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PROJECT REPORT

COVER PAGE
PURIFICATION OF THERMAL
AND AIR POLLUTANTS
RESULTING FROM FACTORIES
NAME OF STUDENTS:
 Tom Lee Osborn
 Brandon Mochama

SUPERVISOR
John Wakhanu

SCHOOL:
Alliance High School

LOCATION
Kikuyu, KENYA.

By VICBRATOM RESEARCH TEAM
ALLIANCE HIGH SCHOOL
KIKUYU, KENYA

Disadvantages Vicbratom Research Team Tom Lee Osborn Brandon Mochama .1.1. 9 Nine. 4 4. References Ten. 8 Eight.1. Introduction Three. Projected initial set up cost 5.5. Is it worth the price? 5.2. Summary of uses of effluent air pollutants 5. 9 7.1. 8 Nine. Goals Four. Solving the problem 4. 9 6. Conclusion Nine. 3 2.1. 8 Eight.4. Abstract Three.Purification of Themal and Air Pollutants emmited from factories Table of contents CONTENT PAGE 1.1.1.1. 9 Nine. Results and Discussion 5. 3 3.7 Eight.3. 10 Page 2 5. Step I to Step VIII Five. Advantages 5. 5 . 5 Five to Seven.

harmful and dangerous these factories they will in turn be releasing purer.e. green mother earth. why is it? Every day. Indeed we the human folk will be saved from the looming effects of global warming. cleaner and cooler air. long gone. it is possible to clean up these industrial wastes? Everyday thousand and thousands of industries in Kenya and across the globe emit tones of wastes in form of gases. . climate change. you may have noticed that it seemed to be hotter in there than in the suburbs. The gases produced which include among others carbon IV oxide.Purification of Themal and Air Pollutants emmited from factories ABSTRACT Did you know that in as much as our ozone layer us depleting. Compared with carbon dioxide. it has a high global warming potential of 72 (calculated over a period of 20 years) or 25 (for a time period of 100 years). CO2. SO2 have too great an effect on our planet earth. These gases i. Methane is a relatively potent greenhouse gas. methane and sulphur IV oxide can cause a myriad of problems ranging from global warming. instead of gases by the perennial release of waste. thousands of tones of air and thermal wastes are emitted by factories in Kenya and around the world in form of industrial wastes i. we will be able to set up a plant that will be able to individually filter out these harmful gases and convert them from wasteful pollutants to valuable commercial goods. increase in temperatures and desertification. acidic rains to increase in temperature. carbon IV Oxide.e. with fewer factories. acidic rains. INTRODUCTION If you have been to an area surrounded by large factories. This will help solve a major problem threatening the existence our planet earth and lead us back into the path of restoring the old. CH4 and Sulphur IV Oxide. It is therefore of paramount importance that a way of cleaning up these gases emitted from factories be found and found now! Through this project that involves the purification of gaseous wastes from factory and releasing it as pure. clean and cool air to the environment.It Vicbratom Research Team Tom Lee Osborn Brandon Mochama Page 3 Carbon IV Oxide is a greenhouse gas that causes a blanket effect on the earth and hence increases the temperatures and heat in the atmosphere. methane. which we all are aware has too great an effect on our planet. depletion of ozone layer. our globe warming and heating up from the gaseous industrial wastes that lead to both air and thermal pollution. health and global effects if not tamed. this leads to among others global warming. The project will succeed in reducing the emission of these harmful gases by over 80%. gases that have a myriad of environmental.

it hences leads to increase in heat In the atmosphere.Purification of Themal and Air Pollutants emmited from factories has a net lifetime of about 10 years. OH to form sulfuric IV acid that mixes with rain to form acidic rains that has a lot of negative effects on the earth. Table showing summary of contribution of gases to global warming Gas Carbon dioxide Methane Ozone Formula Contribution (%) CO2 CH4 O3 9 – 36 % 8 – 19 % 3 – 14 % Sulphur IV oxide reacts with Oxygen. these effects include: o o o It acidifies rivers and hence kills aquatic life. Methane also affects the degradation of the ozone layer. O2 and hydroxide. GOALS Page 4 Reduce air pollution Reduce thermal pollution Reduce the rate of global warming Reduce acidic rainfalls Vicbratom Research Team Tom Lee Osborn Brandon Mochama . Dissolves and leaches minerals necessary for plant growth Damages and corrodes buildings and monuments 2SO2(g) + 02(g) SO3(g) + H2O(l) 2SO3(g) H2SO4(aq) The emissions of these gases if not successfully combated could lead to the eventual demise of our once green environment.

they can be successfully removed to produce purer and cleaner air. in this case water. STEP I: REMOVING THE HEAT Page 5 In order to remove the heat from the gases. they are passed through a bed of magnesia(Magnesium Oxide. can efficiently conduct the heat from the gases and really it to a fluid.Purification of Themal and Air Pollutants emmited from factories SOLVING THE PROBLEM In order to put an end to this menace. The steam then leaves the turbine and enters into a condenser where ot os then cooled and then recycled through the plant Vicbratom Research Team Tom Lee Osborn Brandon Mochama . which is heated to steam and hence produces kinetic energy that can be used to turn turbines that can produce electricity to power that can be used to power the plant. we thought that if these gases are directed to a plant in which they can be extracted as individual gas. has a high dielectric strength and averagely high thermal conductivity. MgO) This is because magnesium Oxide which occurs naturally as a periclase. H2O.

H2SO4. An electrostatic precipitator is a particulate collection device that removes particles from a flowing gas (such as air) using the force of an induced electrostatic charge. Vicbratom Research Team Tom Lee Osborn Brandon Mochama . that can be later sold off commercially. CO2 To remove the C02 gas.Purification of Themal and Air Pollutants emmited from factories STEP II: FILTERING OUT DUST PARTICLES The gases which are now cool are then passed through an electrostatic precipitator which filters out the dirt and dust particles. in this case propanone. the gases are then passed through water. CH4 GAS The remaining gases are than passed on to the next chamber that contains an organic solvent. and can easily remove fine particulate matter such as dust and smoke from the air stream Figure 1 An electrostatic precipitator STEP III: STORAGE OF WASTE GASES The waste gases may be stored in a storage tank (optional) and then released to the separation tower in intervals. STEP IV: REMOVING OF THE CARBON IV OXIDE GAS. in this case Suphur IV OXIDE. majorly Sulfuric VI acid. methane is dissolved to form an organic solution. methane can then be sold commercially to produce natural gas. STEP V: REMOVING THE METHANE. H2O to form an acidic solution. The solution can later be removed and divide onto into its various components. Here the carbon IV oxide gas sublimes to form dry ice which can later be removed and sold commercially. the gases are passed to the first chamber of the separation tower which has a freezer aligned to -78OC. This is to ensure that the plant does not crush due to overload. Electrostatic precipitators are highly efficient filtration devices that minimally impede the flow of gases through the device. STEP VI: REMOVING SULPHUR IV OXIDE AND OTHER ACIDIC RAINS Page 6 In order to remove the acidic gases. Here.

COOLER AIR The remaining gases which are 80% purer. the dry ice is removed by collection it from the chamber and stored into tanks from where it is then sold off commercially to soda makers. The plant ought to be cleaned off the waste at a daily basis. Page 7 The separation plant is the ready for another day ff saving our planet. All the gases that might be still be temporarily kept in the storage chamber are then released. The organic solution is then removed and methane separated from it. Propanone is then refilled in the chamber. methane can then be sold of commercially to aid in the manufacture of natural gas.Purification of Themal and Air Pollutants emmited from factories STEP VII: STORAGE AND RELAEASE OF THE PURER. Vicbratom Research Team Tom Lee Osborn Brandon Mochama . clean cool air with minimal effects on our environment at regular intervals. Water is then refilled into the chamber. STEP VIII: REMOVING THE WASTES FROM THE PLANT The gases that are trapped in the electrostatic precipitator are then removed. The mixture of water and sulphur IV oxide (sulfuric VI acid) is then removed. cleaner and cooler are then stored in a compartment temporarily and relaxed as pure. packaged and sold commercially to chemical industries.

000 200. Electrostatic precipitator VII.. and acetic anhydride. it also treats acne conditions Methane: methane is the preferred industrial feedstock of choice for the production of hydrogen. methanol. Propanone III. the manufacture of chemicals.000. E. Freezer II. It is lso used in the manufacture of natural gas used as a cooking fuel.g.000 8 TOTAL COST 200.000 150. PURCHASE OF MATERIALS I.000 5. this was however not 100% successful as some of these gases turned out to ve too marginal to be individually removed. e.000 `GRAND TOTAL = Vicbratom Research Team Tom Lee Osborn Brandon Mochama 2. in making hydrochloric acid. SUMMARY OF THE USES OF EXTRACTED AIR POLLUTANTS Dry Ice: it is industrially used by soft drink manufactures o preserve soft drinks.C PROJECTED INTIAL SET UP COST OF PLANT 1. however these gases do not have huge effects ads compared to the other gases that we succeeded in individually extracting out by the use of the plant. it will also help reduce the effects of acidic rain. Electric generator and turbine TOTAL 2.425.000 100.000 500. petroleum refining to wash impurities out of gasoline and other refinery products. Water . Sulfuric Vi acid: The uses of sulfuric acid include.. Constriction of separation tower II. 120. ammonium sulfate.000 50.g. the production of fertilizers. Bed of Magnesia III.000 100. Pumps VI.Purification of Themal and Air Pollutants emmited from factories RESULTS AND DISCUSSION In order to come up with the project we had to try out the individual filtration of the individual gases emitted y factories. e. Steel pipes V. this will lead to reduce in both air and thermal pollution. purer and cooler than the normally released unpurified air. acetic acid.000 175.T. It will also lead to the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions and hence reduction in global warming. All the goals that we had In mind were satisfactorily accomplished as the gases emitted from the separating tower are 80% cleaner.000 2.250.000 1. nitric acid.000 Page CONSTRUCTION OF THE PLANT ITEM I. Tanks IV.

However. Page 9 In future. work still needs to be done to the plant to ensure that all the gases that take part on air pollution are individually extracted out and turned to be off commercial use. Vicbratom Research Team Tom Lee Osborn Brandon Mochama .Purification of Themal and Air Pollutants emmited from factories IS IT WORHT THE PRICE? PAY NOW OR PAY LATER! The costs of reversing the effects of these industrial pollutants are already costing nations around the world thousands of millions of dollars. air pollutants and thermal pollution by more than 80%. it has help reduce the amount of greenhouse gases. we then hope that the rest of the nations will follow on our footsteps. DISADVANTAGES 1) The initial set up cost is rather expensive. 2) The plant does not cater for the other marginal gases invlolved inair pollution CONCLUSION This project will if taken up help solve a perennial ache in the backbone of a green healthy environment. This project has taught the values of determination and consistency of purpose towards achieving the dream of regaining our once thriving and green environment from the shackles of pollution and degradation. we plan to present this proposal to the government and request for it to be taken over and ask for laws that force companies around the country to build these plants be enacted. It is also a source of revenue as the effluent products can be sold off commercially to get revenue ADVANTAGES 1) The plant is easier and cheaper to maintain once set up 2) The products released from the plant can be sold off commercially to raise revenue and recover start up fund. If we are not ready tp [ay for this now. to suffer the consequences of these pollutants and it might be too late… The plant though expensive to set up is cheap and easier to maintain. 3) The plant in the long run will help save economies around the world millions of dollars that could be used to reverse the effects of these air and thermal pollutants. we will be forced to pay up later. The system can be improved and enhanced by coming up or making one that is motor vehicle convertible since motor vehicles (the leading producers of nitrogen IV oxide) also play a huge role in air pollution.

wikipedia.Purification of Themal and Air Pollutants emmited from factories REFFERENCES.com Ehow.com Physical science by Glencoe McGraw Hill KLB Chemistry BOOK 3 by Kenya Literature Bureau Principles of chemistry book one BY PM Muchiri Page 10      Vicbratom Research Team Tom Lee Osborn Brandon Mochama . En.