architect,
the
plans
workman.
able
usually represents
to
the
An
read
to
HOUSE
blue
or
to
engineer
the
designer
"
to
working
uses
COMPLETED
OF
how
background.
the
maker,
know
to
architect
designer
of
mechanic
employer
Blue
the
directions
the
and
and
blue
upon
pattern
EXTERIOR
should
given
name
which
language
RESULTS
Everyone
"
lines
white
machinist
OF
views
house
the
terior
ex
it
when
basement,
plans
to
show
is
WEST
ELEVATION
OF
j.
EAST
the
location
plans
method
of
of
sections
rooms,
are
of construction.
HOUSE
___
ELEVATION
81
RESULTS
OF
INTERPRETATION
for
the
stairs.
contractors
to
Detailed
show
the
82
VOCATIONAL
MATHEMATICS
NORTH
FOR
GIRLS
ELEVATION
''
"
!
"*'"*[
"
A"
""'
"
".""
"
"
SOUTH
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
_;_
"a
rt ft fro
rn
ELEVATION
mental
84
VOCATIONAL
MATHEMATICS
1.
What
is the
frontage of
2.
What
is the
depth
3.
What
is the
length and
4.
What
of the house
? the kitchen
dining room
with
size of
2.
What
3.
How
Two
one
is the
What
the
large is
are
plan
object,and
or
the
the
FLOOR
each
of
the
of
the
porch ?
livingroom
the
PLAN
the
bedrooms
of the bathroom
room
usuallynecessary
other
of the front
(Compute
plan.)
storage
top view
width
the dimensions
are
views
width
GIRLS
SECOND
1.
the house
length and
is the
FOR
obtained
elevation
in
every
working drawing,
by looking down
or
front
view.
upon
When
the
an
INTERPRETATION
OF
third
information,
the
whatever
represented by
is
If the
called
the
and
shape,
these
building
number
Drawing
full
size
of
Scale.
to
the
on
it is
This
smaller.
of the
the
places.
drawing
information
to
as
interior
are
draw
impossibleto
to make
is done
drawing a certain
object. A drawing made
of
be
all
show
to
This
is
for
each
the
size,
sections,
drawings.
it is necessary
paper,
the drawing.
on
is necessary
proper
or
construct
to
supplied
if there
Then
pieces.
As
"
must
machine, giving
the
or
there
Then
end
an
necessary
be
print must
representedin section
be
must
dimensions, etc.,
the blue
assembly drawing.
an
of the
part
as
called
view,
blue
parts of
the
such
85
RESULTS
the
sions
all the dimen
by making
fraction of the
objects
drawings proportionat
most
dimensions
true
is said to be drawn
in this way
to scale.
SCALE
TRIANGULAR
dimensions
The
the
an
object
iron
the actual
half
or
length would
In making
be
read
a
to
scales
use
the
actual
size of
made
were
be inconvenient
of
to represent
inches.
25
drawing
this work
the different
able
size
calculate
obliged to
obviate
be
size of the
quarter the
would
long, it
inches
25
door
of the
not
"
the
on
"
scale,"it
to
all the
small
scale
it.
on
with
as
very
dimensions.
is used.
triangularscale
marked
becomes
It is
ease
to
order
to
In
By practicethe
much
tedious
as
rule with
student
the
will
ordinary
rule.
QUESTIONS
1.
each
Tell what
of the
is the
following:
AND
scale and
EXAMPLES
the
length of
the
drawing
of
86
b.
An
c.
An
d.
An
If
2.
object14"
object2.6"
object34"
object41"
An
a.
drawing
3.
half
long
drawn
quarter size.
long
drawn
one
third
long
drawn
one
twelfth
the
"
size.
size.
ft. is reduced
scale be ?
new
^size.
to the
TJg"scale,how
the
scale of
size.
doubled, how
is
If the scale
scale be ?
new
feet
in 18 inches
there
4.
On
5.
On. the
y scale,how
many
feet
are
there
in 26
inches
6.
On
the
\" scale,how
many
feet
are
there
in 27 inches
7.
If the
the
drawing of a
drawing is 8^", what
many
are
is made
door
will
it
size and
to scale
if made
measure
length of
the
3"
1 f t. ?
What
8.
hall 582'
195'
by
it is of
life when
be
should
Few
have
that
asked
yard,
actual
six
view
estimate
to
of
power
on
feet
The
Pupils
openings
in
daily
weight
or
and
to
up
feet
ten
the
average
if the
distances
unknown
Pupils
is
streets, or
obtained, and
be
should
so
that
one
a
inch,
then
so
pupils are
able
to estimate
be
one
classroom
will estimate
should
never
after
noticed
distances,they
between
the proper
streets,may
the distance
as
with
within
feet, and
marked
between
developed by laying
be
on
has
yard.
hundred
one
of
off in
measured
are
person
will be
distances
of
standards
common
Improvement
illustrate
To
of standard
sections,with
same
may
them.
to
feet,and
straightroad
banquet
1 ft.?
distance
our
estimatinglonger distances,such
buildings,across
off
occasions
that
even
accuracy.
distance
any
The
'
Ty
meets
of
conception
is due
other
greater degree of
inch
of
drawing
scale of
importance
clear
of drill.
amount
an
attention
the proper
foot, one
to
Everyone
"
utmost
This
measurements.
small
of the
correctlyestimated.
people
given
if it is made
Distances.
Estimating
drawn
is made
drawing
inches
many
long
to
will the
size,what
in
made
GIRLS
FOR
MATHEMATICS
VOCATIONAL
five hundred
each.
of altitude
Standards
established.
measure
they
may
in
their
develop
homes
an
eye
pieces
for
of
furniture
and
estimating distances.
wall
INTERPRETATION
this estimate
by
estimate
of your
Estimate
2.
by
Estimate
the width
measurement
in per
cent.
actual
the
and
In
width
the
on
not
Regular
blocks
spheres
only
of
their
estimate
the
of
wood
is true
distances
also
but
the accuracy
window
panes
tage
concerning the advanappliesequallywell to
the
on
excellent
are
of
Verify
sill.
largelyeliminated.
be
volume
on
door.
express
to
of different
little mental
Select blocks
1.
length
What
rectangularblocks
and
and
the window
"
may
part of the
depends
and
to estimate
this,guesswork
the accuracy
express
of the school
Verify
cent.
Estimating Weights.
being able
weights.
and
measurement
length of
of
of the schoolroom.
width
height and
in per
of the estimate
3.
actual
the
this estimate
width
lengthand
the
Estimate
1.
87
RESULTS
OF
clear
density
begin with,
metals
afford
results.
of
the
and
Weight
material.
small
later
good
wood, coal,iron,lead,tin,or
ing
figur
material.
and
copper,
weights.
respective
2.
Estimate
the
weight
of
3.
Estimate
the
weight
of different persons.
chair.
Methods
accuracy
There
1.
Exact
method.
2.
Rule
of thumb
3.
By
The
"
of the work.
three ways
are
committed
one
Solving Examples.
by
which
method, by
problem
the
use
of
may
be
formula
solved
or
rule
to memory.
means
exact
of tables.
method
usuallytaught
of
solving a problem
in school
and
is the
in arithmetic
method
is the
obtained
by
88
MATHEMATICS
VOCATIONAL
should
analysis. Everyone
The
Method.
of Thumb
Rule
and
solve
to
of
Many
"
industrial
and
arise in home, office,
As
able
GIRLS
problem by
the
life have
problems
been
that
before,
met
very
'
find many
we
require
considerable
in
whereas
based
of thumb
rule
storekeeper,the
the
that
cases
etc.
nurse,
time
the
and
not
are
methods
too
experience or rule,give a
on
used
The
method
exact
wife,
housewould
of
and
solving problems involving the addition
fractions,use the yardstick or tape to carry on
illustrate
the
by
In
of
the
method.
exact
and
be
FOR
In
this
The
is to
Use
do
To
way.
work,
hand
the
case
result
of Tables.
In
"
so, whenever
labor.
we
is 21
everything in
illustrate
if
the
hand
to add
the
tation.
compu
Jof a yard,
1 of a
over
place the thumb
yard divisions,then slide (move) the
thumb
along the divisions corresponding to Jof a yard, and
then
read
the number
of divisions passed over
by the thumb.
To
desire
subtraction
inches.
the
commercial
quickest and
labor
is
more
world
the
most
the
tendency
economical
costlythan
work
possible,machine
same
tendency appliesto
The
and
machine
is substituted
calculations
for
in the
of doing
dressmaking shop or the office. The exact methods
stood
easilyunderexamples are not the quickest,nor are they more
and
performed by the ordinary girl than the shorter
methods.
Since a great many
of the problems in calculation
that arise in the daily experiencesof the office assistant,the
housewife, the dressmaker, the nurse, etc. are about ordinary
to work
things and repeat themselves
often, it is not necessary
them
kept
See
each
anew
on
time, if,when
file in the
pages
form
220, 222,
they
are
once
solved,results
of tables.
and
254
for tables
used
in this book.
are
PART
II
IN
PROBLEMS
"
HOMEMAKING
CHAPTER
THE
THE
economic
depends
upon
DISTRIBUTION
three
of
in
person
the
community
second
is
amount
determines
; the
earned
the
third
purchasing
the
paves
way
independence.
to
The
welfare
depends
these
or
salary, if
or
save
each
young
man
he
or
order
to
items
as
or
home.
know
to
do
wife
The
ordinary
woman
young
usually has
this, she
is
Therefore,
how
to
get
know
must
how
The
make
with
and
it becomes
cents
the
the
for
spent
of
of
life.
money
husband
of
out
due
expenses
proportion
earnings,
for
necessary
distribute
to
his
spending
spender
each
carefully,
success
the
hundred
one
incidental
selfimprovement.
really the
and
of
cent
per
do
to
more
of
his wages
small
or
wisely
money
likely to
married,
or
regulation
large
certain
is not
woman
man.
the
month
or
how
his
spend
single
careful
and
matter
not
week
young
No
does
whether
person,
systematic
items.
woman
in
earner
every
the
three
young
than
of
upon
of
the
the
every
INCOME
ing
(1) earning capacity, (2) spendThe
first regulates the
saving habit.
the
income
after
power
things
(3)
OF
of
standing
ability,and
amount
IV
the
every
dollar.
income
In
such
over
ure,
sickness, pleas
to
each
item
should
be
carefully regulated.
of
Incomes
The
$ 725
about
$ 800.
The
on
daily
the
The
year,
family
average
about
Not
wages
from
either
.$450
the
be
of
than
more
of adult
family,
must
; that
year
average
income
head
men
American
of
foreign
families
with
onefourth
from
range
to
$1500
of
which
contented
both
Families
native
native
have
$ 1.50
born
incomes
only
exceeding
few
comparatively
89
heads
$ 5.00.
to
born
This
heads
is
alone
is
$ 1000.
amounts
year.
earns
with
and
low
hundred
standards
dollars
of
liv
90
ing
boarders
from
of children
is
course
families
income, either
additional
obtain
or
or
and
lodgers.
mothers
do
than
more
than
considerably greater
earnings
the average
second
The
of
income
or
labor
the
to
resort
Americans.
the average
that
so
of children
labor
workers
native
the
GIRLS
the
through
foreignborn
The
is
FOR
MATHEMATICS
VOCATIONAL
workingmen's
of the heads
of
the families.
INCOMES
Based
EXPENDITURES
Statistics
on
of
Twentyfive
Income
Yearly
of Seven
Thousand
Families
Hundred
and
with
Fifty
Average
an
Dollars
EXAMPLES
1.
The
average
If the income
Onefifth of the
for rent.
4.
What
for
rent?
Is
What
6.
What
this
per
$
cent
income
an
What
food ?
the
is
of
cent
per
of
$ 800
of
the
12.50
spends $
income
spent for
is
much?
too
family
contributes
is
per cent
expenditureof workingmen's
with
rent.
cent
spent for
family'sincome
per
is
per cent
two
per cent ?
family
month
5.
of
What
amount
3.
for food.
least
at
is $ 760.
the income
of
592,
six
has
mother
The
father
is contributed
an
income
$ 112, and
is contributed
by
the
contributes
by
the father
of
$ 840.
one
child
mother
$ 601.
The
the
and
father
balance.
child?
92
VOCATIONAL
MATHEMATICS
The
The
Cost
High
GIRLS
FOR
of
Living
of
that must
livingrepresents the amount
be expended during a given period by the average
family
The
maximum
minimum
or
depending on an average income.
cost, however, is another
phase of the problem. It no longer
of dollars
and
involves the amount
cents
to buy
necessary
and pay for life's necessaries,but involves
questionsof home
be standand
ardized.
housekeeping skill,which cannot
management
About
of life began
1907 food and other necessities
in cost
and this has continued
to increase
to the present day.
cost
average
"
EXAMPLES
1.
What
2.
cost
In
suit
of
$ 8.25.
cost
was
the per
What
Division
A
and
girlshould
divide
always
it with
some
consider
5.75,and
in the
clothes
of flour cost
barrel
coal cost $
of increase
What
$ 19.75.
1908
of stove
cent
per
1907
In
ton
the
was
1912
3.
1906
In
The
$15.
$ 6.10.
suit in
same
of increase ?
The
the per
was
$ 8.75.
of coal ?
cost
cent
in 1915
barrel
same
cent
of
of
increase ?
of Income
her
income
idea of time
and
year
proportion.
of,the year,
good salary for only ten months
she must
the
to tide her over
save
enough during those months
for
other two.
For
$ 60 a month
instance,if a teacher earns
is $ 50.
10 months
of the year, her actual monthly income
If she
The
earns
milliner,the
trained
nurse,
the
actress,and sometimes
even
THE
93
INCOME
OF
DISTRIBUTION
as
onethird
as
because
and
be
not
well
very
dressed
that,
at
she
it is the bank
Every
knows
never
may
should
person
that suffers.
account
when
sickness,lack
is a
Saving money
come.
acquired the
very
first year
of
income.
employment,
habit
that
of his
part
some
save
and
should
his
earns
person
ill health
or
that
one
One
be
living.
own
EXAMPLES
1.
girl earns
144
spends $
of her
clothes.
A
3.
She
week
for 42
week
clothing.
that
should
be
she
Is
spent
weeks,
for
pays
she
car
as
fares and
spend
Which
a
week
on
lunch
14cent
clothing each
money
each
girl is
the
housemaid
She
and
week
better
or
one
year
Should
off
in this
time
the
cent
per
clothing?
girlearns
$ 5
and
livingwithin
income
spending
4.
$ 8 a week.
earns
salesgirl
Is she livingwithin
her
has two
should
for
for
income
A
2.
$ 12
spends $
98
year
for
How
she
How
day.
save
one
financially,
earning $ 7 a week
much
any
much
has
she
?
money
earning $
in
store
94
MATHEMATICS
VOCATIONAL
Christmas
Buying
displayof
merchant
of the
Think
have
the
will
like
when
tastes
rather
give
be
collar cannot
soiled,so
that
dark
25
would
you
be
glad
to
and
She
buying.
the
light.
may
not
give something
that
she
like.
For
of
to
stance,
in
light hairribbons
be much
Overtrimmed
the
Choose
wear
handkerchief,
linen
is too
any
displayed with
of handkerchiefs
A
than
cents
jabotseasilyrip apart.
decorations
that
the
more
sensible,
extra
an
cleansed.
be
these
on
ought
would
tempted by
light ones.
more
worn
even
cannot
the
it is
fond
very
ones
show
always
stores
be
so
she
something
that
know
have,
be
not
are
you
you
girl may
at Christmas
The
as
than
certain
you
but
person
same
for whom
GIRLS
Gifts
the
Let
FOR
collars
and
that
of
even
Dutch
coarse
very
texture, is
more
suitable.
Be
careful
is
store
you
so
also about
that
gay
get them
the
out
enough.
EXAMPLES
1.
for $ 1.50.
of handkerchiefs
cent
2.
did
save
I also
One
the
on
bought
in the fall I
much
did
I lose
What
per
cent
bought
$ 1.50 per
month
16
at
Early
3.
Christmas
Shortly before
saw
by
cents
second
chiffon
similar
not
I lose ?
at
Christmas
If
I had
each
or
6 for $ 1.00.
What
per
purchase?
scarf
scarfs
making
did
pair.
chiefs
purchased Jdoz. handkerkind
later I purchased the same
I
my
for
which
sellingfor $
purchase
at
paid $2.25.
1.50.
How
that
time?
DISTRIBUTION
THE
they would
have
saved
I have
cost
What
An
Every
account
showing
A
similar
At
sample
the end
Expense
pair.
would
I have
each
form
is shown
such
of the
summary
should
form
as
YEARLY
similar
sheets
would
of
keep an
receiptsand
96.
Rule
problems
be made
of
expense
tures.
expendi
sheets
that
in
receiptsand
SUMMARY
of the
follow.
following:
the
Receipts
Rule
saved
should
in page
solution
much
How
Book
Account
family
year's record
of the year
in some
per
every
for the
manner
cent
per
and
person
$ 1.121
me
95
INCOME
OF
Disbursements
followingproblems.
bursement
dis
96
VOCATIONAL
MATHEMATICS
FOR
GIRLS
97
INCOME
OF
DISTRIBUTION
THE
EXAMPLES
1.
and
man
have
of October
Repair
coat, 5.80
on
Milk,
.60
Fares,
.90
Rubbers,
.50
.10
Soap,
.06
.25
Church,
.25
Church,
.50
Shampoo,
.30
Papers,
(1 year),3.00
Assistance, .60.
Groceries, 10.35
Theater,
.56
Milk,
.71
Ice, .40
Ice, .45
Papers, .11
1.00
Electricity,
Laundry, .50
Vase
Find
D., .75
disbursements
.25
in the expense
book.
account
What
cent
per
housekeeping?
2.
for
Peroxide,
the above
Enter
7.50
Outlook
1.60
.85
Fruit,
follows
The
paste, $.18
Coal,
Stationery, 2.51
Fares,
year.
insurance, 7.40
Life
.75
Dinner,
as
Provisions, 5.85
1.45
Telephone,
$ 1000
are
Tooth
$ 15
Rent,
of
income
an
disbursements
Gas,
wife
The
rent
and
food
items
was
luxuries
water, $ 15
clothing?
savings?
of expense
house
operatingexpense
meats, groceries,$ 30
; labor
or
of
services,$
16.65 ; clothing,
family
of two
receives
$ 6.93
They spend per week
for operating expenses,
$ 5.81
amount
for
(52 weeks)?
each
What
item
per
is the per
an
for
income
food, $
of
3.51
$ 1200
for
for
rent, $ 3.49
contingency. What
month
(4 weeks) ? per
cent
of each
item
year.
is the
year
98
MATHEMATICS
VOCATIONAL
4.
$ 100
"
married
young
The
month.
income
spends her
has
woman
month
located
and
Help,
and
supplies,2.00
much
How
in the expense
improve
Clothing?
A
equal to
this?
on
Food, $
is
What
has
597. 16
Clothing, 339.66
Furniture, 88.65
6.
"
The
family of
lived
in
expenses
House
each
cent
seven
for each
southern
month
were
per
cent
70.00
amount
an
11 .00
school, $
Doctor,
Can
food?
for
cent
parents
to
as
people
grown
$ 600
follows
"
and
$ 50
four
per
dren
chil
month.
Bread, $2.50
Beef,
2.50
Vegetables,2.00
5.00
is the
expense
per
Carfare
city on
Groceries, 12.00
What
the
cost her
item
three
"
rent, $ 12.00
Washing,
month's
Dentist, 10.00
is the per
What
book.
account
the next
left toward
was
you
5.
insurance, .09
.50
replenishing,
the above
Enter
.75
Remembrances,
Fire
and
charity, .80
and
Church
4.00
Repairs
3.00
Literature, .50
light,5.00
Laundry
is
country), 2.70
in the
Avocation,
Clothing, 12.00
Heat
she
way
Recreation, 3.00
fish,11.15
2.79
year
Groceries,4.70
Milk,
the
Ice
Insurance, 5.00
and
$ 1200
25.00
Meat
of
income
an
following represents
GIRLS
FOR
balance
of income
pointsof saving.
for
spent for
What
Rent
is the
Suggest
CHAPTER
FOOD
half
SINCE
of the
income
of the
it is
important that
intelligently. Experts of
that
Agriculture estimate
food,
homes
American
is
this
the
the
average
food
in
waste
of
great many
The
of waste
causes
high as 20 %
be classified as follows : Needlessly expensive material,
may
providing little nutrition ; failure to select according to season
;
thrown
amounts
structed
preparation; badly congreat
away
; poor
the
as
ovens.
this
If
waste
it would
checked,
were
afford
an
increase
in
the
which
would
purchasing power of the income
appreciably
lift the family to a higher plane of efficiency.The
efficiency
of every
repair
depends upon the energy and constant
person
of the body.
A woman
should
ize
know
the cost of food and realwhat
food value
she is receivingfor her money.
It may
Delmonico
fast,a
contain
The
the
which
"
nutritive
all
the
always
value
the
of
wayside beggar
appetite
in
this, the
which
and
the
the
food, is influenced
it is
an
income
foods
freshness
served,
to
power
limited
by
nutritious
but
common
than
in
way
considered
be
the
Further
food, the
affect
of the
of nutrition."
transform
can
lunch
Lenten
feast,a
Roman
"a
digest.
in
and
the
roundings
sur
Cost,
relation
to
waste.
The
and
of
the
elements
appetizing dishes.
most
must
few
cooking
attractiveness
"
true, that
dinner, and
same
of
art
the
into
the
it is
strange, but
seem
problem
demand.
of
Of
feeding
course,
our
the
bodies
element
100
is
of
primarily
pleasure
in
question of supply
eating is
properly
FOOD
normal
one, for
This
tissues.
objects
two
of the
motion
Every
We
digestion.
must, however,
to live
eat
live to eat.
than
rather
aids
enjoyment
of
plus growth
should
shall know
material
eating
in
the
tissue
are
determine
be
As
repair
as
character
the food
from
the
in
adult
we
realize
of
the
intelligentinstead
of
importance
replaced
soon
the
in the brain
thought
every
must
child.
the
and
body
food
tain
cer
The
eat.
we
and
that
of
destroy
tissue
these
repair
two
poses
pur
eat, then
we
we
choice
haphazard
of
food.
To
repair the
tissues that
human
is
cent
Water
man
6 per
aids
digestion and
structure.
Fat
muscular
is
is necessary
muscle
and
important constituents,though
Ash
in
is
composed
forming
human
called
of
bone.
organism
must
the balanced
has
in which
thus
they
followingmanner
fat, 1
other
words,
per
cent
18
of carbohydrates,
and
essential
in
energy
proportions
phosphates
of
to
the
form
the
transformed
are
Protein
of life.
is necessary
supply
contain
correct
are
body.
human
lime, and
heat
and
into fat
in the
body
of
of the
healthy
; it is
ration.
Nutritive
What
of
small
in
potash, soda,
The
ash.
solids,of which
in the economy
source
Carbohydrates
power.
of
of
tissues,and
other
important
an
of the
of ash.
cent
bone,
pounds
cent
per
In
body.
man's
80
only
protein, 15
and
of
and
of
the
renew
can
normal
of
composed
composed
is the basis
of
cent
per
to
into
is
We
destroyed.
needed
the elements
supply
to
means
or
60
composes
200pound
per
worn
are
body broadly
Water
a
body
far been
used
are
said about
in
the
the
body
may
the ways
in
the
Water
Protein
Edible
e.g.
and
Food
as
purchased
portion
flesh
white
of
Fats
.
meat,
of eggs,
yolk
wheat,
flour,etc.
contains
Refuse.
shells,
e.g.bones, entrails,
bran,
etc.
Nutrients
Carbohydrates
Mineral
ters.
mat
.;
tissues
Repairs
white
g.
(albumen)
curd
(casein)
of eggs,
of
Body
tissue
Forms
Protein
e
in the
of Nutrients
Uses
GIRLS
FOR
MATHEMATICS
OCATIONAL
milk,
gluten
lean
All
meat,
of wheat, etc.
stored
Are
Fats
body
fat
as
of
oil,oils
yield
to
in
I energy
forms
butter,
olive
in the
as
serve
fuel
of
the
heat
muscular
and
corn
power.
and
etc.
wheat,
of
phosphates
is that
which,
in
digestion,etc.
lime,
lead
presented
taken
most
food
The
cheapest
body,
is that
is that
food
nutriment
time
healthful
and
the
to
the
into
healthful
The
most
etc.
thus
views
The
in
Share
(ash)
potash, soda,
(2)
(3)
matters
e.g.
into fat
....
starch,etc.
e.g. sugar,
Mineral
transformed
Are
Carbohydrates
builds
The
tissue
furnishes
best food
the
(1)
yields
or
which
which
(4)
following definitions
is that which
energy.
of the
largest
Food
man.
of
amount
is at the
same
cheapest.
EXAMPLES
Carbohydrates
potatoes, and
and
notion
that
that
the
potato
bread
to rye,
1.
white
or
to soda
pure
who
wish
to
larger quantities of
rice has
in all the
in sugar.
only
15 %
and
the
77 %
crackers
at
73 %
reduce
bread
or
cereals,bread,
is
There
fatproducingelement, is
potato contains
while
27 %,
at 49
is
people
many
rice
substitute
and
largeproportions
100 %
almost
are
starch, which
potatoes, and
in
in
present
are
mostly
range
potatoes
fact is
The
cereals.
the cereals
and
contained
flesh omit
and
carbohydrates
breads
widespread
the
from
whole
from
oats
sweet
wheat
at 69
78 %.
How
of
ounces
many
carbohydrates in J
Ib. of
white
potatoes ?
"2. Find
the
number
of
pounds
of
carbohydratesin
4 Ib. of
rice.
3.
whole
Find
wheat
the number
bread
of
ounces
(J Ib.)
of
carbohydratesin
loaf of
103
FOOD
How
4.
2 Ib.
package
of
Oats ?
Quaker
How
5.
carbohydratesin
of
ounces
many
crackers
carbohydrates in
of
ounces
many
soda
of
oz.
?
EXAMPLES
The
cent,
proportion
be
must
we
herring, and
beef, smoked
proteins, lean
the
beef
Let
note
us
contains
many,
cent, and
equal
cent
is found
Fat
63
contain
of
1.
in
his
2.
value
of
fish.
of
largest
ilated.
assim
of
lamb,
and
fresh
cod
herring, despised by
fowl.
peanut
butter
29
in nuts,
18
average
and
21
salmon
canned
per
per cent.
especiallyin walnuts,
cent.
per
cent,
peanut has
The
which
67
contains
Bacon
per
85 per cent.
many
of protein
18 per cent.
cod
per
and
leg
are
range
best beef
57
cocoanuts
weighs
man
of fat ?
How
to the
and
in
Smoked
protein, salt
large proportion
butter
weight
pounds
fowl,
pound
fat,and
If
in
the
largestproportion
next
about
of its
has
easily digested
the
cent, while
perch, halibut,mackerel,
per
has
with
protein
36 per cent
in food value
27 per
cent
the
cod
per
one
beef
dried
30 per
beef, and
steak, roast
is the
meat
flesh meat,
Salt
food.
find it in
we
body requires6
the
as
bacon.
Curiously enough,
of any
small, and
is
it in the
supply
to
sure
proportion, 25
Of
in foods
of ash
189
of
protein in
pound
and
water
many
half dried
beef ?
3.
Give
the number
of
4.
Give
the number
of
5.
How
many
ounces
Kitchen
Correct
successful
Sift
in
ounces
proteinin
of
proteinin 1^
Weights
pound
Ib. of
and
fowl.
herring.
walnuts
Measures
absolutelynecessary
are
to
insure
cooking.
flour,meal, powdered
of
measurements
results
ounces
hard
sugar
in
and
lumps
measuring.
or
soda
before
and
should
measuring.
be
stirred
104
VOCATIONAL
MATHEMATICS
all materials
Measure
level
GIRLS
FOR
full,levelingwith
knife.
Do
be
not
should
half
third
spoonful
spoonful
be taken
be
is obtained
lengthwiseand
taken
by dividing a
by dividingtwice
EQUIVALENTS
equal
3 teaspoons
tablespoon.
tablespoons equal \
cups equal 1 pint.
pints equal
4 quarts
equal
4 cups
flour
2 cups
sugar
16
2"
2
1 Ib.
equal
1 Ib.
tablespoons liquidequal
1 cup.
rolled oats.
rye meal.
cups
2 cups
rice.
2 cups
granulated
2f
2f
3J
ingredients
1 cup.
meal.
oatmeal.
4^
abbreviation
for
sugar.
cups
brown
cups
powdered
cups
confectioner's
sugar.
2 cups
butter.
2 cups
chopped
teaspoonful;and
sugar.
sugar.
meat.
coffee.
4 cups ground
t. is the
POUND
flour.
cups
equal
ONE
corn
6 cups
gallon.
crosswise.
cups
quart.
tablespoons dry
equal
12
4 cups
cup.
half crosswise.
MAKE
To
crosswise.
not
EXAMPLES
of
in 4
tablespoons?
1.
How
many
teaspoons
2.
How
many
tablespoonsin j
3.
How
many
cups
4.
Give
the number
of
tablespoonsin
5.
Give
the number
of
6.
pound
of flour
cup
are
equivalentto
weighs
how
pints?
a
pint.
ounces
pint.
What
tablespoonsof baking
How
8.
pint of liquidcontains
9.
cup
Two
many
part
7.
10.
cup ?
many
cups
of sugar
cups
of
corn
will 56
weighs
meal
how
how
tablespoons?
many
many
is what
soda
ounces
part
of
pound
fill?
105
FOOD
weight in
:
followingquantities
Give
11.
the
the
and
ounces
fractions of
"
(a) 1
(b) 1
(c) 3
(d) 1
(e) 1
cup
of butter.
cup
of rice.
cups
chopped
(/) 1
(g) 1
(7i)1
(i) 1
meat.
cup
of coffee.
cup
of conf. sugar.
is the cost
What
12.
of each
of the
,cup of
powdered
cup
of brown
cup
of rye
cup
of oatmeal.
Cost
In
to calculate
order
the
Cost
results
tabulated
pound
per
or
following:
of
Cost
per
cupful.
Cost
per
tablespoonful.
Cost
per
teaspoonful.
day
cupfuls in pound
it is
in
once
it is necessary
even
to
to know
priceper teaspoonthree
decimal
places
quart.
Number
When
follows
as
sugar.
of Food
sugar.
meal.
to
of
pound
or
calculated
quart.
the
data
may
be used
from
day
1.
What
pound
is the
(4 cups
cost
in
teaspoonfulof
pound.)
per
cocoa
at
38
cents
106
VOCATIONAL
at 10
cents
3.
What
What
pound
cost
is the
cost
third
(2J
is the
walnuts
in
cups
of
of
a
of
cup
tablespoonfulof
powdered
sugar
at 23
cents
pound.)
in
pound
cream
(10 slices
(16 pats
What
at 10
cents
10.
What
cents
in
12 cents
pound
cents
tablespoonsof
in a pound.)
toast
coffee at 35
at
of
in
pound
pat
of butter
is the
pound
is the
cents
cents
loaf ?
cents
pound
pound.)
ordinary serving of
(15 servingsin a pound.)
cost
cost
of
an
of
serving of
cornflakes
(f of cup)
cream
is the
cents
of
of
cost
cost
an
serving
of
cheese
at
of
serving of cabbage
servingof stewed
cents a pound ?
(A half pound of sugar at 7
to the apricots. Nine
servingsin a pound.)
cost
at
20
at
cents
pound.)
is the
macaroni
ordinary serving of
(11 servings to the pound.)
cost
(9 servingsin
What
What
at 38
(29
pound
pint?
is 3
at 20
3 slices of
of
cost
is the
nuts
loaf.)
is the
What
12.
is the
What
11.
of 6
cost
of coffee
of butter
9.
of 6
is the cost
What
8.
cents
6J
at
sugar
pound.)
(41 cups
What
7.
teaspoonfulsof
pound.)
cost
is the
of 2
in
cups
is the
What
6.
13.
(2
What
5.
24
pound
of
cost
GIRLS
FOR
pint?
4.
is the
What
2.
MATHEMATICS
of
salad
if cabbage
pound?
oil and
a
(A
vinegar
quart.)
apricotsat
cents
18
is added
108
VOCATIONAL
the
Compute
recipe:
5.
cost of
FOR
of white
cup
quart
t. flour
flour,5c
pound
t. butter
butter, 39c
dinner
salt Ic
consistingof
is served
for
portionsfrom
six.
What
cost
the
lowing
fol
pound
cup
potatoes,peas,
torte,coffee,cream
is the
person?
per
rib
and
roast,
sugar
Estimate
given.
amounts
AMOUNTS
DISHES
potatoes
Peas
Rib
mashed
fruit salad,krummel
rolls,jelly,
Mashed
from
sauce
milk, 9c
t. salt
6.
GIRLS
milk
1 cup
4"
4"
MATHEMATICS
roast
tablespoons butter
tablespoons
of 4lb. roast
"
or
can
3 cups
Rolls
cup
tablespoons sugar,
flour at
.
can
per Ib.
lc per
at 2c
Ib.
per
at 13c per
at 28c
Gravy
milk
at 40c
cup
cup
per
at2c
Jelly
" glassat
and
Apple
grape
salad
Saratoga flakes
Salad
dressing
apples
glass
lOc per
doz.
at 8c per
Ib. grapes
at 30c
per
doz.
tablespoons sugar
1 tablespoon butter
Krummel
Torte
\ package
f cup nuts
dates
at 7c per
at 40c
at lOc per
at 70c per
Ib.,3
Sugar
3 teaspoons
Sugar total
tablespoons
Butter
tablespoons
total
at 34c
tablespoons
per
TV cup
f
cup
Ib.
Ib.
per
package
cups
torte
as
per
well
Ib.
at 7c per
at 40c
per
Ib.
Ib.
Ib.
as
109
FOOD
7.
six.
What
the
was
luncheon
and
following breakfast
The
cost of each
meal
per
AMOUNT
DISHES
PERSON
PER
30c
mediumsized,
Toast
2 thin
Butter
Egg
flakes
for
person
Orange
Corn
served
were
slices,ic
doz.
slice
Cream
Sugar
Coffee
Luncheon
Ordinary serving, 4c
Macaroni
and
in., .02c
dressing
tablespoon, .OO^c
apricots
serving,2c
Doughnut
large,Ic
Milk
1 cup,
Cooked
Stewed
cost
cu.
Large serving,.02c
salad
Cabbage
8.
cheese
following dinner
The
per
AMOUNT
DISHES
roasfc
Brown
gravy
for
potatoes
Jelly
Very small, Ic
Buns
and
buns,
Ic
apiece
" apple, Jc
salad
of grapes,
Ic
oz.
tablespoon, ^c
portions, lOc
Dates
dates,lOc
Nuts
6 nuts, 18c
Cooked
dressing
Saratoga flakes
Krummel
Whipping
Sugar
Cream
is the
Fairlylargeserving,9c
grape
What
PERSON
PER
Peas
Apple
six.
Butter
Mashed
served
was
person
Rib
3c
Torte
cream
a
a
Ib.
Ib.
teaspoons, 7c
tablespoon, 25c
Ib.
a
pt.
110
The
9.
is
children
two
a.
largepotatoes
2 tb. flour
qt. milk
1
dash
3 tb. butter
1 t.
is the
What
woman's
equal
man's)?
to
The
wife, and
diet
two
onehalf
diet,and
man's
is the
three
and
women,
a
b. What
recipefor
recipe for
one
Beef, 1
Ib.
1^ qt. water
Bones,
1 Ib.
5 tb. butter
is
What
and
women,
wife, and
2"
the
salt
pepper
recipe
for
b. What
child ?
two
is
sourmilk
children
biscuits
is
1 t. salt
c.
sour
t. soda
"
water
"
What
is the
five children ?
recipe for
6. What
is the
Food
heating value
given off
when
is oxidized
burned.
slowly in
of food
The
order
for
family
two
of husband,
1 tb. fat
flour
c.
finelychopped parsley
1 tb.
recipe for
The
familyof husband,
is :
children
two
for
vegetablesoup
The
chopped parsley
?
(adult)
person
a.
pepper
five men,
recipe for
child's
11.
wife,and
man,
t. salt
2 slices onion
(considera
a.
family of
children
10.
for
soup
GIRLS
FOR
MATHEMATICS
VOCATIONAL
man,
(lardor butter)
milk, or \ c. sour
wife,
recipefor
two
one
milk
boarders, and
adult
Values
is measured
food
to
taken
give us
by
of heat
the amount
abilityto
system
do
work
111
FOOD
of heat
the number
units
English
The
metric
English
C while
small
All
experiments
the
be well to know
show
of flour ?
each
Since each
C.
Other
and
is
scale.
sary
neces
scale.
Centigrade
the
The
large letter
represented by
of
1 gram
of fat
1 gram
of
the
of
of 10.6
composed
experiments
yields 9300
illustrate
the
essary
nec
shown
Calories
It may
:
What
Department
% protein,
have
Calories
of foods.
To
experiments by
0.106
ounce
protein
0.011
ounce
fat
0.763
ounce
carbohydrates
of
ounce
carbohydrates
only
of
that
(C)
(C)
Calories
Calories
(C)
(C)
of flour contains
ounce
of
It is
of fat
1 ounce
11.98
fuel value
is determined.
1 ounce
or
system, while
metric
in this book.
is used
of
ounce
in the
English system.
1 gram
Then
of heat
of heat
amount
represented by
givesthe
28
Careful
that flour is
% carbohydrates.
or
No.
how
value
Agriculture
76.5
quantity
unit.
Department of Agriculture
States
Bulletin
Department
fuel
is
calorie
in the
are
United
The
is the
the
on
metric
the Fahrenheit
on
is the
conducted
are
daily life
in
to know
The
and
c.
scientific
measurements
our
and
small
English
degrees
and
large Calorie
the
degree
unit is called
the metric
four
one
it represents the
calorie
of water
gram
is called
unit
letter
of water
to raise
heat
Calorie, and
pound
is
the
energy
measuring
for
unit is called
to raise
necessary
The
units
two
are
food
that
0.011
oz.
will
protein yields113 C,
of fat will
yield 0.763
yield
x
255
113, or
0.106oz.
x
will
0.011, or
86.22
yield113
2.81 C.
0.106,
0.763
oz.
C.
EXAMPLES
1.
0.7
Rice
"/0fat.
contains
What
protein, 79.5 %
of 3
oz.
carbohydrates,and
rice ?
112
2.
Milk
contains
What
is the
fat.
fat.
of 7
chicken
oz.
%
7.
fuel value
of 7
eggs
fat.
What
9.2
is
32.8
fat.
?
is the
What
fat.
% protein,70.6 % carbohydrates,
contain
of 3 Ib. cornmeal
?
hydrates,
carbo
"/0protein,63.4 %
16.6
What
fat.
16.1%
What
fuel
is the
of
value
Ib.
nuts
It is clear that
of
balanced
ration
the
heat
required by
approximately, dependent upon
amount
working
12,000
wife, and
man,
total
amount
vary,
provided
Some
authorities
required.
two
are
ration
nourishing
in its
total
the
expensive
an
from
2000
occupation, and
sixteen
under
protein,
for
fourtwelfths
at
of the
meal
each
of
requires
25%
may
required.
the standard
reach
day
of age
10 to
taken
calories
family
years
The
one.
3500
to
sex.
from
or
of food
quantities each
breakfast, threetwelfths
for dinner.
diet.
American
think
we
its
be
not
varies
quantity
The
in
that
of
1800
to
and, second,
it is, and
body
children
fivetwelfths
defects
need
age,
suggest about
luncheon, and
There
three
calories,1200
total
that
goodness
is in
fail to have
First, we
the
the
richer
proportion
food
the
anced
balmore
to the hours
spent
preparation.
The
and
10.5
walnuts
English
fat.
Ib. butter
of
% proteinand
"/0protein,0.5 % carbohydrates,and
0.6
contains
beans
oz.
pork ?
14.9
oz.
% protein and
contain
and
for
16
of 2 Ib.
is the
Eggs
3.8
9.
of 5
Wrhat
Cornmeal
8.
oz.
fat.
fuel value
and
contains
Butter
milk
% protein and
24.4
6.
GIRLS
"/0protein,57 % carbohydrates,and
(shoulder)contains
Pork
What
85
23.1
contains
of 8
fuel value
What
Chicken
4.
FOR
% protein,5 % carbohydrates,and
contain
Beans
3.
MATHEMATICS
VOCATIONAL
protein is the
it is wise
for the
have
list of
expensive.
more
generally
to
in
fish than
substitute;
valuable
most
and
proteinsso
Protein, of
in meat,
fat, of
expensive part
which
and
we
that
which
the
we
one
can
need
of the food
substitute
18
%,
the
is found
is
inexpensive peanut
be had
15%, can
need
supply
an
from
lesser
more
tizing
appethe
113
FOOD
from
than
which
have
enriched
cereals
and
for
the
breakfast
table
the
grains
butter, and
sugar,
from
the
and
which
they
be classed
beans, and
wholly such,
but
while
and
carbohydrates
more
are
less
or
breakfast
nitrogenous
of other
mixture
meat,
of the representatives
some
are
have
bread, potatoes,
carbohydrates,
as
to
foods
which
The
white
cabbage
These
group.
and
nations.
made,
are
indebted
are
housewife
busy
potatoes
partiallycooked
that of other
beyond
peas,
protein
not
are
of the
time
fats may
other
jellies. We
list of cooked
wide
economized
our
and
from
obtained
better
are
cakes, confectionery,
rich
inventions
modern
carbohydrates
and
of all meats,
fat
things.
In
making
evenly. One
starch
the
should
kind
of
The
balance
them
menus
food, one
have
to
much
too
meat
vegetable,and
tonic
starch, one
have
not
etc.
next,
of each
part
it is necessary
menus
up
Menus
Up
Making
fat
one
fruit.
The
summer
much
too
fat
excessive
Of
different
the
otherwise
suited
of available
take
to
bushel
of the
actual
nutrients
the
most
is
they
and
The
least
for the
cheapest
and
contain
at
the
ways
of
food
The
money.
same
time
and
the
this it
do
demands
which
to the
materials
with
of
supplies the
food
is that
needs
of the
economical
adapted
or
of the
amounts
the
to meet
is that
most
best
To
cost.
kinds
fitness
cheapest
furnish
that
and
also the
their
those
lowest
the
only
not
account
select
the
at
materials,but
different
nutriment
which
into
heat
palatable,nutritious,
are
should
we
nutrients
for nourishment.
body
which
materials
to
carefully,for
the body at an
most
be avoided.
therefore
for nourishment,
largest amounts
is necessary
food
compiled
tends
meat
should
and
rate
much
too
or
be
must
menus
user.
There
relative
way
of
various
are
cheapness
estimating
is found
which
This
can
be
in
or
expensiveness
the
relative
comparison
obtained
is illustrated
comparing
in the
for
of their nutritive
pecuniary
of the
given
table which
food
economy
ingredients.
of different
quantities of
sum,
10
say
follows
respect
nutrients
cents,
at
food
and
current
to the
The
best
rials
mate
energy
prices.
114
VOCATIONAL
MATHEMATICS
COMPARATIVE
COST
or
DIFFERENT
[It is estimated
about
0.23
The
pounds
cost
of 1
to furnish
nutrients
to furnish
pound
in which
protein and
energy
other.
are
the cost
Calories, without
the
the
means
protein,without
Likewise
1000
protein
energy
thus
is
incorrect
moderate
Calories
3050
cost
regard
of energy
in that
ENERGY
AND
work
of energy
per
of
of the
enough
the
These
neither
cost
kinds
gives
credit
given
terial
ma
of the other
of
and
estimates
requires
day.]
to the amounts
to the
IN
PRICES
muscular
means
reference
supplied.
GIRLS
AVERAGE
AT
lightto
at
protein and
of
NUTRIENTS
MATERIALS
man
of
of nutrients
of the
of
pound
present.
DIGESTIBLE
FOOD
that
FOR
of
terial
enough maproportions
the
cost
of
116
VOCATIONAL
MATHEMATICS
GIRLS
FOR
EXAMPLES
1.
What
is the most
economical
2.
What
is the most
economical
part of
mutton
3.
What
is the most
economical
part
of
pork
4.
Is fresh
5.
What
of 3
oz.
oatmeal
6.
What
of 3
oz.
rice ?
7.
What
of 4
oz.
strawberries
8.
What
of 6
oz.
milk
salt codfish
or
economical
more
soup ?
for
for
boiling?
roast ?
?
?
EXAMPLES
hundred
several
Since
100Calorie
portions.
this
and
portion
100C
2.
3J
100C
of
of
of
If
4.
100
C,
5.
C,
6.
value
what
8.
What
to know
of
foods
our
how
to
in
compute
Calories.
What
is the
weight
Calories.
What
is the
weight
is the
weight
portion?
give
393.75
Calories.
What
portion?
of
of
of flaked
cup
is the food
a
breakfast
value
value
milk
of 1
fat
food
givesapproximately
of 1 Ib.?
of skimmed
cup
teaspoonfulof
think
person's
reference.
1610.5
give
is the food
what
7.
Ib. of flour
what
If
to
portion?
100C
it for future
day for
each
meals
it is desirable
give 36,841
Ib. of dates
3.
tabulate
required
are
computing
Therefore
qt. of milk
42
1.
in
convenient
is most
diet, it
Calories
gives approximately
100
qt.?
gives 100
C.
What
is the
food
of 1 Ib. lard ?
If
Jof
mediumsized
is the food
4 thin
value
of
egg
an
slices of bacon
is the food
value
gives a
food
value
of
100
C,
food
value
of 100
C.
egg ?
(1 oz.)give
of 9 Ib. of bacon
117
FOOD
9.
If
oz.
is the food
what
10.
same
Ten
chocolate
of sweet
value
of
as
food
value
of 100
C,
lb.?
have
large pears
has
the
value
What
of 100
is the
food
C,
which
value
of
is the
a
single
raisin ?
11.
per
the individual
Find
and
week
per
per
day.
of
feedingthe followingfamilies
No.
FAMILY
cost
FAMILY
IN
14
Economical
number
in
TOTAL
Use
of Calories
column
COST
TOTAL
as
per
vidual
indi
suggested.)
CALORIES
of Meat
butter
and
lard.
The
bits of meat
not
served
with
the main
dish,or remaining
118
VOCATIONAL
kinds
Different
cheaper
the
edible
more
Aside
of
the
extractives, which
as
it
lower
tends
more
to
the
in
more
connective
tender,
heat
change
the
texture
tissue.
For
of
tissues
but
carefully cooked
be
parts of the
at low
above
tough
this purpose
or
The
and
meat
bodies
of
in
or
of
measure
little
tough
order
more
heat
even
Hence
fireless cooker
the
depends
animal.
long applied in
heat
fibers arid
abundant
fibers.
of muscle
pensive
ex
nutritive
Flavor
boiling point
the
more
nitrogenous
on
more
of the
cost
muscle
composed.
usually
tender
connective
the
of the
sive,
expen
in the
than
the
more
of the
that
flavor,rather
is
Sometimes
the
actual
the
than
character
are
than
advantage,
meat
GIRLS
price.
tissues,but mainly
makes
and
the
on
which
this
in
of refuse
really more
from
depends
agreeable flavor
cooking dissolves
must
is
cost
apparent
tissues
partlyon
considerably
vary
connective
FOR
larger proportion
Tenderness
known
cuts
portion.
cuts
value.
and
contain
cuts
and
MATHEMATICS
meats
to soften
the
be used
may
to
great advantage.
Steers
Beef
and
the
to
days
are
cooler.
before
standard
The
it
and
cuts
be
can
is
It
cut.
left in the
be
must
carcass
divided
then
several
cooler
into
eight
pieceweighed separately.
each
1.
What
cwt.
2.
weighing
steer
The
paid for
was
live
weight of
641
Ib.
beef
in the animal
3.
What
steer
is the
each
154
part
him
Ib.
for
$ 7.42 per
steer
is 1099
difference
dressed
weight
two
ribs
weighing
Ib.,and
suet
21 Ib.
to the
purchased
was
What
is the
of 677
Ib.
weight
percentage of
with
followingparts :
2 rounds
1093
total amount
61
What
Ib.
was
each, 2
was
the
cut
into the
loins 103
Ib.,
percentage
of
119
FOOD
4.
with
steer
What
5.
what
the
value
buys 8J
and
of meat
The
Ib.
dressed
live
weight 475
weight ? What
weight
8.
What
dressed
of
weight
the
What
live
weight?
What
did
live
weight
What
was
the difference
due
to the
sell
is the
low
6^
to
live
cts.
1314
Ib. and
of "dressed
cent
per
dressed
weight
at
selling price
of
at
cwt.
sell for
steer
the
for
Ib. and
947
was
cent
per
live
price between
in the
fact that
the
is the total
What
steer
sellingpriceper
Ib.
897
Ib.
steer
weighed
at
9f"
rounds
Monday, 9^
every
is the
the
highgrade steer
weight
meat
lowgrade
What
j"
18
sold
was
3 ?
week
Ib.
644
Saturday.
on
did
was
Ib. of
in
of
18^, loins
problem
Ib.
10J
purchased
live
weight
paid ?
is
housewife
amount
7.
ribs
of
of cuts in
Wednesday,
on
was
is the value
A
6.
dressed
to
9 cts.
pound
cwt.
Note
per
and
highgradesteers
greater proportionof the
$ 10.38
the
cut
cut
killed
was
cwt.
average
of each
each
steer
What
a.
the
was
total value
Ib.
and
selling price?
b.
weighing
632
What
c.
d.
What
the
was
was
the
sold
What
for
was
percentage
total
value
of
?
CUTS
WEIGHT
PRICE
58 Ib.
2 Ribs
PER
POUND
$ .17
2 Loins
100
2 Rounds
150
.18"
.09f
2 Chucks
160
.08
2 Flanks
30
.05
2 Shanks
26
.05
2 Briskets
32
.08"
Navel
46
.05
Neck
2
End
Piece
Kidneys
Suet
.Olf
.05
20
.08
632
Ib.
(Wholesale)
120
VOCATIONAL
MATHEMATICS
Cuts
The
of beef
cuts
The
house.
illustrated
differ
general
in the
method
of
BEEF
CUTS
"
CHICAGO
Beef
Hamburger
Dried
Steak
Beef
Shank
Soup
"
Bone
Loin
"
Steak
Sirloin
Porterhouse
Steak
Club
Steak
Beef
Tenderloin
Flank
3"
Steak
Flank
Hamburger
Corned
Steak
Beef
Ribs
"
Rib
"
Roasts
Navel
End
Short
Ribs
Corned
Soup
"
Soup
Pot
Fore
Shank
Soup
Bone
Meat
Brisket
Corned
"
Beef
8
6
STYLE
Steak
Corned
the
Roast
Round
with
Round
"
Rump
of Beef
followingfigure.
STANDARD
GIRLS
FOR
Beef
Meat
Roast
"
Chuck
Shoulder
Steak
Shoulder
Roast
Pot
Stews
Roast
121
FOOD
PORK
STANDARD
1
STYLE
CHICAGO
"
Ham
Shortcut
"
CUTS
Ham
2
Butt
Boston
"
Pork
Pickled
"
Pork
Shoulder
Pork
Steak
Clear
Plate
Dry Salt
5
Ham
California
or
Ham
Picnic
"
or
Barrel
Pork
Belly
"
Bacon
Ribs
Spare
Brisket
Salt
Loin
6"
Roast
Pork
Bacon
Pork
Pork
Chops
Pork
Tenderloin
Fat
"
Back
Paprika
Dry Salt
Barrel
Bacon
Backs
Fat
Pork
EXAMPLES
Hogs
is 75
to 80
differs
usually
are
carcass
the cuts
was
per
2.
When
of live
of
which
when
weight.
considerably from
of the
1.
killed
that
dressed
are
used
nine
method
The
employed
pig
of
with
consists
for salt
months
ten
or
pork
old.
cutting up
other
to live
per
purchase?
cwt.
nishes
fur
When
was
he
the
weight ?
sell for
This
bacon.
249 Ib.
hog weighed at the end of 9 months
killed and
dressed, he weighed 203 Ib. What
of dressed
pork
largeportion
clear fat.
cent
weight
side of
A
meats.
of almost
and
The
(dressed)in
order
to
cents
live
What
cover
weight.
should
the
he
price of
122
VOCATIONAL
MATHEMATICS
G'IRLS
FOR
bacons
and
made
are
by rubbing salt
Sugarcured hams
into the pieces and
placinga brine solution of the following
in a barrel, before
them
smoking them:
proportions over
in four gallons of
8 Ib. salt,21 Ib. brown
sugar, 2 oz. saltpeter
3.
100
for every
water
is salt ?
Ib. of meat.
What
tion
percentage of the solu
(Consider a pint of
Sugar ?
equal
water
to
pound.)
Sausages
4.
ham
with
ham
are
are
fat
and
added
to
pork?
STANDARD
I
"
CHICAGO
STYLE
"Leg
Leg
of Mutton
Mutton
"
Chops
Loin
Loiu
Roast
Mutton
Hotel
"
Rib
Chops
Mack
Chops
Crown
"
Roast
Breast
Mutton
'
CUTS
MUTTON
5"
Stew
Chuck
Shoulder
Roast
Stew
Shoulder
Chops
EXAMPLES
1.
them
A
so
does he
butcher
as
buys
to receive
gain ?
169
on
the
sheep
at
average
$5.75
$ 6.12i
head.
for
He
each.
sells
What
124
MATHEMATICS
VOCATIONAL
Fish
fresh
is
at
into
New
528,000,000
It
be obtained
can
towns.
seacoast
fish
What
7,000,000.
Ib. of fish
brought
were
the average
was
the
caught
were
1913,
year
of the entire
for
during
England
food.
priceper pound
If
sold
and
of
the year
Boston,
2.
figurein
reasonable
During
1.
kind
economical
very
GIRLS
FOR
in the
it would
represent
is the
What
country.
waters
of
one
catch
country ?
ham
at 24 cents contains 16 % protein,
pound of smoked
contains
18 % protein.
while
at 7 cents
a
pound of haddock
than in a pound
much
How
more
proteinin a pound of haddock
of ham
?
(In ounces.)
3.
4.
For
the
value, how
same
in the haddock
A
5.
of
pound
than
much
in the ham
pork chops at
proteincan
more
you
chase
pur
contains
25 cents
17
% protein;
the
For
6.
value, how
same
in the
of
pound
much
more
herring than
in
protein can
pork chops ?
be purchased
amount
pound of sirloin steak at 30 cents gives the same
value
of proteinas the pork chops in example 6. For the same
haddock
than
much
from
how
more
protein can be obtained
dock
What
from
the steak ?
per cent of protein per pound in hadUse data in Example 3.
?
7.
8.
If fish
per
pound, and
is the per
and
cent
If 5.3
9.
22
amount
be
can
of
purchased at
meats
of
spent for
less than
savingby buying
of the
the
at not
any
total
expenses
time
at not
20 cents
over
per
12 cents
pound, what
fish ?
for
foodstuffs
for
food,
$ 894.
is for
what
fish,
is the
125
FOOD
Economical
The
economical
most
and
cooking
the
be
must
paid
is to
for
buy
the
by
in bulk.
Fancy
All
consumer.
of
convenience
realize the
and
labels
elaborate
with
packages
food
purchase
to
way
Marketing
ease
instances
in sonre
is enormous,
expense
300
high as
as
"/o
.
EXAMPLES
purchase
cent
per
do
more
Wheat
2.
I pay
the
costs
it costs
produce
to
Good
3.
would
save
in
joined me
4.
sent
60
pound
What
butter in
the
butter
mold.
print butter
is the tub
rate
butter
per
cent
do
more
What
pound.
wharf
Ib.
group
she
and
much
How
of families
purchased for
was
saved
per
by placing
If the
butter
costs
pound, how
print butter?
much
cts.
I pay
If I
is molded
than
to the
cent
42
cents
barrel ?
weighing
per
18
beef, when
purchase a peck
I paying for apples per barrel ?
am
contains
much
bushels.) How
2Jfew
families
in the neighborhood
a
members
codfish
for
apple barrel
a
peck, if
purchasing a
of their
cents
What
retails at 17 cents
Codfish
one
5.
it ?
apples cost
standard
(A
do
more
cents, at what
for 50
dried
for
pound,
or
of wheat
much
How
cents
?
farmer
purchase a package
10 cents.
is 50
retail
much
how
the
If
1.
tub
Does
quantity of tub
34 cts. a pound and
cheaper (per cent)
a
it afford
the
same
nourishment?
6.
pint
the food
quart.
What
of
can
and
tains
con
8 cents
126
VOCATIONAL
MATHEMATICS
housewife
Every
kitchen
so
should
to be able
as
the
possess
following articles
to
good
20lb. scale
dry quart
peck
measure
liquid quart
halfpeck measure
quarter peck
above
The
and
if
see
be
should
of
8oz.
tested
and
Weights
and
measure
measure
"
sealed
"
by the Superintendent
the goods bought
Check
with
agree
graduate
Measures.
volume
weight and
in the
steel tape
00inch
measure
GIRLS
FOR
what
ordered.
was
EXAMPLES
If
1.
in
there
are
If
2.
inches
5.
If
12
often
16
by
How
dry
were
much
grocer
about
would
to
placed
in.,how
cu.
cubic
many
box, heaping
or
how
measure,
must
measure,
cubic
many
inches
when
cubic
many
full will
stricken
inches
in the box
to
sold
customer
by liquidmeasure.
for
by liquidmeasure
What
lose ?
four
home
she
the
cent
loss
that
the
was
measure
apples in the
counted
24 apples.
measure
if she
had
not
not
As
What
called
his
"
would
heaping."
she
been
have
attention
to
measure
Stricken
measure
is
measure
that
is not
heaped,
but
even
he
called
When
measure.
more
15
is the difference
the fact
commodities
reached
per
the
between
cent
his attention
He
14
by
sells
dealer
inches
cubic
many
contain ?
heaping bushel.
in per
was
basket
basket
the
box
cts.,how
6.
dry quart
halfbushel
does
inches
hold
2150.42
bushel, stricken
fiveeighths
contain
4.
contains
in
there
in.,how
cu.
quart ?
bushel
are
If
3.
231
gallon contains
full.
the
127
FOOD
7.
11
What
oz.
8.
and
lose
the
be
141
found
was
sold
for
12
much
How
ounces.
Ib.
customer
pound)
weigh
to
did
cents
the
of
quart
found
was
to
to
weigh
to
lard
lost
was
(supposed
found
consumer
of
pail
cent
per
package
was
9.
"
fivepound
"
be
to
ice
cream
121
cjc
bought
was
short.
for
40
did
much
How
The
cents.
the
box
consumer
lose?
10.
was
11.
weigh
girl
found
to
pound
14
bought
ounces.
contain
of
of
quart
54.5
print
How
cu.
butter
much
berries
in.
for
How
cost
did
39
the
ten
much
cents
consumer
'"
cents.
lost
was
and
The
was
lose
box
found
?
to
CHAPTER
PROBLEMS
MOST
live
people
its
and
advantages
floor ; there
one
to
These
home
to
when
is
one
kitchen
fire
of
some
dependent
be
The
stairs
small
mental
and
are
in
the
in
and
suburbs
and
and
escape
nearly
If
from
the
balances
has
his
in
city
is
the
the
and
on
walks
side
look
after.
work
of
the
form
for
about
suburbs,
quite
traveling
savings
and
flat.
all
their
as
return.
Perfect
an
outdoor
the
lation,
venti
in the
few
charm
furnace,
from
house,
flat
is
house
added
work
share
house, but
go out
it, where
has
In
not
The
healthful
If
with
land
the
not
are
petty restrictions
mind.
share.
wife's
ventilated,
more
the
ever,
How
which
on
can
man
little house
share.
the
rent.
from
husband's
the
and
climb
the
healthful
of
house.
will
people
cultivated, it
be
can
in
price
constantly expected.
city,brings
freedom
some
small
lighted
many
are
than
is
moderate
services
exhausting
or
there
a
a
well
because
of the
country
all duties
lives
for
income
and
bear
one
though
body
cellar, for
to
must
the
its
by steam,
to
range
build
to
not
fees
to
grounds
garret
he
has
flat is all
is heated
reduce
for
janitor
tone
flowers
and
blessing in
cellar,
of
flats at
are
physical surroundings
vigorous
vegetables
Each
work
gas
they
rooms
account
on
house,
more
great drawback,
light,sunshine,
give
or
impossible
the
upon
they should,
as
The
comfortable
the
HOUSE
house.
building
and
to find
it would
where
long flightsof
or
simple proportions.
flats
in these
the
advantages
very
neighborhood
flat
OF
stairs,halls,cellars,furnaces, and
no
too, it is possible
Then,
and
are
the
are
in
disadvantages.
the
only
CONSTRUCTION
either
for, and
care
is
there
THE
ON
VI
In
an
item,
case
person
of
about
128
spent in going
money
cheaper
receives
person
deposit
and
the
but
expense.
bank
time
the
should
an
rent
usually
not
income
$ 1500,
it is
pay
over
of $ 1500
usually
and
to
than
more
25
or
of
over,
better
to
OF
CONSTRUCTION
purchase
than
house
cooperative bank
and
house
the
of
and
taxes
covers
land
house
approximately 10%
the
be at least
interest
In
depreciation.
than
be borrowed
may
should
year
% represents
more
129
HOUSE
from
either the
bank.
savings
the
or
total rent
The
Money
to rent.
on
flat the
first
the
investment,
middle
floor,and
of the value
10%
and
floor should
the
of
4
cost
less than
top 10%
1.
single house
considered
the rent
A
3.
per month
4.
house
Carolina
two
floor has
and
What
should
be
What
should
be
should
(a)
be the rent
$ 6500.
costs
What
of each
should
flat ?
be
the
floor ?
three
architect
build
rooms,
garnbrel roof
cottagestyle,
bath, reception hall,cemented
a
It is finished
inside
with
North
has
pine and
coats
to
storage attic.
small
The
(6)What
family desires
containing seven
cellar,and
$ 2800.
$ 5600.
cost
threefamilyhouse
of each
rent
cost
per year ?
rent
twofamily house
2.
the
land
and
finds
that
as
the
follows
cost
of materials
in the
AMOUNT
ITEM
SUMMER
BY
IN
work
Mason
Brick
and
$200
SAVED
BUILDING
THE
FALL
$1(5.00
90
7.20
Lumber
500
60.00
Finish
125
12.50
Plumbing
Heat
(furnace)
225
22.50
100
10.00
Paint
and
cement
paper
Plastering
200
20.00
200
16.00
Electric
wiring
40
3.20
Electric
lightfixtures
40
4.00
(carpenters)
450
Labor
Profit to contractor
213
27.52
summer
130
VOCATIONAL
(a) What
MATHEMATICS
is the
difference
total
in per cent
in each
cost
GIRLS
(6) What
case?
What
FOR
is the
difference in each
item?
of
Economy
persons
not
understand
do
in
space
the
will
fundamental
building
square
by
houses, barns,and
long
form
square
its size.
10'
one
40'
by
other
that
For
buildings
there
is
and
that
one,
the
more
the
their building
more
a building
instance,
and requires80 feet
square
wall, while
of outside
fact
in
than
further
20'
build
who
Many
Space
will,with
the
floor
same
material
Accordingly more
require 100 feet of wall.
will be requiredfor the longer one.
and work
In many
objectionsto having a
cases, of course, there are
The
longer building,for instance,gives
building square.
wall space
and
be desired
more
more
light,and these may
space,
roof
The
items.
floor items
and
about
are
the
in either
same
case.
Preparation of Wood
winter
In
down
the rivers
thicknesses.
slabs
To
soon
from
the
out
Wood
of the sap
This
point
in
being
removed
and
excess
is to be
is sawed
into boards.
by
evenly
or
board
the
the kiln.
the boards
from
or
strips,one
would
center
strip,in
quickly
board
kilndried
atmosphere
lumber
in which
This
process
may
warp
of
and
piled
layer
is separated
order
to allow
and
upon
rot.
are
these
This
evenly.
If
another,
the
seasoning
or
months.
atmosphere
warm
After
logs,they
Each
it
dry
to
the
season.
requires several
subject to
of that of the
sawed
air to
the
off.
first sawed
are
of different
into boards
crosspiece,called
and
usually
are
open
each
dried
artificially
from
sawed
are
floated
slabs
without
dry
in the
log, four
in the
of air about
up
they
planks
or
above
pile would
that
dried.
one
piled
were
of the
drying
remainder
foundations
free circulation
lumber
the
square
Building Purposes
and
cut
are
sawmills, where
the boards
as
prepared
ends
to
off,the
are
As
on
forest trees
the
for
has
to
be
artificially
has
to
be
dried
it is to be
drying must
then
placed
be done
be unmarketable.
to
after
ually
grad
132
VOCATIONAL
MATHEMATICS
Frame
After
of the
called
sill are
front
side
held
half
On
def.
Firstfloor
c.
Plates
g.
Girder
d.
Ceilingjoists
h.
Sills
studding
the
walls
four
building are
to this
studding.
When
plate, is placed
On
the roof
that
on
are
the
is,form
the carpenter
uses
The
plate
is
the
by
corners
angles
placed
with
Sheathing
j. Partition
studs
k.
heads
Partition
posts there
timbers
Later
and
they
the
roof.
plate.
are
To
are
placed smaller
into the
position,a timber,
called
spiked together.
The
the
often
are
all in
roofs have
the
by placing corner
uprights are
Different
sill
apart.
upright
these
i.
joists
corner
16"
rafters.
different
large
/. Piers
framed
studding,2" by 4",
the
at
joists
cross
or
these
Between
corners.
called
timbers
nailed
of the
right angles to
at
joined
tion
construc
foundation
the
running
sills are
The
Secondfloor
The
top of
the
timbers
laid,the
together by spikes.
6. Rafters
sills.
foundation
the
de.
Outside
a.
on
and
The
placed.
sill is
Roof
and
called
timber
is finished
the excavation
GIRLS
FOR
of
principal timbers
different
obtain
pitch or slope
the
desired
"
pitch
OF
that
the
equal
to
CONSTRUCTION
roof with
roof above
half
one
level
the
pitch
of the
means
plate
is
133
HOUSE
of the
height
half
one
ridge of
width
the
of
the
the
building.
This
illustrates
roof
onehalf
with
pitch.
EXAMPLES
the
roof
the
Give
WIDTH
PITCH
1.
Onehalf
2.
Onefourth
40'
3.
Onethird
36'
4.
Onesixth
48'
buildings;
materials
many
these
among
into the
enter
mortar,
are
level of
Materials
Building
wood
the
BUILDING
OF
32'
Besides
above
construction
of
stone, bricks,
cement,
marble, slate,etc.
is
Mortar
to
when
the
5 parts of
stones
in
moisture
of the
absorption
by adding
there
sand, and
with
the
When
work
the
is
carbon
half
dioxide
the
and
gypsum
masons
done
much
as
"
with
from
it is used
to
lime
as
with
and
the
the
part of
placed together,
mixture
air.
"
Mortar
plaster a
house
is
sets
"
by
the
strengthened
; in
such
mortar
sand.
of
gypsum
with
crystals in
(calcium sulphate),
water,
the
forming
water
interlace
bines
com
and
set."
following rule
in the
plaster is mixed
minute
sand
of
made
cheap grade
the
and
water
generally
hold
to
evaporates
of
When
plaster to
to be
mortar
mixture
hair.
the
covered
are
hair when
cow's
is sometimes
Plaster
cause
the
is
mortar
It is used
sand.)
bricks
or
lime
by mixing
proportions. (Common
correct
lime
paste formed
Calculate
the
total
area
the
all
amount
masons
of walls
and
of
use
ceil
134
VOCATIONAL
ings and
deduct
such
EXAMPLE.
this total
from
doors
as
about
cover
MATHEMATICS
3 sq.
and
the
bushel
of openings
area
of
will
mortar
coats.
yards of plasteringare
28' by 32' and
ceilingof a room
many
plasterwalls
to
two
GIRLS
onehalf
area
windows.
yd. with
How
"
FOR
square
and
essary
nec
12'
high?
Areas
of the front
Areas
of the
Area
of the
back
and
walls
side
walls
are
are
28
12
32
12
28
32
ceilingis
672
sq. ft.
768
sq. ft.
896
sq. ft.
"2336sq.
2336
sq. ft.
**""sq. yd.
259f
260
ft.
yd.
sq.
yd. Ans.
sq.
EXAMPLES
1.
What
will
it cost
What
will it cost
to
high, at 29 cents a
allowed
for openings and
three windows
6' by 3' 3" ?
9' 4"
What
will it cost
high,at
thicknesses
of 32
cost
of wall
1 brick
wall, or
in
2 bricks
21^inch wall, or 2
1.
in
How
the above
in
by
the
in
in
bricks
much
table
square
ft. at
requiredis
bricks
thickness, 21
as
per
bricks
bricks
thickness, 35
area
is
by 3^'and
by
per
bricks
and
for
follows
various
superficialfoot.
per
superficialfoot.
superficialfoot.
per
superficialfoot.
EXAMPLES
solve
brickwork
180' long by
thickness)
its
yard ?
thousand,
thickness,28
in
8'
Building
thickness, 14
"
From
used
doors
two
are
the number
12finchwall, or \\ bricks
17inch
there
cents
is estimated
8^inch wall, or
13
by
28' 6" by
plastera room
yard, if onehalf
square
plasteran
to
Bricks
Brickwork
ft.
10
yard ?
9' 6"
3.
wall
plastera
to
the
is in
6'
high
following examples :
a
17"
wall
(that is,2
bricks
CONSTRUCTION
many
bricks
in
an
3.
How
many
bricks
in
17"
4.
How
many
bricks
in
211"
wall, 36'
4"
long by
3' 6" ?
5.
How
many
bricks in
12f" wall,38'
3"
long by
4' 2"?
6.
At
$ 19 per thousand
find
which
the
How
the number
number
long,16'
bricks
How
build
At
10.
build
to build
A
12.
13.
onebrick
"
house
is 45'
doors
and
requiredto
What
thousand
will
build
it cost
wall
will
be
There
mortar.
wall
partition
and
required for
12' 2"
wide
and
much
will
4"
28'
6"
be necessary
to
14' 8"
18', the
occupy
368
the house
cu.
walls
thick?
the bricks
will
much
long and
4"
long and
34' x
to
will
masonry
wall,28'
6"
wall
high?
8' 3"
the
high
cost
to
high ?
bricks
cost
?
1 foot
are
ft. ; how
many
thick,
bricks
staging,$
ing
build
customary
multiply by 22,
then
necessary
for
it is
in
4' 8" ?
12f" thick.
81').
and
yards of
long
(4'x
the windows
will be
18' 4"
long by
6' 4" ?
thick ?
6' 5"
cubic
3"
long by
feet
At
11.
wide, and
8^",or
an
18"
bricks
many
wall
and
are
walls
bricks in
of bricks
many
8"
of
6"
of bricks
cost
4 doors
cubic
of
many
How
9.
wall,48'
find the
3')and
long,22' wide,
8.
and
(V
is the number
7.
8J" wall,164'
estimate
To
36'
135
HOUSE
How
5 windows
to
2.
48'
are
OF
the cost
per
laying,$
8 ;
1.25 ?
Stonework
136
MATHEMATICS
VOCATIONAL
usual
The
for the
extra
work
made
for
in
making
walls
includes
they
around
are
the cellar
twice, but
corners
as
is
is deducted.
with, the
wall
the
to
allowance
onehalf
one
the outside
on
owing
No
proper.
large,when
very
considered
be
may
the
this is considered
corners
unless
openings
the distance
measure
This
length.
four
The
is to
way
GIRLS
FOR
same
height.
EXAMPLE.
31',10'
If
"
6"
the
8"
and
high
outside
dimensions
of
the number
thick,find
wall
44'
are
by
of cubic feet.
44
2r
?!
'5
m
ft.
150
4
"
1050
ft.
cu.
Ans.
"
length.
Cement
Some
Wooden
concrete.
cement
to 2
of
mixture
this
has
"
Within
the
and
to
in
desired.
poured
water
it will not
and
parts
pounds
cubic
foot.
steel rods
around
forms
or
have
and
the
for walls
cement
pass.
waterproof
and
and
floors where
"sets," it forms
If the cement
and
water
pass
crete
con
in the forms
reenforced
time
crete
con
concrete.
for the
crete
con
strength.
a
waterproof
layer
is inferior
will
the
the whole
long
tensile
part
weight
removed.
is called
It takes
arches.
After
placed
than
average
are
been
This
them.
cement,
proportion of
The
is
concrete
Portland
of
stone.
per
boxes
highest compressive
cannot
be
consists
concrete
the
and
up
of
made
beams
and
is also used
When
first set
twisted
years
its
are
wooden
walls, sewers,
reach
Cement
which
set,"the
makes
columns
concrete
It is used
The
parts sand
few
their
forms
and
have
buildings
or
surface
like stone,
not
through
is
through
properly made,
it and
time
in
destroy it.
EXAMPLES
1.
will
and
If
and
one
many
sq.
bag
bags
yd. 2""
of
of
sand
cement
thick ?
OF
HOUSE
and
of
sand
CONSTRUCTION
How
2.
to
lay a
cover
many
bags
34'
f" thick,how
four
sand, and
floor 28'
of
parts cracked
by
will
will it take
of
mixture
of sand
two
deep ?
20'
sand
will
of
and
of each
much
much
How
5.
8'
sidewalk
on
cement
of
of cement
bag
one
by
cement
thick
walk,
If
4.
of
foundation
How
3.
bags
many
to
required
8' ?
will
it take
to
5^ sq. yd.
cover
sq. ft. ?
128
cover
will be
two
needed
to
parts
a
cover
much
How
by
be
part cement,
one
stone
137
Shingles
Shingles for roofs are
sold by the thousand.
They are put in bundles
the
on
roof
each is
of
The
widths
vary
each.
of 250
to the
16"
4"
by
from
When
exposed
being
figured as
and
2"
upward.
shinglesare
that
are
laid
only part
of
weather.
EXAMPLES
How
1.
50
much
will
it cost
for
shingles to
ft.
and
Find
2.
the
and
the
cost
weather, if
half
of
the
cut
of
nails
at
$ 1.47
6 cents
for
125
roof
sq. ft.
roof
shingling a
shinglescost
allowed
shingle a
38
a
ft.
by
74
bundle, and
pound
are
used
4" to
ft.,
a
pound
with
each
bundle.
How
many
Slate Roofing
In order
should
to make
be tile
or
the
slate.
exterior
of
Slates make
a
a
house
fireproofthe roof
goodlookingand durable
138
VOCATIONAL
MATHEMATICS
FOR
GIRLS
roof.
of No.
square
Two
pounds
Labor, $
Tar
of
10
20 Monson
slate costs
galvanizednails
cost
$0.16
$ 8.35.
about
per
pound.
3 per square.
paper,
at
2f
cents
per
pound, 1
yard.
EXAMPLES
data, give
the
of
cost
making
slate
roofs
1.
What
is the
cost
of
laying a
2.
What
is the
cost
of
laying slate
on
roof 112'
by
44' ?
3.
What
is the cost
of
laying slate
on
roof 156'
by
64'?
4.
What
is the
cost
of
laying slate
on
roof 118'
by
52' ?
5.
What
is the cost
of
laying slate
on
roof 284'
by
78' ?
of slate ?
square
Clapboards
used
Clapboards are
buildings. Most
to
cover
the
outside
walls
of frame
How
of 40 ft.
How
2.
of 38'
3.
if 10
by
many
by
clapboardswill
be
requiredto
cover
an
area
30 ft.?
many
clapboardswill
are
be necessary
allowed
for doors
to
cover
and
an
windows
area
many
Called
square.
140
VOCATIONAL
How
4.
MATHEMATICS
many
outside,including
and
the
top, of
how
In
many
50'
room
feet
3" and
long
sheathing are
and
20' wide
(board measure)
\
allowance
requiredfor the
34' long, 8' wide,
freight car
all allowances
high, if 37^%covers
7J'
5.
is
feet of
square
GIRLS
FOR
will
for waste
flooringis to be
be requiredif the
is made
laid ;
stock
Stairs
perpendiculardistance between
called the rise of a flightof stairs.
The
is
floors of
two
The
building
width
steps is called
The
the
steps is
the width
of risers.
is the
slight projection
on
the
front
The
board
each
step.
each
step is the
find
To
the
from
number
be
a
81 inches
nosing of
EXAMPLE.
will be the
or
to
more
this
for
rise
of
tread
by
The
allow
of
reach
to
the
Measure
comfortable
on
floor to another
one
Divide
of
tread.
stairs necessary
is the most
tance
dis
between
Nosing
which
run.
perpendicular
called
STAIRS
all the
of
9
first.
inches,
should
run
with
inches
inches.
"
How
riser,if
steps will
many
the
118
f
118
r
between
distance
8
15
be
required,and
floors is 118
14 or 15 steps.
inches each riser.
7Jf
what
inches
Ans.
EXAMPLES
1.
How
many
riser,(a) if
steps will
the distance
is 9 feet ?
be
between
required,and
floors
what
is 8' ?
will
(6) If
be
the
tance
the dis
CONSTRUCTION
How
2.
OF
steps will be
many
the distance
riser,(a) if
141
HOUSE
required,and
what
floors is 12' ?
between
will
(b) If
be the
the distance
is 8' 8"?
Lathing
Laths
thin
are
which
upon
put
the
in bundles
up
apart and
pieces of wood, 4
plasteringof a house
fiftywill
of
long
about
and
is laid.
hundred.
one
cover
ft.
They
in.
11
They
wide,
are
ally
usu
nailed
are
in.
sq. ft.
30
EXAMPLES
At
1.
30 cents
wall
plastera
45
At
2.
plastera
wall
and
walls
at 411
a.
cents
c.
20'
per
15' xir
x 18' x 12'
28'
30'
ft. ?
to
lath
15'
will it cost
to lath
and
what
will it cost
to lath
and
40
to lath
yard
and
plastera room
(including
by 12 ft. high,allowing34 sq. ft.
cents per square
yard ?
ft. square
square
16
doors, at
6. 18'
by
will it cost
What
yard
square
16
ceiling)
what
15 ft. ?
by
it cost
and
yard
square
per
18 ft.
will
for windows
4.
12 ft.
cents
What
3.
per
and
plasterthe followingrooms
high
with
door
high
with
high with
high with
high with
8'
x2"'and
2 windows
door
4 windows
door
4 windows
2"'x
2'X
2f x
door
10'
3' and
4 windows
3'
x5'.
door
10'
3' and
3 windows
3'
x5'.
5'.
5'.
4'.
Painting
of dry coloring matter
is composed
or
Paint, which
with
oil,drier, etc., is applied to the surface of wood
brush
which
to
will render
exterior
it is
wooden
preserve
of
the wood.
it
houses.
applied.
houses
The
impervious
It should
The
unit
of
two
coats
are
to
paint
must
water,
or
be
composed
rain would
thoroughly conceal
is
pigment
by means
one
painting
square
usually applied.
the
of
of materials
it from
wash
surface
yard.
mixed
In
to
the
which
painting
142
MATHEMATICS
VOCATIONAL
estimated
It is often
the first coat
and
for
openings
paint
of
pound
one
yd.
6 sq.
usually
for considerable
that
onehalf
about
is used
in
GIRLS
FOR
paint
painting
of
area
around
4 sq.
cover
allowance
Some
coat.
the
will
yd.
for
is made
openings is deducted,
them.
TABLE
1
1
300
to 375
feet
superficial
190
to 225
feet
superficial
375
to 525
feet
superficial
concrete
on
stone
on
brick
or
work
1
gallon of paint
will
cover
on
wood
cover
on
face
wellpainted sur
iron
or
1
1
....
gallonof
gallonof
600
will
tar
tar will
cover
cover
on
first coat
on
second
superficialfeet
90
feet
superficial
160
superficialfeet
to
paint a fence
required for
...
coat
EXAMPLES
How
1.
6'
50'
high,and
16'
will be
What
2.
yards of
per
the
is
floor 22'
varnishing a
paint a ceiling36' by
will it cost to
square
yard
What
will
flat
of
cost
long
and
29' at 21 cents
?
be the
the
of
cost
gallon of paint
one
if it
What
4.
if
wide,
3.
long,
it take
sq. ft.?
350
every
many
paint
it takes
costs
house
paintinga
is 52'
which
gallon of paint to
one
cover
(House
has
roof.)
Papering
Wall
is 18"
paper
yards long or
price on paper,
single or
double
double
roll.
paper,
double
be
sure
roll.
There
hence
wide
and
may
rolls 16
that
It is
be
bought
yards long.
you
know
it is difficult to
waste
single rolls
When
whether
you
in
estimate
cutting and
the
get
it is
economical
usuallymore
is considerable
in
exact
by the
to buy a
ing
matchamount.
fraction of
roll is not
OF
CONSTRUCTION
there
sold,
"
143
HOUSE
various
are
frieze,is usuallysold
rules
vided.
pro
the
yard.
this by
in feet,and divide
the perimeter of the room
Find
of the paper
the width
(which is 18" or li'). The quotient
of stripsof paper
obtained
required. Then
equals the number
in order
divide the length of the roll by the height of the room
border, called
The
the
obtain
to
number
requiredis found
stripsin the roll.
rule
is
Find
perimeter of
the
double
for doors
roll ?
and
window
each
How
in
yards,
of strips. Find
stripscan you cut
number
whole
yard
the
by
room
room
many
deduct
windows
the
of
number
of
rolls
Another
by
from
allow
To
perimeter for
the
each door.
and
EXAMPLES
1.
18' with
door
the windows
he
and
by
4'.
much
How
9'
will
be
The
door
18'
room
square
double
many
rooms
paper
to paper
windows.
three
(Considerall
How
2.
is 3'
rolls of
by
7' and
by
will
paper
high.)
required to
paper
18'
room
14' ?
by
How
3.
18' 6"
4.
16'
a
2'
use
is asked
hanger
paper
much
16' 4"
by
How
4"
roll to
with
much
with
will
paper
on
cost
and
doors
place it
it
the
required
and
2 doors
will
be
2 windows
to
windows.
room
paper
?
a
paper
to
room
The
paper
19'
6"
by
49^
costs
wall.
Taxes
Find
out
where
the
etc.
schools,police,library,
obtained
What
persons
is
What
in
is real estate
poll tax ?
and property
a
A
to
tax
from
comes
money
your
?
is the
defray the
city or
What
sum
is
to
town.
the
How
is it
personalproperty ?
of money
expenses
support
of the
assessed
on
community.
144
VOCATIONAL
The
MATHEMATICS
FOR
GIRLS
is
dollars
usually expressed as so many
thousand
of valuation,generally between
$ 10 and
$ 20.
of mills on
some
placesit is expressedas a certain number
tax
cents
or
The
rate
tax
the
rate, or
of thousand
illustrate
In
amount
The
taxable
each
on
by dividing the
of taxable
dollars
$ 1
thousand
whole
dollars
of
ber
by the numcommunity.
tax
property in the
certain
In
$ 100.
on
property, is determined
To
per
is $
property
whole
the
community
is
tax
$1,942,409.73.
97,945,162.00.
$1,942,409.73
983
97,945
EXAMPLES
If the tax
1.
family of
2.
What
3.
is the
property worth
4.
rate
is the
tax
taxable
The
expenses
Obtain
property
(taxes)necessary
the tax
The
The
town
or
has
bill,if
personal
the
tax
rate
$ 8500
and
the
tax
rate
is the tax ?
valued
at
United
cityis $ 97,945,162.00
; and the
the city are
$ 1,900,136.14.
run
rate.
States
cityderives
personal property.
revenue
of
to
United
their
city?
or
is $ 23.45 ?
6.
and
is $ 2 ?
at
house
town
$ 84,313,and
polltax
What
on
paid by
taxes
$ 16,000 ?
is his tax
is valued
thousand.
per
Wrhat
5.
and
house
worth
worth
$ 16,584. What
hundred
the
are
$ 34,697 in your
on
real estate
dwelling
is $ 17.52
tax
owns
is $ 1.75 per
21.85, what
owning property
women
man
is $
rate
from
States
tax
from
taxes
county and
state
revenue
The
Revenue
imposed
the
upon
government derives
levied
derive
towns
and
real
on
part
of
cities.
rev
from
enue
articles
free
the
on
duties
regard
the
value
to
article
When
goods
written
statement
Sometimes
be
must
the
goods
bottles
made
of
value
from
the
total
of
by
accompanied
manifest
the
case
value
the
examined
are
are
(called
in this
without
duty).
valorem
goods
to
ing
follow
article
an
upon
they
said
are
weight
by
of
the
obtain
to
invoice).
or
weight
an
rel
barthe
imposed.
broken
before
ad
country,
and
subtracted
is
its
upon
of the
both
or
based
duty
The
and
liquid,
duty
are
this
into
are
or
one
quantity
or
called
and
quantity
be
must
which
on
cent
officer).
customs
of
(called tare)
case
weight
to
these
free;
country
subject
are
the
received
are
the
weight
others
in per
(expressed
(called
In
the
into
on
within
duties,imposed
customs
officer
net
The
duty placed
list.
sold
liquor
countries.
other
admitted
are
145
HOUSE
and
tobacco
on
tax, called
from
imported
Some
be
from
and
boundaries
articles
placed
tax
OF
CONSTRUCTION
and
have
liquids
is called
This
imposing duty.
allowance
due
escaped,
leakage
breakage.
or
EXAMPLES
1.
What
is the
duty
on
bronze
worth
2.
What
is the
duty
on
goods
valued
3.
What
$ 0.09
per
4.
What
5.
What
$ 834
6.
41
ad
is
45
per
What
valorem
duty
foot
is the
What
invoiced
the
square
at
cts.
7.
is
at
on
duty
jewelry
on
$ 3115
ft. of
at
35
valued
at
$ 8376
handkerchiefs
cotton
40
at
valued
?
at
is the
duty
on
pound
plus
50
"/0?
is the
duty
on
rugs
$ 1.80
?
sq.
at
45
at
duty
the
3843
on
$ 8760
yard,
woolen
at
knit
goods
(Brussels), 120
29
cts.
per
square
valued
yards,
yard
at
$ 1643,
27"
wide,
and
45
CHAPTER
COST
about
WHEN
consider
This
OF
FURNISHING
furnish
to
is the amount
depend
After
to
study
lived
the
opportunity,
needed.
this
articles may
There
way
kind
the
upon
it is neither
made
of
styles that
mahogany
only
of
least
$ 250
have
saved
one
at
before
purpose.
keeping.
starting house
the
essentials
of
house.
for
short
of
can
time, it will be
each
add
of
and
room,
such
other
undesirable
time,
things
and
easy
as
as
are
inharmonious
other
or
wages
of inferior
willow,
or
the
which
expensive woods,
and
best
those
usually afford
so
grades
are
more
erally
genfound
of
made
are
consists
income
buy
the
little care
be
may
whose
to
it is put
grades
durable, and
cost
is not
with
medium
The
are
and
wood
satisfactory. The
salary cannot
with
care
The
inexpensive furniture
attractive.
nor
permanently
are
most
It is made
durable
grades of furniture.
used, and
The
birch, oak,
and
styles and
of wood
finished.
in
with
necessities
purchase
different
many
together and
that
the
person
purchase
house
permit,
money
income.
be avoided.
are
depends
the
possibilitiesand
and
In
in
things to
the
small
or
first
the
home
to
the
to
on
his
apartment
has
one
of
to be devoted
should
is sufficient
furnished
simply
HOUSE
house, one
This
of money
should
amount
VII
than
few
that
is well
taste
of
decoration
The
only furniture
walls
all
by
striking
from
people of good
good judgment.
Furnishing
The
is chosen
free
should
floor should
be
be
necessary
painted
tiled
or
with
covered
the
Hall
paint in
with
inlaid
146
is
some
rack
color, and
warm
linoleum
for umbrellas.
in
tile
or
the
mosaic
148
MATHEMATICS
VOCATIONAL
the
Compare
2.
of
cost
GIRLS
hall
furnishing a
with
mahogany
birch.
or
If
3.
lives in
be
4.
did
should
What
selected?
furniture
the
hall
furnished
was
with
kind
What
it cost ?
chairs,$
much
stained
simplified.
If
wide
and
exceed
not
and
year
of furniture
should
for
the
hall
umbrella
Table
cover
have
must
stand, $
of
care
yard.
is
matting
Next
It
house
are
neutral.
be
it is
satisfactory;
tary
sani
the most
matting,
to
cheap, looselywoven
felt),$1.15
2.20
2.10
of
(one yard
furnishingand
Japanese
or
fiftycents
get under
not
What
probablypurchased ?
was
China
floors the
Canton
costs
economical
does
one
of
quality
and
kind
following articles.
Pole, $
or
yard
dust
7.40
hardwood
best
The
$ 1400
Rug, $9.85
Table, $2.20
With
the
of furniture
$ 2.15
Mirror,
Two
cost
of
Seat, $11.85
FOR
well,and
wears
matting
the
woolen
or
selectingfloor coverings
In
design
The
there
quality should
and
COVERINGS
be
several
are
governed by
important
the
considerations.
the
treatment
rug
will
necessarilyhave.
Hall
A
hall
should
color
a
be
or
or
rug
good.
in several
Rag
small
harmonizing
would
plain surface
Handwoven
rug, 3
by
wool
rug,
Handwoven
East
made,
rag rug, 3
wool
India
hard
wear
therefore, the
symmetrical design
colors
will show
dust
in two
and
wear
tones
by
by
6 feet
6 feet
drugget, 3 by
6 feet
by
$2.18
7.50
4.00
6 feet
6 feet
6 feet
6.00
8.00
9.00
Saxony,
Brussels
rug,
by
6 feet
9.00
Oriental
rug, 3
by
6 feet
35.00
by
quality
of
one
less than
do.
rug, machine
Scotch
allover
COST
Room
Living
In
Since
well
livingroom
there
is
and
center
always
darker
particularly if
the rug
rugs
used
color.
walls
If
in the
small
design,but they
they
room,
should
nearly
as
Good
Crex
Rag
or
rugs,
Scotch
rug, 9
grass
by
wool
HandEast
India
Saxony,
by
be selected
in
rug
by
in
perfectlyplain rug
spots
readily.
too
possiblein
as
12
by
12
hard
very
as
is
ingrainrug,
India
to 25.00
36.00
in spots.
wear
afford.
can
one
as
by
It
finished.
feet
12
plain surface
Inlaid
that receives
to
keep
day.
the space
Small
rugs
crumbs
very
hard
the
laid where
floor
an
usage.
$8.50
.......
$ 10.00
to 45.00
32.75
drugget,9 by
under
and
makes
also
12 feet
to have
diningroom
linoleum
12 feet
12 feet
36.00
50.00
200.00
Bedroom
account
well
shows
Saxony, 9 by 12 feet
Oriental,9 by 12 feet
On
up
should, therefore,
It is not
objection to having
no
floor is well
by
rug,
Brussels, 9 by
East
$14.50
Room
to 45.00
43.00
floor
Rag
310.00
200.00
excellent
Crex
Rugs
feet
dining room,
There
in
tone.
same
12 feet
and
differ
course,
feet
if the
best
the
design
$ 8. 50
quite bare,
The
of
in
50.00
good quality
as
exactly alike
be
32.75
rug, 9
gets
plain
in this room,
12 feet
Dining
diningroom
with
12 feet
Oriental,9 by
should
12 feet
by
it is
are
Livingroom
by
drugget,
rug
feet
12
wool
woven
is excellent
color
equally.
over
livingroom,
possible.
as
12 feet
rug, 9
Brussels, 9 by
in
are
rugs
be
all
worn
plain,
figured. If they are
small, indefinite figure. If several domestic
Oriental
be
forms
and
some
hangings
or
same
plain
as
of the
have
carpet may
or
are
covering
border
the
will
covering
variety of colors
the floor
keep
to
floor
the
149
HOUSE
FURNISHING
OF
and
beds
most
Room
Sewing
accumulates
bare,
needed
in
so
up
bedrooms,
that
are
more
it may
it is
be
good plan
dusted
hygienic
in
every
sleeping
150
VOCATIONAL
Plain
are
floor
clean
it is in
good
taste
to
use
lies among
preference
Small
rag rugs, 3
Oval
braided
East
India
Saxony,
or
in
not
Chinese
good
large
one
matting
condition.
in
rug
the
$1.75
6 feet
by
2.50
6 feet
by
8.00
6 feet
8.00
6 feet
Oriental, 3 by
Although
bedroom,
6 feet
by
rag rugs, 3
by
makes
following:
drugget,
carpet
the
GIRLS
FOR
than
rooms
MATHEMATICS
35.00
EXAMPLES
1.
3'
rug
family has
Brussels
3.
rug
of
twice
the
braided
An
oval
as
long
as
rag
small
is
houses
usuallybut
one
the
or
large rug
in two
room.
with
kind
income
an
It is
of
of
will last
and
room.
$ 1.75 for the bedmuch
How
purchase?
use
of
room
one
or
wall
very
six
in
it should
covering
there
rooms
is
represent the
should
family have
that
room
itself in
tones
five
but
is that
room
to
in
Room
This
of the
members
gray
The
common.
be restful.
that
is inclined
plain in
is
to
be
bright livingroom.
color,preferablythe
It
same
dark
One
color
walls,is
are
$ 2.50
costs
to
Living
apartments
living room.
graygreen
Chairs
that
rug
economical
requisiteof such
is,therefore,advisable
effect.
is good
Tan
the
What
49.75.
is it?
or
which
rug
rag
more
first
as
cent
per
purchased for $
suitable
for a family
The
tastes
by 12 feet,than
cheaper ?
economical
In
Brussels
rug, 9
crex
is
rug
Is it
is it ?
What
size ?
same
Which
more
is
cheaper
diningroom
$ 2500
4.
much
of $ 1400.
They buy
they extravagant?
Are
6' for $ 9.
How
2.
income
an
better
than
FURNISHING
OF
COST
151
HOUSE
chintz,if
A roomy
table with a good
this material is used as curtains.
while
bookshelves, a writing
reading lamp is essential,
open
desk or table,a sofa,a sewing table,and a piano are all appropriate
in
furnishings for
The
of
Plain
used
low
use
in
FURNISHED
be of
scrim
warmth
and
to reduce
look
cozy
the
to the
LIVING
or
net
curtains
or
of
does
be
may
chintz
apparent heightof
room.
Plants
are
not
be allowed
Use
very
the
over
to
tains
cur
give
the
Valances
room.
window
and
beauty
to
framed
interest,
to
little bricabrac.
actuallycontribute to
to find a place there.
used
or
give
always appropriateto
a
in sunny
attractive.
chintz
as
simply
room
ROOM
figuredmaterials,such
material
plaincolored
necessary
are
may
of
room.
HARMONIOUSLY
curtains
cretonne.
this
cushions
chairs with
willow
plain material,or
make
the
Nothing
of the
room
living
which
should
152
/Gas,
PRICE
LIST
$5.00
Wood
Stoves{
Coal,
17.00
c.
LIVINGKOOM
OF
Wood
or
FURNITURE
$15.00
Franklin
25.50
wood
coal
GIRLS
FOR
MATHEMATICS
VOCATIONAL
grate
andirons,
or
coal
$35.00
livingroom
with
livingroom
with
or
EXAMPLES
much
How
1.
libraryfurniture
2.
oak
handmade
3.
than
much
How
will it cost
more
Ascertain
Large
will it cost
to furnish
than
from
the
and
chairs
Bookcase
What
and
or
with
Curtains
?
a
designs in
couch,
cost ?
$ 51.15
9.85
Rug
and
oak
the
following
kind
of furniture
and
shades
for
windows, $6.15
shelves,$
is the
colonial
pricelist what
small
table, $7.95
Six
with
furnished
was
table
round
furniture
furniture
livingroom
willow
with
more
to furnish
draperies,$34.15
Incidentals,$
24.65
ture.
furniit is.
three
COST
stops
one
to think
in the
furnishingof
the
Unless
the
much
case
should
stand, a
toilet
small
table,a
is that
COMFORTABLE
BEDROOM
be used
permit,a
and
room.
If
neither
dust
rug, and
woolen
odor.
fresh and
clean.
in
sittingroom
or
and
be
bed,
reduced
one
If space
as
dressing
wash
mirror, a
easychairand
shades.
to
bare
the
be
attractiveness
the
floors,
carpet is
draperies should
nor
piecesare
requisite
plain one,
and
money
shelves,
Naturally,a writing desk, book
add
have
first
should
in drawers
window
is desirable.
cannot
one
All
be generous
study
life is
of one's
the
it be
furniture
necessary
picturesall
good matting.
room.
of
as
set,towelrack,one
couch
that
the bedroom
must
room
onethird
about
that
to understand
153
HOUSE
Bedroom
The
When
FURNISHING
OF
not
of
next
desirable
materials
of
best
for
that
such
thing
is
sleeping
will
hold
154
VOCATIONAL
The
bed
is the
springsand
of the body
should
when
it is in
should
be
article in
be firm
enough
horizontal
light in.
GIRLS
FOR
important
most
mattress
walls
The
MATHEMATICS
color
the
The
room.
to
position.
and
the woodwork
white
if
furnishingsof
in her
out
should
The
favorite
bedroom
girl's
young
color,and
be added
bedroom
for
the
to
should
usual
be
bedroom
carried
furniture
bookshelves.
sort
in order
background
cluttered.
framed
of
Instead
couch,which
plaindark
the
prevent
bed
daytime
the
he
may
be used
cushions,to
from
room
should
be
as
have
made
a
will
rugs
the
looking
iron
an
up
couch.
an
small
the usual
in
with
cover
to
one
with
A
fonier,
chif
or
two
boy's bedroom.
EXAMPLES
finished
inches
2.
for
be
should
Sheets
1.
sheets
should
of
be
The
many
long ?
The
supply
small
12 sheets
house
is
as
follows
@ "0.85
12
pillow cases
24
towels
What
of bedroom
@$
is the
@ $
.40
0.50
total cost ?
linen,blankets,and
counterpanes
pairs blankets
counterpanes
@ $
$8.00
2.50
156
MATHEMATICS
VOCATIONAL
If
3.
hours
many
bedroom
4.
day
Enameled
onethird
spends
person
with
is furnished
bedstead
of
the
wooden
plain
used
small
Two
washstand, $ 1.00
as
table
Chair, $ 2.00
Shades
Mattress, $
Towel
5.00
washstand
windows, twentyone
cloth for
washstand, $.55
pillows,$4.00
Toilet
$ 2.00
$ 3.15
Enameled
be
to
draping bed,
two
yards,
table
for
and
how
bedroom,
following furniture
Dimity
withsprings,
$7.50
"
life in
are
GIRLS
FOR
set, $ 3.00
for two
windows, 1
rack,$
1.00
.75
Rug, $3.00
What
What
5.
will it cost
furniture
What
6.
grade
will
income
7.
What
will it cost
What
gloss
this furniture
The
The
but
dining room
what
there
Mahogany
should
will
does
oak
are
broad, stand
The
and
chairs
of
woods
well, with
should
floor is stained.
income
the
good
is the
least
this furniture
buy
real
with
should
one
any
mahoghave
in
Room
the
to
the
furniture,
kind.
be
of
be
made,
well
of
substantial
most
comfort
high, straightbacks.
to
What
the
tage
cot
not
the
bedroom
least
Dining
is should
interfere with
not
table.
seats
be
and
enamel
to furnish
with
bedroom
in order
is the
simple
furnish
have
with
bedroom
above
to
in
family should
buy
to
it cost
furniture
furniture
order
provided
as
of oak
furnish
to
Unless
any
one
seated
with
one
at the
broad, deep
can
afford
the
purchase a sideboard
A piece of Japanese matting in the
the
when
floor is quitesatisfactory
it is better
to
COST
The
day
in which
room
enjoy its
to
FURNISHING
OF
the
meals
family assembles
together
should
157
HOUSE
several
be
the
times
each
cheerful
most
in the house.
room
AN
Because
many
there
is
blue used
as
much
so
dining
want
persons
in
the
white,
dark
walls,with
has
one
landscapeand
hangings
delightfulrooms.
Plate
rails
It is better
inharmonious
to
of
or
wall
lightand
reduce
decorative
makes
market
which,
are
used
room
in blue
and
charming
many
without
pictures
the windowsills
on
material
apparent height of
china
There
plants blooming
the
use,
take,
usually a mis
rug, and
the
or
on
lamps
the
fringe or, better still,
fixtures in
the table at
the
is
in
most
overhighceiling.
an
to crowd
make
and
objects.
This
arrangement.
on
bulbs
at
china
walls.
racks
use
blueandwhite
blue
days and
ideal
foliagepapers
with
hangings,
almost
an
attractive
rooms
ROOM
DINING
large quantitiesabsorbs
gloomy, particularlyon
on
ATTRACTIVE
all of
night, with
the
a
rooms.
are
center
ones
in favor
Candles, prettilyshaded,
jar of flowers
or
fruit
as
with
are
centerpiece.
deep
of side
used
on
158
MATHEMATICS
VOCATIONAL
GIRLS
FOR
EXAMPLES
will
What
1.
the
(Includethe
cost ?
in the
given
pricelist below.)
furniture
2.
What
will the
3.
What
will the
niture
following real mahogany diningroom fur
cost ?
cost ?
PRICE
Stoves
4.
with
^5""
/ Gas'
\Coal, 17.00
What
china
I
\
of the
soup
dozen
dinner
lunch
Wood
"
or
"
"
coal
$15.50
followingamounts
plates (to be
used
Franklin
25.00
to furnish
wood
home
and
grate
on
for cereals
also)
dessert plates
andirons,
.
moderate
kinds
or
coal
or
plates
salads)
\ dozen
FURNITURE
DININGROOM
OF
Wood
will it cost
dozen
1 dozen
LIST
$2.35
2.25
and
for
3.85
1.60
$35.00
scale
COST
"
\
^
\
1
dozen
breadandbutter
dozen
coffee cups
dozen
tea
dozen
afterdinner
coffee cups
hotmilk
and
saucers
2.35
jug or
chocolate
2.60
pot
pitcher
platteror
.70
chop platter
2.50
Covered
egg
with
glass,
kinds
2.80
1.50
cups
will
it cost
colonial
furnish,
to
period, of
dozen
tumblers
dozen
sherbet
glasses
dozen
dessert
plates
home
the
on
bowl
and
Dish
for lemons
Dish
for nuts
scale
moderate
and
following amounts
$0.50
.35
1.25
ringer bowls
dozen
Sugar
.95
dish
dozen
What
\
\
\
\
2.80
saucers
2.00
largecream
3 odd
0. 70
3.30
saucers
pot
1 small
5.
"
1.90
1 covered
cups
159
HOUSE
plates
and
and
teapot
1 coffee
FURNISHING
OF
.75
pitcher
cream
.50
50
.25
Pitcher
50
Candlesticks
and
Vinegar
Berry
I
\
6.
.65
oil cruets
dish
25
dozen
icedtea
dozen
individual
What
.50
glasses
.75
salt cellars
will it cost
to
.60
furnish
with
silver,pilgrim pattern, of
kinds
1 dozen
dozen
tablespoons
moderate
followingamounts
$14.00
dessert
dessert
spoons
(used for
dessert
soup
also)
9.50
9.50
forks
(used also
the
on
teaspoons
1 dozen
home
knives
for
breakfast,lunch,
19.00
11.00
scale
and
160
VOCATIONAL
dozen
MATHEMATICS
table
knives
with
FOR
steel blades
and
GIRLS
ivoroid
handles
Carving
\
dozen
$2.00
set
to match
steel knives
4.00
table forks
for
12.00
fancy
spoons
fancy
forks
\
\
\
dozen
afterdinner
dozen
bouillon
dozen
butter
1 gravy
for
jellies,
bonbons,
olives,lemons,
($ 1.50 each)
etc.
etc.
($1.50 each)
3.00
3.00
coffee spoons
5.00
8.00
spoons
spreaders
1.50
ladle
4.75
Saltspoon
.20
....
Sugar tongs
7.
with
What
2.25
will
it cost
of
ware
silverplated
Covered
dish
furnish,
to
the
home
on
following
may
be
moderate
and
amounts
used
as
$10.00
Pitcher
12.00
pot
12.50
Toast
rack
4.50
Small
tray
6.50
plate
6.00
Silver bowl
9.00
Egg
8.00
steamer
Bread
Tea
fruit tray
or
5.50
strainer
1.00
Candlesticks, each
3.75
Linen
Household
quality of
linen
possibly afford.
by hand,
in every
household
breakfast
The
of unbleached
insets of imitation
11.50
Sandwich
can
kinds
Platter
Coffee
The
scale
linen
runners
such
as
are
one
very
should
and
buys
be
the
napkins
for dish
best
are
that
to be
towels.
one
made
With
easy
to launder.
1.
table
What
and
% 1400, who
is the
bed
are
cost
linen
about
of
for
to
amount
income
of
of
Table
2 dozen
22inch
napkins,
2 dozen
12inch
luncheon
$3.00
at
dozen.
napkins,
asbestos
square
dozen
square
dozen
table
1 dozen
white
1 dozen
65
linen.)
coarse
for
pad
table,at $
1.00.
$1.20.
at
cts.
Linen
4 sheets
protector for
mattress
each
$ 1.10.
at
cts.
bed,
with
for
each
extra
one
in the
one
house,
$1.50.
at
spreads
1 down
for each
pair
"
dozen
bed,
of blankets
comforter
for each
plain huckaback
3 bath
towels
dozen
for each
washcloths
1 bath
with
bed,
towels
bed,
$ 6.
the
house,
$ 8.
at
at 25 cts.
person,
30 cts.
person,
at 11
cts.
2 in reserve,
bathroom,
at
pairs in
2 extra
for each
at
person,
for each
in the
mat
$ 2.50.
at
lamb'swool
or
"
of
yard.
flannel
Bed
hand
by
fingerbowldoilies,at $3.00.
platedoilies,at $ 3.00.
1 dozen
if made
breakfast, at $2.40.
for
fringed napkins,
at
dozen.
cloths,$12.00.
tea
runners
4 tray covers,
$4.50
at
cotton
or
161
HOUSE
Linen
Twoyard
\
^
FURNISHING
OF
COST
$1.50.
at
"
Even
in
fitted up
as
small
a
practical,and
extra
bedroom.
be
furnished
so
house
sewing
at the
This
that
The
Sewing
there
is sometimes
room
same
room
it may
in such
time
so
should
Room
kept
easily be kept
to
as
way
attractive
be
extra
an
as
as
be
which
room
very
to serve
may
and
convenient
occasionallyas
lightas possibleand
be
an
should
clean.
EXAMPLE
What
1.
will it cost
to furnish
sewing
room
lowing
the fol
with
articles ?
Sewing
machine
with
as
Chair
Box
dressing table
$ 20.00
1.25
couch
....
Chiffonier
.
13.25
9.00
162
MATHEMATICS
VOCATIONAL
against a
Mirror
$11.25
door
rockingchair without
Low
1.50
arms
3.38
tree
The
The
in
room
the
time
is
visitingforeign kitchens
settingfor
The
with
woodwork
oil
color.
be
paint,
found
should
limited
as
to
their
style of livingand
the
number, size,and
kind
in all the
other
the essential
it may
that
the art of
"
room
by
a picturesque
cookery.
learn
we
"
should
walls
material,
this
size of the
family
that
need
the
also
must
are
the beginner
furnishings,
demonstrates
to
required
Of
will do
in each
well
the need
to
utensils
extent
some
in
due
without
of them.
painted
be
of utensils
the
KITCHEN
real value
attractive
and
"
be made
washable
with
of
than
made
light in color,the
be
number
useful
more
be
CONVENIENT
covered
or
least
usuallythe
one
housekeeper spends
average
it should
whereas
house,
Kitchen
the
which
6.75
used
; tilt top to be
underneath
GIRLS
FOR
course,
light
will
sideration
con
the
control the
kitchen.
As
purchase only
of others.
164
MATHEMATICS
VOCATIONAL
EXAMPLES
Considerable
LAYING
IN
practiceshould
be
GIRLS
FOR
OUT
FURNITURE
furniture
according
to scale.
1.
bedroom
3' 6"
sidejand
wide,
door
is to contain
6' 6"
bed,
dresser, 3'
the
3' wide
the
12' x
two
4'
1'6"
feet from
feet from
followingfurniture
This
room
table,2'
chairs,1'
6"
6"
artistic
faces
the
the
15' x
room
6"
18'
has
wide
two
the
on
windows
side, 2
of
V.
J"
east, and
3'
north
2'
arrangement
dining
windows
east
Scale
furniture.
2.
3'
plan showing
most
the
dows,
2 winof west
corner
wall.
east
Draw
has
south, and
3' 6"
on
side,foldingdoors
wide
in
the
south
side.
center,
Draw
the
on
plan
and
"
SOLUTION
artistic
it in the most
1
dining table,5'
buffet,4'
A
3.
and
wide
side,and
place the
2'
chairs,2'
Scale, \"
living room
3' 6"
west
in diameter
15'
the
on
18'
north
faces
side, 2
foldingdoors on the
followingfurniture in
the
1 table
2 rockers
1 desk
4.
3' 6"
and
chair
kitchen
wide
on
12'
the
i"
south
side, 1
on
side.
dows
has 2 win
3' 6"
on
the
Draw
plan
artistic
manner
easychairs
Scale
and
most
1 settee
I'
windows
south
manner
1' 6"
north
the
in
the
I'
and
west
has
2 windows
side, two
feet
the north
from
FURNISHING
OF
COST
furniture
place the
1 kitchen
3'
in proper
wide,
dining
into the
that leads
corner
door
comer,
165
HOUSE
east
the north
feet from
two
Draw
room.
plan and
places:
1 table
range
1 sink
2 chairs
2 set tubs
Scale
"
livingroom
below.
Large
What
kind
round
table
fitted out
was
of furniture
Curtains
table, $8.00
Six chairs
Bookcase
2.
and
hall
was
10.00
furnished
was
Rug
draperies, $
with
the
of furniture
Rug, $10.00
Mirror, $2.00
Umbrella
Table, $ 2.00
Table
chairs,$7.50
A
3.
family
lived
"
expense
House
in
was
as
Washing, $
What
"
southern
follows
three
What
$ 1.00
$ 600
people
a
four
and
The
year.
dren
chil
monthly
Bread, $
3.50
Beef, $3.50
5.00
Vegetables,$3.00
balance
from
the
monthly
income
of $ 50
fuel ?
is the cost
1 kitchen
chair, $
1.50
table,$
stand, $2.00
cover,
grown
cityon
12.00
is the
clothingand
4.
seven
rent, $ 12.00
Groceries, $
used
was
What
Pole, $3.00
of
a
34.00
followingarticles.
Seat, $12.00
Two
for three
" 6.30
Incidentals,$25.00
kind
What
and
in the list
is the cost ?
shades
and
windows,
couch, $ 50.00
shelves,$
or
What
is it ?
small
and
EXAMPLES
REVIEW
1.
\"
1.25
of the
followingkitchen
1
broom,
Kitchen
furniture ?
50 cents
utensils,$
8.50
for
166
What
5.
income
should
2 willow
chairs,$
1 willow
stool,$4.25
10
of cretonne,
35 cents
is the
What
6.
1 bed
should
mattress, $4.25
chiffonier,$6.50
dressingtable,$2.25
mirror, $2.75
armchair, $4.00
1 rag
pillows,75
cents
this furniture
iron
2 white
2
cotton
of
cost
the
should
beds, at $4.25
30
by
dressingtable,$
of
and
yards
of
50 cents
bed,
one
at 35 cents
cretonne,
bedroom
family have
to
each
$4.25
cents
1.00 each
5.50
of
yards
yd.
furniture
warrant
buying
4.25 each
of
sateen,
yards
a
yards
a
cream
Sheets
.50
of cretonne, at
chair, $
25
5 cents
6.00
cents
of net, at 25
and
blankets
cents
for two
$ 12.00
35 cents
at
yd.
yards
basket,
fringe,at
of cotton
$3.25
25
yd.
cushion, 75
mirror, $1.50
at
yd.
comfortables,at $
cents
15
yellow sateen,
yd.
for
blankets
mirror, $3.25
dressingtable
25 cents
comfortable, $4.25
yards
Swiss, at
yd.
1 willow
II
7.00
furniture?
pink linen, at
chiffonier,$6.50
wastepaper
yd.
this furniture ?
white
pillow, $1.00
following
desk, $6.75
1 rag rug,
inches, $
buy
to
yards
10
1 chiffonier
cents
bedroom
each
at
mattresses,
pillows,at $
1 white
yd.
fringe, at 5
cents
each.
2 bed
cents
$6.00
singlesprings,at $2.50
48
yards of
a yd.
each
income
much
How
of net, at 25
Sheets
is the
What
yd.
10
3
7.
cotton
yards
$3.25
rug,
of
following
50
1 bed
singlecotton
50
frame,
cents
family have
spring, $3.50
the
of
cost
income
much
How
this furniture
linen, at
yards
Table,
yard
of
yards
basket, $2.25
1 newspaper
shade
1 wire
6 each
buy
to
1 green
9.50
1 rag rug,
yards
family receive
chair, $12.50
Overstuffed
12
GIRLS
following livingroomfurniture
of the
is the cost
much
How
FOR
MATHEMATICS
VOCATIONAL
yd.
beds,
AND
HEAT
is the
What
8.
should
income
What
of the
cost
receive
one
this furniture
buy
to
diningroom chairs,$4.50
lOyardsof cretonne,
One
1 rag
of Coal
Value
give off
coal
same
a
coal may
the
determine
calorimeter
methods
result under
the
yd.
50 cents
in
than
ways
trial in
conditions
of
The
value
heating
analysis to
in
under
or
value
of the
definite amount
noting
stove
grades
chemical
(1) by
Some
others.
and
water)
theoretical
Heat
(2) by burning
actual
give
actual
8.00
for fuel.
used
are
burning
of carbon
(3) by
at 35 cents
frame,
linen,$
to Produce
in three
vessel immersed
(a
first two
in
heat
more
amount
of the water
The
of coal
kinds
determined
be
LIGHT
AND
HEAT
different
Silverware, $7.50
1 willow tray, $3.25
dishes, $ 9.75
Several
shade
wire
Table
$9.50
rug,
1 set of
of
167
LIGHT
third
; the
boiler.
steam
real
gives the
draft,heating surface,combustion,
etc.
The
comes
from
generally used
from
the
anthracite
The
as
coal
follows
screening
square
last three
is used
reasonable
sizes
to
price
in the
and
the
that
the
This
Eastern
states
shipped
coal, as
grades according
to
size.
some
Pea, through
Buckwheat,
are
above
given
generating
one
fires,therefore,require
given
other
volume
fuel
of coke
occupying the
steam
in
through
for
less and
space
round
for household
it
use
as
This
in the stove
The
pea.
burns
up
is due
to
contains
therefore
or
at
grades
The
and
nut
and
boilers.
be obtained
can
purposes.
known
attention.
more
square
round
principalobjection. It
weighs
same
domestic
are
""
largepowerplant
in localities where
extent
has
small
too
are
household
square
Rice, through f
Barley, through \"
square
for
f"
"
in sizes suitable
generally used
of coke
than
round
usually purchased
coke
different
of the
one
in
square
Coke
purposes
Pennsylvania.
into several
The
household
fields of
sizes of
are
for
furnace.
of
use
quickly
the
fact
less heat
168
VOCATIONAL
chief
The
qualitieswhich
percentage of ash
excessive
and
by
its behavior
inspection
vary
may
factor
which
will best
of grate
when
burned.
and
stone
as
supply.
of coal
from
quality
which
of
This
firebox,and
be
may
an
easily
domestic
of
its
are
contain
it has
coke
been
made,
impurities contained.
coal, the
given
coal
may
slate,which
for
heater.
or
Coal
of domestic
selectingfuel
range
GIRLS
of domestic
size of the
surface,the
value
The
grade
in
suit the
the
characteristics
consider
to
the
100
as
the chemical
from
Aside
much
as
of
the
FOR
determine
of impuritiessuch
amount
observed
MATHEMATICS
is the size
purpose
depends
the
on
portant
im
most
amount
of draft.
the amount
EXAMPLES
1.
How
2.
hods
3.
Hard
coal of
much
carbon
A
in
January
is
cent
The
5.
housewife
of
carbon.
of coal.
How
many
the
live
in
it in
by
the
per
to
than
coal ?
buy
If the
cts.,what
price
is the per
economical
is the most
gallonsat 13 cts. retail ? What
to buy kerosene
?
(A barrel contains 42 gallons.)
How
1.
on
Each
the
division
center
to
the
on
circle
Read
1000
righthand circle
feet ; and
on
dial to
hand
the
Gas
is measured
denotes
the
feet.
way
Meter
Gas
10,000
in
lots ?
5galloncan
What
January,
rather
gallon.
55
gallons cost
June
time
economical
barrel ?
for $ 9.00 in
and
kerosene
buys
13 cts. and
If kerosene
gallon by
pounds
in June
is the most
gained by buying
cent
30
coal ?
gained by buying
When
gallon is
per
holds
90
ton
per
at least
of hard
what
4.
in 9 tons
coal hod
common
feet ;
100
lefthand
circle
left
from
Read
right,always
figureswhich
ing
tak
the hands
The
above
have
passed, viz.
dials
register3, 4, 6, adding
in cubic
feet.
HEAT
ciphers for
two
AND
the
To
ascertain
the
previousregisterfrom
the
above
Register by
16,400 feet @
If
2.
90
34,600
18,200
registered
1000
cts. per
at the
meter
gas
present, viz. :
statement
of feet
number
the
dials
Register by previous
Given
today the
what
3.
the
amount
vious
pre^
^^
dials read
is the
cost
What
is the
of the
cost
gas used
1000?
during
the month
from
the
The
feet ?
1000
is $ 1.00
rate
cu.
the
12th
Give
two
answers.
is the
What
4.
85 cts. per
1000
There
which
the
it is
ampere,
and
(1) The
pressure.
ampere
(2) The
subject of
or
volt is the
is the
through a
of
Meter
in
electricity
used
to
Electric
an
the
terms
the watt
unit
at
Read
to
important
It
gas
ft.?
cu.
three
are
of
meter
How
(See
cent,
of the
cost
this
registered by
per
per
paid before
month.
one
what
follows,
as
if
16,400
costs
reading registered82,700
feet,and
169
LIGHT
in
the
Appendix)
with
connection
understand
namely,
electricity
the
volt, the
kilowatt.
unit
of Electromotive
pressure
necessary
resistance of
electric current
one
to
Force
force
or
a
electrical
current
of
ohm.
strengthis
the ampere.
It
170
VOCATIONAL
is the amount
under
ohm
of
of
(3) The
volts
one
ampere.
if
which,
at
electrical
on
amperes,
have
we
line
is
consumed
(a kilowatt
345
as
1000
being equal to
hour
of
to 115
volt
115
3
and
device
volts,the
345
watts,
one
hours, or
watt
uct
prod
electrical
an
voltage
equal
operated continuouslyfor
meter
one
(amperes)in
current
respectivelyone
are
say, if
; it is the
power
force)and
values
is to
current
electric
the
their
That
of
of
(of electromotive
circuit,when
resistance of
volt.
one
is the unit
the
amount
of
GIRLS
FOR
flowing through
current
pressure
watt
operated
MATHEMATICS
hours
kilowatt
.345
hours).
watt
All
and
are
operated devices
stamped with the ampere
electrically
voltagerating. This stamping may be found on the nameplate or bottom
of the device.
By multiplying the voltage of the circuit upon which the
device
we
is to be
quickly
can
under
voltage
determine
which
is most
the
devices
that
the device
below
110 volts
above
stamping
much
on
at 130
Again,
about
Company
125
the
with
to
circuit where
volts.
The
if the
device
same
voltage of
be
plained
ex
line
be very
much
about
the
circuit,it is
doing
best
business
and
means
drop
not
with
the
would
be
be secured
used
heated
electrically
an
are
you
brought
device
it would
were
would
device
life of the
from
This
voltage does
the
By operating
operate
which
device,
latter,as
above.
110125.
V.
it would
from
attempting
doubt
results desired
as
voltage thus:
on
circuit
longer,but
slowly.
more
for
rise above
or
shown
the
on
of the
consumption
be used
may
stamped
panies
extensively supplied by Electric Lighting comis 115 volts,and where
this voltage is in operation,
stamped
are
found
as
amperes
the wattage
the definition
in this country
very
the
operated by
on
much
circuit
ating
oper
short,although
quickly.
more
the
fore
Be
lighted device, if
or
the Electric
to call upon
ask
voltage of
the
in
their
lines.
Incandescent
lamps
of
wattage
certain
sizes.
at
all
For
Mazda
watts
and
are
on
known
are
lamps,
lighting companies,
commercial
nitrogenfilledlamps
sizes of 200
while
"candlepower,"
consumption.
obtainable
watt
electric lamps,
are
use,
lamps
the
market.
upwards.
all
labeled
suitable
made
of 1000
the
to
for
in
user
average
with
their
household
watts
and
Nitrogen lamps
known
are
proper
use
as
and
and
100
as
the
made
in
172
MATHEMATICS
VOCATIONAL
with
if the
deducted
period of
15
SOLUTION.
from
days
"
First
bill
date
GIRLS
FOR
is
within
paid
the
discount
of issue ?
6120
kw.
hrs.
200
kw.
hrs.
hrs.
8?=
kw.
hrs.
kw.
hrs.
"t=
60.00
kw.
hrs. @
5/=
150.00
total amount
10^
used.
20.00
5920
Next
_300kw.
24.00
5620
500
Next
35.00
5120
1000
Next
4120
3000
Next
We
have
5000
over
figured
now
kw.
for 5000
hrs.,is figuredat
1120
kw.
kw.
4
hrs.
hrs., and
as
^ per kilowatt
4?
hours,
that
deduct
from
bill is
the
within
paid
that
states
all
have
we
44.80
$333.80
Assuming
rate
our
the
gross bill
discount
given
period,
we
the
gross
bill,which
16.69
equals I
$317. 11
bill
net
EXAMPLES
1.
customer
15
within
hr. of
kw.
An
In
meter
be consulted.
kw.
is read
hrs., as
passed
the
of
in the
kw.
hr. of
is deducted
bill,with
the
upon
the
which
pointer
advancing
first
same
way
that
words, completed
division
revolution, thus
itself
of
amount
Unless
in other
the
300
electricity.
for
payment
deducted, for 15
?
electricity
electric
zero, or,
11
is the
must
month
days ?
What
2.
one
of his bill if 5
is the amount
What
in
uses
to
the
digit on
right has
appear
its dial.
it
other
rest.
right
has
pointer to
the
extreme
second
to
is read.
meter
gas
before
revolution,the
it may
the
to the
made
has
not
Figure
one
pleted
com
reads
complete
has
FIG.
Fia.
1.
2.
"
READING
WHAT
"
173
LIGHT
AND
HEAT
11
is
THE
KW.
MRS.
READING?
Q/r^"\
f
3.
FIG.
4.
FIG.
5.
"
"
"
HOUC.S
ILOWATT
FIG.
"
"
READING
424
KW.
HRS.
WHAT
is
THE
READING?
WHAT
is
THE
READING
174
VOCATIONAL
What
1.
on
on
What
is the
What
3.
cost
171, with
page
on
is the cost
FOR
GIRLS
of
in Fig. 1, using
electricity
the rates
of
in Fig. 2, using
electricity
the rates
171 ?
page
2.
MATHEMATICS
the discount
is the
171, with
page
in Fig. 3, using
electricity
of
cost
the discount
the rates
EXAMPLES
is the cost of
What
1.
30 hours
burning
What
2.
will
cents
it cost
to
15 hours
it cost
will
An
to
electric
2 amperes.
kw.
per
at 9 cents
use
machine
per
by
motor
hr. ?
kw.
110
V. and
20
hours
machine
is
marked
will
electric
15
it cost
toaster
will
hours
of the
it 15
run
8J
for
is marked
to
amperes.
8 cents
at
110
hours
cents
prompt
115
it for
run
per
and
V.
at 81
cents
payment,
volts and
peres.
3J amfasts)
(thirtybreak
month
kw.
per
hr. ?
If
discount
is the net
what
of
amount
bill ?
Methods
Houses
hotwater
heated
are
system
pipes from
The
rooms.
the
water
to
stove
it cost
at
is allowed
washing
What
What
and
hr. ?
sewing
run
lamps,
hr. ?
An
5.
of
kw.
per
Mazda
hr. ?
4.
at 10
ten 25watt
3.
maintaining
water.
the
hot
of
water
Heating
air,hot water,
heating,hot
heater
in the
and
vertical
passes
to
the
air
in
is
passes
basement
to
radiators
the
coils
in the
portionof
pushed upward by the adjacent
the
of
room.
the
the
water
is set
radiators,which
the
through
boiler,and
circulation
from
In
steam.
or
water
in the
is heated
expands
A
hot
by
of
The
in turn
give
convection
up
and
it off to
currents
HEAT
heat
carry
through
the
and
room
175
LIGHT
AND
at the
time
same
provide for
ventilation.
the
In
hotair
method
through openings
in the
the
heat
from
passes
floor called
the
furnace
registers.This
method
is
no
air in certain
escape
so
fresh
air to
for
way
rooms
to
as
and
mit
per
heated
enter.
Steam
in
a
heatingconsists
from
allowing steam
boiler
in the
to circulate
or
basement
through coils
radiators.
The
steam
to
the
HOT
radiators,which
give
it off to
in
the
AIR
HEATING
SYSTEM
turn
surrounding air.
Roomheating
Calculations
In
and
order
health, every
should
be
efficient
or
the
able
this,it
to
HEATING
SYSTEM
room
select
an
in
to
the
most
In
determine
heating.
ical
econom
order
is necessary
for
WATER
housewife
roomheating appliance,
manner.
HOT
comfort
service
how
insure
to
to
to
do
know
the
quirements
re
individual
176
Steam
For
80
ft. of volume
cu.
13 sq. ft. of
surface
of
room.
wall
exposed
for each
surface.
3 sq. ft. of
exposed glasssurface
6 sq. ft. of
For
Hotwater
Add
50
(singlewindow).
(double window).
Heating
cent
per
the
to
of
amount
radiator
obtained
surface
by the
calculation.
Gas
For
Allow
Heaters
having
ft. of volume
cu.
of
Connection
Flue
no
1 cu.
215
The
GIRLS
FOR
Heating
Allow
above
MATHEMATICS
VOCATIONAL
for each
room.
35 sq. ft. of
9 sq. ft. of
18 sq. ft. of
obtained
results
followingfactors
if the
Northern
Eastern
increased
correspondingconditions
Fair
frame
1.2
2.5
2.0
12inch
or
brick
1.2
heated
in
Room
heated
only occasionally
How
to heat
is
bathroom
day time
cellar below
is necessary
present.
are
exposure
Room
"
on
of the
more
or
construction
frame
EXAMPLE.
one
1.3
western
or
frame
Cold
by
exposure
Poor
Good
further
be
must
(singlewindow).
(double window)
1.1
attic above
or
much
a
only
1.31.4
1.1
.
radiatingsurface,for
bathroom
the north
heating,
steam
containing 485
cu.
ft. ?
The
approx.
14 sq. ft.
Ans.
EXAMPLES
1.
How
for
2.
How
much
bathroom
much
requiredfor
12' X 6'
10'
on
steam
an
the bathroom
in
example
1 ?
heating,is
eastern
hotwater
exposure
quired
re
heating,is
COST
How
3.
large
in
bathroom
windows
2'
How
much
(c)
How
much
heating
x
How
5y
(b)
How
(c)
How
example
'
should
surface
18'
room
The
used
is
for
heating
for
be
with
the
provided
single
north.
heating
water
heat
to
steam
three
the
to
hot
for
required
10',
exposed
surface
should
is
16^'
room
radiating
gas
be
radiating
177
HOUSE
the
in
room
(a)
(a)
5.
2'
5^
(6)
example
living
heater
gas
much
in
heating,
example
How
(a)
4.
FURNISHING
OF
much
radiating
bedroom
The
much
much
(a)
19'
house
is
of
radiating
gas
should
17'
surface
11'
is
with
frame
poor
surface
be
for
for
required
single
two
steam
windows
construction.
hot
provided
water
to
heating
heat
room
in
CHAPTER
is not
IT
also
A
only
dollar
dollar
necessary
to increase
is
while
day,
and
rests
the
higher by
lies in
success
object, such
be
people
time.
and
themselves
power
of
maintenance
in old
fortune's
The
fixed
higher
of
secret
of
portion
still,10 %
various
find
institutions
They
gone
"
; it rises
interest.
aside
friend
that
savings
; better
will
for
one's
definite
and
help people
fund
buy
to
for
use
which
agencies by
and
most
fully
success
habits
promote
prudent
to accumulate
or
show
men
small
become
to
For
competency.
one
These
habit.
earned.
lost
systematically encouraged
promoted.
encourage
or
community
can
money
10
home
as
every
savings
instance
for
earnings,
is like
of
regularly setting
saving
successful
added
the
dollars
two
dollar
foundation
on
of
regularly
faithful
your
than
spent
Histories
ladder
for
INVESTMENT
more
interest
at
put
In
AND
is much
saved
forever.
and
THRIFT
develop systematically
to
hours
VIII
wise
in
an
thrift,
the
build
or
in
of
of
use
homes
for
or
emergency
age.
Banks
Working
something
work.
for
This
and
should
people
old
of
time
deposited
is
money
for
or
age,
of
part
save
check
some
banks
of them
no
pay
book, which
require that
savings,
"
in
order
to
they
are
unable
National,
have
to
ative,
cooper
Banks
National
sickness, when
banks
in
earnings
companies.
trust
National
their
fixed
charge
is
sum
a
interest
deposits, but
in
convenience
great
should
certain
small
on
be
amount
money.
178
left
on
each
business.
deposit, $ 100
month
for
or
taking
banks
and
more,
care
of
the
180
in
VOCATIONAL
trust
bank
$ 430
month
for all
and
he
he
so
company
pays
for
MATHEMATICS
$ 215
will receive
within
days.
few
much
of
April 1, 1910, a
which
each
succeeding quarter.
July
1.
is the
What
draws
He
At
the
checks
end
population of the
savingsbank accounts.
people have
many
of
Interest
Dividends
total amount
United
If the
savings bank
513
deposited $
interest.
The
interest ?
woman
bank
pays
check.
by
the entire
population is 92,818,726,how
deposits?
On
GIRLS
bills
$ 500.
States,including children,have
4.
his
pay
deposits over
how
Practically10 %
3.
can
FOR
in
savings
begins April 1
declared
are
of her
and
1 and
Jan.
the
depositat
at
present
date?
The
to
place
at
about
to
goes
It
The
"fo.
pay
to the needs
adapted
is
safety,earn
notice.
short
is not
interest.
at
absolute
with
bank
savings
place
modest
It pays
small
where
lends
sums
and
amount,
bank
savings
of those
may
used
be
by
large sums
be
deposited
the
depositor
its
expenses
and
mortgages
on
money
with
ceives
re
The
ence
differ
to
protect
depositors.
The
question
his money
the
1 "foin
risk.
When
for
return
"
asked,
mortgages
on
assume
be
may
Why
the
cannot
"
He
and
receive
"fo?
you
receive
% interest,you
absolute
safety
freedom
and
if he
can,
paying 1%
are
from
willing to
is
to
necessity of
the
selectingsecurities.
Mortgages
A
mortgage
Allen
to
to
Mr.
farm
Jones
and
give as surety
if he
to
owns
is the
does
cover
not
the
Under
compel
who
left
pay
wants
his farm.
on
the $
public
the
belongs to
law,
if
when
man
to Mr.
That
"
receives
owned
he
is,Mr.
such
Allen
part
He
goes
requires him
Jones
Mr.
Mr.
as
agrees
that
is necessary
Jones.
wishes
man
From
who
and
debt.
buy
due,
auction.
mortgage
the
to
him,
security for
as
money
from
1000
mortgage
back
some
present
holds
and
borrows
its payment
be sold at
pledging of property
to
cannot
the money
his
foreclose
take
the
received
full amount,
the property.
mortgage,
"
property, but
at the
and
that
sale the
anything
is,
it must
man
that
is
THRIFT
181
INVESTMENT
AND
Notes
promissory
borrowed
repay
time
and
the
specifiedtime.
of interest
rate
United
Individuals
make
to
the maker
this note.
end
to
the
indorser
of six months
is
man
for him.
clerk
then
in
just what
money
get
to 6
of
The
country.
pay
"fo
or
"fo.
the
secure,
borrower,
to indorse
friend
of property
sort
deal when
more
he
money
know
you
cannot
sign
or
and
if,at
pay
the note,
later,be
may,
asks
another
than
you
exactlywhat
If
responsibility attached.
office,
you
will often
be
to prove
name
own
of the
reading enough
insist upon
expiration
the
called
to
man
sign a
ness
busi
it is better
need,
note
the favor.
that
sure
sign your
to
have
you
refuse
the
an
the maker
specified,
order,called a protest, and
asking a great
be
know
to
some
own
banks
from
the
has
the
and
the note.
policy to
you
loans
who
at
payable,
parts of the
Savings
good securitypay
must
written
Unless
Always
whom
due
are
different
2
promising to
received, date, the
to
the time
or
by
to repay
upon
in
about
one
borrower
value
state
Notes
The
he is notified
varies
on
the
payment.
pay
borrowing
In order
called
has
States
should
Notes
of
place
signed by
paper
(called the
the
The
money.
borrowed
amount
is
note
are
you
called upon
that
you
signing
are
you
be
to
it.
that
sure
or
signature and
witnessed
have
that
stenographer
to witness
document
and
Always
you
know
signature means.
your
EXAMPLES
1.
is worth
house
My
2.
bank
is 5
pay
the
the
of $ 2500
mortgage
on
man
mortgage
on
holds
at the
interest
3.
the bank
holds
mortgage
be
must
and
its value.
it for onehalf
on
$4000
and
end
of three
years
mortgage
at the
interest,how
end
house.
much
is
The
terest
in
paid
for
$ 3000.
he hold
He
will
What
of the year
long can
?
the
gives a $
be
Suppose
the
interest
he does
property ?
2000
not
182
MATHEMATICS
VOCATIONAL
KINDS
DIFFERENT
$_
to the
to pay
NOTES
PROMISSORY
OF
Ala
Montgomery,
"
date
after
GIRLS
FOR
value
for
received
^promise
of
order
.Dollars
at
fHed)amc0 National
No
A
19
Minn
St. Paul,
for value
.afterdate
to the
to pay
severallypromise
NOTE
COMMON
received
order
jointly and
we
.Dollars
at
Bank.
$fledjamc0National
Due
No.
_
NOTE
JOINT
MASS.
RIVER,
FALL
191
to the order
to pay
of
THE
MECHANICS
value
NATIONAL
received
of Fall
BANK
River,
DOLLARS,
Mass.
_
at said
Bank,
part thereof
and
shall
interest
remain
for such
unpaid
the
for
said
the
payment
direct
Bank
due,
or
to become
due,
now
or
hereafter
contracted
following property,
and
property
hereby
or
any
viz.
authorize
part thereof
the
at
or
or
time
rate
Mechanics
firm,
the
further
as
of
any
Bank,
of
cent
at
as
per
the
or
any
annum,
GENERAL
liabilities
indirect, joint or
incurred,
principal sum
per
National
of
said
LATERAL
COLto
said
or
several, individual
of
said
Bank,
option
said
Bank
without
or
its
assigns to
sell and
notice, at public or
transfer
private sale,at
said
the
pledge
giving
assigns
as
all
damages,
credit
shall
an
hereby agree
deposited in
residence
due
of
(which
demand
and
business) such
Said
undersigned
be
may
its
or
made
by
to
sale.
the
assigns may
or
In
of any
case
exchange
provisions hereof
said
purchase
shall
of
collateral.
or
collateral
addition
to said
apply
COLLATERAL
On
4.
Jan.
Feb.
payable on
$ 600.
How
SOLUTION.
days
are
"
Jan.
In
the
due
case
of
; from
Jan.
2 to Feb.
at
2,
2, 1915
Mar.
Feb.
2 to March
the
of
its
2 is 31
thereof
at
collateral,
for
note
Feb.
$2400,
2, he paid
less than
year,
for 30
days
for
day
1
31
+ 12.40
$ 2412.40.
600
$ 1812.40.
days
2, 28 days,
"6.0413
20
days
1.8124
days
.6041
days
or
$8.46
1812.40
due
March
2,
such
collateral.
days.
$8.4578
Amount
may
security
officers,
2, 31 days,
$ 2400
pressed
ex
for
running
notes
2 to Feb.
$ 2412.40
Interest
or
any
On
%.
.$12.40
Feb.
holders
described
his
gave
.40
due
elsewhere
or
part
above
$ 12.00
Amount
ing
fail
NOTE
interest
was
known
be deemed
shall
sale of
additional
or
Lewis
Mr.
27, with
much
counted
Interest
2, 1915,
to the
new
writing
Upon
any
or
in
last
themselves
immediately reimburse
by public or private
and
is
it
or
aforesaid;
hereby agreed that said Bank
agents,
deposit
additional
notice
at
additional
its
or
to
assigns, and
additional
Bank
aforesaid, approved
Bank
addressed
the
enforcing this
aforesaid,
liabilities
the
to
said
the
remain.
may
require
to
of
charges
of
any
that
right
on
post office
the
of
the liabilities
security for
deposit
to
and
the
satisfactory to
to deposit such
be
have
and
costs
payment
balanqe
amount
place
or
the
any
at all times
to
to
for
collateral
general
securities
to
apply
expenses
and
its
or
to
183
INVESTMENT
AND
THRIFT
$ 1820.86
Ans.
exact
184
VOCATIONAL
lenders
Money
before
money
deduct
and
the
At
interest.
interest
$6.09
much
The
much
their
ice,
serv
legalrate
the
day
in three
the
note
on
of discount
months
at
at 6
bank
maturity, $ 609,
his
gives
and
and
the
legalrate 6%,
at
at
The
6%.
and
Feb.
for
note
Aug. 1,1914, $
$ 1200,
followingpay
140 ; Oct.
1,1914,
1, 1914, $160.
How
amounting
paper
payable
amount,
desires
to
in
$ 945.
to
three
He
months
gives
6 %
at
the
turn
discounts
receive
he
does
obtain
for this
at
remaining time,
interest
buys
therefore
He
due
at
Smith
May 1, 1915
dealer
paper
between
presents
the
months,
the note
this
interest
amount
1, 1914, $100;
for
note
he
the
with
merchant
thus
$602.91.
on
due
month
1, 1914, Mr.
Dec.
banks,
note
for $ 600
note
and
in return
due.
between
6.09
made
was
6.
of
demand
on
are
$100;
has
man
at banks
the
remains
as
comes
for two
But
of the
time
note
end
June
payable
"ments
the
$609
On
5.
the
$609
on
or
such
difference
the
returns
his
when
day
comes
GIRLS
FOR
their notes
due.
full amount
the
for
illustrate
To
note
from
full amount
discount
may
the
the
MATHEMATICS
into
note
it at the
bank
cash
for
ately.
immedi
How
.
Stocks
It often
that
business
in
which
they
that
is needed
stock
to
or
The
value
in the
market.
and
that
the
$ 131
are
stock
share.
of
of
is
of
a
share
The
quoted
of the
New
willingto
or
stock
to make
up
company,
and
the
then
capital
the business.
of persons,
number
empowered
of
of stock
of stock
in the
able
are
in
engage
organized
is the
company
equal parts
business
transact
to
under
amount
into which
the
a
as
named
capital
(generally$ 100).
share
market
to
they choose,
as
shares
more
of the
one
alone
shares
many
capital stock
share
they
desire
men
by organizing
enough
for
is divided
value
market
day,
The
company
par
than
as
of
group
by specialcharter, and
in its charter.
of
pay
consists
singleindividual.
stock
for
money
buy
authorized
or
company
law
general
more
themselves
others
or
money
obtain
They
they
induce
man
one
requires more
it.
in
invest
that
happens
is the
values
daily
York
is its
originalor
price for
of
leading
papers;
Central
which
face
the
stocks
value
share
vary
; the
will sell
from
day
131"
means
e.g.
"N.
Y.
C.,
R.
Co.
is
sellingtoday
R.
to
at
Dividends
consists
are
paid
at
of
fixed
kinds
CERTIFICATE
Stocks
for
the
certain
called
broker
of
owners
per
of the
cent
brokerage.
sells 10
stock.
the
The
shares
on
par
usual
sold
Brokers
value
dividends
of
the
profitsthere
the
maining
reare
preferred stock.
BANK
by brokers, who
receive
of the
stock
their
as
bought
act
as
agents
compensation
or
sold.
This
is
is
brokerage
of stock
preferred
STOCK
OF
and
generallybought
are
consists
whatever
NATIONAL
CAZENDV1A
which
on
stock, which
requireddividends
the
among
own.
stock, namely
of
apportioned
are
of the
they
of shares
number
common
which
divided
company
of stock
two
certain
after payment
remaining
issue
rate, and
shares, among
stock
the amount
to
often
companies
stock, which
profitsof
net
according
stockholders
Stock
the
are
185
INVESTMENT
AND
THRIFT
for me,
$1.25.
EXAMPLE.
$ 30^
What
"
$ \i
X
20
$ 30, cost of
1 share.
$600
i of 1 % of $ 100
$ 12"
"612.50,
1 of $1, broker's
of No.
Butte
total cost.
charge
per
share.
301 ?
186
VOCATIONAL
MATHEMATICS
GIRLS
FOR
EXAMPLES
The
1.
quoted
value
certain
stock
87..What
at
between
share
per
of
market
the
on
price
value
par
the
is
$ 100.
is the
market
is
It
difference
value
and
in
the
par
2.
What
3.
What
at 680
is the
is the
of
cost
50
shares
if I sell at 661
I
5.
shares
of
shares
53
at 53 ?
Copper Range
of
Calumet
and
Hecla
?
I have
4.
of 40
cost
buy
dividend
Anaconda.
much
How
shall
ceive
re
60 shares
of
of
of Anaconda
$ 1.50.
What
It pays
quarterly
receiving on my
66J.
at
interest
am
and
town
money
Bonds
Corporations
need
to
When
years,
The
borrow
and
corporation
order
wishes
it usually mortgages
sold to investors.
to
is divided
interest
corporation, while
are
are
bonds
the
of money
sum
bank
or
person
is at
bonds
of stock
called
trustee.
and
fixed rate
represent
of the
debts
the
these
and
is
property
corporation ;
corporation,while
of the
for several
into
represent
of the property
owners
Shares
on
large
its property to
The
extraordinary expenditures.
meet
borrow
to
of the mortgage
amount
are
in
money
often
governments
holders
stock
bondholders
its creditors.
Bonds
of
like
large corporations
railroads, street
steam
plants, whose
property
of the
of
ability
bonds
are
the
amount
in stock.
of
widow
must
the managers,
safer than
of the
For
whose
be
stocks, as
condition
who
capital,it is
and
railways,
employed
for
the
interest
electric
public
usually good
are
fairlystable
earnings are
on
and
and
power
gas
regardless
necessities
Wellsecured
investments.
the bonds
lar,
regu
must
be
gardless
paid re
of the business.
is
obliged
better
to
to live on
invest
the
in bonds
income
and
farm
from
moderate
mortgages
than
188
VOCATIONAL
MATHEMATICS
GIRLS
FOR
EXAMPLES
1.
man
interest.
for
income
paid 3 %
A
What
would
if he
year
have
had
Savings Bank
been
taken
the
it to
widow
had
savings bank
his
that
in her
Two
income
left $
were
sons
placed it
15,000
paying 5^ %. The
WThat
was
averaged 41 %
class bonds
and
in
difference
3.
received
difference
and
each.
One
placed
the
year
What
was
she
the
years
other
next
in
placed it in
it in
difference
first
savings banks
in income
per
year?
Fire
Household
it will make
the
make
it will not
While
family
him
will not
established,is
Insurance
year
be
left without
the
One
apply
"
at 28
cents
policy
a
a
at
of
rate.
from
thought
means
low
fire,
come,
clothing themselves
first duties
of the
issue
saving
then,
after
the
and
home
is
than
more
of about
worth
house
per
policy for 1, 3,
for
20
one
in
5 years.
or
year,
for
premiums.
There
the
on
Rules
is
3
or
an
5
of percentage
in insurance.
problems
to
EXAMPLE.
is
be insured
insurance.
to secure
buying
in
in the
house.
there
less careful
man
comfortable
companies
in
policy
value
more
refurnishing the
advantage
Insurance
$ 8400
WThat
$ 100.
is insured
is the
cost
of
for
its full
premium
SOLUTION.
$ 8400
is the value
28 cents
The
84
is the rate
premium
x
$0.28
or
of the
of
policy or
premium
interest
or
base.
rate.
is the amount
to be
found.
$23.52, premium.
EXAMPLES
1.
$ 3800
Find
at
the
insurance
of the house.
upon
if the
THRIFT
What
"fc
takes
Jones
Mr.
2.
is the
of the
cost
The
valued
If
4.
furniture
in
$ 1000.
at
the rate
the
premium
in
in per
cent
for 5 years
the
on
industrious
and
age
sufficient amount
for the
This
is
corporation
policy
amount
insurance
policy, and
the
the
fund,
the
premiums
know
whole
period,
at
three
years.
upon,
per
to
say
cent
us
company.
is
amount
be made
the
is
the
by
member,
is called
death,
life
payable
is
member
to
the premium,
and
three
shall
per
to
for
cent.
compound
the
compute
of conducting
the
of
amount
long
of
amount
the
justtwenty
without
rate
of interest
date
can
assume
one
will
amount
Let
years.
and
expense,
yearly payment
interest
it
large
certaintyjust how
interest from
kind,
of the insured.
at
therefore
is the
be
must
expense
sufficient to pay
could
is conducted
invested
which
premium,
known
were
simplest
of this
contract
policyholder will
business
we
into
the death
by
the
policies:
fund
suppose,
that the
certainty what
and
the
the necessary
live,anyone
Let
all to be
are
by
state, and
with
company
to
the
to meet
If it
"
would
the
do not
depend
of
to accumulate
premium.
that
the
policy,is termed
entering
amount
Premium.
$ 1000, and
from
of his
insurance
the
assume
of
the company
policy holder
policy is
us
fix the
and
insurance
an
provide
usually done
or
quarterly installments.
yearly,halfyearly,
Before
Making
necessary
contribution
policy.
to
the
whom
to
person
life
policy when
the
event
kinds
business
the
in the
different
to enable
enough
by
The
is
amount
to
officer.
is made
paid
certain
of death
This
charter
which
are
is necessary
obtain
to
stipulatedin the
as
in
usually payable
ordinary
case
corporation called
state
the
in
family.
proper
be
to
beneficiary.
common
There
aside
lays
person
of the
support
contract
or
fixing the
termed
twofamily
rate, expressed
is the
necessities,or
from
obliged
regularly inspected by
The
in
Insurance
thrifty
future
or
life insurance
out
furniture
same
regularlyfor old
taking
at
Life
Every
is
city is $ 7.50,what
different
at
threefamilyhouse
paid, if it is insured
is
premium
his automobile
on
of
tenement
one
What
of 1
house
is
premium
3.
insurance
$ 800
out
189
INVESTMENT
AND
that
of payment.
be earned
that
we
We
during
can
the
the
safely
of .$36.13 invested
to
$ 1000
in twenty
190
MATHEMATICS
VOCATIONAL
FOR
GIRLS
"213649
No.
$5000
In
is attached
made
and
hereto
application for
of the
a
this
Policy, a
in further
of which
copy
consideration
of
of
the payment
ffiunflrrti
ffln'rtg^cight^
2^_
Dollars,
100
receipt whereof
the
of
like
jn every
Company,
before
or
on
payment
the
of this
Policy, promises
unto
_
2.
Beneficiar
_,
of
gofrn Boe"
jffloines
"cs
_the
jn t]ie state
of
day
__
Wisconsin,
Milwaukee,
"ttttuat
of the
year
at its office in
pay
said
to the
sum
Januarg
to
is
insured, Of
of.
iScncficiaricsthe
receipt and
upon
^tbj ^Ti)ousanU"
of_
sum
other
on
such
Insured, then
or
of this
account
provided, however,
payment
of the
that
if
^Dollars,
of said Insured
while
if any,
year's premium,
no
shall be
and
made
to
this
any
from
there
the
said
tors
executors, administra
the
In Witness
COMPANY,
at
Secretary,
thousand
S. A.
Whereof,
its office in
executed
nine
THE
Hawkins,
Milwaukee,
this contract,
hundred
STAR
NORTH
and
Wisconsin,
FirKt
this
LIFE
has
day
by
of
INSURANCE
its President
January
sixteen.
"
L. H.
Secretary.
ORDINARY
MUTUAL
LIFE
INSURANCE
Perkins, President.
POLICY
and
Qne
If it
his
that
and
certain
were
could
provided for
be
failure to
To
to the
these
Let
will make
the
The
for the
creation
policy in full
premium
and
of
fund
per cent
loading combined
be
paid each
make
Mortality Tables.
a
the
law
lifetime
predict in
cannot
determine
with
almost
life
us
for
suppose,
number
forty, and
the
deaths
and
the
number
many
of
of deaths
this
how
net
to
various
one
of
determine
may
We
of
it
may
given number
becomes
possibleto
a
the
ages,
of
several
Of
results
at the
The
variation
mortuary
number
same
would
not
observation, the
the
several
records
practicallythe
are
the
age
of
of life reached
limit
"
will find
these,you
conditions
lives under
by
years.
same
ages
any
extreme
hundred
The
at
largernumber
thirty,a
100,000 born.
the
life,there
given age.
will die,but we
out
to be
number
we
of
charged
100,000. livingwhere
at
which
many
illustration
individual
of this law
assumed
was
at the age
in
age
larger the
to
In
the
premium
net
the
in
as
of persons
be
each
at
to
or
any
the
at
on
groups
would
same,
the
pay
in
as
by
race
means
should
added
particularindividual
By
that
the
dying
so
length of
the
accuracy
to the individual
sufficient to include
certain
year
exactness
remaining
Let
what
premium
much
as
to
company
amount
premium,
large number
specifiedage.
the
compute
of
approximate
the
impossible,
mortality of the
the
governing
average
it is
Although
"
predict in advance
to
thereto
by the insured.
year
given above,
of
sum
mathematically necessary
is
enable
the gross
up
the
added
amount
contingencies. The
and
loading is the
The
to
which
amount
or
added
be
as
sufficient to
maturity.
at
funds,
of invested
interest.
yearly premium
gross
is the
premium
net
premium
estimate
that
for
is
of three
years,
interest,and
the necessary
loss
just twenty
cent
per
other
example,
and
us
live
expense,
certain
are
for
as,
expenses
premium.
This
$7.
; such
without
earn
meet
there
But
just three
earn
conducted
be
be $36.13.
would
would
premiums
business
the
policyholderwould
the
that
191
INVESTMENT
AND
THRIFT
be
great,
nearer
records
of
would
the
proach
ap
uniformity.
manner
in any
large number
thirty,how
of
persons
many
to
been
born,
constructed
which
starting at
age forty, how
many
or
show
certain
to
any
how
age,
other
192
VOCATIONAL
age, and
likewise
lifetime
number
the
remaining
and
kind
of Policies.
Kinds
and
"
affords the
that
that
matures
at
experience,
better
when
is uncertain
insurance
the
of
desire
be
to
relativelylarge and
pays
who
age
it and
certain
his insurance.
has
neglected
This
to
for it before
pay
is
annuity
designated
The
person.
dies,it is termed
or
company
to it of
a
so
draw
annuitant
the
long as
say
the young
attract
does
after middle
man
wish
not
life.
the
of
Out
but
who
wishes
to
buy
actually old.
Annuity
of money
be
to
the
money
every
For
annuitant
life,appeals
is to be made
stated
comes
be
only within
tant
until the annui
year
example,
in consideration
institution,
specifiedamount,
designated
year
financial
other
him
life annuity.
long
This
of his
to whom
If the payment
the annuitant.
of
this sometimes
twentypayment
one
saving, and
result
policy also
specificsum
insurance, but
for
who
persons
save.
the
income
The
An
to
upon
be becomes
as
other, and
policy should
burden
has,
out.
to pay
after
of
amount
profitable investments.
any
as
This
income
an
premiums
for
make
policy, such
form
incentive
individual
person.
average
companies from
for
essentially
an
most
woman
the
the young
payment
the
policyis taken
expensive
an
of the endowment
limited
or
opportunities to
advantage to
an
time
man
the
is
policy
It is
save.
young
age, with
insurance
at which
age
endowment
to
The
GIRLS
the
An
force themselves
must
still alive.
tables of
of insurance
FOR
those
to
tables construct
these
one
MATHEMATICS
into
enter
$ 70, on
say
continues
to
of the
payment
contract
to pay
specifiedday
in every
The
live.
life insurance
latter may
live to
in aggregate
annuity for many
years, until he has received
several times the originalamount
paid by him, or he may die after having
collected but a singlepayment.
In either case, the contract
expires and
the
his
annuity terminates
The
with
sum
of the
amount
with
the
death
yearly income
buy
for
fiftysix,
shorter
time
larger income
the
yet
reason
to
live.
that
The
of the annuitant.
net
the age
upon
for the
the
annuity which
or
cost
has,
of
an
purchased
be
of the annuitant.
of seventy
man
former
can
on
the
than
for
average,
annuity,
that
That
of
one
a
much
is, the
net
AND
THRIFT
to be
amount
annuity, is
not
and
sum,
of
is
process
which
quite
is termed
based
computation,
simple
as
the
as
the
value
of the
premium,
life insurance
like the
estimate, but,
mathematical
by
The
one
matter
is determined
table.
in
paid
193
INVESTMENT
the
upon
mortality
of the
computation
single
premium.
who
insure
Many men
the beneficiary,instead
death
the
of the
equal
the
to the
of
is
of
policy under
of
annuity paid
that could
be
bought
for
of the
for
annuity
an
amount
The
amount
paid
form
receiving
insured,
life.
throughout
in such
of
at
or
years
is
cases
equal
sum
insurance
period
which
to the
exactly
value
of
it falls due.
policy when
EXAMPLES
1.
26
at
man
young
of
years
he has
than
more
Another
2.
he
of
Another
by
out
another
$ 41.94
pays
$ 1000
in ?
of
form
same
from
the
Where
At
year.
the end
of
then
takes
for
between
How
much
twenty
out
twenty years.
he paid in ?
has
of
the
twenty
endowment,
an
How
much
these
two
At
Does
he
years
is taken
of age.
twenty years
company.
is the difference
paid in
age
If he
death.
twentysix years
at
insurance
straightlife
year as long as
a
his
receive
insurance,called
man
young
at
he
receive
3.
has
the
at
man
1000
his estate
does
paid
young
much
out
$ 17.03
life
payment
the end
of age, how
years
takes
age
He
receives
has he
paid
?
amounts
Exchange
Exchange
the
risk
from
and
money
An
and
in
payment
money
the
at
itself.
country
same
distant
Funds
in
may
six
be
without
remitted
different
order,telegraphicmoney
money
place
ways
order,
bank
sight draft.
It is drawn
made
making
sending
another
for
largestamount
$ 100.
duly
to
of
order, express
draft,check,
The
of
expense
place
one
Postal
is the process
up
by
which
the
one
can
postmaster
obtain
after
a
an
postal money
order
application has
is
been
out.
express
money
order
is similar
to
postal money
order, but
may
be
194
for any
drawn
of dollars
number
is issued
This
at
order
office,instructingthe
any
in
addition
the
and
to distance
bank
to pay
like
is
order
an
at
by
other
some
of
cost
written
of money
is
the creditor
The
traveler
telegraph agent
office to
The
rates
the
sending
the
pay
person
high,
are
at
and
in
telegram according
by
to
third
bank
one
directinganother
party.
This
order
named
and
bank
looks
much
the
most
common
person
is a system for
credit
foreign countries
to the amount
is
to
of
sum
signs
to pay
the
to
circular
travel
countries
deduct
the
check.
bank
the
named
sum
may
pay
for
ordinary
an
by
banking
house
The
the traveler
country.
their debts.
cheques.
letter issued
abroad.
another
to
foreign exchange
travelers'
or
furnish
to
such
sums
he
as
may
to
banks
in
require up
in the letter.
named
For
Money
Domestic
payable
who
transmittingmoney
of different
Fees
When
the
pay
debtor
methods
desires
who
to
the person
on
letters of credit
letter of
bank
means
are
order
an
who
Foreign exchange
this
on
deposit of
the
sight draft
in
Bahamas,
Orders
Bates
British
Bermuda,
Guiana,
British
duras,
Hon
Canal
Canada,
(China), and
money
drawn
specified.
sum
order
an
order
an
from
amount
The
as
of words.
specifiedsum
check
By
rate
same
GIRLS
check.
is
is
the actual
pay
number
draft
the
at
agent
the
message
must
one
FOR
offices.
express
telegraphic money
named
by
MATHEMATICS
VOCATIONAL
order
For
islands
certain
in the
West
Indies, listed
in the
registerof
offices.
Orders
from
$00.01
to
$2.50
Scents
From
$ 2.51
to
$ 5
5 cents
From
$ 5.01
to
$ 10
8 cents
From
$ 10.01
to
$ 20
10 cents
From
20.01
to
$ 30
12 cents
From
$ 30.01
to
40
15 cents
From
$ 40.01 to
$ 50
18 cents
20 cents
From
$ 50.01
to
$ 60
From
$ 60.01
to
$75
From
$ 75.01
to
$ 100
25 cents
30 cents
196
VOCATIONAL
needs
for
way
1000. miles
lives
3.
much
4.
$ 4.865
1 ?
"
the bank
brother
who
draft
for
of
$ 3480
exchange.
for
How
country
Christmas
her
most
in this
domestic
for
from
buys a bank
charges J of 1 %
bank
he pay
pounds
$ 275
quickest and
in Boston
The
must
is the
obtain
to
distant
merchant
Chicago.
her
GIRLS
FOR
What
immediately.
money
economical
MATHEMATICS
to her
sends
What
present.
commission
of
mother
will
of 1
in Ireland
it cost
her, if
"/0is charged.
Claims
If
accident
for
or
injured
the
The
employ,
and
once,
it is
agent tries
from
be
to
offers to pay
take
has
accident.
which
you
who
shaken
you
are
nothing
not
are
Now
did not
is necessary.
to, you
you
are
to go
You
think
sign
must
it may
you
at all in
also
asked
Do
not
time,
the
an
to
sign such
gain nothing by
internallyinjured.
and
paper
a
it,and
For
paper.
may
way
to
and
agent and
take
the
settle the
name
at
case
notoriety
relieves
to
the Company
collision
agent perhaps
get $ 25, so
you
states
that
the company
may
have
against it for
you
have
an
internal
injury
an
operation costing $
to
pay
whom
lose much
the
bill ?
the claim
relieving the
The
seriouslyhurt, the
claim
The
that you
that
claim
instance, in
easy
company
accident
sign
and
which
which
later that
prove
compel
hurt
paper
an
not
are
injured.
claim
claim
to
If
amount.
the newspaper
paper
after.
for any
you
that is
try
and
If you
not
up,
and
panies
large com
to the decision
according
possible. They
court
sign
all
in your
railroad,a
a
as
to
to
you
realize at the
Can
responsibility.
you
soon
win
or
the
occurs,
certain
put
may
the accident
the company.
persuade
$ 25.
you
you
on
as
in
expensive
that
scene
person
only
in turn
it,but
occurs
for
of passengers
accident
whom
an
cial
finan
to repair the
an
agent,
you
lose
may
responsibilityforever
any
seem
you
to
you
wreck
injuresthe reputation of
claim
claim
this amount,
to the
of each
because
by
When
brought
address
elements.
interviewed
When
jury.
it is bound
the
court, where
to
goes
are
of
satisfied with
not
case
doctor
action
are
of the
and
company
the
persons
are
is not
railway is injured by
steam
or
which
loss.
you
person
company
People
agent offers
company
cannot
if it proves
500
from
all
compel
later
that
THRIFT
AND
197
INVESTMENT
EXAMPLES
1.
woman
another.
She
$24.50,
for
2.
man
The
bills
of
for
Did
$50.
for
in
working
weeks
3.
She
for
at
three
Would
was
week.
saleslady
out
Her
much
at
of
it
work
she
in
to
time
of
the
same
injury
and
better
medical
and
he
later
year
dent.
acci
elevator
an
wages
been
hire
week.
have
to
did
for
was
not
him
out
receive
to
have
beginning?
tripped
medical
did
the
the
with
amounted
the
at
his
paid
obliged
bills
injured
was
per
for
gain
collided
was
settled
or
mill
$13.50
weeks
$100
lose
and
Doctor's
She
company
compensation.
settled
she
that
car
glass
$8.
at
$8.75.
etc.,
electric
an
flying
weeks
insurance
work
any
How
four
medicine,
accident
with
cut
was
for
servant
in
riding
was
on
for
two
supplies
gain
staircase
weeks
cost
and
and
$9.75.
her
sprained
days
two
She
at
settled
ankle.
$8.75
per
for
$45.
PART
III
DRESSMAKING
"
AND
CHAPTER
IX
IN
PROBLEMS
DRESSMAKING
and
used
yardstickis much
The
fabrics.
yardstick is
and
eighths.
THE
of
dollars
inches
and
the
fractional
equivalentsof
in cents.
It is wise
cost
in
for
measuring cloth,carpets,
divided
into halves,quarters,
should
know
the fractional equivalents
Dressmakers
yards
MILLINERY
per
to
yard
to the
buy
is
so
small
eighth of
nearest
that
an
eighth would
yard
cost
unless
as
the
much
as
quarter.
EXAMPLES
Give
1.
the
equivalentin
(a) 1 yd.
(b) 21 yd.
(c) 11 yd.
needed
piece of
piece of
needed
are
4.
dollar
Give
cloth
lawn
is 12
for 20 aprons
the
(fc)1 yd.
(/)1 yd.
(m) TV yd.
(n) A yd.
00 A yd.
CO * yd.
for 16 aprons
A
3.
following:
(/) 4f yd.
(g) 61 yd.
(ft)li yd.
(0 1} yd.
(d) 21 yd.
00 3f yd.
2.
of the
inches
value
is 28
many
in cents
of the
piecesare
many
following fractions
(") if
P) i
W i
W ii
00 it
(n i
to) I
W T76
CO A
oo t
(*) A
(0 A
198
pieces
"
A
" A
("0 i
00 t
of
ARITHMETIC
5.
If 16"
6.
If
what
of
much
how
8.
1 yd. of cloth,how
from
yard of lawn
yard is left ?
was
towel
used
is 33
inches
the
(a) Find
(b) Find
length
long
Find
the number
of inches
(d) Find
(e) Find
(/) Find
the number
of
cost
per
the cost
for
If it took
9.
for two
classes
72
of
dress.
and
and
yards used
much
If
used
long,
If yd. remained,
dishcloth
for each
by a
by a
13 inches.
hem.)
class of 24.
class of 24.
yard.
per
yard.
yards of material
find
24 (48 in all),
in.
for both.
yards used
pupil at 6 cts.
remains
piece 40
(Allow "
of
the
of both.
the number
(c)
from
is cut
silk for
bought 9f yd. of
7.
of
part
is cut
199
DRESSMAKERS
FOR
for
dishcloth
the amount
and
used
towel
by
each
pupil.
If
10.
material
45f yards of
the amount
used
each
by
were
used
for
class of
42, find
pupil.
11.
inches
of
Tucks
A
tuck
for
the
garments
oration.
its
for
up
2"
the
of
purpose
or
in
fold
tuck
takes
that
cloth
shortening
trimming
depth ;
own
takes
is
or
up
is,a
dec~
twice
tuck
of cloth.
EXAMPLES
1.
goods
Before
was
tucking, a
I yd. long
piece
after
of
tuckMEASURING
ing,
many
it
was
tucks
 yd. long.
were
made
How
FOR
FoLD
T0
TUCKS
FOLD
FROM
200
VOCATIONAL
much
How
2.
first group
returned
to
yr
muslin
29
the teacher
was
Before
4.
in 3
12
inches
How
% yd. long.
was
group
tucked
was
inches
tucking,it
second
tucks, the
one
oneeighthinchtucks
wide
only 14
of
groups
tucks,the
group
GIRLS
and
wide.
when
How
many
in it ?
made
were
FOR
up
oneinch
the third
tucks,and
piece of
tucks
is taken
lawn
containing 6
halfinch
3.
MATHEMATICS
f yd. long ;
was
tucks
many
after
made
cloth
is
were
Hem
A
hem
on
turned
edge
an
border
piece of
to
over
finish.
form
making a
hem
an
edge must
always be
turned
to prevent fraying; except
for very
heavy or very
cloth this is usually
loosely woven
or
For
y.
HEM
TURNED
have
would
In
inch
an
hem
you
1".
to allow
EXAMPLES
1.
I wish
long.
How
and
31"
2.
hem,
3.
cloth
and
five
take
5.
At
At
it take
1"
tucks.
hem
of
hem
the rate
of
to hem
skirt
be
ruffle is 10"
to hem
the rate
girlto
for
girl can
take
the
must
skirt which
cut
to allow
in
is to be 40"
for
the tucks
My
If.
long
hem
will she
4.
to
How
21
deep.
long
inches
It is to
will it be when
in
five
have
finished
1^"
?
how
long
long
will it
minutes,
yards ?
f of an
yards ?
51 inches
3^ yards ?
inch
10
per
minute,
how
yards ?
per
ten
minutes, how
long
will
ARITHMETIC
6.
hour
an
How
8.
At
long
hem
will she
6 cents
inches
in
per
hour, how
will
long
inches
5
to hem
take
90
inches
can
she
much
by hemming
earn
How
9.
much
How
7.
190
in five minutes.
3 inches
hem
girl can
201
DRESSMAKERS
FOR
it take
in ten
hem
girl to
minutes
if she
2J yards
can
Ruffle
A
ruffle is
edge
used
and
of
according
to
be
ruffle
at
is
strip of
for the
material
the
to
the
Once
half.
enough
a
allow
to
corset
and
of
cover
desirable.
one
Different
portions
pro
it
and
once
is
quarter
on
ordinary
a
skirt,
folds
narrow
decoration.
or
which
the
bottom
in
allowed
to
use
gathered
trimming
are
For
put.
cloth
for
RUFFLE
for
trimming
for other places where
or
only a scant
plaitingrequiresthree times the amount.
ruffle is
EXAMPLES
1.
a
much
How
petticoatwhich
the width
2.
plaitedfor
the wrist
3.
upper
would
for fullness
much
lace
sleeve
finish,if
2^
allowing three
"
buy to
yd. around, if
you
inches
the
ruffle for
and
once
half
wide
sleeve
times
make
would
measures
the amount
you
buy
to
8 inches
for
have
around
plaiting?
skirt
ruffles of
skirt
measures
is necessary
How
would
hamburg
for
is to have
5inch
two
measuring 3J yd. around
organdie flouncing. Allowing twice the width of
lower
and
three quarters for the
ruffle,and once
one,
be the
how
cost
much
at
flouncing
$
would
.87J
per yard
for
you
buy,
organdie?
and
what
202
4.
VOCATIONAL
How
finished,if
i"
tucks
5.
deep
must
there
is to be
above
How
deep,if
MATHEMATICS
the hem
deep
a
2"
hem
is
How
cut
"
from
and
when
deep
bottom
and
stripof
above
it three
widths
many
from
ruffle is
6"
cut
NOTE.
the
6"
three
lawn
16"
\" tucks
How
7.
tucks
on
be
many
needed
to be
J"
to
be made
can
the bottom
on
are
five
cut
1J"hem
6.
and
be
ruffle
ruffle
GIRLS
FOR
for
yd. of lawn
finished,and
can
ruffling
36"
wide,
has
be
if the
J"
hem
Allowance
made
be
must
for
ruffle to
joining a
ally
skirt,usu
y".
8.
How
deep
finished,if
five
9.
21
i"
yd.
there
around
the
What
of drawers
is the
of
of
What
of drawers
COST
needed
OF
and
hamburg
each
Hamburg
Insertion
at
is the
of
cost
the
for
petticoat
MATERIALS
insertion
for
one
pair
15
insertion for
one
pair
leg.
a yard.
cents
cents
yard.
and
hamburg
Hamburg
Insertion
What
on
deep when
bottom, and
5"
at 16
36 in. around
3.
be
?
32 in. around
2.
hem
rufflingare
FINDING
cost
to
bottom
IN
cut
11"
the hem
EXAMPLES
1.
be
to
yards
many
ruffle be
is
above
tucks
How
must
at
at
is the cost of
5
yd.
each
leg.
18^ cents
16 cents
hamburg
yard.
a
a
yard.
and
insertion
around.
Hamburg
Insertion
at 25
cents
at 15 cents
a
a
yard.
yard.
for
?
petticoat
204
13.
MATHEMATICS
VOCATIONAL
What
of the
is the cost
7
yd. silk
cover
What
is the
at 79 cents
cover
What
is the
of the
cost
cents
corset
for
corset
for
corset
yard.
cents
yard.
dozen.
followingmaterial
What
is the
at 15 cents
yard.
yard.
yard.
following material
of the
cost
dozen.
for
4 buttons
cover
What
is the cost
yard.
yard.
followingmaterial
of the
for
silk at
7$ yd.
18.
Find
the cost of
1
corset
yd. cambric
f yd.
bias
Find
doz. buttons
the cost
of
at
an
at
10
that
cover
12$
binding
If yd. lace at
\ spool thread
19.
skirt ?
16.
yard.
following material
1$ yd. longclothat 15
2" yd. hamburg at 8^
4 buttons
at 12 cents
15.
for
yard.
cents
of the
cost
GIRLS
followingmaterial
1yd. lining at 35
14.
FOR
cents
at 2 cents
12
cents
cents
yard,
a
yard,
dozen.
yard.
at 5 cents
apron
requires
that
spool.
requires
skirt ?
ARITHMETIC
Find
20.
FOR
the cost
of
3 yd.
Find
nightgown containing
cambric
12
at
yd.
lace at 5 cents
yd.
ribbon
\ spool
21.
thread
What
22.
is the cost
of
2f yd. shirting,32
inches
23.
$ 1.49
at
is the
if each
is
much
skirt
How
finished
is needed
will
wide,
width
aprons
of the apron
wide
eightaprons
the
the
wide
for
needed
around
if
ruffling
are
bottom.
material
is
How
yard
one
cambric
ruffle that
when
which
you
clusters of
the cost of
Silk
poplin, 40
inches
cut
5 tucks
deep, and
J"
allowing
Find
Coat
for
would
measure
28.
$1.25
For
2 yards
measures
deep
making
Satin
apron
4", two
measures
cents.
for 1 dozen
inches
lawn36
and
27.
for
one
material
wide
yard.
36
1\ yd. chiffon faille,
piecesof
many
pattern, 25
for fullness ?
How
25.
following?
at 23 cents
needed
are
yards of ruffling
one
yard wide and half the
many
apron
is added
of the
yard ?
How
24.
of
cost
made
wide,
and
yard.
spool.
dozen.
waist
yard.
5 cents
at
at 5 cents
at 10 cents
2 buttons
spool.
containing
finishingbraid
1^ yd.
\ spool thread
yard.
12 cents
at
yard.
yard.
5 cents
at
cambric
yd.
cents
3 cents
at
205
DRESSMAKERS
facing
inches
for
wide
poplinsuit
:
5 yards,
collar,revers,
and
made
at
of the
$ 1.79
cuffs,21
following:
yard.
inches
wide
yard.
lining,36
inches
wide
2f yards,
silk,two
at
$ 1.50
patterns, $ .64.
yard.
yard, at
206
VOCATIONAL
MATHEMATICS
Cloths
There
in
are
cloths
use
cloth
several
different widths
important to
know
which
is
economical
Widths
of
It is often
prices.
at various
and
of Different
common
GIRLS
FOR
most
36
56
3^
2.25
36
to
1.75
$ 1.44"
per
square
yard.
yard.
EXAMPLES
Find
the cost
yard
square
per
and
the relative
purchasing :
(a) Prunella,46" wide,
Prunella, 44"
(6) Serge,
54"
wide,
wide,
Poplin, 42"
$ 1.50
at
$ 1.35
$ 1.25
at
wide,
at
yard.
yard.
$ 1.00
at
yard.
yard.
49 cents
39 cents
yard.
yard.
("Z)Shepherd check,
Shepherd check,
54"
wide,
at
$ 1.75
52"
wide,
at
$ 1.50
Shepherd check,
42"
wide,
at
$ 1.00
(/) Cashmere,
Nuns
wide,
42"
at 89 cents
at $ 1.25
wide,
yard.
yard.
$ 1.00
at
veiling44" wide,
yard.
yard.
yard.
yard.
at 75 cents
yard.
"
wide,
at 59
Messaline, 36
"
wide,
at
(A) Messaline,
cents
$ 1.25
yard.
yard.
a
economy
in
ARITHMETIC
PROBLEMS
ILLUSTRATIVE
EXAMPLE.
"
for 20
material
the
than
more
dressmaker
discount
material, receiving 6 %
of
DISCOUNT
TRADE
IN
207
DRESSMAKERS
FOR
for
bought
She
sold
the
What
was
the
cash.
originalprice.
$ 125 worth
gain?
SOLUTION.
$ 125.00
"
originalprice
$125.00
.06
7.50
7.50
discount
$ 117.50
5[$125 originalcost
20 %
$25
$ 150.00
sellingprice
117.50
gain
$ 150 sellingprice
price paid
$32. 50
Am.
gain.
EXAMPLES
1.
dressmaker
bought
yd. of hamburg
25
50
at
cents
per
2.
dressmaker
discount
for cash.
What
originalprice.
A
sold
She
the
the
was
worth
325
bought $
goods
milliner
worth
materials
the
the
for
30
for 25
of
for
than
more
goods,receiving6 "/0
than
more
the
gain ?
bought $200
flowers,receiving5 % discount
3.
of
ribbons,velvets, and
cash.
She
then
sold
What
originalprice.
the
was
gain ?
REVIEW
1.
dressmaker
She
received
per
yard.
2.
and
3.
$ 18.
How
bought
discount
much
merchant
received
lawn
EXAMPLES
30
of 10
did
bought
discount
%.
she
50
of 6
yd.
She
gain
yd. of
for
of
on
the 30
lawn
cash.
at
yard.
$ 1.39
yards ?
12^
How
cents
much
yard,
did
the
cost ?
piece of
It
was
the cost
made
crinoline
into
of the crinoline
model
bought
What
for
was
208
MATHEMATICS
VOCATIONAL
dressmaker
discount
for cash.
4.
originalprice.
She
What
dressmaker
5.
much
yard, 12 yd. of
7
beading
at
discount
is
material
for
discount
silk for 25
gain per
than
more
dress
one
insertion
cents
yd. of
Valenciennes
6cents
at
yard.
cost ?
What
lace at
yard, and
is the
7^
12
buttons
waist
cents
yd.
cost, when
net
of
the
cent
dressmaker
8.
for
silk,receiving6 %
many
made
be
can
of
given ?
How
7.
the
Find
the
worth
it she
made
sold
was
From
6.
175
bought $
GIRLS
FOR
35
at
cents
dozen.
What
did
material
the
yard,
crochet
for the
cost ?
woman
10.
dressmaker
She
sold
81
$ 1.00
What
did
per
cent
11.
the
yd. to
yard
one
to another
she
gain
on
50
yd, of
for
customer
customer, and
the
entire
taffeta
$ 1.25
the
piece?
remainder
What
was
at
the
cost.
gain
Two
and
onehalf
yards
of cloth cost
$ 2.75.
What
was
priceper yard ?
12.
lace abroad
bought 50 yd. of handmade
for it. She paid 60 % duty on the lace and sold
What
the sellingpriceper yard ?
was
33^ %
dressmaker
paid $ 75
it at a gain of
and
bought
"
ARITHMETIC
209
DRESSMAKERS
FOR
dressmaker
dressmaker
the
bought
cash
What
dressmaker
She
for $ 22.50.
silk
the third
the
"
at
she
dress
How
be sold.
materials?
did
much
Did
she
She
she
of
3.50
gain or
gain ?
broadcloth
yard, but
lose ?
What
sold two
another
the three
three
After
yard.
piecesto one
cents
customer
at 35
customer
15yd. pieces of
paying 60 % duty
at 48 % gain,and
% gain. What was
pieces?
the
furnished
dressmaker
and
in France
bought
25^
piece to
gain on
17.
them.
the
bought a 7^yd.remnant
6 yd. to a customer
at $
not
dressmaker
them,
on
for
pay
cent
dress
sold
could
the remainder
16.
she
cent ?
per
15.
did
price for
retail
charged the
per
What
payment.
charged $25
it.
for
materials
For
the
for
materials
lingerie
she
The
18.
She
sold
them
making.
She
What
19.
a
was
If
the
to make
dress
cost
than cost
10% more
paid her helper 20 % of
for
it takes
dress, how
needed
for
materials
6^
many
the
dressmaker
and
the
the
$ 14.50.
charged $15
amount
she
for
received.
yards of
yards of
same
paid
yd.
cloth
52
cloth
22
dress ?
inches
inches
wide
wide
to
make
will
be
210
dressmaker
20.
She
$ 25.
of
paid
paid
were
the
for
35
Which
for cash.
many
the
Find
24.
$ .121
12
piece
the
cost
buy
can
she
receive
buy
can
three
a
discount
yard
the
in
each
of
of
piece of
was
cost
What
4^ yd.
bought
of
dressmaker
was
28.
She
the
above
lengths in
lace at
of lace at
$1.95
per
piece (one
yd.).
was
inches
cost
one
dresses,
summer
yard, or
than
more
yard.
Find
25.
27.
cents
%
?
cent
three
yard and
plan ?
silk,receiving
inches
f yd. ? (b) How
many
inches
in f yd. ? (d) How
many
many
inches
in
in J yd. ? (e) How
Jyd. ? (/) How
many
inches in yd.?
inches in J yd. ? (g) How
many
inches
26.
25
for
needed.
are
is the better
(a) How
many
yd. ? (c) How
23.
gain per
order
an
of
silk for 40
the
the
J yd. of batiste
101 yd. each for
yd. for 25 cents
of
piece of
sold
31
remnants
for
worth
$1.50
was
has
dressmaker
which
She
What
originalprice.
22.
in
cash.
for
customer
work
own
bought
dressmaker
discount
one
$ 1.25
for her
receive
the dressmaker
21.
was
for
for
dress
assistants
dress
GIRLS
FOR
to make
agreed
The
work.
assistants
MATHEMATICS
VOCATIONAL
made
of
another
pieces of white
J yd.,at $ .421
2
48
lining taffeta,
yard. What
crinoline
into
the
crinoline
is the cost
of
in
child's
1" yd.
insertion
cents
at 19
cents
at 15
model
petticoatcontaining:
15
2J yd. longcloth at
If yd. hamburg
each
cents
yard,
yard,
yard
212
VOCATIONAL
is the
What
34.
Cotton
MATHEMATICS
of the
cost
gabardine,
36 inches
to
Which
buy
of
the
wide
44"
40"
Charmeuse,
Louisine, 38"
20"
Armure,
Satin
fabrics
wide,
wide,
at
21"
duchesse,
at
What
would
hat
at
$2.00.
$1.50.
$1.25.
at
with
the
followingtrimmings ?
Make
out
bill.
(See
yard.
$ 5.50 each.
feathers,at
and
yard.
PROBLEMS
cost
Frame
economical
most
$3.00.
yard.
$2.25.
at
wide,
MILLINERY
1.
is the
$3.25
at
wide,
wide,
wide,
cents
pattern, at 35 cents.
Franchise, 42"
Faille
at 39
5f yards
following
Crepe meteor,
GIRLS
following?
FOR
work,
at
lesson
$2.50.
on
page
243.)
2.
A
at
roses
velvet
leghorn
$2.98,
ribbon
charged 75
3.
bonnet
at
hat
bunches
$ 1.49
for her
milliner
used
foliage at $.98,
used for trimming.
work.
the
and
fadeless
11
the
following trimmings
yd.
of
milliner
The
did
much
How
of
bunches
Four
$6.98.
of
were
cents
hat
on
cost ?"
child's
piece straw
braid,
yd. maline,
at 25
flowers,at
4 bunches
foliage,at
was
receiptit.
the
at
$1.49.
at
cents
4 bunches
Work,
What
cost
69
yard.
cents
each.
49 cents
each.
hat ?
Make
$2.00.
total cost
of
the
out
bill and
old
An
4.
lady'sbonnet
yd. silk,at $
piece of jet,83.00.
What
5.
yard.
cents.
the finished
bonnet
was
following:
$ 1.50.
Work,
did
tlie
Ties, 75
much
1.50
2 small
How
with
trimmed
was
213
MILLINERS
FOR
ARITHMETIC
of
cost ?
hat
with
the
mings
followingtrim
pieces straw
flowers,at 59
foliage,at
She
an
milliner
6.
used
yard.
cents.
at
$2.50.
2.00
$ 1.50
at
much
How
ornament.
49
charged $
yd. satin
at 98 cents
cents.
work,
and
Frame
each.
braid, at "2.50
for
did
and
yard
old
renovating an
the hat
charged $
hat.
2.25
for
cost ?
7.
The
followingtrimmings
3
yd. velvet, at 8
lace, at
yd.
2 bunches
Work,
much
How
8.
work.
9.
How
A
did
2 bunches
the
much
did
6.00
for
bunch.
hat with
grapes,
the
a
pay
and
for her
75
cents
hat ?
following trimmings
yard.
at 69 cents
cost ?
hat,
at $ 1.59
75 cents.
the hat
for
4.75
customer
2 yd. ribbon,
How
child's hat
yard.
yard.
at 49 cents
Work,
cost ?
charged $
fancy band, $
lady bought
on
"2.00.
the hat
much
1.50
cents
buds,
milliner
for
$ 2.50
did
15
used
were
a
a
bunch.
yard.
for
214
VOCATIONAL
What
10.
MATHEMATICS
would
hat
with
cost
pieces straw
yd. ribbon,
FOR
the
braid, at $
at 89
cents
GIRLS
followingtrimmings ?
1.98 each.
yard.
Fancy feather,$6.98.
and
Frame
Estimate
11.
work, $
the cost
of
2. 50.
hat
yd. ribbon,
1 band
fur, 75
Foliage,10
yard.
at 25 cents
f yd. buckram, at
^ yd. tarlatan,at
yard,
25 cents
yard.
10 cents
yard.
cents.
cents.
Labor, $2.00.
the
If
12.
true
bias
longer
than
the width
be cut
from
velvet
from
of the
18"
wide
strip?
The
13.
inches
45
it take
FRAME
^
be needed
to
brim
cover
16
bias
many
HAT
in
is
velvet
WIRE
edge
if each
of
hat
circumference
inches
strips of
to
fit the
what
amount
stripcut
measures
the
wide.
How
velvet
would
brim
of velyet
measured
of
wou]d
a
yard
Give
3yards of
16.
How
material
17.
each
18.
velvet
the
number
material
of
13^in.stripsthat
; also the
number
22^in.strips can
many
of inches
be
be
can
from
of waste.
from
cut
cut
2J yd.
of
What
strip1 yd. 10
How
many
18 inches
in.
long
and
from
be made
1^
11
yd. of silk,
in. wide?
sixpetalroses can
wide, each petal cut
be
made
from
3 inches
square
yard
of
ARITHMETIC
Estimate
19.
18
yard, centers
6 cents
Find
20.
the
FOR
total
cents
the
of
cost
of
12
cents
; the
ming
dozen, stem
flower.
of
cost
is $ 1.50
for each
yard
flower
one
if velvet
roses,
dozen, sprays
yard,using
of
cost
215
MILLINERS
of
dozen
What
facing
and
headsize
inches
If the
what
of
crown
will be
hat, width
circumference
of brim
of
the
amount
for
wide,allowing twice
allowing 1 inch oil depth
also
At
23.
the
24.
milliner
She
dozen.
Flowers
25.
at
75
bunches
sold
were
dozen
26.
gain ?
A
27.
gained
28.
much
on
2J
of
them
that
were
cents
to fit a
plaintop
inches,diameter
of
Ten
what
and
the
bunch.
per
cent
cent
at
What
19
of
cents
what
ribbon
a
others
?
bunches
gain
not
to
the
salable.
much
How
11
on
yards
was
was
velvet
sold
cent
the
yard.
$ 3.60
the
dozen
at
per
was
dollar,
one
each, but
ribbon,ten
the
fullness,
dozen
frames
$ 5.50
at
rolls of
ten
per
cents
lose and
bought
sold
was
or
for
? of twelve
75
for
of
casings?
frames
buckram
inches,
facing made
the hat
of silk for
eight
dozen
at
shirred
56
measures
around
frames
gain
bought
piece of
$28.20
had
she
8.50.
remainder
The
sold
of
rate
Did
milliner
roll,for $
for
sold
sold.
not
were
the
wholesale
what
brim
silk 22 inches
and
needed
of crown
151 inches,allowing 81
7" inches,diameter
brim for turning over
edges ?
on
22.
of velvet
amount
bought
was
much
was
piece?
thirtysix
yard piece of maline
at 29 cents a yard. One
yard was
was
gained on the piece?
cost
lost in
$ 7.02
and
cutting.
was
How
216
MATHEMATICS
VOCATIONAL
Find
29.
of
cost
velvet
of
yd.
1
of
 yd.
fur
feather
wire,
Taffeta
Making,
the
for
What
milliner
frame,
Valenciennes
hat
lace.
of
cost
the
edge
snap
?
Should
lace
cents
for
labor.
edged
with
1.50
3"
is
wide
25
25
cents
cents
yard,
lining
ruffle,
upper
12^
cents
the
and
cents,
the
cost
cost
cost
ruffles
two
edging
ribbon
organdie
35
has
ruffle
3"
and
37
paid
lower
of
She
trimming,
organdie
yd.
hat.
yard,
the
hat
10
cost
yard,
11
yd.
frame
cents.
cost.
velvet
much
How
32.
put
total
the
2J
yd.
for
8.37
of
The
cents.
profit
cent
2i".
Find
25
2.50.
for
2.80
per
child's
31.
cents.
charged
$
the
was
10
yard.
$ 3.00.
at
cents.
yard.
34.00
at
50
lining,
1.50
at
ornament,
Edge
30.
requiring
band,
frame,
Hat
hat
velvet,
GIRLS
FOR
binding
the
on
velvet
at
hat
be
2.00
that
bias
yard
would
43"
measures
or
straight
you
around
buy
to
the
CHAPTER
CLOTHING
about
SINCE
aighth of
one
the income
in the average
workingimportant
to make
fabric
the
selection
intelligent
an
for
best,although
it is in
of cloth
All kinds
some
made
are
cheapest is
the
is called the
made
filling.Such
always
The
interlacing
(weaving)of
thread
running lengthwise
is the
not
cases.
by
(calledyarn).
thread
the sets of
The
particularpurpose.
economical
most
fabrics
The
other
thread
as
lace
the
Threads
interlacingof a single thread.
(yarn)are made by lengtheningand twisting(called
spinning)
Since the fibers vary in such qualities
short fibers.
as firmness,
length, curl,and softness,the resultingcloth varies in the
This is the reason
mediumsame
why we have highgrade,
way.
grade,and lowgrade fabrics.
fabrics are
The principal
wool, silk,mohair, cotton, and flax
are
by
(linen).
The
and
wonders
difference
to
the
from
is often
consumer
why
is due
care
$ 1.35
in
to
in
there
part
tempted
is such
to the
For
buy
the
difference
cost of
manufacturing.
$ 5.00
to
raw
cheaper fabrics
in price. This
material
example, raw
pound, according to the
217
and
in
part
silk
costs
nature
and
218
MATHEMATICS
VOCATIONAL
qualityof
the
silk.
about
55
cents
The
of
cost
GIRLS
FOR
preparing the
silk
raw
ages
aver
of the
pound, according to the nature
twist,which is regulatedby the kind of cloth into which it is
The
cost of dyeing varies from
55 cents
to enter.
to $ 1.50 a
are
paid from 2 to 60 cents a yard for weaving,
pound. Weavers
the pricevaryingaccordingto the desirability
of the cloth.
When
relative
the
compare
we
values
of
similar
goods
"
36
144 threads
in the
42
168 threads
in the
filling.
warp.
EXAMPLES
A 25cent
1.
undervest
summer
will
fabric)
(knitted
of the
two
2.
50cent
variety.
3.
cents, but
94
the better
A
yard,
yard.
as
What
dress
linen
will
one
sheer
thicker
for
will
buy
as
stocking at
dress
50cent
is
gained
25cent
style?
cents
of better
Why
seasons.
the
ready
material
is the
latter
is the better
at
similar
What
of
girls,costing 75
last two
tablecloth
stocking
of
three
outwear
young
season.
last twice
Which
kind
to
will
retainingbetter
15cent variety?
to
dress
will last
costs
5.
is
What
cotton
made,
4.
undervest
outwear
investment
50
35
cents
cents.
stockingsshould
be
a
a
will
wear
What
selected
wear
220
counts, is based
560
MATHEMATICS
VOCATIONAL
the number
upon
ROVING
These
scales
will
of
if
hank
counts,
etc.
The
higher
unit
with
the
while
one
weighs
if 20 hanks
greater
the counts
are
each
of hanks
and
the finer
other, while
FOR
In worsted
in
for
woolen
the
will
yarn
pound,
one
necessary
the yarn.
"
pound,
required
number
LENGTH
Yarns.
one
the
of measurement
Woolen
SCALES
YARN
one
sandth
seventythoupound by tenths of grains or one
pound avoirdupois, rendering them well adapted for use
reels, for the numbering of yarn from the weight
yarn
with tables.
weight in tenths of grains to compare
one
hank, giving
Thus,
lengths(calledhanks) of
pound.
weigh
part of
in connection
of
one
OR
GIRLS
FOR
to
yarn
weigh
hank,
The
be
the
or
one
number
one
is the 20's,
pound,
the
is the
560
yards,
lie
parallelto
entangled.
yarns.
WORSTED
yarns
yarns
YARNS
the fibers
the
fibers
are
221
CLOTHING
difference is due
This
in
working
up
In woolen
systems
; the
Scotch
others.
In
stated.
This
100
yards
woolen
the
weigh
termed
technically
or
the
one
or
one
used
1600
in New
yards
or
ounce,
No.
; and
run
; the
run
will
number
of
be
England.
to
the
if 1600
if 300
done.
used
unless
The
otherwise
is based
run
Thus, if 100
yards weigh
yards weigh
yards necessary
parts of England
pound.
the
Among
differs in various
system
run
run.
The
to
weigh
yards of
pound, it is
one
one
upon
ounce,
or
4800
pound, the
run.
YARN
For
grading is
the
greater the
higher the
the
lessons
ounce,
yarn
is the system
per
these
yards weigh
is
are
used
stock.
raw
there
yarns
according to
many
the
different methods
the
entirelyto
reeling and
measuring lengths
LENGTH
FOR
WOOLEN
REEL
of cotton,
YARNS
woolen,
and
worsted
(RUN SYSTEM)
yarns.
222
VOCATIONAL
Yarns.
Silk
Raw
MATHEMATICS
For
"
silk yarns
raw
GIRLS
FOR
the
table of
weights
is:
16 drams
ounce
16
pound
pound
256
The
1000
yards
weigh
two
of
unit
skein
one
"
pound,
one
for
measure
drams,
the
1dram
"
ounces
drams
raw
of
silk
raw
it is known
yarn
is called
weigh
1dram
as
2dram
dram,
one
silk, and
silk ; hence
if
or
256,000 yards
if 1000
the
if
Thus,
yards weigh
followingtable
is
made:
silk
2dram
silk
4dram
silk
Linen
Yarns.
1000
yards
per
dram,
1000
yards
per
yards
per 4
1000
"
The
256,000 yards
or
drams,
drams,
sizes of linen
128,000 yards
or
or
64,000 yards
yarns
are
Ib.
per
based
Ib.
per
per
Ib.
the lea
on
cuts
per
leas,is
the number
of the yarn,
as
30's,indicating30
300
that a spindle
yards per pound. Eightpound yarn means
6.
weighs 8 pounds or that the yarn is 6lea (14,4005 8) s 300
9000
223
CLOTHING
Yarns.
Cotton
sizes of cotton
The
"
1 hank.
Silk.
that
used
as
silk yarns
Spun
"
for
that
calculations
rules and
graded
are
apply
the
upon
yards of
cotton
1 counts.
(840 yards
cotton
is,840
That
is called No.
based
are
yarns
the
same
also to spun
apply
cotton
basis
same
pound),and
per
to
the
on
silk yarns.
Two
two
More
or
more
or
twisted
Yarns
Ply Yarns.
ply ; that is,two or
together,making
is given as follows
the size
2/30'smeans
would
Thus
when
is
yarn
weigh
heavier,and
is
case
the
twisted
together.
number
of threads
twisted
3/30's
twisted
gether,
to
thread.)
together,the resultant
of yards are requiredto
number
pound.
one
30's 'worsted
of 30's, expressed
ply thread
or
are
this
together, and
are
smaller
threads
In
yarn.
twisted
counts
30's counts,
threads
two
example
For
30's
figurefollowing the
the
twist
double
(The figurebefore
and
individual
more
in
of
threads, each
mean
threads
frequentlyproduced
are
"
equal
to
15's ; and
yarn
2/30?s,requiresonly
threeply thread
lb.,but
per
8400
yards
of 30's would
to the
be
two
pound,
equal
to
10's.
When
To
the
Find
is
yarn
Weight
of
EXAMPLE.
worsted
"
in
Worsted
Find
the
Grains
Yarn
of
of
weight
Given
in
of Yards
Count
Known
Number
grains
of 125
yards of
yarns.
No.
1's worsted
No.
20' s worsted
1 lb. worsted
yam
yarn
yarn
560
11,200 yards
7000
yards
to
grains.
to
lb.
a
lb.
20's
224
VOCATIONAL
MATHEMATICS
11,200 yards of
If
worsted
20's
GIRLS
FOR
yarn
"
1 1
of
5"
7000
7000
"
divide
7000, and
given
method:
Another
"
Multiply
result
the
by the
the
125
Find
the
number
of
yards
yards by
of the
pound
per
cotton
Find
"
11,200.
78. 125
Grains
in
Weight
875,000.
20 's=
11,200
T
of Cotton
EXAMPLE.
7000
pound
875,000
Yarn
the
of
of
Given
Number
of
Yards
Count
Known
in
weight
Ans.
grains.
of
grains
80
yards
of 20's
yarn.
No.
1's cotton
lyd. 20's
80
yd. 20's
cotton
customary
80
to
Ib.
33.33
"
grains. Ans.
21
examples that
to solve
Ib.
grains.
16,800
It is
grains.
7000
=J
cotton
to
16,800 yards
1 Ib.
yards
840
20's cotton
No.
by
of
given number
count.
To
grains.
11,200
NOTE.
78.125
"
j^UU
occur
in
dailypractice
rule.
The
precedingexample is as follows :
and divide the
of yards by 7000
Multiply the given number
result by the number
of yards per pound of the given count.
560,000
NOTE.
To
cotton
"
7000
is
find the
find
of cotton
yards by
7000
(20
840)
always
weight
of
yarn
*
80
560,000.
multiplier and
in
known
divide
grains. Ans.
33.33
840
divisor.
of yards of
given number
of
count, multiply the given number
the result by the yards per pound of
ounces
of
count.
the
weight
yarn
the
of
in
known
pounds
of
given
count, divide
of the known
the
number
given
count.
of
yards
number
of
225
CLOTHING
find the
To
woolen
yarn
the number
by
NOTE.
of yards of
of a given number
weight in ounces
of yards
(run system),divide the given number
of runs, and multiply the quotientby 100.
Calculations
"
of
contained
ounces
EXAMPLE.
5run
woolen
number
in 1
Find
"
the
on
basis
run
are
(1600) is
much
simplified,owing
exactly
100
times
the number
of
6400
yards
to
pound.
the
weight
in
ounces
of
yarn.
6400
(5
100)=
12.8
Ans.
oz.
find the
of yards of
weight in pounds of a given number
woolen
be used,
calculation
yarn (run system) the above
may
and
the result divided
by 16 will give the weight in pounds.
To find the weight in grains of a given number
of yards of
woolen
of yards
yarn (run system),multiply the given number
the
divide
of grains in a pound) and
by 7000 (the number
result by the number
of yards per pound in the given run,
and the quotientwill be the weight in grains.
To
EXAMPLES
How
1.
341
ounces
many
pounds
How
many
pounds
3.
How
many
grains
2112
ounces
4.
Give
the
5.
(a)41's
Give
there
(a)in
6324
(6)in
grains?
2.
yarns
are
are
are
there
in 9332
there
of
;
grains ?
the
following
(d)115's
(6)in
worsted
(e)93's.
the
yarns
(e) li's.
6.
yarns
7.
yarns
Give
:
(a)li's
Give
:
the
the
lengths
;
(6)3's
lengths
per
;
pound
of
the
(c)3J's; (d)20's
per
of
ounce
following raw
; (e)28's.
silk
following raw
silk
the
(d)9's
(e)14's.
226
VOCATIONAL
What
8.
(b)25's
9.
yarns
(c)32's
(a)10's
silk yarns
from
lengths of
28's
(cf)
linen yarns
(e)45's
pound
per
(a)8's ;
(a)30's
GIRLS
FOR
the
are
Make
11.
are
What
10.
the
are
What
:
MATHEMATICS
table
lengths
;
(b)45's
of
pound
per
;
(c)38's
lengths
(d)29's
ounce
per
of the
followingspun
; (e)42's ?
silk yarns
of spun
1's to 20's.
12.
Find
the
weight in grains of
Find
the
weight in grainsof
144 inches
of
2/20'sworsted
of
3/30'sworsted
yarn.
13.
25
yards
yarn.
Find
14.
cotton
in
24,000 yards
of
2/40's
2,840,000 yards
of
2/60's
of
ounces
the
weight
in
pounds
Find
the
weight
in
ounces
Find
the
weight
in
Find
the
weight
in
cotton
16.
weight
yarn.
Find
15.
the
of
yarn.
yards of
of 650
woolen
lirun
yarn.
17.
yarn.
18.
woolen
Solve
rule
pounds
of
64,000 yards
of
5run
yarn.
the
then
by
19.
Find
the
weight
grains of
165
yards of
35's worsted.
20.
Find
the
weight in grainsof
212
yards of
40's worsted.
21.
Find
the
weight in grains of
118
yards of
25's cotton.
22.
Find
the
weight
in
grainsof
920
yards of
18's cotton.
23.
Find
the
weight
in
pounds
24.
Find
the
weight in grains of
318
25.
Find
the
weight in grainsof
25
in
of 616
yards of
yards of
yards of
16^'s woolen.
184's
cotton.
30's linen.
228
"0". x
84
840
pound,
of hanks
to the
14,700 yd.
in 1 Ib.
the number
are
GIRLS
FOR
MATHEMATICS
VOCATIONAL
40
14,700
RULE.
Divide
"
4
840
counts.
Ans.
given
number
17.5
the
by
of
yards ;
divide
7000
840
To
=
84
10.
7000
f
10
700.
700
f
40
17.5 counts.
the Run
Find
Woolen
of a
and
EXAMPLE.
what
is the
run
50
700032
218.75
woolen
run
77.77
f
1600
Divide
"
Ans.
of Known
Thread
Length
woolen
weigh
yarn
77.77
grains,
?
1600
RULE.
the
Weight
yards of
If 50
"
the
32.
218.75.
2.812run
given
Ans.
yarn.
of
(the number
the
yarn) by
number
7000
the
run.
To
Find
Ounces
Weight in
the
Yarn
Worsted
EXAMPLE.
30's worsted
"
is the
What
yarn
202,400
Multiply
divide
the result by
and the quotientwill
"
of
Given
of
Count
Known
weight in
of Yards
Number
of
ounces
12,650yards of
12,650
RULE.
for
the
the
be
16
16,800
202,400.
12.047
given
number
oz.
Ans.
of
yards by 16,
the
and
given count,
229
CLOTHING
To
Find
the
in Pounds
Weight
of Worsted
EXAMPLE.
Find
"
of 40's worsted
for
Yarn
the
of
in
of
be
Divide
"
of Yards
of
pounds
1,500,800yards
yarn.
Number
Count
Known
weight
Given
the
given
67 Ib.
number
of
Am.
the
count, and
known
the
yards by
number
quotient
will
grains,find
the
EXAMPLES
1.
If
inches
108
of
cotton
weigh
yarn
1.5
counts.
2.
Find
2.5
weighs
3.
Find
worsted
4.
the
size of
woolen
72
thread
inches
long
which
grains.
the
in
weight
of
ounces
12,650 yards
of
2/30's
yarn.
Find
the
Find
the
in
weight
of
ounces
12,650 yards of
40's worsted
yarn.
5.
worsted
6.
Find
weight
in
of
pounds
What
the
is the
yarn
If
40's
of
pounds
789,600 yards
of
2/30's
weight
in
851,200 yards
of
3/60's
of
pounds
33,600 yards
of cotton
weigh
yarn
pounds,
find
the
of cotton.
counts
of
1,500,800 yards
yarn.
worsted
8.
in
yarn.
worsted
7.
weight
or
of yarn
of definite
for
necessary
fiber of different
yarn,
The
kinds
and
and
and
rags
every
Rags
qualityand
mill
grades. Many
from
pricesrise
and
brokers
fall from
tity.
quan
buy
to
man
small
who
day
mills
deal
to
in
day
230
VOCATIONAL
according
MATHEMATICS
the
to
law
of
FOR
demand
GIRLS
and
supply.
weekly and
Price
lists
sent
out
giving the quotations are
sometimes
daily by agents as the prices of materials rise or fall. The
following are quotations of different grades of cotton, wool,
and shoddy, quoted from
list :
a market
QUANTITY
8103
lb. white
3164
Ib. white
Ib. pure
1110
718 Ib.
872
593
Ib.
987
Ib.
697
$0.485
365
315
shoddy
woolen
225
115
rags
cloakings (cottonwarp)
96 Ib.
Ib.
wool
lightmerino
Ib. wool
408
merino
Find
.02
bat rags
035
2/20'sworsted
(Bradford)yarn
2/40's Australian
yam
1/50'sdelaine yarn
16cut merino
(50 % wool and
yarn
carpet yarn, 60 yd. double reel,wool
Ib.
LB.
PER
yarn
2896
410
PRICE
the
of the
total cost
above
725
1.35
1.20
50
% shoddy)
.285
filling
235
quantitiesand
of
grades
textiles.
EXAMPLES
1.
The
weight
has
Wyoming
wool
2.
raised
A
3.
colored
The
is 54
5.
The
In
tare.
to each
standard
27
pick in
on
farm
purchasing
How
much
bale ?
what
is the
is 8
Ib.
of
weight
558
cotton
Ib. per
acres
cotton
is the
; what
cotton
cotton
day
; how
much
(6 days)?
of 165
size of
27 inches
Ib. of
week
yield is
a
sheep
average
4,600,000 sheep ;
picks 155
man
the
on
in this state ?
year
average
will be raised
4.
fleece
the
at least
in
will he
cotton
of
an
would
much
cotton
?
bale
in the
cubical
allowance
be
; how
acre
United
contents
of 4
paid for
in 96
of
States
a
bale ?
is made
bales,500
for
Ib.
231
CLOTHING
Broadcloth
6.
in
it been
has
fourths
to
If
sample
If
9.
the
yards to
If
10.
calico
If
absorbs
12
A
12.
If
13.
the
by
cotton
6
the
"/obrown
5 per
16.
with
threads
per
cotton
17.
What
and
A
is
is the
ence
differ
mill and
68 Ib.
Ib. 4
dyestuff,etc.,will
followingreceipt?
treated
1.5
% sulphate
1.5
from
how
ounces,
many
95
out
in
fiftyyard
tenhour day ?
oz.
is
"
weighted
certain
is the
be
175%
pays
year
wage
"
per
out
capita?
requiredto dye
5 Ib. of
of copper,
of
potash,
acid.
yards
square
of waste
with
bichromate
"/oacetic
industry in a
994,875 people,what
1050
of cloth
weighing
the
Ib. of yarn,
oz.
per
loss in waste
sq.
ing
be
piece of
wefted
three
cent
1.8
textile
woven
cent
from
What
per
weighs
weighing 3
weight ?
many
be
yd. may
is the
what
buckram
color,afterwards
How
varies
turns
printing machine
are
printedper hour
many
15.
years
entered
Ib. of cotton
of 110
much
How
many
largest?
to
silk
total
$ 500,000,000 to
14.
smallest
sample of linen
% moisture, what
pieceof
is the
what
inches.
yard of
pound ?
onesixteenth
made
were
cotton
length from
in
8.
"Upland"
of
and
one
How
in 1641.
woven
use
length
The
7.
first
was
30's linen
inch
what
cloth
union
yarn,
in both
of linen
has
there
and
warp
is there
sample of calico 3
the weight in pounds
of 12's cotton
being
the
weft
in the
in.
of
warp
is
number
of
percentage
of
same
; what
and
cloth ?
by 4 in. weighs
70yardpiece,36
30
grains.
in. wide
232
VOCATIONAL
cents
is
what
If
what
mill,
22.
What
of
bale
is
the
19
Ex.
is
the
This
75
what
was
The
is
of
total
its
value
the
of
worsted
of
cost
value
at
loss
is
67
gain
50.25
of
what
cents
75
Ib.
Ib.
to
worsted
67
at
Each
pound.
loses
in
oz.
reeling
the
75
Ib.
bale
in
ing,
dye
it
part
per
of
cents
material
and
the
18
GIRLS
0.45
gains
cent
loss
of
Ib.
at
cost
of
cent
the
cotton
weighing
per
Ib.
contains
total
worsted
per
FOR
cloth
Ib.
1"
cent
what
20.
21.
and
per
certain
pound
19.
off
of
yd.
18.
MATHEMATICS
lost
lost
pound
oz.
in
the
fulling
of
cent
the
original
weight
PART
IV
AND
OFFICE
THE
"
CHAPTER
ARITHMETIC
THE
STORE
XI
FOR
OFFICE
ASSISTANTS
EVERY
should
the
1.
the
time
27
following columns
requiredfor
2.
37
"
Calculations
Rapid
Add
be
and
the different
3.
471
check
the results.
Compare
examples.
4.
568
5.
1,039
20
295
284
579
11
194
187
381
18
20
327
341
668
559
12
12
16
287
272
12
191
184
375
16
237
193
430
194
156
350
12
169
166
335
11
15
247
232
479
12
13
194
180
374
27
25
52
12
8,
17
253
240
493
11
14
241
212
453
12
20
355
367
722
12
14
244
222
466
11
93
79
172
10
15
208
213
421
233
234
VOCATIONAL
MATHEMATICS
FOR
GIRLS
236
16.
VOCATIONAL
$437.58
2.75
1.40
70.06
3.54
396.89
33.00
18.24
6.75
68.70
1.53
9.20
.90
98.95
117.13
192.71
58.43
2.11
2.92
43.34
5.80
108.81
1.75
10.10
3.25
881.69
82.80
.75
3.00
26.50
19.04
2.24
19.50
2,676.35
25.25
.70
36.53
3.60
3.00
168.66
67.60
MATHEMATICS
17.
FOR
GIRLS
OFFICE
FOR
ARITHMETIC
Addition
Horizontal
often written
way
as
to make
to add
it necessary
is
it
adding figureshorizontally,
rightand
check
the
in such
figureshorizontally.In
customary
by adding
answer
237
ASSISTANTS
from
to add
from
rightto
left to
left.
EXAMPLES
Add
the
:
followinghorizontally
1.
38 +
76 +
49
2.
11 +
43 +
29
3.
27 +
57 +
15
4.
34 +
16 +
23
5.
47 +
89 +
37
6.
53 +
74 +
42
7.
94 +
17 +
67
8.
79 +
37 +
69
9.
83 +
49 +
74
19 f 38 +
49
10.
Add
the
vertical totals
11.
12.
13.
check
following and
by adding
36 +
74 19 +
47
29 +
63 f 49 +
36
74 +
34 +
87 +
27
37 +
19 +
73 +
34
4
74 +
109+
178+
39 +
111
+
14.
4
381
217+589
784
309
983
+
+
611
83
127
the
horizontal
and
238
MATHEMATICS
VOCATIONAL
15.
1118
3719
8910
3001
5316
6715
Add
the
totals.
FOR
following and
Compare
check
the time
GIRLS
cal
by adding horizontal and vertirequiredfor the different examples.
ARITHMETIC
23.
On
the
following
What
What
is the average
Review
Interest,page
OFFICE
FOR
page
rate
50.
is
an
ASSISTANTS
itemized
of investments
of interest ?
list of
239
ments.
invest
240
List
VOCATIONAL
of
Investments
MATHEMATICS
Held
by
the
FOR
Sinking
January
1,
Funds
1913
GIRLS
of Fall Ewer,
Mass.
ARITHMETIC
24.
What
is total amount
What
is the average
Water
of the
rate
Bonds
of
241
ASSISTANTS
OFFICE
FOR
followingwater
bonds?
of interest ?
Fall
River, Mass.
SUBTRACTION
DRILL
EXERCISE
5.
36
7
11.
43
16
6.
32
7.
4
12.
26
41
15
242
GIRLS
FOR
MATHEMATICS
VOCATIONAL
MULTIPLICATION
DRILL
EXERCISE
80
11.
740.
12.
79 x
11.
400.
13.
187
800.
14.
2100
11.
15.
2855
11.
16.
84x25.
17.
116
50.
49,009x400.
18.
288
25,
318,000x4000.
19.
198x25.
20.
3884
1.
1600x900.
2.
800
3.
360
4.
590
5.
1700
6.
1900x700.
7.
788,000
8.
9.
10.
1100.
988,000
"Review
rules
on
600.
50,000.
multiplication,pages
89.
11.
25.
244
VOCATIONAL
When
MATHEMATICS
the amount
of the
FOR
bill
invoice
or
GIRLS
is
paid,the
invoice
is marked.
Received
payment,
Name
of firm.
Per
This
is called
of authorized
name
person.
bill.
receiptinga
Ledger
Whenever
invoice
an
transaction
this book
is made
lines.
The
credit
side.
At
firm
record
on
this page
the
the
word
We
account
on
Mdse.
debit
when
or
side.
the
or
an
of
top
that
person
debit
recorded
book
parts by
means
the debit
and
each
is called
firm
credit
is
the account
the
side.
The
or
double
or
the
is
the
of
name
the person
cash
of
pages
is recorded.
of
the
rightside
purchases merchandise,
merchandise
The
of red
ledger page
of
record
ledger.
purchases merchandise
When
cash
customer,
called
into two
the
or
on
to
person
When
in
divided
are
is sent
The
or
firm.
it is recorded
received,it
and
is
the
usuallywritten.
when
account
it delivers
E.
it receives
value.
D.
SPECIMEN
REDINGTON
LEDGER
PAGE
value,
and
credit
an
A
a
ARITHMETIC
FOR
of
the debits
summary
The
statement.
represents
the
greater than
owes
then
the
credits,the
the merchant.
the merchant
between
of
the
owes
of
the
the
customer.
followingaccounts
BLANEY,
LUDWIG
CHARLES
BROWN
"
N.
the
on
greater than
are
"
LONG
BUTTON
CO.
is called
account
debits
named
customer
EXAMPLES
Balance
an
If
account.
If the credits
245
ASSISTANTS
credits
and
difference
standing
the
OFFICE
and
credits
debits
are
the account
the
debits,
246
MATHEMATICS
VOCATIONAL
K.
D.
LOSS
AND
(Review Percentage
A
merchant
paid
to have
5056)
pages
at
higher pricethan
sufficient funds
for clerk
to pay
on
sell merchandise
must
for it in order
transaction
SON
"
REED
PROFIT
GIRLS
FOR
hire,rent, etc.
at
the end
Any
amount
of
he
the
above
is called
purchasing price and its attendant
expenses
below
purchasing priceis called loss.
profit
; any amount
A
be careful
in figuringhis profit. He
merchant
must
have a set of books
must
so
arranged as to show what caused
either an increase
reduction in the profits.
or
There
certain
used
in consideringprofit
are
specialterms
and
loss.
The
first cost of goods is called the net or prime
After
the goods have been received
cost.
and unpacked, and
the freight,cartage, storage, commission, etc. paid, the cost
the
has
been
total
increased
amount
to what
received
from
The
of expenses
selling
price.
goods subtracted
sum
from
sellingprice.
sellingpriceis
above
There
are
based
on
gross
cost
gain
the
or
the
below
or
of
per
percentage.
sellingpricethe
base
and
with
loses
cent
of
The
will be
gross
sale of
the
called
the net
according as
the net
cost.
computing gain
In
The
cost.
is called
sellingpriceis
percentage.
base,the
goods
connected
the gross
of
full
or
gross
sale of
gains or
methods
rules
the
the
the gross
merchant
two
is the
loss
is called
the
gain
second
or
or
first
loss,each
method,
the
explained in
considers
detail
later.
247
ASSISTANTS
OFFICE
FOR
ARITHMETIC
EXAMPLES
1.
Make
extensions after
Credit
not
allowed
without
goods returned
on
to
PEARL
16O
YORK,
Nov
TO
City of
SHIPPED
TO
Same
SHIPPED
BY
ORDER
REC'D
30
Warerooms
to
511
AVENUE
ATLANTIC
Days Net
17 1911
SOLD
". L
491
and
Terms
NEW
and
Offices
STREET
permission
our
MERCHANDISE
ELECTRICAL
156
givetotal :
COMPANY
PETTINGELLANDREWS
General
and
deductingdiscounts
Lowell
Lowell
School
Dept, Lowell,
11/14/11
11/13/1
I
Mass.
REELS
OUR
COILS
BUNDLES
CASES
REG.
NO.
BBLS.
3786
248
MATHEMATICS
VOCATIONAL
extensions
Make
2.
Goods
Charged for
are
the
on
of
the Convenience
followingitems
Customers
FALL
J.
H.
R. S.
and
are
give total
Rendered
Monthly
Co.
STORE
RIVER,
MASS.
MAHONEY,
THOMPSON,
Supt.
Sec'y.
Fall River Technical
for
.
September, 1913
No.
Accounts
GIRLS
MILLS,
Purchases
and
McWniRR
A.
DEPARTMENT
A. A.
FOR
City
Order
Number
719
High
School
extensions
Make
3.
Goods
Charged
are
for
Convenience
the
the
following items
of
Customers
FALL
A. A.
MILLS,
J. H.
MAHONEY,
R. S.
THOMPSON,
Purchases
Accounts
Rendered
Monthly
Co.
MASS.
RIVER,
Treas.
VicePres't.
Sec'y.
Fall River
for
Public
City
September, 1913
No.
are
give total
STORE
DEPARTMENT
Pres't "
and
and
McWniRR
A.
on
249
ASSISTANTS
OFFICE
FOR
ARITHMETIC
For Technical
High
School
Buildings
250
VOCATIONAL
EXAMPLE.
and
MATHEMATICS
"
sells it to
real
dealer
estate
50.
gain $
GIRLS
FOR
What
buys
is the
per
for
house
of
cent
$ 4990
gain
over
cost?
^L
SOLUTION.
100
UiT %. Ana.
"
499
4990
DRILL
Find
of
cent
per
EXERCISE
loss
gain or
EXAMPLES
dealer
buys
26
cents.
What
farmer
1.
gain
2.
20 cents
What
A
and
estate
of
bushel
was
for
of
gain ?
at 31
cents
buys
eggs
bushel
of
cent
sells to
and
gain?
the per
was
sold
cent
cents
What
provisiondealer buys
sells them
91
at
is the per
cost.
the per
was
4.
the
over
Real
3.
sold
wheat
$ 19,880 at
smoked
hams
of
cent
profitof $
at 19
pound.
What
28
gain ?
cents
pound
is the per
3650.
cent
of
gain?
5.
at 35
6.
them
7.
$ 1472
grocer
cents
dozen.
What
at
cent
machines
at
dealer
buys sewing
at
$ 40.
What
dealer
buys
and
pays
is the per
$ 73.50
dozen
is the per
an
cents
cent
automobile
sells them
and
gain ?
$22
each
and
sells
gain ?
for
freight. What
$ 972
and
is the per
sells it for
cent
gain ?
252
VOCATIONAL
2.
3.
of the
4.
gain 26 %
18
What
%.
A
6.
dealer
the
was
cost
is the
What
.
at
he
sold
ton
per
profitof $ 98.
to gain 35 % ?
and
if he
sells it to
for
was
gain $
$ 1265
and
sells to
sellingprice?
is the
What
gains 31 %
lot of shoes
GIRLS
FOR
jobber buys
electrician
An
5.
buys
is the
What
shoe
furniture
if
furniture,
coal dealer
ton.
per
sold
dealer
the cost
MATHEMATICS
sold
to
What
48 and
gain
26
%, giving the
the cost
was
sells it to
gain
shoe
What
price?
FORMULAS
Gain
or
loss
Cost
SellingPrice
Cost
Cost
rate
of
Gain
or
loss
or
rate
Rate
of
Cost
(100 %
gain
rate
of
gain) or (100 %
SellingPrice
"
rate
of
loss)
SellingPrice
( r
rate
sellingpricein
COMPUTING
of
100
gain
"/o

rate
of loss
EXERCISE
each
of the
PROFIT
followingproblems :
AND
LOSS
ness
find that it is better busiMany merchants
practiceto figureper cost profiton the sellingpricerather
be
the cost price. Many
failures
in business
on
can
Second
than
loss
of loss
DRILL
the
or
100 %
Find
gain
MetTiod.
"
ARITHMETIC
OFFICE
FOR
to the
unit
same
value
illustrate
To
of
expenses
It
the
as
business
quoted
of
estimating
the basis
SOLUTION.
what
would
of
cost
sellingprice.
of
selling
22
Profit
of
".
Cost
$ 100
on
100 %
1.
EXAMPLE
is the
divided
for to show
Process.
the
divided
of
article costs
by
75
or
The
average
should
cost
be
article
25
of
25
from
the
This
If $3.75
would
100%
the
What
goods, as
do, by adding
many
a sellingprice of about
$4.69, or
25
too
31
profit.
One
dollar
16%.
answer,
Ans.
100.
$1,
What
$ 3.75.
costs
cost.
5 cents, and
correct
sells for $ 6.
16 %.
leaves
$5
minus
profitof
percentage
first
the
sellingprice.
on
$ 5 and
Ans.
profit?
An
"
Deduct
"
net
sellingprice.
dollars
2.
make
profit.
sellingand
The
10%
EXAMPLE
your
An
"
Six
"
article.
.$147 selling
price.
percentage
Process.
75,
68 %
the
32 %
.
of
terms
$132, taking
net
of
cents
per
it sell to
must
bear
must
certain
sales and
say
We
base.
same
calculate
of the
Expenses
"
For
%.
the
manufacture
to
students
would
man
on
Most
basis
$ 100
22
of
cents
per
costs
selling are
profit of 10%?
cost
to
or
253
ASSISTANTS
it sell
must
$ 5.
will
give
is
75%,
be
$5.
1%
Now,
the
to
you
remainder
would
be
if you
cost, you
less than
cents
by
$3.75
marked
would
the
of
tain
ob
former
method.
EXAMPLES
1.
and
is the
percentage
of
if
profit,
an
article costs
$ 8.50
automobile
that
sells for $ 10 ?
2.
cost
3.
30
What
What
$ 810
An
?
is the
and
percentage
article
costs
$ 840.
of
profiton
an
What
must
I sell it for to
gain
254
MATHEMATICS
VOCATIONAL
4.
them
to
25
gain
TABLE
The
of shoes
case
percentage
figuredon
the
what
For
must
I sell
FINDING
FOR
for $ 30.
bought
is
GIRLS
FOR
SELLING
THE
of
of
cost
doing
PRICE
OF
business
and
ANY
the
ARTICLE
profitare
sellingprice.
Rule
Divide
the
figure in
the
the
of
column
line with
EXAMPLE.
(invoiceprice with
cost
per
"
If
you
per
to do
the
"
on
business.
$60.00
cost
wagon
Freight
rate
net
it cost
cent
"
freightadded) by
cent profitdesired
1.20
.
$ 61.20
You
desire
It costs
Take
you
the
to make
to do
5 per cent
profitof
net
19 per
business
figure in column
76
on
line
19, which
is 76.
cent
bought
1.
buy goods
16
costs
Hardware
3.
costs
23
of 11
%,
desire
for what
profitof
for
I desire
I sell the
must
City.
If the
%.
be my
purchased
business,and
the
York
cost
sellingprice?
net
should
What
gain
be the
should
what
$ 97 and
at
sell to
to
supplies are
to do
%,
business.
to do
I desire
f.o.b. New
$84.00
for
wagon
is 18
business
2.
1.05.
Freight cost $
to do
table
followingexamples by
the
Solve
255
ASSISTANTS
OFFICE
FOR
ARITHMETIC
It
.
sellingprice?
If
$489.75.
to make
net
it
profit
goods?
EXAMPLES
1.
15
bought
cents
yd.,and
cloth
of
cuts
sold
it for
gain?
A
2.
furniture
Goods
the cost
of the
5.
gave
payment
bought
What
at
$ 10 bill.
25
$ 4.50
change
each,
should
Office assistants
In
must
out
amount
the
for
Find
Find
$125.
must
in each
followingpay
know
profitof $
28.50.
?
silk at $ 1.80 per
did
change
at
$ 2.75
gave
in
payment
she
yard, and
receive.?
yard, and
per
bill.
$ 100
AND
tabulate
the
at
carpet
and
SHEETS
different denominations
exact
for $ 27.30.
loss of
sold
What
I receive
compute
addition,they
of
yards
TIME
and
at
were
yards of
4"
bought
woman
chairs
couch
14.50,a
goods.
in
6.
chairs
some
$367.75
costing $ 145.25
much
were
they sold
how
For
for
sold
were
Goods
4.
for
of his sales.
the amount
3.
table
11.75,and
for $
$ 45.80,a desk
sold
dealer
PAY
the time
individual
the
of the different
due
amount
number
requiredso as
envelope. This
roll form.
ROLLS
of coins
to
may
be
able
be done
each
and
to
ployees
em
week.
bills of
place the
by making
256
FORM
VOCATIONAL
USED
TO
TIME
DETERMINE
MATHEMATICS
THE
NUMBER
OF
FORM
CARD
FOR
Week
GIRLS
FOR
DIFFERENT
USED
THE
TO
DENOMINATIONS
SEND
MONEY
TO
BANI
THE
PAY
FOR
ROLL
.191
Ending
OF
MEMORANDUM
No.
CASH
FOR
PAY
ROLL
NAME
WANTED
BY
19
Total
Mrs.
Time
Rate
Total
Wages
for
Week
OFFICE
FOR
ARITHMETIC
TABLE
find
To
cents
per
the
for
counted
for
due
amount
hour, look
and
hours
time
the
OF
at
Sundays
and
WAGES1
any
column
the
will
amount
overtime
at
be
257
ASSISTANTS
rate
from
30
Time
and
on
number
containingthe
shown.
to. 55
cents
of
half
and
is
double
holidays.
EXAMPLES
1.
hours
Find
the
amount
regular time
1
Similar
and
tables
due
2 hours
may
carpenter who
overtime
be constructed
at 55
for other
has
cents
rates.
worked
per
hour.
258
VOCATIONAL
2.
his
plastererworked
regular wages are 45
receive
3.
much
machinist's
from
cents
from
8 to 11
hour,
per
P.M.
7.30 to 12
him
works
working July
six
days
in the
afternoons
1 to 5.30 ; and
for his week's
A.M.
morning
; every
1 until 6
at 50
cents
What
P.M.
per
; two
P.M.
hour ?
EMPLOYEES
OF
$1,200.00 per
700.00
per
annum
annum
Nurses,
2 at
45.00
per
month
Nurses,
1 at
40.00
per
month
35.00
Nurses, 3
per
month
6.00
per
week
12.00
per
week
1.00 per
day
6.00 per
week
4 at
6.00 per
week
at
at
Attendant
Cook
cook
Assistant
Kitchen
Ward
maid
maids,
Waitresses, 2
Laundress
2 at
the
week
6.00 per
week
to
make
necessary
and
Assume
weekly
full time
6.00 per
week
for
(52 weeks
roll
pay
a
nations
denomi
week.
Make
for bank.
coins and
to make
week
the
up
memorandum
the total of
per
16.00
coins
the above.
the currency
Find
night
total of
necessary
year) of
Find
per
8.00
Washwomen,
6.
he
How
812
1 to 4.30
Matron
out
from
week
from
one
Superintendent
If
will
hour.
an
4th
from
wages
WAGES
much
cents
for
; three
M.
from
will he receive
5.
how
o'clock.
plumber
afternoons
is 55
regular wage
is due
1^.30
4.
Sunday
on
GIRLS
FOR
money
and
MATHEMATICS
up
the
47" hours, at
bills of
the different
followingpay
30 cents.
48
hours,
at 45
48
hours,
at
46
hours,
at
cents.
47
32^
cents.
cents.
roll
nations
denomi
CHAPTER
ARITHMETIC
THE
SALESGIRLS
majority of employees
It
be
may
operationof
has
FOR
XII
such
well
to
store
and
in
AND
CASHIERS
girls.
department store are salesdescribe
of
brieflythe method
to indicate what
part a salesgirl
a
in it.
of a number
of distinct
department store is a combination
roof
and
stores
or
one
departments under
general management.
It is organizedin this way for the purpose
of economy.
Each
as
a
department is conducted
separate store, and is
in charge of a buyer, who
both
buys and plans the sales
for his department. His
department is charged for rent,
also pay
for overhead
according to its location,and must
charges.
The
him
buyer in charge of each department has under
or
saleswomen, who sell the goods. Each
salesgirls
salesgirl
has a book
containing sales slipsin duplicateand a card to
show
the amount
The
if the
sales
of sales.
slipshows
merchandise
the
and
name
is to be
sent
to
address
the
of the
customer's
specialform
home.
case
of
charge
account
260
sales
In
slip is
used.
The
and quality of the article purchased are
name
extended
to the right.
written in large space and the amount
the purchaser is placed
The
received from
of money
amount
at the top of the sales slip.
The
carbon copy
A carbon copy of each sales slipis made.
is sent with the money
and the original
is givento the customer
It is then used to tabulate data in regard to
to the cashier.
sales,etc.
the
of
purchaser
ARITHMETIC
FOR
SALESGIRLS
AND
CASHIERS
DEPARTMENT
SALESMAN
DATE
261
262
MATHEMATICS
VOCATIONAL
FOR
GIRLS
calculations
Salesgirlsshould be able to do a great many
only through practice.
sight. This abilitycomes
EXAMPLES
Find
the
of the
amount
following :
1.
10
yd. percaleat
121
2.
12
yd. voile
3.
27
yd. silesia
4.
50
yd.
5.
28
yd. mohair
6.
48
7.
911
yd. gingham
8.
112
yd. calico
9.
36
yd. galatea at
10.
11
yd. lawn
11.
64
yd. dotted
12.
24
yd. gabardine
13.
18
yd. poplin at
29
14.
16
yd. hamburg
at 15
15.
12
yd. lace
16.
19
yd. val
17.
26
yd. braid
18.
48 dz. hooks
19.
19
20.
18 pc.
21.
22.
56
yd. linen
23.
18
yd. albatross
24.
22
yd. silk
at 16
cents.
at 331
cents.
$ 1.50.
at
serge
cents.
$ 1.25.
at
at 10
at 41
cents.
cents.
15 cents.
at 19
cents.
muslin
at 621
$1.75.
at
at 871
cents.
cents.
cents.
cents.
lace at 9 cents.
at 25
and
yd. cambric
cents.
eyes
at 15
binding at
at 621
at
cents.
16 cents.
at 24
yd. canvas
at 12
at
cents.
cents.
$ 1.50.
$ 2.25.
cents0
at
ARITHMETIC
263
CASHIERS
AND
SALESGIRLS
FOR
PROBLEMS
bought
1.
for
handkerchiefs
whole
cloth
cotton
valued
$ 6.25,silk at $ 13.75,
at
What
$ 2.75.
$ 2.50,and
hose
for
$ 15.20
month, $
the
was
cost ?
Ruth
2.
third
the
and
saved
months
month
$ 4.05
20.75
than
more
much
How
together.
months
one
month,
first and
the
she*
did
second
in
save
second
the
three
?
Goods
3.
sold
were
for
$ 367.75,at
loss of $ 125.
Find
4.
how
For
much
5.
costing$ 145.25
were
they sold
butcher
9Jpounds to
1" pounds, to
pounds did he
Edith
6.
cloak,and
A
sold
sold
were
second, to
fourth
as
profitof $
of
the
third
much
as
to
meat
much
as
to the
customer,
one
the
as
second.
many
for
$ 7.25 for
sold
9.
Find
merchant
hat.
sold
How
dress,onehalf
did
much
as
much
for
she pay
first
four
16
piece
yards,
of the
sum
the
10.
From
7 cents
gain?
sold
goods
for $ 528.40
and
gained $
were
29.50.
cost.
6J yards for
11.
merchant
for all ?
8.
plus
sell ?
paid $42.75
From
first
How
28.50.
8J pounds
at
11
a
yards
suit.
bought 15
a yard and
of
How
cuts
cut
cloth,3 were
yards remained
many
of cloth
for
coat, and
yard.
What
each
was
at
the
264
MATHEMATICS
VOCATIONAL
13Jyards of
12.
What
is the cost of
13.
What
is the
cost
of
16^ yards
is the
cost
of
per
GIRLS
FOR
yard ?
of broadcloth
$ 2.25
at
yard ?
What
14.
What
will
16.
What
is the
chine
at
17.
121
cents
5 yards
$ 1.75 per
of velvet
cost
of threefourths
cost
yard
at
of
of
yard
crgpe
de
bonus
amount
much
will 15
yard, how
much
will 9
18.
At
19.
At
$ 1.16
20.
At
yards of
yards
will 6
much
lace cost ?
of silk cost ?
yards
of velvet
cost?
21.
At
22.
yards
of
Amount
customer
23.
33^
cents
$ 25.00.
6" yards
the
How
Sold
Amount
at
Sold
cheviot
at
received,$
?
141
much
111
of cheviot
of velveteen
change
yards
at
at
98
cents.
will be
of Persian
40.
lawn
much
How
Amount
given to
the
received,
?
customer
$ 1.95, 6 yards of
at
25
received, $
customer
25.
handkerchiefs.
of 101
cost
Sold
dimity
the
1.25,91 yards
24.
each, find
suiting at
change
will
be
75
cents.
given
to
1.371,5Jyards
of
9 yards
$ 1.25,15
30.
How
of Persian
yards
much
of
lawn
cotton
change
at
at
$
121
will be
Amount
cents.
given
to
the
tomer
cus
26.
at
75
265
CASHIERS
AND
SALESGIRLS
FOR
ARITHMETIC
given to
27.
48
at
at 24
$ 50.
the
customer
yards of velvet
cents, 23 yards of cotton
cents, 7 yards of ribbon
much
How
change will
Sold
at
16
28.
At
121
29.
At
$ 2.50
30.
If
it takes
jacket,and
cents
at
be
of
for
will
yards
for
cloth
customer
8J yards
vest, how
the
given to
will 2.8
5^ yards
yard
at 15
yard, what
yard, what
cost ?
of ribbon
of velvet
cost ?
yards
many
it take
will
for all ?
33
yards
cloth.
of
did
much
How
cost ?
yard
one
for
$ 16.50
I gave
31.
32.
much
went
had
money
How
dress
Emma's
33.
much
she left ?
did
$ 11.25,and
cost
34.
What
is the cost
35.
What
is the
How
cost ?
Mary's
of
cost
of
Mary's
much
16f yards
did both
of silk at
14 yards
cost
cost ?
$ 2.75
of cambric
much.
as
at 42
yard ?
cents
yard?
If
36.
paid for
be
piece of
calico
yards
33
From
38.
been
calico cost
One
37.
can
5J yards of
14f yards ?
remain
cents, how
cents.
How
much
must
many
be
yards
have
many
266
VOCATIONAL
bought 16 \ yards of
39.
it for $
4J
40.
MATHEMATICS
per
What
yard.
has
merchant
28, 35 L, and
each
from
piece,he
67 yards. How
many
cloth
Make
to
Change.
FOR
should
gain ?
be
CASHIER
"
to the
change by adding
enough change to make
change
sold
makes
The
three
ARITHMETIC
How
for
the
was
GIRLS
FOR
the
of the sale
amount
equal
sum
in the
returned
to
saleslady
or
purchase
or
presented.
amount
largestdenominations
possible.
To
of
illustrate
$ 1.52.
should
She
she
young
receive
to
$ 5 bill.
the amount
What
change
The
$5.00.
$.10=
$1.00
$1.75;
=
$1.75 + $.25
$4.00
$4.00
$5.00.
EXAMPLES
1.
What
should
change
followingpurchases were
be
given
made
for
dollar
bill,if
$.87
c.
$.43
e.
b. $.39
d.
$.51
/. $.23
a.
2.
What
change
should
followingpurchases
a.
$1.19
6. $.89
c.
$1.73
be
made
were
given for
$.20
twodollar
d. $1.57
g. $.63
$1.42
h. $.78
e.
the
/. $1.12
i.
$.27
bill,if
the
CHAPTER
XIII
CIVIL
ALMOST
is
through
examination.
an
subjectstested.
of the
one
totals
2.
questions of
On
for
added,
each
.For
division, as
each
know
to
deduct
only
not
for this
the
reason
Papers
added
are
sums
Arithmetic
cases
Civil Service
"
addition, where
and
across
the
16 %.
in
error
most
to be
has
women
marking, and
subjectfollow.
this
error
to
of
standards
deduct
single process,
In
It is wise
Arithmetic
Marking
1.
positionopen
government
every
obtained
SERVICE
50
as
double
process,
or
deduct
25%.
3.
and
In
computation, mark
follows
as
not
(c)
If the
(d)
If the
(e)
(/)
If
full,deduct
If the
25
0.
or
method, giving
"fc
.
but
is correct
answer
work
no
and
the
is shown,
is
process
credit
0.
clearly indicated,but
"fo
.
is made
attempt
no
5 to 25
is correct
answer
in
written
from
simple
than
other
problems
credit 0.
to answer,
in
proportion
to
work
the
done.
(gr)For
deduct
the
omission
of the
dollar
given
4.
or
answer,
5.
as
For
(a)
For
commensurate
(6)
For
mixed
number,
questions
omission
on
deduct
to be
solved
by decimals, if the
25.
of total
mark
for
as
follows
misplacement
of credits
or
partial omission,
deduction.
every
answer
debits, deduct
25.
CIVIL
(c)
(d)
omission
For
every
For
omissions
NOTE.
Hard
"
and
are
is
fast rules
mistakes
of certain
examples
by
upon
highgrade positions
arithmetic.
service
the
in
like,is
type of
made
marked
about
CIVIL
SERVICE
work
easier
60%
2.
Subtract
3.
Divide
4.
At
5.
for $
7.
clerical
as
police and
as
fire
clerical.
example.)
48,901,001.
how
dozen,
dozen
many
eggs
can
be
372
of
pounds
meal
corn
cost
if 4 Ib. cost
If
What
of
How
394
bought
man
14,700,what
discount
8.
basis
same
for
would
What
errors
.717.
18,617.03 by
for $ 33.67
12 cents
6.
16,389,110 from
per
of
sorts
of
set
in arithmetic
such
than
in full in each
bought
the
tance
impora
EXAMPLES
1.
$ 0.37
Before
various
for
the
because
general, examples
practically
on
25.
example.
lowergrade examinations,
(Give the
balance, deduct
be
to
In
marked
are
10.
always applicable
the
examiners.
Arithmetic
and
of
not
with
deductions
the
deduct
item,
or
are
differs
the
marked,
decided
of date
misplacement
or
269
SERVICE
the
was
is the
net
37^%
of
amount
$ 23,640 and
each
profiton
pints in
many
for
cows
93.70, subjectto
containing14,784
measure
210
cow
bill for $
sold
cubic
inches ?
9.
What
sixth
by
10.
If
week,
number
man's
how
much
What
will
12.
How
many
averages
each
How
ton
sum
of its
is $
1600, and
fourth, fifth,and
23 ?
11.
13.
the
exceeds
160
yearly income
hogs
costs
and
tons
$ 8.75 ?
in
save
16pounds
pounds
many
he
can
can
year
of butter
be
costs
of coal
can
be
spends
for
a
$ 25
cost at 34 cents
bought
9 cents
he
$ 1340
pound
bought
pound
if each
hog
for
$446.25, if
270
MATHEMATICS
VOCATIONAL
14.
lady
young
letter averages
in
handle
can
how
6^ ounces,
hour
an
GIRLS
FOR
of mail
pounds
many
If
does
she
?
divide
and
Multiply 53 J by 9f
(Solvedecimally.)
15.
the
product by 2^.
Roll
16.
matting
73
costs
each
the cost of 47 rolls,
A
17.
$ 6500.
A
18.
much
How
wheel
days, 8
he
save
How
hour
each
70 cents
the transaction
hour.
an
spends $
yards
square
them
for
What
is the distance
If he
works
50
how
month,
is it in
48' 5"
and
long
does
area
2970
129
much
the Atlantic
many
Eleven
What
bought
men
How
tract.
23.
merchant
of
of 21 miles
quart, and
of milk
quarts
25.
many
did
traveler
more
miles
have
quart, and
you
milk
was
an
in
acres
28
buy goods.
for freight
?
sold it for 9 cents
$48,
how
many
sell ?
you
travels
has
the
22
$ 10,228 to
agent
profitfor
your
man
with
the
6 cents
costs
land
will each
his
sends
of
7 tracts
acres
many
is the value
24.
a
sold
and
22.
and
will be
in. wide
36
in diameter.
rectangular courtyard is
How
Ocean,
What
yd.
year
many
21.
27 mules
gain by
3' 1"
measures
sq.
for
he
bricklayerearns
hours a day, and
a
20.
did
per
the tire ?
around
19.
roll 60
5123.25
paid $
man
cents
"
he
llf
yet
miles
to
travel
day
for
if the
days.
journey
How
is 134
miles ?
26.
a
is the
What
discount
of
16 %
net
amount
of
subjectto
Add
27.
add
then
totals in the
placing the
across,
271
SERVICE
CIVIL
check
indicated ;
spaces
TOTALS
17,694
8,431
18,630
91
3,777
871
8,901
305
5,912
707
6,801
29,006
5,891
30
16,717
5,008
10,008
7,771
144
9,001
13,709
10,999
1,113
3,444
28.
Divide
29.
37,818.009 by .0391.
pileof
is sold
and
is the
Add
30.
wood
for $ 4.85
What
cost.
39
the
is 136
per
cost
ft.
long, 8
cord, which
of the
ft.
wide, and
20 % more
is
6 ft.
high,
than
the
pile?
following column
and
the
from
subtract
sum
81,376,019:
80,614,304
68,815,519
32,910,833
54,489,605
96,315,809
75,029,034
21,201,511
A
31.
man
sold it for 28
A
32.
laborer
his expenses
has
$48
$ 7.75
are
in the
bank.
How
day.
23
cents
did
He
he
gallon;
make
he
is taken
days
many
sick
will
and
his fund
last?
In
33.
many
bricks
34.
at
9 in.
street
long and
If
mi.
long
4 in. wide
Find
the
simple interest
Find
the
simple interest
on
and
will be
$ 841.37
54
ft.
wide,
how
required?
for 2 yr. 3
mo.
17 da.
mo.
19 da.
5%.
35.
at
paving
4%.
on
272
MATHEMATICS
VOCATIONAL
SPECIMEN
GIRLS
FOR
ARITHMETIC
PAPERS
CLERKS, MESSENGERS,
ETC.
Rapid Computation
1.
Add
these
; then
placing the
across,
add
the totals
in
totals
the
dicated
in
spaces
TOTALS
the
Give
Multiply 82,473,659 by 9874.
3. From
68,515,100 subtract 24,884,574.
full.
4. Divide
29,379.7 by .47. Give
2.
What
5.
is the
discount
of
net
amount
of
Give
the work
16f %
Give
the
bill for
work
in
the
full.
work
work
in
in
full.
$19.20, subjectto
in full.
Arithmetic
1.
How
Give
987,642 ?
pole 9
spirewhich
3.
How
yard
24
shadow
work
price of
221
has
5.
noon
to
noon
7.
goods
the
principalthat
increased
Give
and
by
deducts
still makes
of
in full.
sod
the work
$ 25
will
yield $
the work
90 minutes
midnight,what
merchant
Give
right
up
church
requiredto
is he worth
What
an
day,
Give
% simple interest.
past
from
Find
at 6
of
the work
income
an
make
to
height of
will be
wide
522
to
Give
ft. long ?
merchant
time
his
is the
retired
at 4
in full.
If the shadow
8 inches
mo.
of the time
2.
10 feet
in full.
If the
in full.
8 in. square,
in 1 yr. 6
added
long and
4.
be
8^ ft. long,what
sods, each
feet
the work
6.
casts
720
must
work
the
ft. high is
many
in full.
his
times
many
time
20
profitof
16
full.
equals f^
is it ?
from
in
38.40
Give
the
the marked
%.
At
what
advance
on
the
in full.
8.
If
cost
sells
grocer
the
are
marked
goods
Give
tub of butter
at 22
the
cents
sells it at 17 cents
if he
273
SERVICE
CIVIL
work
pound,
cents.
Find
(a)the weight of
pound.
Give
the work
9.
two
of the factors
Two
What
equal.
are
in full.
the
are
The
3 and
are
(b)
product of
4.
The
equal factors
he
pound,
other
Give
the
times
and
in full.
work
STENOGRAPHERTYPEWRITER
leave
2.
and
3.
what
From
1.
number
remainder
What
number
seventh
A
of 49 ?
sells to
at
work
in full.
at 6
5.
and
the
A
the
the work
sold
\ of
remaining 60
man
the farm
did
simple interest
Give
%.
at first ?
his
332.0625
Give
2.
the work
How
decimal
What
goods
cost
profit;
the
Give
for 3 yr. 1
15 da.
mo.
D.
the work
WEIGHTS
and
test
is its
B, f
of
the remainder
How
acres
many
to
C,
were
in
in full.
MEASURES
AND
Measures,
is found
43, 276)
pages
to
have
capacity of
in full.
would
many
hold ?
3.
in.
cu.
to
to
acres
OF
under
measure
sells to C at 5
of $ 297.60
farm
(Review Weights
A
in full.
the work
the
fourth,fifth,
sixth,
in full.
Give
SEALERS
1.
Give
307
in full.
of its
sum
10'% profit;B
the work
the
101 ?
if C
4.
Give
exceeds
parts by
be subtracted
857
can
Give
the work
in
the
full,carrying the
above
answer
ure
meas
to four
places.
What
?
is the
Give
equivalentof
the work
in full.
175
1
Ib.
av.
troy
Ib.
in
pounds
7000
dupois
avoir
grains.
274
VOCATIONAL
How
4.
the work
15
Ib. 10
Give
What
the
of
part
in full.
bushel
"the
is 2
What
7.
will
both
answer
10 bushels
as
decimally and
in the
pecks and
Give
part of
What
8.
the work
Give
pints?
decimal
and
as
of
form
(") WThat
percentage
of
full
cost
in full.
grains,expressed both
fraction
common
quarts of seed
is 50
troy pound
9.
in
pecks and
fraction.
common
at
Give
avoirdupois?
oz.
20
oz.
work
full and
in
work
the
Ib. 15
12
GIRLS
FOR
in full.
troy weight.
6.
grains in
many
Reduce
5.
MATHEMATICS
found
to
cubic
inches
was
it ?
Give
the
in full.
work
10.
In
22
Ib. of
22
Ib. 101
at this
correct
on
that in
found
was
the
same,
percentage of
the
was
Give
weight ?
weights
test
What
oz.
it
weighing
indicated
scale
in this scale
error
in full.
the work
VISITOR
1.
certain
received
$ 693.07, and
to
$ 1322.48.
had
"home"
The
the
at
during
expenses
beginning
the
year
for
the
donations
were
year
of
the
year
amounting
:
salaries,
$387.25 ; printing,
$651.15 ; rent, $104.25
etc.,$175 ; supplies,
Find
heat,etc.,$ 75 ; interest,$ 100 ; miscellaneous, $ 72.83.
the
cash
hand
on
at
the
end
of
the
year.
Give
the work
in
full.
2.
expense
Of the
in
locally,and
relieved by
72,700 persons
the
the
the
year
ending
remainder
state.
Give
relieved
March
by
the
the
work
in
certain
state
31, 1912, 76 %
state.
Find
in full.
were
the
at
public
aided
number
PART
ARITHMETIC
"
FOR
CHAPTER
A
used
the
on
should
NURSE
be
NURSES
XIV
familiar
with
the
There
dispensingmedicines.
English, based on the grain,and
in
are
the
weights and
measures
systems used
two
Metric
system,
based
the meter.
APOTHECARIES'
WEIGHT
(Troy Weight)
20
The
written
grains (gr.)
=
scruple (3)
33
=1
dram
(3 )
83
=1
ounce
(3 )
123
=1
pound
(ft)=96
of units
number
after
the
60 gr.
24
=480
gr.
=288
is often
symbols.
1.
How
many
grains in
iv
2.
How
many
grainsin
iii drams
3.
How
many
grains in
iv
4.
How
many
scruplesin
5.
How
many
grains in
6.
How
many
drams
7.
How
many
grains in
8.
How
many
scruplesin 3
9.
How
many
drams
How
many
10.
ounces
5760
expressed by Roman
Numerals,
(See Roman
EXAMPLES
scruples?
ounces
lb i ?
lb iii?
in lb iv ?
in
3 ii ?
v
5 vii ?
in lb viii ?
276
gr.
numerals
p.
"
2.)
ARITHMETIC
gr.
5 i will make
Salt
11.
to
xc
how
277
NURSES
quarts of saline
many
solution,
qt. 1 ?
How
12.
FOR
drains
many
Seidlitz Powder
Each
of sodium
APOTHECARIES'
60 minims
(m)
FLUID
1 fluid dram
8 f 3
=1
fluid
16 f 3
=1
pint (0)
=1
gallon (C)
8 O
contains
powder
ounce
in 10
carbonate
powders
of
gr. xl.
MEASURE
(f 3 ).
(f 3).
f 3
128
m.
f 3 =1024
128
7680
f 3
EXAMPLES
1.
How
many
minims
in f 3 iv ?
2.
How
many
minims
in f 3 iii?
3.
How
many
fluid drams
4.
How
many
minims
5.
How
many
pints in
6.
How
many
fluid drams
7.
How
many
minims
8.
How
many
fluid drams
9.
How
many
pints in
10.
How
many
minims
11.
If the dose
of
3 ii of
12.
cocaine
is
in 5
8
in C vii ?
v
in f
5 ix ?
is
and
xxx
of the
much
drug
given
solution
when
contains
doctor
gr. i of
orders
Measures
Household
dose
is contained
and
is
cocaine.
contains
in f 5 i
much
How
of the solution
of Fluids
Measures)
ordinaryteaspoonfulis supposed
water
each
(With
pure
ii?
in 0
in f 5 viii ?
Approximate
An
pints?
gallons?
solution
^ggr. strychnine,how
of the solution
in 1 0 ?
to
approximately equal
to
hold
a
60
fluid
minims
of
dram.
278
VOCATIONAL
MATHEMATICS
drop
to
GIRLS
FOR
is
ordinarilyconsidered
equivalent
minim, but this is only approximately
in
true
the
of
case
water.
The
specific
gravity,shape,and surface from
which
the drop is poured influence
the
size.
In
be
to
preparing medicines
taken
should
never
internally,minims
be measured
out
as
drops. There are
minim
for this
droppers and measures
purpose.
A
level
in
GRADUATE.
teaspoonful
dessertspoonful
measurements.
1 fluid dram.
2 fluid drains.
tablespoonful
4 fluid drams
ul
wineglassf
2 fluid
ounces.
teacupful
6 fluid
ounces.
8 fluid
ounces.
1 tumblerful
or
fluid
ounce.
EXAMPLES
1.
How
many
in
dessertspoonfuls
2.
How
many
wineglassfulsin
3.
How
many
in
tablespoonfuls
4.
How
many
s in
teaspoonful
5.
How
many
teacupfulsin
6.
How
many
in
dessertspoonfuls
7.
How
many
teaspoonfulsin
8.
How
many
drops of
9.
How
many
in
teaspoonfuls
How
many
minims
10.
6 fluid drams
quart ?
ounces
pints?
?
?
ounces
gallon?
in 1
3
3 fluid drams
5 fluid
ounces
2 tumblerfuls
4 fluid drams
water
in 3
8 fluid
ARITHMETIC
What
11.
household
3 i to
would
measure
279
NURSES
to make
use
you
the
measurements
followingapothecaries'
equivalents:
12.
their
tion,
solu
pint?
Read
FOR
a.
3 iv.
b.
gr.
c.
/.
3 ss.1
v.
g.
ii.
h.
3 ii.
d.
5 ii
e.
" ij.
Metric
metric
give
iv.
*"" 3 iv.
j. I
of
System
and
Weights
Metric
(Review
and
in
System
ss.
Measures
Appendix.)
of
is used
to a
weights and measures
The
advantage of this system over
great extent in medicine.
it is easy to change
the English is that,in preparing solutions,
and volumes
to weights without
the use
of
weights to volumes
The
system
fractions.
common
In
avoid
chief
medicine
the
confusion
with
the
dram)
1000
wt.
and
grammes
kilogram of
water
of 1 cubic
kilogram
the
in
prescriptionsto
milligramme are the
1000
cc.
1 gramme
grain
1 cubic
centimeter
0.064
15 minims.
1 liter
The
volume
liter and
used
0.06
approx.
c.
kilo."
15
grains.
(approx.).
are
in medicine.
ss
at 4"
cc.
centimeter
water
gramme.
1 quart
cubic
(cc.) of
FACTORS
15.4
1 minim
"
1 liter.
or
centimeter
or
CONVERSION
written
weights used.
1 gramme
(so
gramme
means
onehalf.
the
principalunits
of
280
A
VOCATIONAL
MATHEMATICS
micromillimeter
It is
r^
To
convert
To
convert
To
convert
cc.
To
convert
minims
To
convert
grains into
To
convert
fluid drams
To
convert
drams
into minims
cc.
in
tances.
measuring microscopicaldisindicated
by the Greek letter /A.
multiply by
into drams
grammes
into
divide
ounces
into
divide
by
divide
cc.
into
4.
by
15.
by
divide
grammes
15.
30.
15.
by
multiply by
cc.
into grammes
4.
multiply by
0.064
4.
grain
grains
0.1 gramme.
grains
0.3 gramme.
grains
0.5 gramme.
10
grains
15
grains
milligramme
0.6
gramme.
gramme.
1 gramme.
0.0154
Troy (apothecary)and
Review
and
is
and
mm.
43
is used
GIRLS
FOR
grain.
avoirdupoisweights, pages
276.
EXAMPLES
1.
a
red
fraction
2.
of
4.
bottle
5.
grams
6.
is
form
part of
A
the
diameter
What
part
Give
in
25000"
in diameter.
inch
of
is it ?
Another
What
8 /x,in diameter.
inch.
an
microbe
millimeter
3.
corpuscleis
of microbe
millimeter
bottle holds
when
How
cc.
Q^^Qof
an
inch
in diameter.
is it ?
is the
What
weight
of water
in the
it is filled ?
of water
the
in
liters of water
many
Give
48
is
vessel
containing4831
approximate equivalent
in
English
following:
a.
48 grammes
d.
8 kilos
b.
3.6
e.
3:9 grammes
c.
3.5 liters
kilograms
/.
53
milligrammes
of
the
7.
of the
a.
approximate equivalentsin
following:
Give
39
grains
d.
1 fluid drams
47
flb
Approximate
13
e.
Equivalents
metric
the
the
b. 4 drams
c.
281
NURSES
FOR
ARITHMETIC
system
quarts
/.
g.
39
h.
8321
gallons
minims
grains
Household
and
Metric
between
Measures
1
teaspoon ful
dessertspoonful
tablespoonful
wineglassful
teacupful
glassful
cc.
or
4 grams
of water.
8 cc.
or
8 grams
of water.
16+
60
of water.
15+ grams
or
cc.
of water.
60 grams
cc.
or
180
cc.
or
180 grams
of water.
240
cc.
or
240
of water.
grams
EXAMPLES
What
metric
2.
system
3.
is the
metric
5.
in the
of
in
What
of
in the
metric
liters of
water
in
the
of
water
in
the
gallon of
is the
weight
is the
weight
of
three
volume
of
four
water
What
What
is the
ounces
system ?
What
is the volume
English system
of twelve
cubic
centimeters
What
is the volume
7.
What
is the volume
of
8.
What
is the
9.
What
is the volume
10.
What
is the
11.
With
the
of water
6.
obtain
the
water
glassfulsof
two
system ?
English system
4.
weight
weight
weight
eighty grammes
of 360.1
cc.
ordinary household
following: 5 gm., m
of water
of water
of 4 kilos of water
L., 25
?
?
?
how
measures
xv, 1.5
system
cc.,
would
5 ii,f 5
you
ss
282
MATHEMATICS
VOCATIONAL
GIRLS
FOR
SYSTEM
METRIC
EXAMPLES
the
Change
1.
followingto milligrammes
dg.,13 gm.
8 gin., 17
2.
3.
Change
the
13 mg.,
29
Add
following:
18 dg., 21 gm.,
the
11 mg.,
Express
25
the
Give
doses
of
dose
contains
6.
in
answer
mg.
4.2 gm.
dg.,21
mg.
milligrammes.
is
to make
25
equivalentin
the
dose
the
9.8
atropine
is necessary
gramme
0.4
cc.
mg.
of
solution in which
of
1
a
cc.
metric
system
of the
following
of
Extract
b.
Tincture
gentian, gr. ^.
of quassia,3 i.
capsicum, m iii.
d. Spiritsof peppermint, 3 i.
Cinnamon
m
x.
e.
spirit,
/. Oil of cajuput,m xv.
of cascara
sagrada, gr.
g. Extract
Tincture
of
h.
Fluid
i.
Agar
agar,
7.
Give
the
doses
extract
of senna,
v.
3 ii.
ss.
equivalentin
the
English system
a.
Ether,
6.
c.
fraction
What
a.
c.
following :
1.7 gm.,
mg.,
The
grammes
in grammes.
the
Express
5.
dg.,7 dg.,21
answer
Add
4.
following to
cc.
cc.
of the following
284
VOCATIONAL
5.
If the normal
is 1 dram, what
6.
what
what
If the normal
If
the
what
10.
for
child
much
How
in
nurse
treating the
drams,
strychninesulphateis ^
adult
dose
of aromatic
is the
dose
for
adult
be
should
is 4
gr.,
of 8 ?
dose
ipecac is
15
grains,what
is
of
of
dose
given to
sick.
of 5 m'onths
ipecacis
child
1 gramme,
what
is
2 years
3.2 mg.
old ?
SOLUTIONS
the
strengthof
of these
Most
ammonia
strychninesulphateis
OF
about
know
child
spiritsof
old ?
STRENGTH
A
of
10 months
child
should
salts
epsom
of
adult
normal
The
of
dose
If the normal
a
ounce,
of 11 ?
what
for
oil is onehalf
of 4 ?
dose
adult
ammonia
of 7 ?
of castor
dose
child
If the normal
the dose
12.
for
If the normal
is 4 grammes,
11.
adult
spiritsof
of 6 ?
child
If the normal
dose
dose
adult
for
child
GIRLS
FOR
of aromatic
for
child
normal
is the dose
9.
dose
adult
for
is the dose
8.
adult
is the dose
is the dose
7.
the
MATHEMATICS
substances
substances
are
used
which
drugs
prepared from
preparations
Drugs
are
applied in
unknown
the
formulas.
following
forms
ments,
solutions,lini
ointments,
oleates,cerates, powders, lozenges,plasters,
etc.
An
infusion
is
liquidpreparation of
extractingthe drug
infusion
is
physician.
5%
of
with
the
boiling water.
drug, unless
the
The
otherwise
drug made
strength
ordered
of
by
by
an
the
strength of
The
of
form
the
ratio.
of
fraction
be written
written
as
This
cent
that
in
every
are
10
parts
there
solvent
the
or
means
be
may
in
per
as
written
or
in
form
"
there
of solvent
solution
10
written
be
solution may
285
NURSES
FOR
ARITHMETIC
thus, 1
10.
EXAMPLES
1.
the
Express
following per
cents
ratios:
as
5%, 20%,
cent
per
represents
so
parts
many
hundred,
per
cent.
Express
15, 1 : 25, 1
the
2.
3.
in
cents
per
following solutions
%, 24 %, 6 %, 1 : 10, 1
%,
4,
3,
6,
40.
the
in
the
Arrange
strength :
following
14, 1
their
of
order
50, 40 %,
45,
50%.
4.
Express
cents, and
a.
80
the
strength
of
the
following solutions
as
per
in ratios.
of dilute
ounces
contains
alcohol
40
of absolute
ounces
alcohol.
6.
pints of
dilute
alcohol
contains
two
pints of
absolute
alcohol.
5.
Change
the
1:5, 1 : 35,
highest.
6.
Change
the
following
:
100.
ratios into
in
Arrange
following
per
per
cents
18,
cents
to
ratios
33
from
the
12
,
20,
15%, .5%,!%.
7.
Is it
possibleto
make
an
solution
plain.
Ex
286
VOCATIONAL
8.
Express
a.
25
c.
9.
a.
b.
the
in 100
alcohol
in 3
solution.
cc.
qts.
the
to Make
Solutions
Drugs
of Different
Tablets
or
of Known
Exact
ILLUSTRATIVE
make
EXAMPLE.
dissolve
to
solution
part
is
powder
to 2000
20f
dissolve
Approx.
21
will
water
bichloride
be
sary
neces
of
mercury
should
be
to
part is 5 gr.
parts
32
Crude
dissolved,
480
10000
much
How
powdered
2000
Strengths from
Strengths
Method
"
of
gr.
of 1
water
of ratio
terms
f 3 iii.
f " i contains
How
The
GIRLS
FOR
following strengths in
of alcohol
cc.
pints of
b. 5
MATHEMATICS
10,000 grains.
gr.
oz.
oz.
qt.
oz.
or
1" pints of
water
used
to
it.
above
example
necessary
to
may
dissolve
be solved
; then
powder
f"
by proportion, when
"
=
: : X
wt.
of
powder
drug
no.
: : x
oz.
:
of
water.
2000.
20oZ.
Approx.
21o,
EXAMPLES
Solve
1.
the
How
powdered
1000?
water
corrosive
will
sublimate
be
required to
to make
proportion:
dissolve
solution
of
5
1
gr.
of
part
to
ARITHMETIC
much
How
2.
tablet of corrosive
15295minims
of 1
Since
A"o
40
used
of
make
to
part
7^grain
to 2000
% solution
pint of 1 : 500
40
480
minims
7680
minims
oz.
of pure
amt.
pint.
formaldehyde
necessary
to make
500.
the
or
much
pint
be
solution
How
"
should
dissolve
required to
to make
EXAMPLE.
formaldehyde
solution
be
sublimate
ILLUSTRATIVE
of
will
water
287
NURSES
FOR
strength
"f the
"/osolution
of the
actual
solution
amount
is obtained
is
40%,
15^
Therefore,
necessary.
by dividingby f
represents but
minims
of
192
?j* I
x
To
Determine
Solution
much
make
To
crude
20
minims
of Crude
Quantityof a
illustrate
how
38"
"
the Amount
Certain
To
carbolic
acid
20
: : x
gal.
20
: : x
pints or
128
6f
pint.
to Make
Drug Necessary
of a Given Strength
gallon of
to a
20
carbolic
is necessary
128
acid
tion,
solu
ounces.
ounces.
crude
ounces
carbolic
acid.
EXAMPLES
How
1.
of 5
much
crude
100
: :
6 pts.
100
: : x
576
100
of 1
How
:
pints
boric acid ?
5
2.
to make
much
18 boric
crude
acid ?
drams.
2880.
28.8
drams.
to make
quarts
288
VOCATIONAL
much
crude
many
7J~graintablets
How
3.
cocaine
of 1
much
solution
phenol
bichloride
much
chlorinated
are
drug
crude
drug
lons
gal
20
0 vii of 1
to make
500
to make
0 iii of 1
10
from
these
and
weaker
for
hand.
25
less than
10
Doses
in
pillsare
kept
solutions
use.
is done
the
tablet
is not
The
about
administered
standard
and
in
required
by findingout
as
solution
or
in
on
than
more
solution
pillor
minims
20
hand
on
made
are
This
is of
minims.
diluted
or
0 vi of 1
to make
is necessary
drug
hypodermic
part the required dose
The
hypodermic dose
dissolved
is necessary
strong solutions
hospitaland
by the nurse
make
to
crude
lime
Standard
or
f 3iii of 2
is necessary
Hypodermic
what
to make
necessary
of mercury
crude
of mercury
How
7.
is necessary
much
How
6.
bichloride
1000
How
5.
drug
GIRLS
FOR
How
4.
MATHEMATICS
is
fractional
the
for
injection.
is asked
illustrate : A nurse
to give a patient ^ir gr.
strychnine. She finds that the only tablet on hand is "$gr.
How
will she give the requireddose ?
To
"dros sV
The
pillin
required
80
minims
dissolvingin
dose
not
dose
80
less than
is
imr
of the stock
of water
rather
and
than
in
pill.
administers
minims
20
30
^
Therefore
12
she
minims.
is to
have
dissolves
The
the
reason
the
for
hypodermic
10 minims.
EXAMPLES
1.
metric
1
Express
the
dose,
in
the
illustrative
example,
in
the
system.
Hospitals usually
use
1 tablet
for
pint of
water
to make
1000
solution.
ARITHMETIC
2.
from
3.
289
NURSES
FOR
How
would
you
stock
tablet
^
How
would
How
would
you
give
tablets
if only ^grain
y1^,
were
would
you
tablets
if only ^ygrain
give gr. "$,
were
would
you
tablets
if only T^7grain
give gr. g1^,
were
would
you
give gr. y^
give
g1^
gr. strychninesulphate
dose
gr. ?
give
you
gr.
on
hand?
4.
hand
on
5.
How
hand
on
6.
How
hand
on
How
7.
in tablets
8.
if
How
would
were
Estimate
Dose
were
of
often
are
different fractional
To
only
illustrate
solution
on
atropinesulphate,if only
of
give gr. ^
you
of
apomorphine hydrochloride
hand
on
DifferentFractional
the
from
Nurses
hand
on
To
gr.
Prepared
hand
dose
is
of
one
of
Grain
Solution
required to give a
part of a grain from
Give
Part
dose
the
of
medicine
drug they
of
have.
^ gr. of strychninewhen
containing fagr. in every
the
10
minims.
Since
minims.
=
12 m.
EXAMPLES
1.
What
will be
given
2.
Reckon
should
gr.
dose
to
of
get T^
solution
of
60
minims
containing ^
gr.
gr. ?
of
dose
tablet
gr.
y1^.
290
VOCATIONAL
sulphate
will
What
4.
be
What
fluid
of
of
dose
of
extract
to
vomica
gr.
containing
give
gr.
fa?
of
cc.
containing
1
be
given
Dose
morphine
xx
will
Definite
GIRLS
containing
gr.
solution
nux
Obtain
To
given
in
of
solution
be
will
give
to
FOR
of
solution
given
dose
sulphate
5.
of
dose
What
3.
MATHEMATICS
from
give
to
Stock
gr.
nine
^ strych
0.1
cc.
of
0.06
cc.
the
Solution
of Definite Strength
illustrate
To
stock
1
"
To
has
solution
"IGsolution
give
of
strength
each
that
means
patient
yLgrain dose
when
the
1%.
contains
T^7 part
or
""'of strychnine.
100
2*5gr.
is contained
Therefore
in
as
many
drops of the
drops
T*"T
100
"fosolution
in it.
is contained
T^
as
4.
"^
contains
gr.
EXAMPLES
1.
To
give fa
2.
To
give
minims
ten
3.
To
^
give
gr.
2T
strychnine
from
solution.
from
solution
sodium
benzoate
strychnine
gr.
containing
in
gr.
3 gr. of
caffeinic
from
25
solution.
from
4.
To
give 2JQgr.
of
atropine
5.
To
give Y^Qgr.
of
strychnine
6.
To
minims
give ^
^
gr.
gr.
atropine
from
from
%
l
solution
solution.
"/0solution.
containing
in
ten
292
VOCATIONAL
When
2.
this
what
FOR
F.,the
170"
To
what
albumin
degree
Centigrade scale
coagulates
Centigrade
138" F.
At
is
on
the
degree on
4.
GIRLS
correspond?
albumin
Egg
above
the milk.
on
scum
scale does
3.
is heated
milk
forms
and
MATHEMATICS
in
on
the
bottle
the
Centigrade
to
scale ?
Gentle
"
5.
between
the
"
heat
is
32" to 38" C.
Fahrenheit
used
term
What
are
denote
to
the
temperature
correspondingdegrees on
the
scale ?
Baths
(Change
A
as
bath
bath
with
bath
temperature
between
33" and
65" F. is known
temperature
between
65" and
75" F. is known
temperature
between
75" and
85" F. is known
with
85" and
92" F. is known
temperature
between
temperature
between
tepid bath.
A
as
Centigradescale.)
temperate bath.
A
as
with
bath
A
as
to
cool bath.
A
as
with
followingtemperatures
cold bath.
A
as
the
bath
with
98" F. is known
bath.
warm
bath
92" and
with
temperature between
98" and
112"
F. is known
hot bath.
i
In
day,
order
the
recorded
name
of
to
Medical
Chart
(Graph)
(See Graphs
in the
Appendix.)
follow
the
temperature,
morning and
the patientis
condition
of
patient from
day
to
are
pulse beats, and respirations
The
night on a specialruled chart.
placed on each chart.
the
ARITHMETIC
FOR
293
NURSES
NAME.....
Day of
Month
HoMf
101'
i=t
! I
TT
294
VOCATIONAL
MATHEMATICS
FOR
GIRLS
EXAMPLES
the
Chart
of
following case
pneumonia
Morning
day
104"
day
102.6"
105"
day
102.4"
104.2"
day
102.4"
103.6"
day
102.4"
104"
day
102.4"
104.4"
day
101.8"
103"
day
102.9"
104"
10
day
102"
102.8"
11
day
98.4"
98.5"
12
day
97.4"
98.2"
13
day
97.4"
98.2"
14
day
98.2"
98.4"
PROBLEMS
Bacteria
are
as
are
Evening
102"
low
HOUSEHOLD
IN
forms
of
CHEMISTRY
animal
vegetable and
and
life,
power
neutralize
70" C.
2.
bacteria
which
Creolin
is used
be added
What
is
will grow
as
in solutions
wounds
never
destructive
antiseptics. Deodorants
What
within
known
remove
or
unpleasant odors.
Bacteria
1.
called
are
are
some
the
to water
from
98"
over
2"
Fahrenheit
and
scale
germicide
of
between
and
to 5
C.,as
deodorant
"/0. The
its
corresponding temperature
for offensive
creolin
must
strength is impaired.
on
the
Fahrenheit
scale ?
3.
The
bacteria
most
important
is nutrient
medium
bouillon.
It is
preparationfor growing
made
of the following:
or
ARITHMETIC
Meat
5 grams
extract
10 grams
Peptone
What
4.
bouillon.
5 grams
Water
1 liter
bouillon
sugar
bacteria.
Salt
of each
cent
per
culture
is used
for
It is made
How
ing
cultivatartificially
glucose to nutrient
by adding 1 % of
of glucose to a
grams
many
Carbolic
295
NURSES
FOR
solution
bought by hospitalsin a 95 %
diluted
and
as
required. A solution of carbolic acid
used
to destroy germs.
much
95 % solution
How
requiredto make 5 gallons 1 : 20 ?
5.
of
6.
7.
1000
much
10.
for
purity of
If
I desire
how
much
water
used
How
much
gallon
of
saturated
water
be
gallon?
drug
a
is the
What
drug
pure
centage
per
lotion
of
substance
1000
would
be
corrosive
added
mate,
subli
and
how
?
water
the
corrosive
and
sublimate
required
are
following strengths?
b.
1:4000.
e.
c.
1:10,000.
1:20,000.
1:100,000.
/. 1:150,000.
solution
pint (0 i)of
of
boric
water.
acid
may
What
be made
is the per
by
solving
dis
cent of the
solution?
saturated
solution
" i to 0 i ?
13.
is
by dissolving9 grams
teaspoonfulsto the quart?
d.
to
20
will
to the
grams
is made
many
of
pure
the
quart ?
to make
saturated
3
12.
of
many
1:2000.
a.
11.
the
is the ratio
of
9.
How
quart.
grains to
What
how
means
salt solution
the
many
8.
is
solution
normal
salt to
How
acid
liter of solution?
How
much
0 i to make
What
of the
of
KMn04
is the per
saturated
1 "/0solution
may
cent
solution
be
made
by
solving
dis
?
should
be added
to
296
VOCATIONAL
MATHEMATICS
Water
Every
chemical
should
nurse
analysisof
Terms
be
able
interpreta
to
biologicaland
water.
and
BacteriologicalReports
The
GIRLS
Analysis
in Chemical
used
FOR
the terms
in chemical
used
and
examinations
of water
is given in order
bacteriological
that the reports of analysesof samples may
be clearly
stood.
underAs the quantities
to be obtained
ally
by analyses are ususmall, they are ordinarilyexpressed in parts per
very
million
(p.p. m.), and always by weight.
is caused
such as clay,
Turbidityof water
by fine particles
and microscopicorganisms.
silt,
is selfexplanatory.The
Sediment
and
amount
of
nature
the sediment
are
usually noted.
Color is measured
by comparing the sample with artificial
standards
made
by dissolvingcertain salts in distilled water,
sometimes
with
colored
The
color of large
or
glass disks.
lakes is usually below
0.10.
This requiresno explanation.
Odor.
Residue
solid
of
water.
grams
of
on
The
determination
in
water
accurately. The
this
is made
platinum
dish
by placing about
and
weighing
the
100
whole
is then
erate
evaporated to dryness by modheat and the dish again weighed ; the difference between
and the weight of the empty dish gives the total solids in
the water.
The
organic matter,
water
dish
when
the
inorganicor fixed
reported,is a measure
Ammonia.
organic matter
Ammonia
in
an
is then
the
heated
weight
The
solids.
of
the
in
hot, to
the
remaining
loss
on
out
ash
the
gives
ignition,sometimes
organic solids.
water
advanced
of
burn
red
indicates
the
presence
of
although
the
is
called
"
and
is that
high
Chlorine
to
in
normal
the
is
in the
the
is
probably
gerous.
perhaps dan
0.1 p. p. m., it is
than
of
water.
free ammonia
of
m.
oxygen
indication
gives an
two
figurefor albuminoid
ammonia
usually represents
be
It is
ocean.
due
from
found
the
20 p. p. m., it may
fixtures.
of
one
to sewage
always
decreasing
plumbing
content
under
p. p.
more
It may
exceeds
and
freed
of the
sum
water
amount
amount
forms,
two
is 0.05
p. p. m.,
is 0.50.
one
salt.
common
of
has 0.05
low
what
is that
if it has
in
of
has
organic matter
which
pure, while
and
of
amount
Water
which
process
The
in the water.
indication
valuable
albuminoid."
"
is liable to be
which
297
NURSES
It is determined
water.
Ammonia
Albuminoid
total
the
in the
water
but
Ammonia
Free
the
small, it affords
in
on
free
"
FOR
is
amount
going
ARITHMETIC
the
sodium
chloride,or
ness
pollutionor to near
in natural
waters, the
inland.
seacoast
corrosion
cause
If
in boilers
Properly interpreted,the
most
useful
indexes
of
the
the
chlorine
extent
of
pollution.
in the form of nitrates and
Nitrogen is usuallydetermined
nitrites,the former being the final result of decomposition,
while the latter is the incomplete result of the same
action.
If an analysisshows
the ammonia
to be low and the nitrates
high,it indicates that the water has become
fied,
completelypuriwhile
the
indicates that the decaying process
reverse
and
is going on
the water
is dangerous. In good drinking
sewage
the
water
the
be
may
Oxygen
by
nitrates
the
water
is absorbed
amount
Consumed.
This
from
by
consumed
as
high
as
or
practicallyalways
is the
amount
of
organic
givesa
matter
measure
sign
As
the
present in the
of the amount
of
lution.
pol
absorbed
oxygen
potassium permanganate.
the
p. p. m., while
of
oxygen
water, the
impurities
298
VOCATIONAL
contained
MATHEMATICS
in it.
while
high
as
than
Less
4
as
FOR
1 p. p.
5 p. p.
or
GIRLS
indicates
m.
indicates
m.
probable purity,
danger
in drinking
water.
Hardness.
in
solution
carbonates
the
When
to be
have
boilers,a
by
the
hard
number
of
Rain
of from
be
may
if
it is
sulphates
for
soap
before
forms
scale.
parts
of
has
when
of
washing,
or
nesium.
mag
these
salts
be formed.
can
Hardness
is
carbonate
in
hardness
it contains
calcium
lather
calcium
water
"
hard
"
is used
water
water
water.
river waters
Iron
hard
be
to
and
decomposed by
In
parts of
is said
water
expressed
1,000,000
of about
5,
and
50 to 100.
in
troublesome
present
in
used
water
for domestic
quantitiesgreater
than
0.3
poses
purto
0.5
m.
p. p.
Alkalinityor
hardness
which
causing
the
for
water
hardness
Temporary
is due
and
use,
the
of
scale.
removable
to carbonates
formation
boiler
is that
Hardness
by boiling,thus
of softening
purposes
For
it is necessary
to
know
both
the
total
alkalinity.
qualityof a water of
turbid
and
it does
unpleasant odor is suspicious,
appearance
is a water
which
is entirely
not follow that it is dangerous, nor
free from
color and odor necessarily
a safe drinking water, for
ological
bacteriThe
epidemics of typhoid have been caused by such.
the number
examination
of water, by which
of bacteria
fore
present in one cubic centimeter
(1 cc.)is determined,is therean
important part of an analysis.
Bacteria.
As
While
it is obvious
general statement,
less than
500
bacteria
100
per
that
it may
be
bacteria per
cc.
should
cc.
the
said
waters
is
water
be viewed
that water
water
that fresh
taining
con
ing
contain
and
suspicion,
is undoubtedly contaminated.
with
some
bacteria
and
of them
that, except
are
where
there
absolutelyharmless.
300
VOCATIONAL
MATHEMATICS
EXAMPLES
ON
FOR
ANALYSES
(Parts
in
OF
GIRLS
WATER
100,000)
1.
Give
the number
of
parts of
free ammonia
2.
Give
the
number
of
parts of
nitrates
3.
Give
the number
of
parts of nitrites
would
a.
to
How
a.
9 1.
Give
4.
of the
the
for
in
10,000
of
centimeters
c.
in b.
in d.
water
you
child
of water
c.
spiritsof
6 years
1.
weigh
d. 48
ammonia
is 30
minims,
old ?
approximateequivalentsin
household
b. 36 grams
c.
d.
ounces
90 minims
cc.
measures
following:
7 drams
a.
d. 61 mg.
0.4 gm.
followingamounts
cc.
of aromatic
dose
is the dose
what
kg.
the
b. 4.7
If the
3.
would
much
10,000
in
b. 11
70 gm.
2.
a.
out
measure
cubic
of
number
the
Give
in
10,000
EXAMPLES
REVIEW
1.
in
e.
12 fluid
/.
3 fluid drams
ounces
ARITHMETIC
approximate equivalentsin
following:
of the
1500
6. 11
cc.
d. 0.003
cc.
in 3
many
grammes
7.
How
many
drams
8.
How
many
grammes
in
9.
How
many
grammes
in 5 liters of 1
10.
How
many
teaspoonfulsof
solution
How
11.
of 1
the
for
dose
of
child of
A
15.
50 solution
liter of 10
has
pure
solution
solution
25
carbolic acid in
gallon
in
quart
carbolic
acid
ipecacis 20
seven
dose
temperature
years
of 1
500
of 94" F.
of 26"
a temperature
registers
Give
C.
Give
the
scale.
the Fahrenheit
equivalenton
14.
Centigrade scale.
the
cool bath
solution
solution ?
equivalenton
13.
gallonof
drops (minims) of
ounces
many
1000
12.
1 gramme
of 1
How
measures
/. 0.008 gramme
grain
in 1
household
e.
6.
of 1
3 liters
c.
301
NURSES
the
Give
5.
a.
FOR
to 30
What
grammes.
is the dose
solution
how
means
many
to
grammes
quart?
Given
16.
make
17.
acid
18.
gallon of
How
from
would
would
you
50
make
pure
make
make
acid ?
solution
(Considerstandard
silver
nitrate,how
would
you
gallonof
solution
of acetic
acid ?
you
of
solution
5000
you
the pure
How
would
acid from
19.
solution
5%
two
(Considerpure
is used
gallon
quarts of 5 % solution
for
40
%.)
standard
bolic
car
%.)
wounds.
disinfecting
strengthabout
acid 95
of
How
solution ?
302
VOCATIONAL
20.
MATHEMATICS
solution
of
much
irrigations. How
boric
GIRLS
FOR
acid
is used
for
and
eye
ear
to make
the
of
approximate equivalents
of the following:
measures
apothecaries'
21.
31
b.
yi"
c.
1.6 gram
cc.
powders
of
How
the
tincture
24.
Convert
How
25.
a
the
much
is
alcohol
contains
absolute
alcohol
in
The
for
29.
dose
baby
The
is f 3 i.
30.
dose
What
Hands
of
in
water)
(eightounces
?
many
of
and
dose
arms
followed
to four
is
of
gm.
to
of absolute
dilute
alcohol
by
How
?
What
gm.
is the
old ?
camphorated
is the
of
necessary
alcohol.
absolute
gallonof
7 months
of
41.5
solution of permanganate
of each
how
trional,
Diluted
28.
of
cc.
alcohol
acid
much
of
101
absolute
27.
pints
the
If lactic acid
26.
minims
(15 "/Gstrength)will be
quart of alcohol containing80 % volume
66%?
37%?
75%?
alcohol?
dose
and
many
Convert
a.
tincture
contains
morphine.
much
e.
/.
of the
dose
tincture
make
50
pharmacy nurse
buys 3 oz.
10 grainseach can
she make
The
23.
6.
gram
d.
If the
22.
the
a.
metric
for
are
of
of
tincture
baby
often
6 months
old ?
disinfected
potash (two
immersion
opium (paregoric)
in
by washing
to four
ounces
solution
quarts
of oxalic
is the
in
acid
percentage
iodoform
Adhesive
31.
solution
following
the
in
gauze
much
How
32.
of
cent
per
22
grams
Resin
10
grams
Glycerine
Alcohol
26
of
pound
each
of
the
each
What
33.
sulphate
and
quantity
mass
oxide
Glycerine
12
parts
Water
10
parts
following
sulphate
oz.
What
of
35.
of
amount
carbolized
What
per
carbolic
of
cent
the
qt. of
37.
to
make
in
ing
prepar
is
atropine
acid
How
25,000
solution
much
a
pint
bichloride
much
potassium
of
1000
18
of
gr.
fluid
ounce
crystals
is used
to
make
following
Water
How
acid
petrolatum
Boric
36.
used
solution
1^
Water
be
system.
Atropine
34.
English
parts
5 parts
the
in
1.)
as
Gelatine
of
glycerine
should
ingredient
following
cent
per
cc.
Give
Zinc
sterilized
cc.
alcohol
of
by saturating
Iodoform
is made
gauze
303
NURSES
FOR
ARITHMETIC
solution
is boric
acid
gr.
oz.
mercury
is
required
to
make
permanganate
solution
will
be
necessary
PART
EVERY
to do
the
young
with
the
men
PROBLEMS
ON
CHAPTER
XV
who
lives
the
the
and
it is
THE
FARM
the farm
on
has
the arithmetic
bookkeeping and
on
work,
"
person
sellingof
of the
this
VI
eggs,
milk, and
farm
have
the
other
time
more
less
or
with
connected
products. Very
the inclination
or
usuallyperformed by
the wife
few
to do
daughter.
or
EXAMPLES
1.
pay
I sold
in butter
receive
2.
16
at 40
dealer
bought
Find
Three
the
4.
the value
A
farmer
wife
many
as
the farm
6.
bin
16
How
and
took
pounds
many
my
did
cords
of
wood
$ 4
at
cord
and
sold
gain.
and
divided
257facres,
Find
dozen
farm.
Carl
much
as
of the farm.
he gave
5.
cents
pound.
bought
men
Philip $2400.25,
Find
cents
30
at
eggs
it for $ 96.
3.
dozen
acres
his farm
to his younger
as
his
to
follows
as
200fV
son
two
sons.
to his
elder
acres, and
How
many
son
to his
acres
in
One
farm
contains
the difference
One
184^
bin contain
bin
between
contains
bushels.
than
287f
How
acres
and
another
244J
acres.
them.
165^
bushels
many
the smaller
?
304
of
bushels
grain
more
and
the
does
the
other
larger
PROBLEMS
From
7.
remained
acres
many
sold.
were
acres
How
141
bought
afterwards
305
FARM
owning 57f
farmer
8.
of
farm
THE
ON
of land
acres
How
acres.
sold
281
he
did
acres
many
and
acres
then
own?
farm
9.
contained
onesixth
woodland,
What
One
11.
pasture, and
farm
the
the
is cultivated
is
vated.
culti
How
many
four
remainder
is
of
apples
bbl.
31
gathered.
were
How
many
barrels
twofifths
I owned
share
12.
of
which
oneeighth of
acres,
bought 5^ bbl.,another
man
remained
my
part
From
10.
is
cultivated
are
acres
132
for $ 1350.
bought
Find
loads
of
farm
value
of
and
sold
of
threefourths
of the whole
farm.
bushels,
I
27f bushels, 40J bushels, 35^ bushels, and 29^ bushels.
sold 12J bushels
and 25^bushels
to each of three men,
to each
of four
13.
How
men.
If
twothirds
of the farm
14.
of
$ 7
Thomas
Mr.
15.
head.
farm
SOy7^
acres, the
fourth 28acres.
16.
horse
receive
17.
bushels
pears
bought
$ 2480, what
costs
168
of them
Find
the
is the
cost
sheep
$ 6
at
at
$5.50
head, and
head.
He
the
remainder
gain.
is divided
into
second
4211
How
many
farmer
for
farm
left ?
were
sold threesevenths
at
bushels
many
four
acres,
lots.
the
The
third
first contains
35^
in the farm
acres
sold
acres,
the
for
much
102.60,a
did
he
?
Farmer
of
did
Blake
pears.
he raise ?
raised
How
many
114
bushels
more
of
bushels
306
VOCATIONAL
18.
much
farmer
Mr.
19.
has
much
A's
21.
farm
the difference
Grover
Mr.
22.
the
for
horse.
cow?
of woodland
and
sells
an
ten
of land
acres
How
acre.
B's
265facres,
had
110
of
acres
did
much
$ 65
at
many
acres
Mr.
Dean
23.
fourth
had
he
sold
43^
an
acre
What
acres.
is
land, and
sold
7^%
acres.
ID
left ?
onethird
another, and
to
304f
he lose ?
'
How
How
he left ?
contains
in the
$ 165
cow,
than
cost
bought
and
GIRLS
FOR
450T7"acres
has
Sherman
Mr.
20.
78 for
the horse
Borden
How
acres.
paid $
did
more
MATHEMATICS
of
his
oneeighth to
farm
to
another.
one
man,
What
one
part had
he left ?
I
24.
of what
he
they
2
farmer
bushels
27.
worth
be
grain can
into 16
put
bags,if
35 bushels
at 75
for
paid $76.50
for fourfifths
the loss ?
of
each
sold him
horse, and
was
carries
bushels
many
hold
26.
What
cost.
How
25.
for
365.75
paid $
cents
18
of
apples to
bushel
What
What
sheep.
market.
the
was
average
price?
28.
721
Mr.
Platt
How
acres.
29.
many
bushel
30.
many
If 41
be
can
of
had
for
giving each
he ?
potatoes
bought
to his sons,
of land
acres
sons
many
bushels
bushels
435
gave
bought
were
$ 10.80
at
the
$ 3.60,how
for
same
priceper
White
Mr.
cords
could
cords
at
the
of
wood.
same
How
price per
cord?
31.
sons,
father
giving to
divided
each
45
183
acres.
of land
acres
How
many
equally among
sons
had
he ?
his
308
VOCATIONAL
The
2.
field
for
working
MATHEMATICS
others,20
cents
for
own
hour
cents
per
worth
for the
in
plowed
was
his
hour
work.
Mr.
day.
per
of 10 hours
day
GIRLS
FOR
for
receives,when
his
How
horses
much
and
is his
15
time
Mr.
4.
It took
2) as
the
at what
Mr.
5.
the
6.
from
hour
bought
A
Mr.
commission
much
is
he
He
Mr.
9.
Mr.
the
about
The
of 6 ft.
11.
20
ft.
cement
What
Mr.
A's
deep.
1st.
was
his
Some
used
the
commission
harrowed
What
of
fertilizer
at
receives
to the
equal
with
the
rate
cost
of
of
expense
$ 2.50 ?
to
horse
How
company.
times, each
three
corn
his hired
this he and
Which
was
much
How
of
planter.
30 ^ per
time
ing
requir
?
It
ft.
grown
to
ting
cut
height
long, 10
How
for
ready
was
weekly growth
is cemented.
spent 3
man
expensive,the
more
1st.
10
rectangular,
floor
in the floor ?
in
sells for
he
the average
silo is
The
did
planted June
was
September
7 o'clock
it take ?
Besides
8 hours.
ample
(see ex
bushel.
per
amount
to
man
cultivated
corn
1.25
once.
days hoeing the corn
?
hoeing or the cultivating
10.
corn
corn
railroad
hires
begun at
piece be
was
own
long did
How
much
what
on
$ 2 for the
pays
hour.
%
his
on
hauling from
8.
How
field
P.M.)
sell to receive
fertilizer used
the
of 10
must
the
harrow
onehundredpoundbags
work
would
to 1
M.
to
at $
bought seed com
cost, 12 quarts being the
seed
He
time
12
long
as
If the
it.
plow
to
morning,
(Noon
did
threefifths
many
ft.
wide, and
sq.
yd.
of
PROBLEMS
If
12.
lumber
the
thickness
one
How
many
many
cubic
is 5 ft.
stalks
feet in
level
of the
bam
floor of the
of
the
produced
on
the
silo hold
floor,which
silo ?
cut
and
compressed
the
acre
of land
corn
to fill the
space
Two
silo.
1st
September
On
15.
worked
men
day.
day
The
Two
did
the
day
cuttingmachine,
these
pay
with
men
the
Add
this
for
men
the
the
expense
stalks
at
teams
at
with
and
fill the
horses
silo at
the
work
for
$ 1.50
of the
cutting machine,
the
for
man
in the
corn
Mr.
to the barn
leveled
A
Mr.
work.
to finish the
helped
cuttingdown
men
hauled
men
man
team, and
of
gang
men,
One
next
in the field
Two
What
with
man
board
many
ensilage will
cemented
been
have
must
of
the
bushels
many
thick,how
feet
feet below
the
309
FARM
cubic
higher than
How
14.
is 1 inch
of the walls
How
13.
THE
ON
silo worked
to
that
hours
two
of the
one
previous
day.
A
16.
with
pulley in
The
months.
When
this
the
ensilagebe
18.
per
when
of
bushel,how
19.
How
is the value
at
the
with
ton
many
many
the
the
opens
will
even
to
giving each
cows,
It is estimated
onethird
to
Mr.
At
rate
left
was
10
basket.
How
many
times
A
it
must
mass
to his
twobushel
later the
week
tons
fermenting
two
silo be
the barn
for
process
emptied?
should
When
floor ?
that
of
ton
hay
$ 15 per ton ?
of
is the
ensilageworth
What
310
VOCATIONAL
it pay
Does
20.
NOTE.
the farmer
Ensilage
"
as
it better
MATHEMATICS
milk
than
could
to raise
be used
not
producer
when
fed
is
and
84
the
Milk
water.
the per
weight and
50
moderate
in
for
but
hay,
is
Cows
quantities.
illustrate
Ib. contains
cent
cellent
ex
like
casein
is
(fat)in
cream
milk
(cheese),
usually sold
the
by
it.
sugar,
farmer
by
cream.
sample
of
amount
it contains
to cream,
about
To
substitute
PRODUCE
graded according to
addition
In
ensilage?
as
GIRLS
hay.
DAIRY
Milk
FOR
of milk
from
The
cream.
large can
weighing
contains
large can
Ib. of
butter fat.
EXAMPLES
1.
of
sample
milk
butter fat.
3J %
How
from
much
cooler
butter
gives 3J gallons of
weighs 8f Ib.,what is the weight
2.
cow
month
per
how
much
month
4.6
6.
cow
fat.
examples
Skim
pigs at 5J
a
quart
give the
milk
cooler ?
day.
per day
If
per
of milk
? per
gallon
week
it
2 contains
week
yield per
26
the butter
cents
4.7 per
fat in
cent
? per
of cream,
month
pound, how
example 3 ?
much
How
is obtained
much
butter
in
one
fat does
from
Another
5.
example
fat is worth
per week
per
in
butter
If butter
4.
fat in the
If the milk
3.
Ib. tested
containing48J
or
milk
cents
from
a
to make
skim
milk
the butter
gallon.
butter
to the
Is it
and
pigs?
usually sold
cheaper to sell milk
fat is
sell it at 26 cents
to feed
at 5^
pound
the
cents
and
PROBLEMS
ON
PROBLEMS
decided
that
should
shares
be
and
each
of the
money
formed,
Part
factory,and
rest
was
depositedin
to
run
the
it
as
needed
was
be
products should
the business
each
by
Half
and
man.
$0.03
at
building cost $
The
Babcock
small
Whey
supply
money
; 4
and
cheese
drawn
the
the
sale
for
carryingon
the money
of expense
of
out
invested
:
foot.
square
for material
2000
$30
tester
50 each
large vats, $
Three
until
business
sufficient to
to erect
bank
of land
acre
seventythree
bought a share at
used
was
the election
of
member
after
stock company
FACTORY
CHEESE
together,and
came
was
311
FARM
COOPERATIVE
EQUIPPING
Seventythreefarmers
of officers it
THE
ON
work.
and
discount.
discount.
2 %
trough
Cheese
$ 28
press,
; 3
"Jodiscount.
54 ; 4
leads, $
and
discount.
Boxes,
Scales,weights,and
A
year's salary to
The
$27.85.
weighing can,
maker, $
the cheese
money
commission.
520.
put
was
expenses
at 3
interest.
PROBLEMS
1.
How
much
money
2.
How
much
did
3.
What
4.
The
engine
What
5.
the
much
6.
was
did
The
who
man
and
belt
he
How
leads,and
of the land
cost
the
the
to
maker
cheese
sold
who
man
he
the
boiler
company
average
week
?
and
piping
received 6 %
and
also
the
commission.
bought
received
large vats
did
the
put
was
receive
much
vats
did
the
the
discount
as
his
commission.
How
?
the
receive ?
company
that
sold
the
whey trough,
312
VOCATIONAL
much
How
7.
MATHEMATICS
did the
trough,leads,and
An
8.
did
much
receive
much
The
10.
he
who
"/ocommission.
the
for the
out
whey
; his commission
was
%.
How
cost the
tester
the
bought
and
press
How
much
did
the
did
it cost
to
buy
company
material
and
press
received
materials
cost
company?
much
How
11.
and
How
much
13.
How
much
and
16
left at interest
was
would
the
15.
What
per
cent
of the
16.
What
per
cent
of the whole
hen
has to have
It costs about
One
dozen
One
hen
Broilers
are
ten
for
3 years
6 months
lays about
are
Brooders
small
hen
cents
costing $
cost
cost
to feed
per
in the house.
room
one
for 30
hen.
cents.
year.
pound.
pound.
a
a
20 holds
150
eggs.
dozen.
$7.50.
chicken
costs
$ 1.00
feet of
average
eggs
coop
costs
$ 8.00.
60 cents.
Little chickens
Chicken
100
sold at 25
Setting eggs
POULTRY
month
the
on
left at interest ?
was
ON
is this interest ?
investment
five square
cents
sell
eggs
incubator
One
tory,
fac
year ?
one
whole
PROBLEMS
An
the
days ?
What
Hens
land, build
interest be
14.
One
the
12.
pay
did the
man
company
vats
How
9.
buying
GIRLS
FOR
wire, 6
1 week
ft.
wide,
costs
4Jcents
per
foot.
THE
ON
PROBLEMS
313
FARM
PROBLEMS
large would
How
1.
be for 30 chickens
If I have
2.
50 ft.,how
chickens
can
will it cost
much
to
is 30 ft.
by
in it?
put
chickens
the
keep
to
have
poultry house
poultry house
month
one
year ?
one
If I have
4.
for them
Suppose I
lb.,and the
5.
receive
would
them
rest
an
have
cost
How
I
If
I pay
the
would
much
for $
incubator
an
for $
from
Would
me
them
kept
will I receive
gain
lb.,5 weighing
weeks,
or
would
much
How
14
her
how
in
lose
much
keeping
bought
did
of 4 lb.
average
to feed
me
broilers,12 weighing
If I had
much
coop
much
how
25
they
chicken
7.
sold
If
6.
it pay
them
it cost
she
for
how
Does
does
much
hen, how
one
Suppose
year?
one
? for 50 ? 80 ? 200
many
How
3.
floor of my
the
8, and
150
20, a brooder
to
eggs
into
put
for $
the
7.50,
incubator,
in all ?
150
only 139
eggs
I receive
for the
hatched
were
little chickens
and
when
lived,
I sold
them?
Suppose
8.
feet of
it cost
then
would
chicken
I need
to
eggs
would
for them
10.
to
me
How
9.
year
wire
I had
40
profitdid
fence
100
by
250
it in ?
ft.
How
How
much
many
would
it ?
I receive
hens, how
from
much
60
hens
would
in
one
I receive
If I
sold
yard
I make
on
them
314
VOCATIONAL
MATHEMATICS
POULTRY
1.
wishes
man
If he has
interest
$ 75, how
the
will he
have
it cost to
If he
5.
would
he
he
year,
sold
400
dozen
at
hatched
9.
would
10.
much
he
100
the
how
with
buy
much
cents
per
would
eggs
would
dozen,how
much
many
gain from
eggs
each
for
"
for
amount
"
at 50
setting
these ?
to
keep
sellinghis
sold
for
how
dozen,
cents
How
much
the hens
for
"
eggs ?
setting,"9
many
chickens
chickens
were
in all ?
If
it cost
him
27
cents
to raise
for
each
pair
his entire
of
stock
broilers
net
After
him
consideringthe cost
pricereceived for them, what
12.
he
above
dozen
from
could
dozen
receive
did he
material, how
would
him
for material,
? for 5 years
year,
25
much
hen, how
one
remaining dozen
much
much
would
11.
the
for them
sold the
hatched
were
eggs
much
for 1 year
many
If,from
8.
lays 100
How
for
as
for $ 125.
?
as
hens
cents
keep
to
? how
If it cost
how
50
cost
year
receive
7.
hen
times
many
one
dozen, how
did
How
$ 1 per year
receive
If he
6.
left ?
hen
they yield in
at 5
apparatus
keep
If each
4.
for
henhouse
to borrow
for 1 year
to pay
if each
If it cost
3.
stock
will he have
much
as
remainder
and
$ 20 for labor,three
onefourth
much
RAISING
build
much
If he pays
2.
to
GIRLS
FOR
After
profit?
he
had
paid
his
of
was
one
how
broiler,'
much
for broilers ?
he
received
$ 1.50, how
raisingthe
his profit
?
interest,what
broilers
and
his
net
was
APPENDIX
METRIC
metric
THE
Continental
system
the
of
and
Europe
of
in
system is used
weights
unit
SYSTEM
is
meter
part
thirtieth of
is
of the
an
unit
The
ounce.
little largerthan
(mm.)
the standard
the meter
on
as
about
is
of volume
the
inches.
39.37
equal
ten
The
about
to
one
which
is the liter,
quart.
of Length
Measures
10 millimeters
of
supposed to be one
meridian passingfrom
length of the
equator to the poles. It is equal to
unit of weight is the gram1 which
millionth
countries
as
It is based
measures.
The
length.
the
scientific men
among
and
nearly all
I centimeter
cm.
10 centimeters
=1
decimeter
10 decimeters
=1
meter
10 meters
=1
dekameter
Dm.
10 dekameters
=1
hektometer
Hm.
10 hektometers
=1
kilometer
Km.
millimeters
100 square
centimeters
100 square
decimeters
1000
cubic millimeters
1000
cubic
centimeters
1000
cubic
decimeters
1
a
The
temperature
metric
ton
is the
...=!
.
Measures
(mm.)
.
weight
of
of 39.2" F. ; the
one
centimeter
square
decimeter
cm.
sq.
sq. dm.
meter
sq.
m.
of Volume
=
1 cubic
cubic
kilogram
square
1 square
gram
=1
(mm.)
m.
Measures
100 square
dm:
meter
317
cu.
centimeter
cubic
centimeter
is the
decimeter
cu.
cm.
cu.
dm.
meter
of pure
cu.
distilled water
of water.
m.
at
; the
318
of Capacity
Measures
=1
10 milliliters (ml.)
centiliter
cl.
deciliter
dl.
10 deciliters
1 liter
10 liters
=1
10 dekaliters
10 hektoliters
=1
10 centiliters
centigrams
10
decigrams
10 grams
10
dekagrams
10 hektograms
1000 kilograms
centigram
eg.
decigram
dg.
g.
gram
dekagram
Kl.
of Weight
HI.
.
kiloliter
Dl.
dekaliter
milligrams(mg.)
10
1.
1 hektoliter
Measures
10
GIRLS
FOR
MATHEMATICS
VOCATIONAL
hektogram
......
Dg.
......
Hg.
Kg.
kilogram
1 ton
of Length
Measures
in.
39.37
1 meter
1 centimeter
1 millimeter
1 kilometer
MEASURES
EQUIVALENT
METRIC
.3937
ft.=
3.28083
1.0936
yd.
inch
.03937
.62137
mile
1 foot
.3048
1 inch
meter
2.54 centimeters
of Surface
Measures
10.764
meter
1 square
centimeter
1 square
millimeter
.00155
1 square
yard
1 square
foot
1 square
inch
meter
35.314
cu.
ft.
1 cubic
decimeter
61.023
cu.
in.
1 cubic
centimeter
cu.
in.
liter is
equal to
meter
the volume
=645.
centimeters
of Volume
1 cubic
The
yd.
meter
square
6.452 square
.061
sq.
sq. in.
.836 square
Measures
1.196
sq. ft. =
1 square
.0929
25.4 millimeters
and
1.308
.0353
2 square
millimeters
Capacity
cu.
yd.
cu.
ft.
occupied by
264.2
gal.
1 cubic decimeter.
METRIC
1 liter
1 cubic
yard
cubic
foot
cubic
inch
.7645
.02832
cubic
liters
cubic
gallon (British)
4.543
liters
gallon(U. S.)
3.785
liters
kilogram
1 metric
1
grain
ounce
pound
1 ton
ton
avoirdupois
.9842
ton
.0648
gram
28.35
of 2240
Ib.
28.317
decimeters
cubic
centimeters
of Weight
of 2240
Ib.
19.68 cwt.
2204.6
Ib.
kilogram
1.016
at 62" F.
grams
.4536
cu.
pounds
.0353
grains
2.2045
meter
Measures
15.432
in.
cu.
meter
cubic
16.387
Ib. of water
28.317
1 gram
61.023
quarts
2.202
cubic
ft.
decimeter
1.0567
319
SYSTEM
metric
tons
1016
kilograms
Miscellaneous
1
kilogram
1 gram
1
meter
per
kilogram
per
square
kilogram per
cubic
degree centigrade
pound
per foot
pound
per
pound
per cubic
degree
1 Calorie
square
(French
power
1 watt
(Unit
of
1.488
degrees
4.882
16.02
Thermal
pounds
pound
pound
per
cubic
1000
per
meter
kilograms per
kilograms
Unit)
foot
Electrical
watts
TABLE
To
change
meters
foot
Fahrenheit
square
cubic
per
pounds
Power)
3.968
per
=
B.
T. U.
minute
meter
meter
.00134
1.34 horse
OF
power
METRIC
horse
=44,240
square
meters
meters
to square
feet
watts
power
44.24
foot
foot
pounds
per minute
multiply by
3.28083
multiply by
.3048
.0929
CONVERSION
feet to meters
feet to square
Unit)
per minute
to feet
square
(BritishThermal
746
pounds
1 kilowatt
foot
per square
per
inch
square
degree centigrade
.5556
33,000
.0624
kilograms
foot
foot
Fahrenheit
1 horse
1.8
.2084
meter
"
1.422
meter
per foot
pound
millimeter
square
per
.6720
multiply by
multiply by
10.764
320
To
VOCATIONAL
change
MATHEMATICS
square
centimeters
square
inches
inches
to centimeters
centimeters
GIRLS
multiplyby
.155
multiply by
6.452
multiply by
2.54
.3937
multiply by
grains
multiply by
grams
multiply by
.0648
to ounces
multiply by
.0353
grainsto
grams
to square
inches
centimeters
to inches
to
grams
to square
FOR
pounds
kilograms
to
28.35
multiply by
to grams
ounces
15.43
multiply by
.4536
kilograms to pounds
multiply by
2.2045
liters to quarts
multiply by
1.0567
liters to
gallons
multiply by
.2642
gallonsto liters
multiply by
3.78543
liters to cubic
multiply by
61.023
cubic
cubic
inches
inches
to cubic
centimeters
centimeters
to cubic
inches
decimeters
kilowatts
power
to horse
calories to British
multiply by
16.387
multiply by
.061
liters
or
Units
Thermal
multiply by
28.317
multiply by
1.34
multiply by
3.968
EXAMPLES
1.
Change
m.
2.
Reduce
Km.,
3.
How
to centimeters
6 m., and
square
many
meters
which
is 25.5 feet
long and
4.
(a) Change
(6) Change
6J5 centimeters
5.
cellar 18
will it cost
6.
5.2
cu.
at 13
How
m.
48.3
m.
cents
per
m.
to centimeters.
of
carpet
24 feet wide
square
37
; to kilometers.
m.
cubic
many
liters of
is the
weight
floor
into inches.
meter
to do
capacityhas
inches.
into square
is to be
m.
the
a
; what
excavated
work
tank
containing
7.
What
8.
Give
9.
Change
84.9
square
Change
23.6
10.
cover
centimeters
x
will
the
in grams
approximate value
meters
of 31
cc.
of water
of 36 millimeters
into square
feet.
?
in inches.
7.3
Change
11.
321
METRIC
SYSTEM
to
millimeters
m.
centimeters
to
to
kilometers.
12.
Reduce
13.
What
and
48.1
9.8
kilometers
to
m.
in
difference
is the
14.
What
part
of
kilometer
15.
What
part
of
meter
16.
How
3.4 Dm.
is 1.3
and
85.7
69
Reduce
20.
What
cm.
wide
869.7
is the
of water
23.
which
24.
tank
in
is 7.9
m.
will it hold
What
is 89
What
alcohol,the
25.
What
26.
26
square
What
is the
g. per
by
cubic
in
is the
weight
What
part
of
43
long, 8.4
m.
of
in
a
of
grams
of 43.9
48.7
dm.
of
cc.
water
as
Of
5 1. of mercury
m.
by
3.1
m.
874
cc.
of
of
which
liter is 1.7
How
copper,
bottle
that
g. per
of
grams
kilograms
water
; what
many
the
is
grams
density of
is 0.8
in
to grams.
1. of water?
much
as
centimeter
weight
kilograms ;
to
4.3
capacity
densityof
is the
wall
milligrams ;
kilograms
weight
is the
rectangular gardens,
weight
weight
in
in
there
are
21.
22.
m.
in
meters
eg. to
is the
wide
dm.
cubic
many
19.
the
2.7
mm.
cm.
meters
square
many
How
high, and
What
between
meters.
milli
long
18.
is 1.8
centimeters
square
many
How
17.
millimeters
; to
mm.
kilometers
centimeters
; to
cubic
56.8
cc.
of 7 1. of alcohol
cc.
kg.
of
centimeter
holds
of
?
alcohol?
GRAPHS
A
of
SHEET
that
are
distant
equally
crosssection, or
distinct
so
GRAPH
for
without
VARIATION
THE
IN
SERIES
coordinate
price
or
of
is
paper
used
commodity,
any
OF
to
or
aid
PRICE
of
sheet
line
is
of
very
horizontal
the
ruler.
COTTON
OF
lines
Ruled
YARN
FOR
or
YEARS
record
the
called
off
measure
the
vertical
tenth
Every
to
one
and
other, is
each
coordinate, paper.
distances
SHOWING
horizontal
with
from
it is easy
that
vertical
and
ruled
paper,
rise
rise
the
and
fall of
and
fall of
the
the
barometer
thermometer.
Trade
paper
papers
to
show
In
and
the
this
of
one
the
can
322
in
changes
see
at
use
of
the
price
glance
coordinate
the
of
modities.
com
changes
FORMULAS
technical books
MOST
The
often
are
they
been
in which
by
throughout
whole
clauses
the
the
discussion
meaning results
of the
written
rule
in
the
are
pressed
ex
have
to
with
meaning
same
until
viate
abbre
to
attempt
letter,that
one
The
the
emphasize
that rules
comprehended
not
times.
formulas.
many
remember
we
meaning
several
length and
the
when
is evident
reread
contain
magazines
their true
long and
have
formula,
this
for
reason
and
which
it
started.
illustrate
To
One
fundamental
of the
laws
a
of
circuit
is that the
electricity
is
(flow of electricity)
current
One
times
how
to
the
unfamiliar
before
with
Then
of the current
of the current
resistance
1=
E+
It is customary
"
with
sides
clear.
To
show
which
wire
(amperes)
(volts)
(ohms)
case
I is used
this
Translating
The
are
to allow
in this
formula, but
formula
several
over
abbreviated,
pressure
"
be
between
through
quantity of electricity
relations
the
Let
the
(expressedin ohms).
by the resistance
because
quantity
the
to
represent it in
letter C is used
in
other
an
might be confused.
Rules
into
Formulas
of
them.
324
325
FORMULAS
We
A
L
Then
length
of
length
of shortest
length
of
of
area
Let
Then
side
longest parallel
^,
2
circle
parallelside
perpendicular
is
3.1416.
multipliedby
In this
(L +
by letting
trapezoid
area
JV
it is called
of
M=
The
this rule
abbreviate
may
3.1416
case
equal
When
is
them
or
the
to
the
of
square
in the
is used
number
between
distance
formula
representedby
letter
Greek
the
representedby
radius
letter.
(pi)
TT
of circle
area
radius
IT
of circle
jR2,or (themultiplication
sign is usuallyleft out
between
letters)
Thus
we
rule.
stating a
of
and
the
their
higher
When
operated
by
or
letter
the
may
is to
For
the
same
used
above,
To
"
prevent
for different
technical
or
to
braces
one
is to
be
often
are
brackets
of these
is
work.
multipliedor
{ },or
divided
multiply
the
[ ]. Any
within
sum
different
in the
same
\TrH\*(r*
+ r'2)+ ^2]which
2
o
L2
wise
other
of L
signs
number
no
other
parentheses.
the
and
of
problem.
instance,
V=
or
grouped together
parentheses, with
grouped
confusion,
combinations
and
short
quantity, they
case
parentheses.
be
by
upon
trapezoid
for
quantitiesare
parentheses ( ) or
placed before or after
sign between,
In the
of
means
may
rule.
of mechanical
more
simple way of
be written
or
expressed in
The
knowledge of formulas
nearly every one engaged in
is
formula
is necessary
use
or
formula
called
forms
two
Any
is then
and
words
that
see
equals
Jf, hence
aggregation
326
MATHEMATICS
VOCATIONAL
GIRLS
FOR
EXAMPLES
Abbreviate
1.
One
electrical horse
2.
One
kilowatt
is
3.
The
number
of
such
circuit,
as
into formulas
following rules
the
is
power
1000
equal to
746
watts.
watts.
consumed
watts
in.
given electrical,
by multiplyingthe
is obtained
lamp,
equal to
volts
by
the amperes.
4.
number
The
of
equals the
volts
watts
divided
by
the
divided
by
the
amperes.
5.
of
Number
equals
amperes
the
watts
volts.
6.
The
horse
the
of
power
number
The
the
between
8.
speed
of
column
the
the
is found
by
of amperes
number
tiplying
muland
746.
which
at
body
traveled
distance
find
To
by
of volts
electric machine
an
and
in
pressure
travels
the
is
which
time
pounds per
height of the
the ratio
equal to
is
required.
inch
square
of
in feet
column
by
0.434.
9.
The
the cost
10.
amount
of
multipliedby
The
gain in
the
of
the rate
sellingprice of
multipliedby
business
quantity 100
is
transaction
gain.
commodity
% plus the
is
equal to
rate
of
12.
of
the
The
The
interest
on
principal,time
as
sum
of
money
(expressedas
hundredths).
the
cost
gain.
equal to
to the
cost
loss.
327
FORMULAS
The
13.
of
amount
of
sum
obtained
be
may
money
plying
principal to the quantity obtained by multithe principal,the time
(as years),and the rate (as
hundredths).
by adding
find
To
14.
length of
circle by the
the
of the
diameter
this
the
To. find
number
of
radius
and
of
number
circle
Multiply
in the
degrees
arc
the
and
.0087266.
product by
15.
of
arc
an
the
of
area
in the
arc
by .008727;
or,
degrees
of
sector
of the
circle
multiply the
Multiply the
of the
the square
by
sector
the
of
arc
by
sector
Translating
In
order
One
1.
of
of
the
Here
stands
for the
is
TT
circle
to
for
its diameter.
The
The
and
for
the
ratio
value
3.1416
Lx
circumference
expressed
in
of
figures,
circle is
equal
to
3.1416.
of
rectangleis
W
of
length
of
of
rectangle
rectangle
rectangle
rectangle,therefore,is
be
of
area
area
area
width
the
3^.
or
of
cannot
multipliedby
of
area
circle,
findingthe
Here
area
finding the
able
R*
reads, the
The
TT
is the
exact
formula
of the radius
formula
is called
ordinary purposes
the square
of
be
to
circle.
quantity
Therefore,the
2.
area
of the
constant
is that for
simplestformulas
A
Rules
is necessary
circle,
but
formula, it
simple language.
to understand
it in
to express
into
Formulas
found
by multiplying
328
VOCATIONAL
MATHEMATICS
FOR
GIRLS
EXAMPLES
Express
force
Electromotive
1.
current, when
following formulas
voltage
or
resistance
and
current
E
the
For
2.
radius
is
circumference
of
the
For
area
of
"
^"
7T
when
circle,
the
length of
OF
MV
by
the
7T.L/
equilateraltriangle,when
an
side is given:
one
delivered
electricity
are
given:
RI
of
given:
O
3.
of
rules
as
the
length
a*v'3
T~
4.
For
the
height are
For
5.
and
one
volume
of
circular
when
pillar,
the radius
and
given :
the
volume
side of the
of
base
pyramid,
square
the
when
height
given :
are
o^
3
6.
For
7.
For
breadth
8.
For
girth is
the
volume
of
the
diagonal
given :
are
the
known
of
rectangle,when
diameter
average
the diameter
sphere,when
of
the
tree, when
is
given :
length
the
and
average
Lf
"
7T
9.
known.
For
the
diameter
of
a
sf
ball,when
the
volume
of
it is
329
FORMULAS
The
10.
The
from
be obtained
feet,may
M
The
12.
in
number
be obtained
may
in
The
by
area
by
volume
expressed
the formula
O
excavations
in
excavation
cubic
yards ; the
expressed in yards
the formula
from
.0495 x
circumference
of
circle may
When
C
L
a
The
surface of
be obtained
from
the
(C
of
solidityof
cylindermay
L)
V2
be
expressed
2a
circumference
length
area
of
one
be
sphere may
S
The
3.5446
of the surface
area
the formula
17.
given
the formula
The
16.
in
from
given
(7=
15.
.13367
C
14.
formula
feet
express
of bushels
number
area
given length,expressed in
.00019
of cubic
Contractors
the
VZ
in
the
be obtained
gallonsmay
13.
1.1283
of miles
number
from
Z"
11.
be obtained
circle may
followingformula
the
by
of
diameter
D*
end
expressedby the
formula
3.1416
sphere
may
be
obtained
from
the
formula
S
18.
The
side of
from
the
an
D3
.5236
inscribed
cube
of
1.1547,
where
sphere
may
be
tained
ob
formula
=
E*
It
length of side,
radius of sphere.
330
19.
by
The
the
solidityor
of
contents
GIRLS
FOR
MATHEMATICS
VOCATIONAL
pyramid
be
may
expressed
formula
pi
where
"
A
F
20.
the
The
of
length
an
of
arc
circle
of
area
height
be
may
base,
of
pyramid.
from
obtained
formula
L
21.
.017453
loss
The
in
where
R,
transaction
length
number
of
radius
be
may
of arc,
degrees,
of circle.
expressed
by
the
formula
L
22.
the
The
where
r,
of
rate
in
loss
loss,
cost,
of loss.
rate
transaction
may
be
expressed by
formula
23.
The
of
cost
commodity
be
may
expressed
by
the
formula
or
"
"
24.
The
where

selling price,
COSt,
lUU
r
of
volume
sphere
be
may
the
when
determined
vC3
rate.
circumference
by
the
of
formula
~e^
25.
is known
The
diameter
may
be
of
found
by
circle
the
the
formula
circumference
of
which
332
VOCATIONAL
MATHEMATICS
FOR
GIRLS
Equations
A
that two
We
add
may
an
each
ber
mem
of the equation.
We
subtract
may
each
member
We
equal quantityor
an
of the equation.
multiplyeach
may
equal quantitiesfrom
member
same
or
same
or
equal quantities.
We
divide
may
each
member
equal quantities.
We
may
extract
We
may
raise each
The
If
the square
expression,A
the
process
of
rules.
To
obtain
the
must
on
(2)
(3)
be
side of
one
(1)
desire to obtain
we
by
so
member
.A
"
/"
irIP
IP
root
of each
trip is
an
transformation
value of R
means
we
do
above
series of operations
that
the coefficient
of each
may
the
according to
that
power.
of A
instead
square
same
equation. Why
the value of R
(Extractingthe
of the equation.
member
will be left
of
.R2.)
side of the
equation.)
333
FORMULAS
of Representing Operations
Methods
MULTIPLICATION
The
be
not
method
Another
is
"
ployed.
em
convenient, especiallywhere
is very
method
to be
2a3b
a6
23
This
follows
as
It should
number
of
terms
are
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
involution.
In
Thus,
x2
"
"
x5
"26
a4b3c
dissimilar
terms
ab
"
of
multiplication
Thus,
#2+3
y?
abc
The
exponents of similar
add
we
multiplication
"
"
"
"
terms.
be
may
indicated.
abcxyz.
DIVISION
The
cases,
division
division.
To
in
a
means
the
In
cases.
horizontal
illustrate,
most
same
many
line to indicate
as
(a + ")
f
xy
(x
"
y) in simpler form.
The
division
sign
is
never
omitted.
334
A
VOCATIONAL
root
MATHEMATICS
is
sign (yH, ^/x2)
radical
or
of division
form
known
Thus,
y?
The
exponents of similar
xi
GIRLS
evolution.
as
subtract
division,we
In
FOR
division of dissimilar
y?2
"
terms
terms.
be indicated.
may
Thus,
xyz
Substituting and
A
formula
The
the
usually written
is
lefthand
member
quantitythat
contains
whose
the
find
To
every
we
the
letter
are
value
in the
out
perform
to
division
we
letters
values
before
Transposing
in the
contains
desire
to
only
find.
form
of
equation.
quantity,which is
one
The
an
righthand member
the
formula
righthand
the
must
we
member
(1)substitute
its exact
for
numerical
various
remembering
operationsindicated,
operations of multiplicationand
all the
those of addition
and
subtraction,(3)if
there
any
3a
Substitute
subtraction
the
in the
6(2a"
value
of
18),where
letter.
each
Then
parentheses.
15 +
3(10 3
3(283)
3(25)
15 +
75
3x5
15 +
90
18)
5, b
perform
3.
all addition
or
335
FORMULAS
EXAMPLES
2 A
2.
4.
+ y),when
(a?
5.
13
6.
24 y f 8
7.
Q(6
8.
Find
when
9.
A)
1.
(2 +
(6
(a;"y),when
Jf
the
value
11.
9.
8 ;
?/ =
when
11.
4, ^=5,
formula
in the
of X
9, P
7.
3 y, when
"
10.
27 ; y
+3^r)f2 0,
Jf
A
a
9 ; y
(2 + y)
11, N=
8, when
a) X 7, when
"
:
followingexpressions
of the
the value
Find
6, 0
8.
28.
P"
10.
Find
11.
12.
5"
13.
si +
14.
a2
63 \c2,when
15.
(a + 6)(a +
16.
17.
18.
Va2 + 2 a6 + 62,when
19.
the
f4
"
(p 4
p^
S^
"
8 q
"
(6
"
"
"
+ 3
c)
$)
"
c, when
"
"
g, when
9, 6
c),when
5.
4, 6
5,g
7,r
5, S
3, c
4.
5.
7, 6
6, c
4.
2, 6
8, 6
9, d
6, c
when
t+p),
"
equation
of T in the
value
8.
4.
2.
9,$
8, t
9.
11.
336
MATHEMATICS
VOCATIONAL
GIRLS
FOR
PROBLEMS
the
Solve
the
from
1.
How
many
electrical horse
2.
How
many
kilowatts
3.
(a)
and
Give
power
in 2389
of
the number
in 4389
in
answer.
watts
watts
watts
formula
circuit of
110
volts
25 amperes.
(b) How
is the
What
4.
2740
and
watts
and
circuit if the
horse
is
power
delivered
quantity of electricity
the
the
of
is the resistance
What
circuit if the
is
quantity of electricity
is the
What
6.
voltage of
power
is
25
voltageis
110
amperes
5.
electrical horse
many
pressure
25 amperes
per
inch
square
of
water
87 feet
high?
capacityof a cylinderwith a base of 16
inches
and
6 inches
high?
(Capacity in gallons is
square
obtained
by multiplying base by the
equal to cubical contents
height and dividingby 231 cubic inches.)
7.
What
is the
8.
What
is the
length
is the
area
diameter
40" in
What
11.
What
buys
12.
11"
is the
a
What
house
What
What
16" and
circle with
for $ 5000
is the
the
is the
contains
at the end
arc
an
capacityof
of
greatestbreadth
of 5 years
at 5
gain in a transaction,when
and gains 10 % ?
sellingprice of
gained 33 % ?
area
which
of
amount
is the
sector
of $ 800
(diameterof bottom),and
14.
of
arc
16"
of
18" ?
is the amount
of
circle of diameter
10.
man
30"
What
9.
of
an
16"
an
automobile
?
a
cost
ellipsewith
10" ?
that
the
greatest length
337
FORMULAS
The
"
assists
To
us
in
understanding
the different
solutions.
illustrate :
Boiling
point of
Boiling
point of
212"
100"
water
water
Freezing
point of
THERMOMETER
CENTIGRADE
THF.BMOMETEB
FAHRENHEIT
Freezing
point of
32"
"
water
0"
"
water
""""!
On the
0".
all
"
other
the
direction
below
zero
are
and
"
all
338
VOCATIONAL
Let
MATHEMATICS
FOR
GIRLS
us
some
"
Notice
that
minus
The
point
Let
value
on
"
"
is
consider
another
corresponding
32f" +
to
I (_
it is to be
the
".
=
of
degree below
reading on
the
zero
grade
Centi
40" F.
"
40"
32" ; F
it is
Find
problem.
explained by saying
scale.
scale
+ 32"
ip"
Fahrenheit
us
" C + 32"
f( 18")+.32"
quantity.
=
another
multiplied by
have
we
32")
 ( 72")
40".
is equivalentto adding
subtractinga negative number
of the same
a
value, and subtracting a positive
positivenumber
of the
number
is equivalentto adding a negativenumber
lows
same
value,the rule for subtracting may be expressed as foland
the sign of the subtrahend
: Change
proceed as in
Since
addition.
For
40 minus
example,
"
40 minus
"
40 minus
28
28
equals 40 plus
+ 32
equals
"
40
"
28, or 12.
plus
"
32
72.
(Notice that
two
give a positiveproduct.)
To
5 times
5 times
(5)
25
x( 5)
+25
(5)
5 ="
times
26
340
MATHEMATICS
VOCATIONAL
repeat
the
similar
Place
(same
Thus,
of
products
in
exponents)
second
the
by
GIRLS
in
term
the
factors
same
Add
column.
same
multiplied
the
using
operation,
same
FOR
the
and
partial
plier.
multi
degree
products.
b.
"
ab
a?+
62
ab

ab
62
a2
Notice
to
the
the
of
product
difference
of
their
the
of
difference
and
sum
the
quantities
is
equal
squares.
EXAMPLES
1.
State
2.
State
Multiply
what
the
Multiply
what
square
the
f b
"
square
by
of
the
by
of
(p
q)(p
4.
Multiply
(p
g)(jp
5.
Multiply
(r
f
s)(r
Multiply
(a
"
6)(a
6.
"
of
sum
"
the
Multiply
3.
b.
"
quantities
equals.
y.
difference
of
quantities
the
q).
7.
Multiply
g).
8.
(x
9.
(a;
s).
the
b).
10.
(x
(a;
"
y)(x
2/)2=?
y)2
equals.
y)(x
y)
"
y).
MECHANICAL
USEFUL
There
are
know
should
and
machines
certain
mechanical
and
able
be
that
important
of
Change
Sueed
girl
every
Speed
and
time
are
that
laborsavingdevices
today.
timerate of change of
to the
given
name
terms
and
laws
to the
in the home
Time
Two
and
terms
apply
to
used
are
INFORMATION
speed. Speed
is the
position. That
is,
distance
positionor
"
Time
taken
EXAMPLES
1.
speed in
One
120
train takes
miles
hour
hour
per
contains
60
seconds
to
go
mile ; what
one
is its
minutes, 1 minute
contains
60
seconds, then
1 hour
contains
60
If the train
of
mile
and
in 3600
seconds
3600
2.
At
In
3600
3.
it
in miles
second
times
At
as
the
move
in 120
seconds.
seconds, in
second
one
it will go
T"7
it will go
T"7
hour
3600
30 miles
seconds
Ans.
per hour.
per
mile,how
fast is
train
of
mile
; in
3600
seconds
it will
move
much.
the rate
watch
speed in
per
it will
requireto
4.
the rate of 80
moving
60
mile
one
goes
of
55 miles
travel between
shows
55
an
many
seconds
will
?
mileposts
seconds
hour, how
?
341
between
mileposts
; what
is
342
VOCATIONAL
What
5.
to
speed of
minute.
If
7.
If
how
miles
40
continues
miles
many
the
at
and
at the
in
move
second
the
at
in
rate of
hour
an
of
rate
mile
one
feet
44
of 3.87 miles
in 6
minutes,
Momentum
the
about
of
motion
bodies
the laws
of
knowledge
spond
corre
traveling?
and
interestingfacts
by the aid of
understood
rate
is it
hour
an
it
travel
to
Motion
Many
milepostswill
will it travel
miles
many
train travels
hour
an
feet does
many
train
between
seconds
flywheelis moving
How
second, how
8.
of
rim
The
6.
of
number
GIRLS
FOR
MATHEMATICS
be
can
of
motion
momentum.
force,1such as
by some
slowly,increasingits speed under
acted
body
starts
force.
the
To
upon
illustrate
when
"
electric
an
steam
or
the
tricity,
elecof
action
starts, we
car
if at rest.
The
motion
momentum
of
in
and
body,
velocityin
feet per
EXAMPLE.
To
weight, when
If the
and
the
moving
of the
mass
is the
product
(speed).
second
find
the
with
body
upon
is defined
body
the
of
of
momentum
force
Force
Mass
is that
is the
which
quantity
body
is
in
tends
to
given
of matter
in
motion.
body.
in
second.
in
pounds,
footpounds.
footpounds.
produce
the
pounds
MOMENTUM
675
75
and
mass2
acts
given
VELOCITY
quantity of
75 feet per
the force
will be
the
velocityof
which
the
as
We
the
quantities. Let
by V.
this rule
abbreviate
may
343
INFORMATION
MECHANICAL
USEFUL
be
mass
EXAMPLES
What
is the
12 miles
per
1.
moving
miles
26
moving
A
4.
5 miles
of
momentum
hour
per
truck
At
per
is the
of
hour
footpound.
foot
in
one
and
It
is the
of
520,000
pounds.
foot
Energy
resistance
of
work
One
second.
tons,
person
of
kind.
any
in
is measured
Work
work.
do
overcoming
abilityto
ing
tons, mov
weighing
motorcar
is the
15
weighing
car
Work
Work
is the momentum
What
3.
hour
is the
What
2.
of
momentum
Energy
unit
called
in
done
horse power
minute.
one
EXAMPLES
1.
to
lifts
woman
shelf
ft. above
footpoundsof
2.
in
is
force
package weighing
the
does
work
floor
she
does
use
If
an
engine is
in 8 seconds
1
Remember
rated
at
1 H. P.
two
means
the
Ib. from
15
How
seconds.
floor
many
weighing
in 20
5 H.
? in 3 minutes
that
in
woman
do
much
How
minutes
P.,1how
130
?
much
pounds
Each
work
?
33,000 ft.lb.
in
one
minute.
do
story
will
it
344
Find
4.
the horse
at the
draws
FOR
MATHEMATICS
VOCATIONAL
miles
of 31
rate
developed by
power
hour
per
locomotive
train
GIRLS
when
it
ance
resist
offeringa
130,000 Ib.
of
Machines
into those
resolved
and
pulley,and
and
screw.
the
all machines
In
simple machines
of the lever,including the wheel
inclined plane, to which
belong
force
by the acting
accomplished by the
ratio
of
actingforce
is
there
done
The
the
more
useful
work
of
efficiency
work
Levers.
100
The
"
Inclined
greater than
which
in
the two
"
the
between
90
is
work
small
so
inclined
the
In
work
heat.
done
by
the
the machine.
in
come
and
100
contact
is
levers
to be
as
is
; the
nearly
very
disregarded.
plane
there
lever,because
bodies
work
into
total work
efficiencyof simple
Planes.
wedge
the friction
because
the
axle
accomplished
expended
"
Total
"
and
actual
transformed
the
to
the
be
may
friction.1The
exceeds
is
that
^se^
i
less
or
always
amount
is called the
Em
all
principlesof
mechanical
The
more
the
is
friction
surface
is
efficiency
with
where
some
Pulleys.
"
The
"
often
1
as
low
Friction
or
moving
as
is the
25
%.
resistance
of any
other
which
surface
every
upon
material
it.
surface
offers
to the
ing
slid
345
INFORMATION
MECHANICAL
USEFUL
EXAMPLES
Mention
1.
some
instances
friction is of
in which
2.
footpoundsof work
249 pounds of useful
a lever,and
is the efficiency
of the lever ?
If 250
3.
If
4.
body
on
work
are
advantage.
a
dredge
are
in
plished,
accom
are
work
589
plane ?
footpounds of work are expended in raising a
of pulleysand
body by means
only 512 pounds of useful work
of the pulley?
are
accomplished,what is the efficiency
If 844
5.
Water
Supply
from
be
the
lake,and
the
pressure
sufficient to force it
in most
cases
through
reservoir
the
town
or
into it.
reservoir
is
the
the
town, the
If houses
are
pipe,which
is pumped
Water
is
water
built
is
will flow
on
steel
the
is built at
highest portionof
Since
of
the
same
the water
pipes into
tank, is erected
on
may
But
high as the
is pumped
the water
the highestpoint of
it to any
hill with
lake
the houses.
elevation
an
city,and
as
high as
from
in the
the
as
part of the
a
reservoir,
town.
stand
the water
into it.
conveyed
from
by
means
346
of
VOCATIONAL
iron
pipes of
of
parts
Since
know
water
how
of proper
MATHEMATICS
various
the
house
by
to calculate
small
the exact
distribution
lead, iron, or
pressure,
pressure
it is
in order
to the
ent
differ
brass
pipes.
necessary
to have
to
pipes
strength.
SUPPLY
WATER
The
GIRLS
It is distributed
considerable
exerts
size and
sizes.
FOR
of water
What
is the number
of
What
is the number
of
in
cityduring 1912
is
as
follows
?
?
348
MATHEMATICS
VOCATIONAL
(c)15"
5' 4"
in diameter
high ; (e)2'
Area
Inside
of Tanks.
the
area
it.
In the
of the
Find
for
made
whose
for
2' 4"x
widths
four
area
to line
do
sides of
the
to
of
above
not
line
bottom.
tank whose
10".
copper
are
of the
10"
of
amount
dimensions
the
inside
1'9"
11"
line
to
necessary
10",no
tank
allowance
amount
dimensions
of
copper
are
3' 4"
to
necessary
x
1' 2" x
line
tank
allowance
11", no
overlapping.
Find
10.
2' 11"
the
V 4"
of
amount
zinc
Law
of
squares
Squares.
"
to
line
tank
The
of Pipes
of similar
areas
figuresvary
as
the
of their
correspondingdimensions.
in shape and
cylindrical
are, therefore,similar
of any two
areas
pipes are to each other as the
Pipes are
figures. The
squares
necessary
10".
Capacity
of the diameters.
EXAMPLE.
in
the
liningpurposes,
the
find the
and
overlapping.
Find
9.
for
of zinc necessary
are
the
inside
whose
by
the
the amount
inside dimensions
8.
result
in diameter
high.
area,
together
Since
followingproblems
Find
7.
bottom.
add
GIRLS
8"
6' 1"
and
find the
To
"
the
high; (d) V
2" in diameter
rectangular tank,
or
square
4'
and
FOR
"
If
diameter, their
4 times
therefore,
one
the smaller
one.
EXAMPLES
1.
of 2"
2.
of 1"
3.
3"
How
much
largeris
section
of 5"
largeris
section
of 2"ff
pipe
than
section
section
pipe ?
How
much
pipe than
pipe ?
How
pipe ?
much
largeris
section of 5"
pipe than
section of
PLUMBING
AND
Atmospheric
The
is
use
at
greatest
atmosphere
level
has
atmosphere
is
of the
Pressure
The
weight and exerts .pressure.
sure
preslevel,because here the depth of the
sea
the
greatest. In mathematics
is taken
the
as
349
HYDRAULICS
standard.
Men
have
at
pressure
learned
to
sea
make
"
At
level
the
pressure
of
sea
average
the
is
atmosphere
approximately
pounds
per
15
square
inch.
The
of
pressure
by
instrument
an
called
The
barometer.
barometer
of
sists
con
glasstube,
about
311
long,
which
inches
has
been
entirelyfilled
with
(thus
mercury
removing all air from
a
vessel
The
varies
BAROMETER
the
BAROMETER
TUBE
tube) and
inverted
in
of mercury.
space
as
at the
the
air
top
of the column
pressure
on
mercury
in the vessel
increases
pressure
is read
from
the
or
of
mercury
surface
decreases.
graduated scale
which
of
the
The
indi
350
MATHEMATICS
VOCATIONAL
the
from
distance
the
cates
FOR
the
of
surface
GIRLS
in the
mercury
in the tube.
column
QUESTIONS
atmospheres would
Four
1.
how
mean
Give
3.
If
in
the
inches
30
mercury
with
high
base
pressures:
will
average,
of the air ?
is the pressure
849
the
air, on
pounds
many
(One cubic
atmosphere;
support
of
column
of
inch, what
square
foot of mercury
weighs
exerts
against
pounds.)
Water
When
is stored
water
sides,whether
the
Pressure
in
sides
the
tank, it
pressure
vertical,
oblique,or horizontal.
are
The
It is often
the
to
top of
problems
water
perpendicularheight
Pressure
exerted
in feet
The
the
inch
per
inch
1 square
pressure,
water
with
weight
of
is 0.434
the
0.434.
by
pressure
water
the
by
or
The
lb., we
height in feet
in
as
case
of fire.
In
perpendicularheight from
the point of discharge. This
find
the
per
pressure
inch
and
area
per
obtain
the
to
height
inch,
inch
0.434.
is due
the
square
of water
by
use
city,so
or
in
of 1 square
column
to
To
"
of
square
weight
base
a
column
in
town
at
Square Inch.
per
tank
the
the
the water
inch
know
must
one
for
pressure
in
energy
of
in the reservoir
or
the needed
secure
such
house
the
estimate
to
necessary
is
the
equal
to the
the
pressure
per
of
square
column
of
in feet.
base
inch
water
of
Therefore,
weight
height
of
pounds.
column.
of the
multipliedby
1 foot
weight
square
foot of
Since
of 1 square
ing
by multiply
PLUMBING
351
HYDRAULICS
AND
EXAMPLES
is the pressure
What
the
find
To
"
(weight)per
inch
square
of
head
high?
known, multiply
is
of
column
feet, if
in
water
4"
(c)30'
of
inch
square
per
(d)
the
the
water
18' 9"
pressure
by
pressure
2.31.
Let p
h
Then
p
h
pressure
height in
h x
feet
P
"
"
~
0.434
0.434
p=
EXAMPLES
Find
the
sq. in. ;
head
of water, if the
Ib. per
(b) 88
28
Lateral
sq. in. ;
pressure
is
Ib. per
(c)46
Ib. per
(a) 49
sq. in. ;
(d)
(e) 64
Pressure.
"
the
of
water
(sideways)pressure
upon
sides of a tank, multiply the area
of the
submerged side,in inches,by the pressure
due to one
half the depth.
12"
A
EXAMPLE.
tank
18" long and
What
is the lateral
deep is full of water.
"
Pressure
is zero
"
on
pressure
length
18"
side ?
one
depth
12"
216
square
inches
area
of side
Pressure
is ha If that at
depth
1'
base
0.434
at the
bottom
of
the tank
0
pressure
at
top
2).4341b.
.217 Ib. average
depth
.217
216
pressure
of the
46.872
due
to
one
half
the
tank
pounds
pressure
on
one
LATERAL
PRESSURE
352
MATHEMATICS
VOCATIONAL
Water
The
of
question
Various
great importance.
the
entering
sewage
of
disposing
the
devices
outlet
the
device
called
placed
of the
trap is used.
in the waste
pipe
of
trap consists
plumbing
of
It allows
fixtures.
more
All
these
the pressure
EXAMPLE.
What
one
column
in
twice
of water
"
3 x
"
arm
height
"
is
as
high,
in
and
to
height
a
will
seal of
3 inches.
or
is
column
1.7 ounces.

ty
Therefore,a 1^inchtrap
=
to the
the seal of
which
pressure
of
equivalent
1 inch
ounces,
from
ing
enter
forms
or
pressure
trap
plumber
by
that
so
and
it
volve
in
less arithmetic.
or
To determine
If
problems belong
water
different
have
be empty.
of
foul odors
never
building,a
or
vessel
from
of gas
escape
house
of waste
the
prevent odors
prevent the
to
basement
This
of the
to
is of
sewage,
TRAPS
in the
sewer
used
be
order
In
water, called
waste
may
WATER
from
GIRLS
Traps
the
house.
FOR
pressure
l^inch
trap resist ?
If inches, both
Since
of
equivalent
of water
to a
column
pound,
pressure
3 inches
in
or
will make
arms
of
16 ounces,
of
of
ounces
a
a
inches
column
pound,
or
height is equivalent to
28
water
of pressure.
353
HYDRAULICS
AND
PLUMBING
EXAMPLES
1.
What
back
pressure
will
finchseal trap
2.
What
back
pressure
will
2inch seal
3.
What
back
pressure
will
21inch
trap
resist ?
4.
What
back
pressure
will
4Jinchseal trap
resist ?
5.
What
back
pressure
will
5inch
Water
When
flows
water
of
from
work.
Consequently, water
the
by
of such
use
level
which
amount
energy,
as
must
be
another, it exerts a
capacity for doing
to
is the
utilized to create
be
may
means
trap resist ?
Power
one
certain
trap resist ?
seal
seal
resist ?
the water
wheel,
the
power
turbine,and
hydraulicram.
the
Friction, which
water
resistance
is the
power,
considered
when
over
of
the
moving through or
friction depends upon
when
which
substance
encounters
substance.
another
between
pressure
of
speaks
one
The
the
amount
surfaces
in
contact.
When
it is
by
All the
naturallylost.
friction.
to
is done
work
In
the
which
power
is
advantage,and efficiency
the water
to the
Efficiency.
"
pump
lifts
water
by
Since
work
To
forces
the
the
water
has
is due
by
done
friction must
upon
the
it to
be
water
when
into
the
used
work
done
it.
upon
the
water
when
taken
the
to
be
cannot
done
work
this
water
put into
or
the
done
the
total work
find
of
case
is
which
consideration,the
same
power
of the
useful
is exerted
will
"
Find
the
power
required to
raise
half
ton
354
VOCATIONAL
(long ton,
the
MATHEMATICS
2240
or
of
efficiency
the purnp
Total
work
1120
40
H. P.
Ib.)of
done
V?"
required
water
to
is 75
weight
FOR
59,733.3
of 40
height
feet,when
height
GIRLS
counter
efficiency
ft. Ib.
59^7333
Ana.
1.8.
33000
EXAMPLES
Find
1.
28',if
the
the pump
Find
2.
the
Find
5.
the
has
the
70
of
mass
of 62.425
16',if
requiredto
% efficiency.
raise
quart of
water
25',if
unit
of Water
volume
foot of pure
of
rise of
substance
water
at
At
a
of
water
to be
1
the
decreases
but
Consider
until
we
57.5
pounds.
the time
1 minute
falls below
find the
in all power
39.1"
weight
examples
of
of
F.,
a
where
mass
temperature is
temperature
its
water
temperature, the
When
temperature
212"
of
has
F.
this
this
change
is called
39.1"
therefore,its density at
or
With
water
water
approximately 62.5.
has its greatest density. With
density is also changed.
62.425,
gallonsof
gallonof
pounds
253
cubic
density. One
15',
water
raise
Density
The
of water
requiredto
% efficiency.
power
has
pump
gallonsof
required to raise
70 % efficiency.
power
has 85
pump
foot
% efficiency.
power
the
cubic
raise 80
requiredto
75
the pump
Find
4.
the
has
Find
18',if
has
required to raise
80% efficiency.1
the power
if the pump
3.
power
the
cubic
the time
until
cubic
at
foot
density of
foot
is not
of ice
given.
356
have
Tables
been
it is seldom
so
MATHEMATICS
VOCATIONAL
FOR
necessary
it.
compute
specificgravity of liquids is
The
industrial
GIRLS
it
world, as
the
means
"
often
very
strength
"
used
of
in
the
liquid.
In
in
be soaked
wool, the wool must
be
sulphuric acid of a certain strength. This acid cannot
form
bought except in its concentrated
(sp.gr. 1.84),and it
be diluted with water
until it is of the requiredstrength.
must
the
The
a
keeps
the
The
liquid.
the
with
In
Those
stem.
impartial
an
tube
is with
with
cury
mer
in a
which
graduate
can
of the
specificgravityrecorded
in
commonly
most
graduated
are
use
scale.
scale
is
employed,
commonly
English,
are
The
in this country.
use
to.specificgravity and
relation
marked
in
placed
scale in
same
the
on
the
have
Twaddell's
England,
since most
is
of
it is immersed
when
scale
instrument
all instruments
not
the
on
has
glass tube,
bulb
This
mercury.
upright
closed
liquid
specificgravity is to be determined.
liquidwhose
But
hydrometer
of
consists
filled with
hydrometer
when
read
end
specificgravityof
the
instrument
This
at the lower
bulb
raw
to determine
simplestway
hydrometer.
be
of
carbonization
Twaddell
can
and
find the
we
scale bears
be easilyconverted
into it.
scale
Another
readings
the
use
of
be
cannot
a
of the
converted
complicated
HYDROMETER
hydrometer
into
formula
or
is the
but
Beaume,
without
specificgravity
reference
to
FORMULA
SCALE
these
1.
Specificgravityhydrometer
Gives
2.
Twaddell
""
CONVERTING
FOR
INTO
S. G.
the
N=
EXAMPLE.
"
particulardegree which
Change
168
(.5
^)
is to be converted.
100
S. G.
direct reading
100
3. Beaume
^
table.
S. G.
100
for
formula
Another
(5 x
gravityis :
357
HYDRAULICS
AND
PLUMBING
1000
and
so
by
on
the
1.005
1.010
2"
specificgravity
3"
specificgravity
1.015
degree.
ply
gravity is given,multispecific
regular increase
find the
To
gravity
scale,1" specific
In Twaddell's
degrees Twaddell
the
when
specific
gravity by 1000, subtract
(S.G.X 1000)1000
Formula
degrees T^^H
EXAMPLE.
Change
"
1.84
(1.84x1000)
dell,
specific
gravityinto degrees Twad
1000
=
degrees Twadden
16g
5
EXAMPLES
1.
What
is the
specific
gravityof sulphuricacid
2.
What
is the
specific
gravityof
acetic acid
3.
What
is the
specific
gravityof
liquidof
164"
Be. ?
4.
What
is the
specific
gravityof
liquidof
108"
Be. ?
5.
What
is the
specific
gravityof
liquidof
142"
Tw.?
of 116"
of 86" Tw.
Tw.?
?
Heat
Heat
Units.
The
"
shops of America
(B. T. U.) and is
unit
and
of
heat
England
defined
used
is the
in the
industries
and
British
TJiermal
Unit
the
Similarly,to
86
The
is the
15
heat necessary
75 British Thermal
unit used
metric
as
on
(B. T. U.)
43 B. T. U.
the Continent
system
to
Units
unit, a
raise 1 gram
and
by
calorie.
of
water
scientists in America
This
1
is the
amount
of
degree Centigrade.
358
FOR
MATHEMATICS
VOCATIONAL
GIRLS
EXAMPLES
How
1.
4823
2.
cubic
Ib. of water
62
How
B.
many
How
Ib. of water
(Considerone
How
4.
5.
How
water
12
6.
How
66" F. to 208"
raise
required to
heat
raise 785
requiredto
F.?
of heat
118"
from
365
F.?
will be
foot of water
T. U.
B.
many
be
requiredto change
are
(B. T. U.)
cubic
many
ft. of water
of heat
T, U.
74" F. to 208"
from
will
U.)
degrees ?
units
many
T.
(B.
from
feet of water
3.
cu.
units
many
lb.)
requiredto change
are
to 211"
621
equal to
1825
units
will it take
units
will
gallonsof
to raise 484
degrees ?
heat
many
of water
from
66" F. to 198"
it take
raise
to
5116
gallons
F.?
Temperature
The
ordinary
called
are
used
instruments
to
There
thermometers.
and
temperature
measure
kinds
two
are
mometer
ther
Fahrenheit
The
Centigrade.
heit
Fahren
"
consists
with
100
with
mercury
tube
cylindrical
the
positionof
the
filled
mercury
2121
at the
32.
water
divisions.
the
positionof
and
the
the
convert
(F.

F.
Fahrenheit
F. into
scale
into
into
C.,subtract
into
has
32
necessary
the
renheit
Fah
Centigrade.
from
the F.
and
degrees
and
It is often
spaces.
Centigrade
scale,and
17.8
is divided
of
the
into 100
convert
C.
freezingpoint
Centigrade thermometer
The
the
is divided
To
the
interveningspace
The
180
to
at
mercury
212, and
marked
boilingpointof water
positionof
THERMOMETERS
of
Fahrenheit
reading.
To
C. to
convert
359
TEMPERATURE
AND
HEAT
1.8 and
or
add
32".
EXAMPLE.
Convert
"
5(212"
32
212
degrees
")
5(180")
100
Convert
100"
9 x
32"
minus
freezingpoint is
we
must
bear
Thus,
32"
v_y.
reading.
+ 32"
212"
F.
written
changing
usually
"
the
15" C. into F.
sign.
^=~
+ 32" =27"
32" =5"
Change
"
is
In
the minus
+320
15".
"
freezingpoint,it
it :
EXAMPLE.
luu
C. to F.
180"
the
signbefore
in mind
Jp
"
temperature is below
with
written
degrees
"
If the
="
99
"
reading
900"
*
EXAMPLE.
F. to C.
C.
f (F.
C.
f (
22" F. to C.
32)
22"
32")
$ (
54")
30"
EXAMPLES
1.
Change
36" F. to C.
6.
Change
225"
C. to F.
2.
Change
89" F. to C.
7.
Change
380"
C. to F.
3.
Change
289"
F. to C.
8.
Change
415"
C. to F.
4.
Change
350"
F. to C.
9.
Change
580"
C. to F.
5.
Change
119"
C. to F.
Latent
By
latent heat
in
heat
of water
Heat
is meant
that
heat
which
water
sorbs
ab
360
VOCATIONAL
solid
state,without
of
temperature
above
rises
of
steam
in
atmospheric
because
of
Thus,
the
pressure
heat
the
to
convert
temperature
same
the
Latent
state.
necessary
the
never
absorbs
steam
quantity of
into steam
GIRLS
temperature.
own
is necessary
is the
water
FOR
at
degrees F.,
which
steam
of
pound
affectingits
boiling water
212
of heat
excess
heat
MATHEMATICS
the
as
question.
COMMERCIAL
ELECTRICITY
What
is no
knows.
Its action,
one
electricity
however, is so like that of flowingwater that the comparison is
helpful. A current of water in a pipe is measured
by the
which
flows through the pipe in a second
amount
of time, as
So a current
of electricity
is measured
one
gallonper second.
Amperes.
"
WATER
by
the
of
which
amount
coulomb
ANALOGY
The
rate
The
ampere.
along a wire
coulomb
being a
"
electricity,
just as
water.
gallon
of flow of
rate
POTENTIAL
OF
flows
second,
per
FALL
OF
of
second,
unit
unit
coulomb
one
of flow
is
in
of
of
one
measurement
of
measurement
per second
five coulombs
as
per
is called
one
is five
second
amperes.
Volts.
depends
flows.
a
wire
The
"
to
The
quantity of
large
extent
number
depends
in the
upon
of amperes
same
which
water
way
the
of
flows
pressure
through
under
which
electricity
upon
the
pressure
pipe
which
flow
it
along
behind
it.
COMMERCIAL
electrical unit
The
is
there
water
of
surface
of
the stream
is the
pressure
difference
361
ELECTRICITY
between
in pressure
and
point
In
volt.
bottom.
the
near
point
of
stream
the
on
This
is
the two
points.
differenceor drop in level between
It is also spoken of as the pressure
head, head
meaning the
between
two points in a body
of pressure
difference in intensity
at any
of water, as well as the intensityof pressure
point.
the
called
"
"
Similarlythe
two
(or voltage)between
called the difference
or
drop
points in
pressure
electric circuit
is
in
an
or
pressure
of
electricity
causing
pressure
amount
the
the flow.
Ohms.
Besides
"
the
helps to determine
the resistance,the
The
pressure.
A
wire
has
force
can
no
Ohm's
less
than
Ohm's
electric
the pressure
the
of
one
divided
the
the
"
(ohms)
is the
stated
pressure
is
the
same
ohm.
an
of
volt
one
through
it.
(amperes),
expressed by
fundamental
law
follows
as
wire
greater
is called
current
of
law
the
conductor
is
equal
to
(volts
(amperes)
^
(ohms)
Resistance
Letting /=
ampere
between
be
may
when
of
current
of
flowing under
resistance
ohm
one
current
flowing along a
by the resistance.
current
Current
unit
This
Law.
and
study of electricity
An
of
resistance
current
resistance
and
(volts),
as
the
relation
The
"
of
amount
electrical
more
Law.
pressure
known
the
resistance
the
pressure
amperes,
I=E
Rm
volts, R
ohms,
R
E=
EXAMPLE.
"
of 220
IR
If
pressure
ohms,
what
of
current
110
volts
is
will flow ?
applied to
sistance
re
362
MATHEMATICS
VOCATIONAL
"
EXAMPLE.
"
of which
is 300
IE
EXAMPLE.
and
"
If
300
resistance
of the
of
as
12
the circuit ?
Ans.
flows
amperes
circuit
ohms_
2Q
Voltmeter.
whole
voltageof
is 240
in
circuit
volts,find
the
Ans
12
and
volts.
the
?40
Ammeter
circuit.
circuit
600
voltage applied to
the
flows in
current
Ans.
is the
What
ohms.
2 x
GIRLS
of 2 amperes
A current
"
.5 ampere.
220
FOR
to any
or
Ohm's
"
Law
in
Ohm's
an
much
how
This
current.
cause
This
so
to
it will
has
not
meter
volt
voltage.
will
current
shunt,
the
high resistance
small
in
the
measure
very
flow
has
in pressure.
instrument
that
the
measure
that
so
drop
is used
to
called
instrument
resistance
low
to
is
instrument
is used
ammeter
flowing
it by
calculating
An
Law.
desirable
current
circuit without
applied to
It is often
part of it.
know
be
may
or
parallel
voltageof
which
is to be found.
EXAMPLE.
100
loss of
"
What
is the resistance
from
amperes
generator
potentialequals 12
Drop
in
Drop
in volts
voltage
"
conducting wires
to
that
are
motor, if the
IE
ing
carry
drop
or
circuit made
100 amperes
1=
=12
is
wires
volts ?
E="
EXAMPLE.
of
E=
up
supplied under
"
of
? ohms
0.12
ohm.
Ans.
incandescent
a
pressure
lamps
of
115
and
volts.
INDEX
Addition,
numbers,
Cotton, 229
Rags, 229
Wool, 229
Yarn, 229
39
Aliquot parts,
Alkalinity of water,
362
Ammeter,
296
Ammonia,
298
Cancellation,
169, 360
Amperes,
66
Angles,
136
Cement,
Chlorine, 297
Circle, 64
64
Circumference,
Civil Service, 268
Claims, 196
66
66
Annuity, 192
Antecedent, 37
Apothecary's weights,
Apothem, 72
Approximate
equivalents
and
household
Clothing, 91
Coefficients, 331
between
measures,
of
measures
Arc, 64
of
ring, 65
of a triangle,69
Area
349
Atmospheric pressure,
Avoirdupois weight, 43
Area
Cooperative,
measure,
187
Brickwork,
134
food
20
15
of
costs
and
nutrients
energy
materials
at
114, 115
numbers,
Compound
Addition, 46
Division, 47
digestible
in different
prices,
average
42, 46
Multiplication, 47
Subtraction,
Computing
46
profit and
loss, 252
75
Cone,
Consequent,
Construction
57
of
house, 128
Cooperative banks,
print reading,
Bonds,
Multiple,
Comparative
179
National, 178
Savings, 179
Baths, 292
Bed linen, 161
Beef, 118
Bills, 243
Board
296
denominator,
Fractions, 17
Common
Blue
fluids,277
of water,
Color
281
Approximate
138
Clapboards,
276
metric
13
53
Complementary,
Right, 66
Straight, 66
Supplementary,
Christmas
Buying
46
Decimals, 33
Fractions, 21
Amount,
materials, 133
gifts,94
Building
Compound
131
80
Cost
of food, 105
Cost
of
Cost
of
furnishing a house,
subsistence, 91
Cotton, 217
Yarns, 223
365
179
146
366
INDEX
Counting,
Credit
Cube,
244
Expense
193
book,
account
95
61
Cube
Root,
Cubic
Cuts
Exchange,
44
account,
61
Factors, 13
42
measure,
Farm
of Beef, 120
122
Mutton,
121
Pork,
Cylindrical tank, 347
Fluid
Dairy Products,
Fractions, 30
Addition, 33
Division, 36
Mixed, 31
For
Reduction, 32
Subtraction, 34
Denominate
fraction, 45
Number,
42, 45
42
Denomination,
17
Denominator,
of water,
of
Frustum
89
Division, 9
Compound
numbers,
47
Fractions, 25
Income, 92
Drawing to scale, 85
Dressmaking,
198
Dry
43
measure,
Economical
Uses
marketing,
of Meats,
loss,253
Multiplication, 24
354
income,
profit and
Reduction, 17
Subtraction, 22
and roof, 132
Frame
Free ammonia,
297
294
Deodorants,
Diameter, 64
Distribution
computing
Fractions, 17
Addition, 21
17
Common,
30
Decimal,
Division, 25
Improper, 17
Multiplication, 35
Density
277
measure,
Food, 100
Values, 110
Formulas, 327
310
Debit, 244
Decimal
307
measures,
Problems, 305
Filling, 217
Flax, 217
Flooring, 139
125
of
76
cone,
Furnishing a bedroom,
153, 154, 155
156
Dining room,
Hall, 146
Kitchen, 162
Living room,
149, 150, 152
161
Sewing room,
Germicides, 294
Graphs, 322
Greatest
divisor, 15
common
117
of space,
130
of
water, 353
Efficiency
Economy
Electricity,360
Ellipse,72
English system, 276
Ensilage problems, 307
Equations, 332
Substituting, 334
Transposing, 334
Equiangular triangle,68
Equilateral triangle,68
Estimating distances, 86
Weights, 87
Evolution,
61
of water,
Hardness
Heat,
298
357
And
light,167
Units, 357
Hem, 200
72
Hexagon,
Horizontal
addition, 237
Household
linens, 160
277
Measures,
How
to
make
Solutions
crude
change,
of various
drugs
strength, 286
or
266
strengths
tablets
from
of known
367
INDEX
to read
How
Gas
an
Hypodermic
doses, 288
fractions, 17
Improper
Inclined
planes, 344
Income,
89
Inside
Millinery problems,
Mixed
decimals, 31
Mohair, 217
342
Momentum,
Money orders, 194
Mortar, 133
168
meter,
Mortgages,
of
area
tanks,
348
Motion,
188
Insurance,
56
Compound,
Simple, 53
Interpretation of negative quantities,
337
Invoice
bills,243
Involution, 61
in water, 298
Isosceles triangle,68
Iron
344
screw,
Kilowatt,
Decimals, 31
Fractions, 24
Mutton,
122, 123
National
banks, 178
Nitrogen, 297
Notation, 1
Notes, 181
2
Numerals, Roman,
1
Numeration,
17
Numerator,
Nurses, arithmetic
for, 276303
Nutritive
ingredients of food,
Octagon,
72
169
weights and
Kitchen
measures,
103
Odor
Latent
heat, 359
Lateral
pressure,
Lathing,
Least
Ohm's
351
multiple,
15
measure,
131
297
141
142
Paper measure,
Pay rolls,255
Pentagon, 72
Percentage, 50
Perimeter, 72
Plank, 131
42
Linen, 217
Yarns, 222
Lumber,
consumed,
Painting,
Papering,
Ledger,
Levers, 344
Liquid
361
Law,
348
244
measure,
296
361
Oxygen
common
Linear
of water,
Ohm,
141
of squares,
Law
180
342
Multiplication, 8, 242
Algebraic expressions, 339
numbers, 47
Compound
Fire, 188
Life, 189
Integer, 1, 17, 31, 45
Interest, 53
Jack
212
43
44
Plastering, 133
Machines, 344
Measure, of time, 43
Length, 317
Medical
chart, 292
64
Mensuration,
Menus, making up, 113
243
Merchandise,
Methods
Methods
of
of
heating, 174
solving examples,
Polygons,
Power,
312
30
inch, 350
square
Water,
350
Principal, 53
Profit
87,
88
Metric
72
Poultry problems,
Proper
system, 276, 279, 282, 317319
and
loss, 246
Promissory notes,
182
fractions, 17
Proportion, 57, 58, 59
101
368
INDEX
Protractor, 67
Studding, 132
Substituting in equations, 334
Pulleys, 344
Pyramid, 75
Subtraction
numbers,
Compound
Quadrilaterals,71
Decimals, 34
Fractions, 22
Radius, 64
Rapid calculation,
Rate
(per cent), 50
Supplement,
silk yarns,
Reading a blue
88
and
companies,
Trust
Tucks,
figures,77
334
179
199
Turbidity of water,
Twoply yarns, 223
Terms, 331
Simple interest, 53
59
Unit,
Specificgravity, 355
States
and
272
Measures,
revenue,
mechanical
Useful
papers,
296
United
Weights
341
Isosceles, 68
Right, 68, 69
Scalene, 68
Shoes, 219
Silk, 217
of
speed,
Equiangular, 68
Equilateral, 68
in water, 296
137
Shingles,
arithmetic
logical
bacterio
Triangles, 68
Sediment
Sealers
and
Transposing in equations,
Trapezium, 71
Trapezoid, 72
Sector, 64
Specimen
in chemical
sheets, 255
Trade
discount, 52, 207
179
Proportion,
257
Time
tables, 56
triangle, 68
Similar
used
Time
Interest
Scalene
conversion, 317
of wages,
347
reports, 296
methods,
Savings bank,
of metric
Terms
61
of thumb
linen, 161
Table
Tanks,
Taxes, 143
Temperature,
290, 358
loans, 259
Temporary
print, 80
Ruffles, 201
Rule
Table
Table
222
Rectangle, 71
Reduction, 42
Ascending, 42, 44
Descending, 42, 44
Right triangles, 68, 69
Roman
numerals, 2
Root, cube, 62
Square,
66
233
Ratio, 57
Raw
46
144
information,
341
of tables, 88
Use
Uses
of nutrients
in the
body,
102
273
State visitors,274
Stenographers, 273
Sphere, 76
Spun
silk yarns,
Square measure,
Square root, 62
223
and
Stocks,
Warp,
Water,
beef, 118
184
Stonework,
135
Strength
solutions,224
of
of coal
to
produce heat,
42
Stairs, 140
Steers
Value
217
alkalinityof, 298
Ammonia
167
369
INDEX
Water,
continued.
"
Watt,
170
Wool,
211
Color
of,
296
Hardness
Iron
of,
in,
Work,
in,
of,
Oxygen
Power,
Traps,
Turbidity
Worsted
consumed
by,
297
Yarns,
353
219
yarns,
217
Cotton,
350
on
Sediment
Supply,
297
220
yarns,
343
296
Pressure,
Residue
Woolen
298
Nitrogen
Odor
298
Linen,
evaporation,
in,
296
345
296
Raw
Spun
Twoply,
352
Woolen,
of,
296
Worsted,
223
222
silk,
222
silk,
223
223
220
219